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Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6 and the Immune System

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Abstract

Vitamins and minerals other than protein, carbohydrates, and fats are essential for life. B vitamins are water-soluble vitamins and cannot be stored in the body; thus, daily consumption is required. In particular, B vitamins are necessary for the proper functioning of the methylation cycle, DNA synthesis, and repair and maintenance of phospholipids. A decrease in the methylation function leads to chronic neurological disorders. Vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), and B6 (pyridoxine) aid in the conversion of food into energy and are essential for healthy skin, muscles, brain, and nerve functionality. In addition, pantothenic acid is involved in the production of lipids (fats), neurotransmitters, hormones, hemoglobin, and pyridoxine and plays a key role in sleep, appetite, and mood disorders.

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... Thus, vitamin E plays an important role in the normal functioning of the immune system and a sufficient amount of it is needed in the body to fight COVID-19. B vitamins also play an essential role in the proper functioning of the cell, energy metabolism, and the proper functioning of the immune system [17]. Vitamin B deficiency can significantly impair the function of cells and the immune system and lead to the inflammation caused by hyperhomocysteinemia [18]. ...
... With particular attention to inflammation, vitamin B1 deficiency in the brain causes overexpression of proinflammatory mediators such as IL-1, IL-6, COX-2, and TNF-α, which in turn causes the death of neuronal cells in the central nervous system (CNS), damage, and neuroinflammation that eventually leads to Wernicke's encephalopathy and irreversible dementia of Korsakoff's syndrome [56]. The previous results show that thiamine can improve the function of the immune system in the body and is also able to reduce disorders caused by neurodegenerative [17]. Thiamine deficiency can lead to a number of disorders in the body, including effects on the functioning of the cardiovascular system, increased neuroinflammation, and inflammation, which ultimately leads to improper antibody responses [17]. ...
... The previous results show that thiamine can improve the function of the immune system in the body and is also able to reduce disorders caused by neurodegenerative [17]. Thiamine deficiency can lead to a number of disorders in the body, including effects on the functioning of the cardiovascular system, increased neuroinflammation, and inflammation, which ultimately leads to improper antibody responses [17]. Because antibodies, and most importantly T cells, are required to kill COVID-19, thiamine deficiency can potentially lead to weak antibody responses, resulting in more severe symptoms. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic, which causes severe respiratory tract infections in humans, has become a global health concern and is spreading rapidly. At present, the most important issue associated with COVID-19 is the immune system and the factors that affect it. It is well known that cow’s milk is highly rich in micronutrients that increase and strengthen the immune system. Research shows that the administration of these nutrients is very effective in fighting COVID-19, and a deficiency in any of them can be a weakness in the fight against the virus. On the other hand, cow’s milk is accessible to the whole population, and drinking colostrum, raw, and micro-filtered milk from cows vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 could provide individuals with short-term protection against the SARS-CoV-2 infection until vaccines become commercially available. This review aimed to discuss the effects of milk vitamins, minerals, and bioactive peptides on general health in humans to combat viral diseases, especially COVID-19, and to what extent cow’s milk consumption plays a role in providing these metabolites. Cow’s milk contains many bioactive compounds that include vitamins, minerals, biogenic amines, nucleotides, oligosaccharides, organic acids, and immunoglobulins. Humans can meet a significant portion of their requirements for vitamins and minerals through the consumption of cow’s milk. Recent studies have shown that micronutrients such as vitamins D, E, B, C, and A as well as minerals Zn, Cu, Mg, I, and Se and bioactive peptides, each can have positive and significant effects on strengthening the immune system and general health in humans.
... There is a need to highlight the importance of vitamin B because it plays a pivotal role in cell functioning, energy metabolism, and proper immune function [6]. Vitamin B assists in proper activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses, reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, improves respiratory function, maintains endothelial integrity, prevents hypercoagulability and can reduce the length of stay in hospital [7,8]. ...
... Thiamine is able to improve immune system function and has been shown to reduce the risk of type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, aging-related disorders, kidney disease, cancer, mental disorders and neurodegenerative disorders [6]. Thiamine deficiency affects the cardiovascular system, causes neuroinflammation, increases inflammation and leads to aberrant antibody responses [6]. ...
... Thiamine is able to improve immune system function and has been shown to reduce the risk of type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, aging-related disorders, kidney disease, cancer, mental disorders and neurodegenerative disorders [6]. Thiamine deficiency affects the cardiovascular system, causes neuroinflammation, increases inflammation and leads to aberrant antibody responses [6]. As antibodies, and importantly T-cells, are required to eliminate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, thiamine deficiency can potentially result in inadequate antibody responses, and subsequently more severe symptoms. ...
... Results of the clinical trial are still not available. An Iranian randomized clinical trial (IRCT20151226025699N3)concerning the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (1000 mg omega-3 daily for 14 days) on clinical and biochemical parameters of critically ill patients with COVID-19 revealed that the intervention group had significantly higher 1-month survival rate and improved the levels of several parameters of respiratory and renal function(Doaei et al., 2021).Vitamin B is a natural water-soluble compound that comprises eight subtypes of vitamin B. Vitamin B (i) maintains cellular function and enzymatic reactions, (ii) decreases the production of free radicals and inhibits the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the body(Kennedy, 2016;Mikkelsen & Apostolopoulos, 2019), and (iii) regulates the innate and adaptive immunity and the function of endothelial cellular integrity(Shakoor et al., 2021). A computational study suggests that methylcobalamin from vitamin B12 may serve as an effective inhibitor of the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase activity of the nsp12 protein and the SARS-CoV-2 viral replication(Narayanan & Nair, 2020).In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled interventional clinal trial (registration number NCT04400890), the combination of vitamin D3 100,000 IU on day 1 and resveratrol 1000 mg four times per day for 15 days was tested to assess the possible reduction in hospitalization at 21 days from enrolment. ...
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Objective: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) affects millions of people worldwide. The article aims to review the therapeutic perspective on natural antioxidants, their mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics in management and cure of COVID‐19/ SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Methods: We conducted a literature search including World Health Organization and National Institute of Health guidelines and clinical trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov limited to antioxidants in COVID‐19 management. Results: Elderly, immunocompromised patients, and others with underlying health conditions or multiple comorbidities have a high mortality rate. Disrupted redox homeostasis and oxidative stress seem to be biological pathways that may increase personal vulnerability to infection. Antioxidants like vitamins C, D, E, epigallocatechin‐3 gallate, and morin have been reported to protect against COVID‐19 disease. Reactive oxygen species are immunological regulatory elements of viral replication. Natural antioxidants exhibit potential action in preventing inflammation and organ dysfunction during viral infection. They also increase glutathione level, oxygenation rate, and immunological responses in the treatment of sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Conclusion: No wonder the selection of prevention, treatment, and cure of COVID‐19 and SARS‐CoV‐2 mainly depends upon the antiviral and immunoregulatory activity which they possess. Yet, their efficacy against COVID‐19 is of great concern and demands extensive study. Transmission of Covid‐19 from host to community and its prevention and treatment using natural anti‐oxidants
... Vitamin B6 also plays a significant role in an individual's overall immune functioning (Mikkelsen and Apostolopoulos, 2019). The depletion of vitamin B complex makes the immune system weak, so by the inclusion of the vitamin B complex to coronavirus patients it could improve their immunity (Zhang and Liu, 2020). ...
Article
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Introduction: A novel coronavirus outbreak in China (SARS-CoV-2) which began in December 2019, was proven major threat to global health. However, several results from clinical practices indicate that herbal medicine plays an important role in the prevention of COVID-19, which brings new hope for its treatment. The objective of this study is to check the effectivity of senna (Senna alexandrina Mill.) as an immunity-boosting herb against Covid-19 and several other diseases. Method: The literature search was carried out using scientific databases comprising of Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Hub and Google Scholar, up to May 2020, using the following keywords: "senna", "senna makki", "Senna alexandrina", "senna nutrition value", "senna medicinal effect", "vitamins in senna", "mineral in senna", "bioactive compounds in senna", "laxiary components in senna", "senna against diseases", "senna enhance immunity", "covid_19″, "covid_19 symptoms". The authors also obtained data from primary and secondary sources as well. Result: The results of different studies showed that senna was composed of a wide range of immunity-enhancing bioactive components like antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and laxatives. These bioactive components are effective against COVID-19 and other diseases. Conclusion: Senna has medicinal and nutritional effects on the human body and has a key role in boosting immunity to prevent COVID-19 symptoms. Important nutritional components of senna include antioxidants, phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals that aids in reducing the risk of various diseases and also enhances the immune system.
... The novel SARS-CoV-2 infection brings about hyperinflammation and is known to be caused by the markers such as IL-6 and IL-12 [32]. Pantothenate is a vitamin known to decrease inflammation and its excess metabolism may hinder the inflammation process [33]. Enrichment analysis has shown that the overexpressed genes are involved in pathways such as the degranulation of neutrophil and neutrophil immunity. ...
Preprint
The pandemic of COVID-19 ravaged most countries and made the healthcare system go for a toss. The impact of the disease is different in each patient and it progresses differently. Based on the severity, the COVID-19 infection is stratified into three main categories- mild, moderate, and severe. In this study, we performed a transcriptomic study of different stages and studied the progression of the disease. The study was based on an Indian population of 28 COVID-19 patients, which were classified into different groups. Our analysis has shown that as the disease progresses, the genes involved in the degranulation of the neutrophils and galactose metabolism increase. Furthermore, we identified the hub proteins in each stage. TB is one of the comorbidities of COVID-19 and a comparative study was done to identify the preserved module of genes in both. Enrichment analysis showed that the members of this module are significantly involved in translation and ribosome synthesis.
... In our previous study, 27 PWY-7357 was associated with blood protein levels of the paraoxonases family 3 (PON3) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), and the levels of both PON3 and PAI are mainly determined by gut microbiome factors and are associated with increased glucose level, insulin level, and diabetes risk. 27,28 Vitamin B has also been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism 29,30 and obesity. 31 We detected 12 associations of vitamin Bs with blood lipid levels, with 11 of the 12 being negative associations with the plasma level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels (Table S9). ...
Article
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Adequate levels of essential vitamins are important for the prevention of diabetes. While the main efforts to address this are currently focused on the intake of vitamin supplements, improving and maintaining intrinsic vitamin production capacity, which is determined by gut microbes, has received insufficient attention. In this study, we systematically investigated the relationship between gut microbial vitamin production and factors related to diabetes and cardiometabolic health in a deeply phenotyped cohort, Lifelines-DEEP (N = 1,135). We found that blood glucose-related factors, lipids, circulating inflammation, and fecal short-chain fatty acids are associated with gut microbial vitamin production. Use of laxatives and metformin are associated with increased levels of vitamin B1/B6 biosynthesis pathways. We further reveal a mediatory role for microbial vitamin B1/B2 production on the influence of fruit intake on diabetes risk. This study provides preliminary evidence for microbiome-targeted vitamin metabolism interventions to promote health.
... Thiamine has been shown to reduce the risk of several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and aging-related disorders. 2 Particularly, thiamine, when used as adjunctive therapy, has potential survival benefits in critically ill patients with COVID-19. 3 Thiamine must be obtained from the diet, which can be problematic due to a high turnover rate and limited body stores. ...
Article
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Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential micronutrient. Genes involved in thiamine metabolisms, such as SLC19A2, SLC35F3, and SLC35F4, were assumed to be underlying positive selection in East Asians, but the detailed mechanism remains unknown. Here, we analyzed genome data of 3,823 individuals representing 223 global populations and identified the adaptive haplotypes at thiamine genes. Interestingly, the putative adaptive haplotype at SLC35F4 was of Neanderthal ancestry, while that at SLC35F3 was also likely of archaic origins. Leveraging new methods and available ancient DNA data, we further demonstrated that the beneficial haplotypes reached a high frequency at least 10,000 years ago and are maintained persistently in present-day East Asians. We argue that pathogens, rather than agriculture developed ∼10,000 years ago in East Asia, were likely the initial driving force of the putative positive selection. Notably, the first American people did not carry the putative adaptive haplotype at SLC35F4.
... Vitamin B6: It is also known as pyridoxine and is involved in reactions related to antibodies and in the immune system (Parra et al., 2018). A recent study revealed that pyridoxine supplementation helped alleviate COVID-19 symptoms by improving immune responses, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, promoting endothelial integrity, and preventing hypercoagulation (Mikkelsen and Apostolopoulos, 2019). ...
... It is involved in modulating immune functions and has ability to neutralize free radicals owing to its antioxidant property [45]. Its deficiency is rare but the immune responses are enhanced on supplementation that too in elderly population [46]. ...
Article
Coronavirus has held humanity hostage since 2020 and its dominance continues with emerging variants. Although various medications and vaccines are available world-wide but none can prevent the disease, focusing our attention to modalities which can help in strengthening the immune system. The fact of the matter is the COVID-19 infection hampers the immune system through various inflammatory responses. Hence, the need of the hour is to emphasise on balanced diet which includes vitamins along with macro and micronutrients which would be beneficial in prevention of various infections. The paper discusses the available data on the role of minerals and vitamins in the COVID-19 treatment. The functioning of immune system is compromised when the vitamins and mineral content are deficient. The minerals and vitamins can be used as preventive measures to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates in patients with the viral infection.
... As a result, it could aid in the treatment of schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. [20][21] stated that L-serine, which has long been thought to be a non-essential amino acid, may have a more crucial role in neurological development than previously thought, and that dietary reliance on endogenous L-serine is becoming more popular. From primary protein construction to cell signaling, L-serine plays a range of roles and activities, the latter predominantly through post-translational phosphorylation. ...
Article
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The scotch bonnet pepper (Capsicum chinense), which is grown in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, is frequently used to spice up foods and soups in addition to a variety of therapeutic benefits. They contain vitamins and amino acids and can be used to treat pain disorders including headaches, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and severe diabetic neuropathy. The concentration of amino acids and vitamins B 1 , B 2 , and B 6 in the flesh and seed of red and green scotch bonnet peppers, on the other hand, remains unknown, which prompts this inquiry. On a nearby farm in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria, red and green scotch bonnet peppers were picked, split into flesh and seed, mixed, air-dried at room temperature and then ground into powder. With the aid of an HPLC-UV detector, the samples were tested for their amino acid content and vitamin B 1 , B 2 , and B 6 identification. For the red scotch bonnet pepper, 17 amino acids were identified at different retention times and classified as essential and non-essential. Eighteen amino acids were discovered in the seed and eighteen in the flesh. However, serine was only found in the seed and not in the flesh. Furthermore, eighteen acids were identified in the flesh and seed of green pepper, eighteen in the flesh, and fifteen in the seed. Serine has only been detected in the flesh and in the flesh and seed. The vitamins B 1 , B 2 , and B 6 were all present in the seed and flesh of the red and green peppers studied with varying heights and retention times. The abundance of serine in the green pepper seed and flesh, as well as the availability of eighteen amino acids shows that it is more nutritious than the red pepper.
... As a result, it could aid in the treatment of schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. [20][21] stated that L-serine, which has long been thought to be a non-essential amino acid, may have a more crucial role in neurological development than previously thought, and that dietary reliance on endogenous L-serine is becoming more popular. From primary protein construction to cell signaling, L-serine plays a range of roles and activities, the latter predominantly through post-translational phosphorylation. ...
... Pantothenic acid helps in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, protein and maintains a healthy neurological system. Pyridoxine supports the synthesis of Hb and the production of neurotransmitters (Mikkelsen & Apostolopoulos, 2019). Though these vitamins are present in listed natural fortificants from medium to high quantity (Table 1), only a few pieces of literature were available to show their effect on food. ...
Article
Micronutrient malnutrition (MNM) is called “hidden hunger” due to its invisible vitamin-minerals deficiency symptoms in an individual. In most cases, the prime victim of MNM is children and women. Different strategies such as dietary diversification, supplementation, biofortification, and food fortification are used to fight MNM; however, each method has its own merits and demerits. Therefore, this review discusses an alternate approach, “food-to-food fortification (FtFF),” for combating MNM through enriching the daily diet with essential micronutrients. The main principle behind FtFF is the addition of one or more micronutrient-dense food/s in commonly consumable products. The review highlighted potential natural fortificants rich in iron, folate, zinc, protein, β-carotene, calcium, potassium, and fiber previously used under FtFF. These fortificants are basil, moringa, marjoram, thyme, mint, garden cress, amaranth, fenugreek, and defatted coconut flour. Their effect on nutritional and other properties like antioxidants and antimicrobial, after consuming fortified food, are discussed in detail. At higher substitution levels, a significant impact on sensory and physiochemical properties was observed. Therefore, suitable formulation strategies like mixture design and linear programming were advised to be used before FtFF. A tabulated data on micro-and macronutrients content of fortificants are described for ease in formulation. The review also focused on the latest processing technology in FtFF used for fortifying foods like biscuits, pasta, bread, snack, flakes, porridge, ladoo, dhokla, and many more.
... Different types of vitamin B play a fundamental role in the induction of desirable immune responses, energy metabolism, improvement of respiratory function, and reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine titer. Thus, they can be recommended as promising therapeutic candidates against COVID-19 [21,95,96]. Figure 2 shows the role of different types of vitamin B in SARS-CoV-2 binding, replication, and invasion. ...
Article
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The escalating prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality, highlights an urgent need to develop more effective therapeutic interventions. Despite the authorized treatment against COVID-19 by the European Union (EU), the safety and effectiveness of this therapeutic strategy for a wide variety of patients have remained a significant challenge. In this respect, micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals, as essential factors, can be considered for improving the function of the immune system and accelerating the treatment procedure. Dietary supplements can attenuate vascular and inflammatory manifestations related to infectious diseases in large part due to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, it has been revealed that poor nutritional status may be one of the notable risk factors in severe COVID-19 infections. In the current review, we focus on the micronutrient therapy of COVID-19 patients and provide a comprehensive insight into the essential vitamins/minerals and their role in controlling the severity of the COVID-19 infection. We also discuss the recent advancements, challenges, negative and positive outcomes in relevance to this approach.
... It has been reported that vitamin B1 has a potential anti-inflammatory effect while acting on macrophages, and it suppresses oxidative stress evoked NF-kappa B activation (Spinas et al. 2015). Thiamine deficiency affects the immune system due to various pathological initiations like increased inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic disturbances, which further leads to the production of aberrant antibodies (Mikkelsen and Apostolopoulos 2019) It was documented that thiamine plays a significant role in eliminating the SARS-CoV-2 virus by triggering humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Hence, sufficient levels of thiamine help in building immunity against SARS-CoV-2 patients (Shakoor et al. 2020b). ...
Article
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as coronavirus disease (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. On March 11, 2020, it was declared a global pandemic. As the world grapples with COVID-19 and the paucity of clinically meaningful therapies, attention has been shifted to modalities that may aid in immune system strengthening. Taking into consideration that the COVID-19 infection strongly affects the immune system via multiple inflammatory responses, pharmaceutical companies are working to develop targeted drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19. A balanced nutritional diet may play an essential role in maintaining general wellbeing by controlling chronic infectious diseases. A balanced diet including vitamin A, B, C, D, E, and K, and some micronutrients such as zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and phosphorus may be beneficial in various infectious diseases. This study aimed to discuss and present recent data regarding the role of vitamins and minerals in the treatment of COVID-19. A deficiency of these vitamins and minerals in the plasma concentration may lead to a reduction in the good performance of the immune system, which is one of the constituents that lead to a poor immune state. This is a narrative review concerning the features of the COVID-19 and data related to the usage of vitamins and minerals as preventive measures to decrease the morbidity and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19.
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It has been proven that vitamins play an essential role in preventing certain diseases since ancient times. It is thus fruitless to approach the roles of vitamins without making reference to the techniques used in evaluating the effects of these micronutrients. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to summarize the immunological effects of E, K, B5, B6, and B9 vitamins evaluated by flow cytometry. Some of these significant effects were presented and discussed: (a) The role of vitamins E in the prevention and treatment of different types of cancer. (b) The properties of K vitamins in the development and maintenance of pheochromocytoma Cell Line 12 (PC12) cells in Parkinson’s disease; (c) The improvement effect of vitamin B5 on the loss of bone mass in low estrogen conditions; (d) The anticancer role of vitamins B6. (e) The role of Vitamin B9 in the regulation of Treg cells. As such, the flow cytometry technique used to assess these properties is essential to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of certain vitamins. The technique undergoes constant improvement which makes it possible to determine several parameters with a role in the modulation of the immune function and at the same time increase the accuracy of the methods that highlight them.
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Nutrition plays an essential role in the regulation of optimal immunological response, by providing adequate nutrients in sufficient concentrations to immune cells. There are a large number of micronutrients, such as minerals, and vitamins, as well as some macronutrients such as some amino acids, cholesterol and fatty acids demonstrated to exert a very important and specific impact on appropriate immune activity. This review aims to summarize at some extent the large amount of data accrued to date related to the modulation of immune function by certain micro and macronutrients and to emphasize their importance in maintaining human health. Thus, among many, some relevant case in point examples are brought and discussed: (1) The role of vitamin A/all-trans-retinoic-acids (ATRA) in acute promyelocytic leukemia, being this vitamin utilized as a very efficient therapeutic agent via effective modulation of the immune function (2) The involvement of vitamin C in the fight against tumor cells via the increase of the number of active NK cells. (3) The stimulation of apoptosis, the suppression of cancer cell proliferation, and delayed tumor development mediated by calcitriol/vitamin D by means of immunity regulation (4) The use of selenium as a cofactor to reach more effective immune response to COVID vaccination (5). The crucial role of cholesterol to regulate the immune function, which is demonstrated to be very sensitive to the variations of this macronutrient concentration. Other important examples are reviewed as well.
Chapter
Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin, which is mainly present in animal food, and some plant-based sources are found like dried purple laver (Nori). Dried purple laver is also rich in iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. Due to the minimum plant source of vitamin B12, its deficiency mainly occurs in a vegetarian population. In this covid-pandemic time immunity is playing a very important role to reduce the chances of symptoms of covid-19. Vitamin B12 is helping to maintain a healthy balance of the immune system. The covid-19 virus interferes with the metabolism of cobalamin which gives symptoms of cobalamin deficiency and this is very much similar to covids symptoms. A high dose of methylcobalamin is used in the treatment of the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. Many studies showed that methylcobalamin would play a role to reduce the damage caused by covid-19 in infected people.
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The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) conveys a serious global threat to health and economy. A common predisposing factor for development to serious progressive disease is presence of a low-grade inflammation, e.g., as seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and heart failure. Micronutrient deficiencies may also contribute to the development of this state. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to explore the role of the nutrition to relieve progression of COVID-19. According PRISMA protocol, we conducted an online databases search including including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar and web of science for published literatures in the era of COVID-19 Outbreak regarding to the status of nutrition and COVID-19 until December 2021. There were available studies (80 studies) providing direct evidence regarding the associations between the status of nutrition and COVID-19 infection. Adequate nutritional supply is essential for resistance against other viral infections and also for improvement of immune function and reduction of inflammation. Hence, it is suggested that nutritional intervention which secures an adequate status might protect against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - coronavirus-2) and mitigate its course. We also recommend initiation of adequate nutritional supplementation in high-risk areas and/or soon after the time of suspected infection with SARS-CoV-2. Subjects in high-risk groups should have high priority for applying this nutritive adjuvant therapy that should be started prior to administration of specific and supportive medical measures.
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The fast spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic and its high mortality were quickly noticed by the health community. B vitamins are essential micronutrients for the body with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-regulating properties. The present study can provide a comprehensive picture of the associations between B vitamins and COVID-19 incidence. This study was undertaken on 9189 adult participants of the Yazd Health Study (YaHS) and Taghzieh Mardom-e-Yazd (TAMIZ) study aged 20 to 69 years. Data on dietary intakes were obtained using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between B vitamins and COVID-19. Our findings indicated that participants in the fourth quartile of vitamin B5 intake compared to the first quartile had a protective effect against COVID-19 (OR: 0. 53 CI: 0.28– 0.99, p- trend =0.02) after adjustment for all possible confounds in model 3. In addition, participants in the third quartile of vitamin B12 intake compared to the first quartile (OR: 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.98, P-trend= 0.11) had fewer odds of COVID-19 after full adjustments for confounders. Our findings indicated no significant relationship between dietary intake of vitamin B1, B2, B3, B9, and B-complex and COVID-19. A higher intake of vitamin B5 could reduce the odds of COVID-19 by 47%, and a moderate intake of vitamin B12 had a protective effect on COVID-19. Although our study has promising results, stronger clinical studies are needed.
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Objectives Pandemics have profoundly impacted human societies, but until relatively recently were a minor research focus within biological anthropology, especially within biocultural analyses. Here, we explore research in these fields, including molecular anthropology, that employs biocultural approaches, sometimes integrated with intersectionality and ecosocial and syndemic theory, to unpack relationships between social inequality and pandemics. A case study assesses the 1918 influenza pandemic's impacts on the patient population of the Mississippi State Asylum (MSA). Materials and Methods We survey bioarchaeological and paleopathological literature on pandemics and analyze respiratory disease mortality relative to sex, age, and social race amongst patient deaths (N = 2258) between 1912 and 1925. Logistic regression models were used to assess relationships between cause of death and odds of death during the pandemic (1918–1919). Results Findings include substantial respiratory mortality during the pandemic, including from influenza and influenza syndemic with pneumonia. Older patients (40–59 years, 60+ years) had lower odds (p < 0.01) of dying from respiratory disease than younger patients, as did female patients compared to males (p < 0.05). Age patterns are broadly consistent with national and state trends, while elevated mortality amongst Black and/or African American patients may reflect intersections between gender roles and race-based structural violence in the Jim Crow South. Discussion Future work in biological anthropology on past pandemics may benefit from explicit incorporation of biocultural frameworks, intersectionality, and ecosocial and syndemic theory. Doing so enables holistic analyses of interactions between social context, social inequality and pandemic outcomes, generating data informative for public health responses and pandemic preparedness.
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Background : This study aimed to check the effect of supplementation with low-dose group B vitamins on clinical and biochemical parameters on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Research design and method : This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out on 85 critically ill patients with COVID-19. All patients received high protein prescriptions of 30 kcal/kg/d by enteral nutrition. The intervention group (n = 40) received vitamin B complex, including thiamine (10 mg), riboflavin (4 mg), nicotinamide (40 mg) and dexpanthenol (6 mg). The control group received similar nutritional supports, except for group B vitamins. Assessments were carried out at baseline and after two weeks of intervention. Results : Vitamin B supplementation had no effects on the biochemical and pathological parameters including kidney function, arterial blood gas parameters, Glasgow coma scale, cell blood count, and serum electrolytes of the intervention group compared with the control group. The 30-day mortality was insignificantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (83.3 % against 96.1%, P = 0.07). Conclusions : The present study found no benefit of low-dose group B vitamins supplementation on clinical and biochemical parameters in critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, the mortality rate of these patients might be improved by vitamin B supplementation.
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COVID-19 is a rapidly spreading disease, which has caught the world by surprise. Millions of people suffer from illness, and the mortality rates are dramatically high. Currently, there is no specific and immediate treatment for this disease. Remedies are limited to supportive regiments and few antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs. The lack of a definite cure for COVID-19 is the reason behind its high mortality and global prevalence. COVID-19 can lead to a critical illness with severe respiratory distress and cytokine release. Increased oxidative stress and excessive production of inflammatory cytokines are vital components of severe COVID-19. Micronutrients, metalloids, and vitamins such as iron, manganese, selenium, Zinc, Copper, vitamin A, B family, and C are among the essential and trace elements that play a pivotal role in human nutrition and health. They participate in metabolic processes that lead to energy production. In addition, they support immune functions and act as antioxidants. Therefore, maintaining an optimal level of micronutrients intake, particularly those with antioxidant activities, is essential to fight against oxidative stress, modulate inflammation, and boost the immune system. Therefore, these factors could play a crucial role in COVID-19 prevention and treatment. In this review, we aimed to summarize antiviral properties of different vitamins and minerals. Moreover, we will investigate the correlation between them and their effects in COVID-19 patients.
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The insufficiency of nutrients in man’s diet has led to an increase in food fortification in recent times. Sugar, a commodity widely consumed globally and used in the production of a wide variety of products, has been found to be a suitable vehicle for food fortification. This study is a review of literature published on the subject of sugar fortification that has spanned over five decades now. The study discusses the various types of nutrients, fortificants, and techniques that have been used or could be used to fortify sugar in relation to the need of various regions in the world. It was observed that other nutrients have not been successfully adopted for fortification, as Vitamin A. Fortification using Iodine, Iron, and Thiamine has been performed on sugar either on a laboratory scale or in a factory pilot phase. Other nutrients such as vitamins B, C, D, folic acid, calcium, and zinc could still be introduced into sugar. In a bid to minimize the loss of the fortificants in the molasses, it was observed that the fortificants are best introduced after the sugar has left the centrifuge during processing, before it is bagged. Future prospects were also given in the study based on the observed knowledge gaps to ensure maximum usage and application of sugar as a "vehicle" for fortification.
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oxidative stress is caused by an abundant generation of reactive oxygen species, associated to a diminished capacity of the endogenous systems of the organism to counteract them. Activation of pro-oxidative pathways and boosting of inflammatory cytokines are always encountered in viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. So, the importance of counteracting cytokine storm in COVID-19 pathology is highly important, to hamper the immunogenic damage of the endothelium and alveolar membranes. Antioxidants prevent oxidative processes, by impeding radical species generation. It has been proved that vitamin intake lowers oxidative stress markers, alleviates cytokine storm and has a potential role in reducing disease severity, by lowering pro-inflammatory cytokines, hampering hyperinflammation and organ failure. For the approached compounds, direct antiviral roles are also discussed in this review, as these activities encompass secretion of antiviral peptides, modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor expression and interaction with spike protein, inactivation of furin protease, or inhibition of pathogen replication by nucleic acid impairment induction. Vitamin administration results in beneficial effects. Nevertheless, timing, dosage and mutual influences of these micronutrients should be carefullly regarded.
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Food components have long been recognized to play a fundamental role in the growth and development of the human body, conferring protective functionalities against foreign matter that can be severe public health problems. Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals are essential to the human body, and individuals must meet their daily requirements through dietary sources. Micronutrients act as immunomodulators and protect the host immune response, thus preventing immune evasion by pathogenic organisms. Several experimental investigations have been undertaken to appraise the immunomodulatory functions of vitamins and minerals. Based on these experimental findings, this review describes the immune-boosting functionalities of micronutrients and the mechanisms of action through which these functions are mediated. Deficiencies of vitamins and minerals in plasma concentrations can lead to a reduction in the performance of the immune system functioning, representing a key contributor to unfavorable immunological states. This review provides a descriptive overview of the characteristics of the immune system and the utilization of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in preventative strategies designed to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients suffering from immune invasions or autoimmune disorders.
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Patients with long-term effects of coronavirus disease, the so-called “long-term COVID-19 syndrome” (long-COVID-19) after SARS-CoV-2 infection, have a postponed recovery lasting from 4 weeks and up to six months, spread worldwide. Physiological predictors based on human blood biomarkers and host-virus responses to SARS-CoV-2 are still unknown. There is growing evidence about the impact of micronutrients on improving lymphocyte proliferation and their essential roles for a functioning human immune system and regulating metabolic health. This paper aims to review information about micronutrients in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection that determines long-COVID-19 outcomes and highlight the importance of diagnostics in predictors of long-COVID-19. We reviewed articles returned from searches on PubMed/SCOPUS/Web of Science/ EMBASE databases using a combination of terms “long COVID-19”, “long-term effects of COVID-19”, “post-COVID-19 symptoms”, “COVID-19 associated stress”, “micronutrients”. Evidence indicates the relationship between lymphocyte proliferation improving micronutrient level and long-COVID-19 induction. Zinc, selenium, iron, manganese have an immunomodulatory function in innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. Anti-inflammatory functions of Vits A and B groups include the regulation of lymphocyte proliferation and metabolic health. Further research using sampling and artificial intelligence-assisted algorithms could assist in the recognition of the correlation of micronutrients and long-COVID-19 clinical outcomes
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Emerging viruses are known to pose a threat to humans in the world. COVID-19, a newly emerging viral respiratory disease, can spread quickly from people to people via respiratory droplets, cough, sneeze, or exhale. Up to now, there are no specific therapies found for the treatment of COVID-19. In this sense, the rising demand for effective antiviral drugs is stressed. The main goal of the present study is to cover the current literature about bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols, glucosinolates, carotenoids, minerals, vitamins, oligosaccharides, bioactive peptides, essential oils, and probiotics) with potential efficiency against COVID-19, showing antiviral activities via the inhibition of coronavirus entry into the host cell, coronavirus enzymes, as well as the virus replication in human cells. In turn, these compounds can boost the immune system, helping fight against COVID-19. Overall, it can be concluded that bioactives and the functional foods containing these compounds can be natural alternatives for boosting the immune system and defeating coronavirus.
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Vitamin B plays a critical role in the synthesis of DNA and maintaining the normal functioning of tissues. Therefore, its deficiency may lead to mental problems such as depression, schizophrenia, dementia, and systemic problems such as megaloblastic anemia and peripheral neuropathy. Vitamin B deficiency may be based on nutrition, as well as the use of some drugs such as metformin and omeprazole suppress the absorption of B vitamins, which may lead to deficiency. Since B vitamin is water soluble, it cannot be stored in the body. For this reason, it should be taken continuously with food. However, in cases where the vitamin B taken with food is not sufficient for the body, it should be reinforced with drugs or dietary supplements from outside. Studies have shown that the absorption of Vitamin B is 50% higher in food supplements than in foods. It can also be used as a targeting agent in tumor therapy, due to its overexpression in some tumor cells. Due to these properties of Vitamin B, various dosage forms are being developed. In this chapter, vitamin B-containing dosage forms, their production techniques, and their use in therapy will be mentioned.
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More than a year after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is still a major global challenge for scientists to understand the different dimensions of infection and find ways to prevent, treat, and develop a vaccine. On January 30, 2020, the world health organization (WHO) officially announced this new virus as an international health emergency. While many biological and mechanisms of pathogenicity of this virus are still unclear, it seems that cytokine storm resulting from an immune response against the virus is considered the main culprit of the severity of the disease. Despite many global efforts to control the SARS-CoV-2, several problems and challenges have been posed in controlling the COVID-19 infection. These problems include the various mutations, the emergence of variants with high transmissibility, the short period of immunity against the virus, the possibility of reinfection in people improved, lack of specific drugs, and problems in the development of highly sensitive and specific vaccines. In this review, we summarized the results of the current trend and the latest research studies on the characteristics of the structure and genome of the SARS-CoV- 2, new mutations and variants of SARS-CoV-2, pathogenicity, immune response, virus diagnostic tests, potential treatment, and vaccine candidate.
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The immune system is influenced by vitamin B complex: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12. The B complex insufficiency can cause significant impairment in cellular and immune function and trigger an inflammatory response. There is currently no certified SARS-CoV-2 treatment or a credible vaccine, but strengthening the immune system with B vitamins could go a long way in preventing and treating COVID-19 patients. Thus, a complete and nutritious diet must be followed before approved drugs and potential good vaccine research results are available to boost the normal functioning of the immune system. In order to activate adaptive and inborn immune responses, reduce cytokine levels such as proinflammatory cytokines, decrease oxidative stress, preserve endothelial homogeneity, improving pulmonary function, prevents hypercoagulable conditions and shortening the length of hospital stay; B-Complex vitamins play a significant role. Thus, the role of B complex in patients with COVID-19 needs to be evaluated and additional non-drug B vitamins can be used in existing treatments.
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has caused a public health crisis worldwide. However, data regarding the protective factors of the disease is limited. Consequently, preventive health measures that can decrease the risk of infection, progression, and severity are dreadfully required. It is well-documented that people with immunodeficiency, such as the elderly, people who already have comorbidities (e.g., diabetes mellitus, hypertension, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders), and underrepresented minorities, are placed in a group with a higher risk of getting infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A diet rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants plays an essential role in strengthening the immune system and fighting against invading pathogens. The present comprehensive review has discussed published literature regarding the potential role of vitamins in strengthening the immune system and managing viral infections, particularly SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although there are controversial data regarding the plasma level of vitamin D and the severity of the disease, according to the limited evidence, vitamin D may lower the mortality rate. Moreover, vitamin C could reduce the development of inflammatory response; however, the results of ongoing clinical trials are required to confirm these primary findings.
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We aimed to analyze the effects of long high-intensity interval training (HIIT) associated with pyridoxin supplementation on tissue and oxidative injury markers in animals. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): sedentary (GS), HIIT (GH), and HIIT + pyridoxine (GHP). The HIIT comprised 18 sessions of 7 repetitions of 2min × 2min rest, 3 times per week. Pyridoxine was administered to the GHP group 1h before the exercise. The Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sulfhydryl group (SH) were analyzed as markers of oxidative stress and CK, LDH, ALT and AST as tissue lesions. There was an increase in the correlation between CK and LDH of 172.86% and 268.83% in the GH group compared with the GS group, respectively. There was a reduction in CK (34.37%) and LDH (34.74%) compared with the GH group, which had an increase of 229.03% in ALT. Pyridoxine supplementation reduced ALT by 80.62% in the GHP group compared with no-supplementation GH group. In addition, there was a reduction in plasma MDA (52.92%), liver (20.30%) and cardiac (22.06%) tissues in GHP compared to GH. It was possible to conclude that administration of pyridoxine attenuated oxidative stress, and tissue injuries induced by HIIT.
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We aimed to analyze the effects of long high-intensity interval training (HIIT) associated with pyridoxin supplementation on tissue and oxidative injury markers in animals. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): sedentary (GS), HIIT (GH), and HIIT + pyridoxine (GHP). The HIIT comprised 18 sessions of 7 repetitions of 2min × 2min rest, 3 times per week. Pyridoxine was administered to the GHP group 1h before the exercise. The Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sulfhydryl group (SH) were analyzed as markers of oxidative stress and CK, LDH, ALT and AST as tissue lesions. There was an increase in the correlation between CK and LDH of 172.86% and 268.83% in the GH group compared with the GS group, respectively. There was a reduction in CK (34.37%) and LDH (34.74%) compared with the GH group, which had an increase of 229.03% in ALT. Pyridoxine supplementation reduced ALT by 80.62% in the GHP group compared with no-supplementation GH group. In addition, there was a reduction in plasma MDA (52.92%), liver (20.30%) and cardiac (22.06%) tissues in GHP compared to GH. It was possible to conclude that administration of pyridoxine attenuated oxidative stress, and tissue injuries induced by HIIT.
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While all groups are affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, the aged people as well as those with underlying chronic medical conditions are at the greatest risk. The higher adherence to refined carbohydrate diets, sweats, and saturated fats contributes to the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes; these disorders increase the risk for severe COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Fast food consumption activates the intrinsic immune system and impairs adaptive immunity, leading to chronic inflammation and impaired host defence against viruses. Furthermore, inflammatory responses caused by COVID-19 may have long-term costs in survived individuals, leading to chronic disorders such as dementia and neurodegenerative disease through neuroinflammatory mechanisms that are related to an unhealthy diet. Therefore, now more than ever, wider access to healthy foods should be a main concern and individuals should be aware of healthy eating habits to reduce COVID-19 complications.
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Background: Riboflavin is an essential component of the human diet and its derivative cofactors play an established role in oxidative metabolism. Riboflavin deficiency has been linked with various human diseases. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify whether riboflavin depletion promotes tumorigenesis. Methods: HEK293T and NIH3T3 cells were cultured in riboflavin-deficient or riboflavin-sufficient medium and passaged every 48 h. Cells were collected every 5 generations and plate colony formation assays were performed to observe cell proliferation. Subcutaneous tumorigenicity assays in NU/NU mice were used to observe tumorigenicity of riboflavin-depleted HEK293T cells. Mechanistically, gene expression profiling and gene ontology analysis were used to identify abnormally expressed genes induced by riboflavin depletion. Western blot analyses, cell cycle analyses, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to validate the expression of cell cycle-related genes. Results: Plate colony formation of NIH3T3 and HEK293T cell lines was enhanced >2-fold when cultured in riboflavin-deficient medium for 10-20 generations. Moreover, we observed enhanced subcutaneous tumorigenicity in NU/NU mice following injection of riboflavin-depleted compared with normal HEK293T cells (55.6% compared with 0.0% tumor formation, respectively). Gene expression profiling and gene ontology analysis revealed that riboflavin depletion induced the expression of cell cycle-related genes. Validation experiments also found that riboflavin depletion decreased p21 and p27 protein levels by ∼20%, and increased cell cycle-related and expression-elevated protein in tumor (CREPT) protein expression >2-fold, resulting in cyclin D1 and CDK4 levels being increased ∼1.5-fold, and cell cycle acceleration. We also observed that riboflavin depletion decreased intracellular riboflavin levels by 20% and upregulated expression of riboflavin transporter genes, particularly SLC52A3, and that the changes in CREPT and SLC52A3 correlated with specific epigenetic changes in their promoters in riboflavin-depleted HEK293T cells. Conclusions: Riboflavin depletion contributes to HEK293T and NIH3T3 cell tumorigenesis and may be a risk factor for tumor development.
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Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unconventional CD3+CD161high T lymphocytes that recognize vitamin B2 (riboflavin) biosynthesis precursor derivatives presented by the MHC-I related protein, MR1. In humans, their T cell receptor is composed of a Vα7.2-Jα33/20/12 chain, combined with a restricted set of Vβ chains. MAIT cells are very abundant in the liver (up to 40% of resident T cells) and in mucosal tissues, such as the lung and gut. In adult peripheral blood, they represent up to 10% of circulating T cells, whereas they are very few in cord blood. This large number of MAIT cells in the adult likely results from their gradual expansion with age following repeated encounters with riboflavin-producing microbes. Upon recognition of MR1 ligands, MAIT cells have the capacity to rapidly eliminate bacterially infected cells through the production of inflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα, and IL-17) and cytotoxic effector molecules (perforin and granzyme B). Thus, MAIT cells may play a crucial role in antimicrobial defense, in particular at mucosal sites. In addition, MAIT cells have been implicated in diseases of non-microbial etiology, including autoimmunity and other inflammatory diseases. Although their participation in various clinical settings has received increased attention in adults, data in children are scarce. Due to their innate-like characteristics, MAIT cells might be particularly important to control microbial infections in the young age, when long-term protective adaptive immunity is not fully developed. Herein, we review the data showing how MAIT cells may control microbial infections and how they discriminate pathogens from commensals, with a focus on models relevant for childhood infections.
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Butyrate and niacin are produced by gut microbiota, however butyrate has received most attention for its effects on colonic health. The present study aimed at exploring the effect of niacin on experimental colitis as well as throwing some light on the ability of niacin to modulate angiogenesis which plays a crucial role of in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Rats were given niacin for 2 weeks. On day 8, colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of iodoacetamide. Rats were sacrificed on day 15 and colonic damage was assessed macroscopically and histologically. Colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiostatin and endostatin levels were determined. Niacin attenuated the severity of colitis as demonstrated by a decrease in weight loss, colonic wet weight and MPO activity. Iodoacetamide-induced rise in the colonic levels of TNF-α, VEGF, angiostatin and endostatin was reversed by niacin. Moreover, niacin normalized IL-10 level in colon. Mepenzolate bromide, a GPR109A receptor blocker, abolished the beneficial effects of niacin on body weight, colon wet weight as well as colonic levels of MPO and VEGF. Therefore, niacin was effective against iodoacetamide-induced colitis through ameliorating pathologic angiogenesis and inflammatory changes in a GPR109A-dependent manner.
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Riboflavin deficiency is widespread in many regions over the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of riboflavin deficiency on protein expression profiles in HepG2 cells in order to provide molecular information for the abnormalities induced by riboflavin deficiency. HepG2 cells were cultured in media containing different concentrations of riboflavin. Changes of cell viability and apoptosis were assessed. A comparative proteomic analysis was performed using a label-free shotgun method with LC–MS/MS to investigate the global changes of proteomic profiles in response to riboflavin deficiency. Immunoblotting test was used to validate the results of proteomic approach. The cell viability and apoptosis tests showed that riboflavin was vital in maintaining the cytoactivity of HepG2 cells. The label-free proteomic analysis revealed that a total of 37 proteins showing differential expression (±2 fold, p < 0.05) were identified after riboflavin deficiency. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the riboflavin deficiency caused an up-regulation of Parkinson’s disease pathway, steroid catabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptotic process, while the fatty acid metabolism, tricarboxylic citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and iron metabolism were down-regulated. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the effects caused by riboflavin deficiency.
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The immune system is critical in preventing infection and cancer, and malnutrition can weaken different aspects of the immune system to undermine immunity. Previous studies suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency could decrease serum antibody production with concomitant increase in IL4 expression. However, evidence on whether vitamin B6 deficiency would impair immune cell differentiation, cytokines secretion, and signal molecule expression involved in JAK/STAT signaling pathway to regulate immune response remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin B6 deficiency on the immune system through analysis of T lymphocyte differentiation, IL-2, IL-4, and INF- γ secretion, and SOCS-1 and T-bet gene transcription. We generated a vitamin B6-deficient mouse model via vitamin B6-depletion diet. The results showed that vitamin B6 deficiency retards growth, inhibits lymphocyte proliferation, and interferes with its differentiation. After ConA stimulation, vitamin B6 deficiency led to decrease in IL-2 and increase in IL-4 but had no influence on IFN- γ . Real-time PCR analysis showed that vitamin B6 deficiency downregulated T-bet and upregulated SOCS-1 transcription. This study suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency influenced the immunity in organisms. Meanwhile, the appropriate supplement of vitamin B6 could benefit immunity of the organism.
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Background Macrophages serve as intracellular reservoirs of S. aureus. Recent in vitro studies have confirmed high level resistance by S. aureus to macrophage mediated killing and the intracellular persistence of Staphylococci may play an important role in the pathogenesis. Since this localization protects them from both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, therefore, a successful anti-staphylococcal therapy should include the elimination of intracellular bacteria, further protecting the host cells from staphylococci-induced cell death. So, only antibiotic therapy may not be helpful, successful therapy needs combination of drugs not only for elimination of pathogen but also for rescuing the host cell for S. aureus induced cell death. Methods In keeping with this idea an in vitro study has been done to examine the effect of Riboflavin along with antibiotics on phagocytosis, hydorgen peroxide, superoxide production, antioxidant enzyme levels, and cytokine levels in mouse macrophages for amelioration of the Staphylococcus aureus burden. The immune boosting effects of Riboflavin have been validated through perturbations of redox homeostasis and pro-inflammatory cytokines measurements. ResultsIt was observed that the supplementation of Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) not only enhances macrophage function as previously reported but also decreases pro-inflammatory responses in Staphylococcus aureus infected macrophages. The observed influence of Riboflavin on enhanced antimicrobial effects such as enhanced phagocytosis of macrophages exposed to S. aureus, hydrogen peroxide or superoxide production when combined with either ciprofloxacin (CIP) or Azithromycin (AZM) and decrease in pro-inflammatory responses of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1β. Riboflavin treatment also decreased NO and TNF-α level possibly by inhibiting the NF-κβ pathway. The increased antioxidant enzymes like glutathione reductase, SOD and GSH level helped in maintaining a stable redox state in the cell. Conclusion Riboflavin plus antibiotic pretreatment not only enhances macrophage functions but also decreases proinflammatory responses in Staphylococcus aureus infected macrophages indicating better bacterial clearance and regulated inflammation which may be considered as a novel and important therapeutic intervention.
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Vitamin B1 (thiamin) is considered to be the oldest vitamin and in 1936 R.R. Williams and colleagues determined its chemical structure and were able to synthesize this vitamin. Vitamin B1 influences pro-apoptotic proteins, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome C release, protein kinases, p38-MAPK, suppresses oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB and has anti-inflammatory properties. Deficiency of vitamin B1 may cause beriberi, dysfunction of the nervous system, neuroinflammation, T cell infiltration, chemokine CCL2 activation, over expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, TNF, IL-6, and arachidonic acid products, and induces expression of CD40 by the microglia and CD40L by astrocytes which provoke the death of neurons. Here we report the relationship between vitamin B complex and immunity.
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Introduction: Immune system is involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of inflammation and vitamins are important sources of substances inducing nonspecific immunomodulatory effects. Given the proinflammatory role of cytokines in the inflammation and pain induction, this study aimed to assess the effects of long-term administration of vitamin B1 on the proinflammatory cytokines, edema, and hyperalgesia during the acute and chronic phases of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Methods: On the first day of study, inflammation was induced by intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in the hindpaws of rats. Vitamin B1 at doses of 100, 150, and 200 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally during 21 days of the study. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin B1 were also compared to indomethacin (5 mg/kg). Inflammatory symptoms such as thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema were measured by radiant heat and plethysmometer, respectively. Serum TNF-α and IL-1ß levels were checked by rat standard enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) specific kits. Results: The results indicated that vitamin B1(150 and 200 mg/kg) attenuated the paw edema, thermal hyperalgesia, and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß during both phases of CFA-induced inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. Effective dose of vitamin B1(150 mg/kg) reduced inflammatory symptoms and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß compare to indomethacin during the chronic phase of inflammation. Conclusion: Anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic effects of vitamin B1 during CFA-induced arthritis, more specifically after chronic vitamin B1 administration, suggest its therapeutic property for inflammation.
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Vitamins are dietary components which are necessary for life. They play a major role in health and their deficiency may be linked to symptoms of psychiatric disorders. B vitamins are required for proper functioning of the methylation cycle, monoamine oxidase production, DNA synthesis and the repair and maintenance of phospholipids. Vitamin B deficiency could influence memory function, cognitive impairment and dementia. In particular, vitamins B1, B3, B6, B9 and B12 are essential for neuronal function and deficiencies have been linked to depression. We discuss the causes of depression and the neurochemical pathways in depression. In particular, we provide evidence that vitamin B contributes to the complexity of depressive symptoms.
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The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dexpanthenol in a model of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Lung injury was induced by exposure to atomized LPS. Mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group; Dxp (500 mg/kg) group; LPS group; LPS + Dxp (500 mg/kg) group. The effects of dexpanthenol on LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment, cytokine levels, total protein concentration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) contents were examined. Additionally, lung tissue was examined by histology to investigate the changes in pathology in the presence and absence of dexpanthenol. In LPS-challenged mice, dexpanthenol significantly improved lung edema. Dexpanthenol also markedly inhibited the LPS-induced neutrophiles influx, protein leakage, and release of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, dexpanthenol attenuated MPO activity and MDA contents and increased SOD and GSH activity in the LPS-challenged lung tissue. These data suggest that dexpanthenol protects mice from LPS-induced acute lung injury by its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities.
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Ariboflavinosis, that is, vitamin B2 deficiency, is a common problem affecting the populations of both developing and affluent countries. Teenagers, elderly people, pregnant women, and alcohol abusers represent groups that are particularly susceptible to this condition. This study was aimed to determine the effect of different riboflavin concentrations (deficiency and supplementation) on macrophages response induced by bacteria or yeast-derived factors i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and zymosan, respectively. Mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells were cultured for 5 days in a medium with a riboflavin concentration corresponding to moderate riboflavin deficiency (3.1 nM), physiological state (10.4 nM), or vitamin pill supplementation (300 nM). On the third or fourth day of deprivation, the medium in some groups was supplemented with riboflavin (300 nM). Macrophages activation were assessed after LPS or zymosan stimulation. Short-term (5 days) riboflavin deprivation resulted in the pathological macrophages activation, manifested especially in a reduction of cell viability and excess release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. Moreover, the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), heat shock protein (Hsp72), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) decreased after riboflavin deprivation, but medium enrichment with riboflavin (300 nM) on the third or fourth day reversed this effect. In the riboflavin-supplemented group, LPS-stimulated macrophages showed lower mortality accompanied by higher Hsp72 expression, reduction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TNF-α, and elevation of NO, IL-6, and IL-10. Moreover, the TLR6, NO, iNOS, IL-1β, MCP-1, and the keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) levels significantly decreased in the zymosan-stimulated groups maintained in riboflavin-enriched medium. We conclude that short-term riboflavin deficiency significantly impairs the ability of macrophages to induce proper immune response, while riboflavin enrichment decreases the proinflammatory activation of macrophages.
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Opportunistic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis often form rigid biofilms on tissues and inorganic surfaces. In the biofilm bacterial cells are embedded in a self-produced polysaccharide matrix and thereby are inaccessible to biocides, antibiotics, or host immune system. Here we show the antibacterial activity of newly synthesized cationic biocides, the quaternary ammonium, and bisphosphonium salts of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) against biofilm-embedded Staphylococci. The derivatives of 6-hydroxymethylpyridoxine were ineffective against biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations up to 64 μg/mL, although all compounds tested exhibited low MICs (2 μg/mL) against planktonic cells. In contrast, the quaternary ammonium salt of pyridoxine (N,N-dimethyl-N-((2,2,8-trimethyl-4H-[1,3]dioxino[4,5-c]pyridin-5-yl)methyl)octadecan1-aminium chloride (3)) demonstrated high biocidal activity against both planktonic and biofilm-embedded bacteria. Thus, the complete death of biofilm-embedded S. aureus and S. epidermidis cells was obtained at concentrations of 64 and 16 μg/mL, respectively. We suggest that the quaternary ammonium salts of pyridoxine are perspective to design new synthetic antibiotics and disinfectants for external application against biofilm-embedded cells.
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Sepsis, also known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome, is a life-threatening condition caused by a pathogenic agent and leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. One of the factors responsible for the excessive intensification of the inflammatory response in the course of inflammation is high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1). HMG-1 is a nuclear protein which, after being released to the intercellular space, has a highly pro-inflammatory effect and acts as a late mediator of lethal damage. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the anti-inflammatory action of riboflavin is accompanied by inhibition of HMGB1 release during peritoneal inflammation and zymosan stimulation of macrophages. Peritonitis was induced in male BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice via intraperitoneal injection of zymosan (40 mg/kg). RAW 264.7 macrophages were activated with zymosan (250 µg/ml). Riboflavin (mice, 50 mg/kg; RAW 264.7, 25 µg/ml) was administered 30 min before zymosan, simultaneously with, or 2, 4, 6 h after zymosan. Additionally, mRNA expression of HMGB1 and its intracellular and serum levels were evaluated. The research showed that riboflavin significantly reduces both the expression and the release of HMGB1; however, the effect of riboflavin was time-dependent. The greatest efficacy was found when riboflavin was given 30 min prior to zymosan, and also 2 and 4 h (C57BL/6J; RAW 264.7) or 4 and 6 h (BALB/c) after zymosan. Research showed that riboflavin influences the level of HMGB1 released in the course of inflammation; however, further study is necessary to determine its mechanisms of action.
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Bioenergetic metabolism varies during cell differentiation, but details of B cell metabolism remain unclear. Here, we show the metabolic changes during B cell differentiation in the intestine, where B cells differentiate into IgA(+) plasma cells (PCs). Naive B cells in the Peyer's patches (PPs) and IgA(+) PCs in the intestinal lamina propria (iLP) both used the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, but only IgA(+) PCs underwent glycolysis. These metabolic differences reflected their dependencies on vitamin B1, an essential cofactor for the TCA cycle. Indeed, the diminished activity of the TCA cycle after dietary vitamin B1 depletion decreased the number of naive B cells in PPs without affecting IgA(+) PCs in the iLP. The maintenance of naive B cells by dietary vitamin B1 was required to induce-but not maintain-intestinal IgA responses against oral antigens. These findings reveal the diet-mediated maintenance of B cell immunometabolism in organized and diffuse intestinal tissues.
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Vitamin B6 is closely associated with functions of the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Its deficiency may result in neurological disorders including convulsions and epileptic encephalopathy. Until today, this has only been reported in infants, children, and critically ill adult patients. We report a case of a 36year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with seizures after gastrointestinal disturbance. His seizures persisted even after treatment with antiepileptic drugs, but eventually disappeared after administration of pyridoxine. Hence, vitamin B6 deficiency may cause seizures in adult patients with chronic alcoholism.
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Vitamin B1 (thiamin) is considered to be the oldest vitamin and in 1936 R.R. Williams and colleagues determined its chemical structure and were able to synthesize this vitamin. Vitamin B1 influences pro-apoptotic proteins, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome C release, protein kinases, p38-MAPK, suppresses oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB and has anti-inflammatory properties. Deficiency of vitamin B1 may cause beriberi, dysfunction of the nervous system, neuroinflammation, T cell infiltration, chemokine CCL2 activation, over expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1, TNF, IL-6, and arachidonic acid products, and induces expression of CD40 by the microglia and CD40L by astrocytes which provoke the death of neurons. Here we report the relationship between vitamin B complex and immunity.
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Microglial cells are resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), recognized as key elements in the regulation of neural homeostasis and the response to injury and repair. As excessive activation of microglia may lead to neurodegeneration, therapeutic strategies targeting its inhibition were shown to improve treatment of most neurodegenerative diseases. Benfotiamine is a synthetic vitamin B1 (thiamine) derivate exerting potentially anti-inflammatory effects. Despite the encouraging results regarding benfotiamine potential to alleviate diabetic microangiopathy, neuropathy and other oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions, its activities and cellular mechanisms during microglial activation have yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of benfotiamine were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV-2 microglia. We determined that benfotiamine remodels activated microglia to acquire the shape that is characteristic of non-stimulated BV-2 cells. In addition, benfotiamine significantly decreased production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70), tumor necrosis factor alpha α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas it increased anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in LPS stimulated BV-2 microglia. Moreover, benfotiamine suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and protein kinase B Akt/PKB. Treatment with specific inhibitors revealed that benfotiamine-mediated suppression of NO production was via JNK1/2 and Akt pathway, while the cytokine suppression includes ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Akt pathways. Finally, the potentially protective effect is mediated by the suppression of translocation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus. Therefore, benfotiamine may have therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases by inhibiting inflammatory mediators and enhancing anti-inflammatory factor production in activated microglia.
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In pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), both oxidative stress and inflammation are considerable risk factors. The study was designed to evaluate whether administration of dexpanthenol (Dxp) is able to attenuate intestinal injury through the antioxidant and antiinflammatory mechanisms in a neonatal rat model of NEC. Forty newborn pups divided into four groups were included in the study: control, control+Dxp, NEC, and NEC+Dxp. NEC was induced by hyperosmolar formula and additionally the pups were exposed to hypoxia/hyperoxia and cold stress. They were sacrificed on postnatal day four, and their intestinal tissues were analyzed biochemically and histopathologically. Dxp caused a significant decrease in intestinal damage as determined by the histological score, villus height and number of goblet cells in NEC groups (p<0.0001). Tissue malondialdehyde, total oxidant status, and oxidative stress indexes levels were higher in the NEC group than in the control and control+Dxp groups (p<0.001). These values were reduced in the pups treated with Dxp (p≤0.004). Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione activities were significantly reduced in the NEC group compared to the others (p<0.005). Treatment with Dxp significantly reduced elevations in tissue homogenate levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the NEC+Dxp group (p=0.002 and p=0.01, respectively). Dexpanthenol seems to have antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Prophylaxis with Dxp has a potential to reduce the severity of intestinal damage in NEC in the animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex multifactorial disease that results from the interplay between environmental factors and a susceptible genetic background. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely used to investigate the mechanisms underlying MS pathogenesis. Chemokines, such as CCL2, are involved in the development of EAE. We have previously shown that thiamine deficiency (TD) induced CCL2 in neurons. We hypothesized that TD may affect the pathogenesis of EAE. In this study, EAE was induced in C57BL/6J mice by the injection of myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptides 35-55 with or without TD. TD aggravated the development of EAE, which was indicated by clinical scores and pathologic alterations in the spinal cord. TD also accelerated the development of EAE in an adoptive transfer EAE model. TD caused microglial activation and a drastic increase (up 140%) in leukocyte infiltration in the spinal cord of the EAE mice; specifically, TD increased Th1 and Th17 cells. TD upregulated the expression of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Cells in peripheral lymph node and spleen isolated from MOG-primed TD mice showed much stronger proliferative responses to MOG. CCL2 stimulated the proliferation and migration of T lymphocytes in vitro. Our results suggested that TD exacerbated the development of EAE through activating CCL2 and inducing pathologic inflammation.
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Several emerging lines of evidence support an anti-inflammatory role for nicotinic acid (niacin); however, its role in the regulation of leukocyte migration in response to inflammatory stimuli has not been elucidated until now. Herein, we have examined the effect of nicotinic acid on neutrophil recruitment in experimentally induced inflammation. We demonstrated that nicotinic acid treatment inhibited interleukin (IL)-8-induced, leukotriene (LT)B4-induced, and carrageenan-induced neutrophil migration into the pleural cavity of BALB/c mice and reduced neutrophil rolling and adherence in a mouse cremaster muscle preparation. Surprisingly, nicotinic acid treatment increased the level of the neutrophil chemoattractant KC in response to carrageenan. These results suggest that nicotinic acid plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation due to its ability to inhibit the actions of the neutrophil chemoattractants IL-8 and LTB4. Further inhibition of chemoattractants leads to impairment of leukocyte rolling and adherence to the vascular endothelium in the microcirculation of inflamed tissues.
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Abstract Lake trout Salvelinus namaycush on thiamine-replete and thiamine-depleted diets were evaluated for the effects of thiamine status on in vivo responses to the T-dependent antigen trinitophenol (TNP)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (TNP-KLH), the T-independent antigen trinitrophenol-lipolysaccaharide (TNP-LPS), or Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS; negative control fish). Plasma antibody concentrations were evaluated for possible differences in total anti-TNP activity as well as differences in response kinetics. Associations between anti-TNP activity and muscle and liver thiamine concentrations as well as ratios of muscle-to-liver thiamine to anti-TNP activity were also examined. Thiamine-depleted lake trout that were injected with TNP-LPS exhibited significantly more anti-TNP activity than thiamine-replete fish. The depleted fish injected with TNP-LPS also exhibited significantly different response kinetics relative to thiamine-replete lake trout. No differences in activity or kinetics were observed between the thiamine-replete and -depleted fish injected with TNP-KLH or in the DPBS negative controls. Anti-TNP activity in thiamine-depleted lake trout injected with TNP-KLH was positively associated with muscle thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate; TPP) concentration. A negative association was observed between the ratio of muscle-to-liver TPP and T-independent responses. No significant associations between anti-TNP activity and tissue thiamine concentration were observed in the thiamine-replete fish. We demonstrated that thiamine deficiency leads to alterations in both T-dependent and T-independent immune responses in lake trout. Received July 25, 2011; accepted July 12, 2012.
Chapter
Biotin participates in carboxylation reactions. Biotin, pantothenate (B5), and cobalamin (B12) are needed by herbivores to move propionate into hepatic gluconeogenesis. Biotin-supplemented diets are sometimes fed to young, growing animals. Raw egg white reduces intestinal biotin absorption. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is used in muscle glycogenolysis, and in erythrocytes it is bound to hemoglobin. Pyridoxal phosphate is used in transamination reactions. Although rare in animals, a vitamin B6 deficiency can result in increased amounts of amino acid metabolites appearing in urine, and it can reduce conversion of Trp to NAD+.
Book
Since 1975, Dr. Kenneth Swaiman's classic text has been the reference of choice for authoritative guidance in pediatric neurology, and the 6th Edition continues this tradition of excellence with thorough revisions that bring you fully up to date with all that's new in the field. Five new sections, 62 new chapters, 4 new editors, and a reconfigured format make this a comprehensive and clearly-written resource for the experienced clinician as well as the physician-in-training.
Chapter
Vitamin B6 has a central role in amino acid metabolism, and as the coenzyme of glycogen phosphorylase; it also acts to modulate the activity of steroid and other hormones that act by regulation of gene expression. Marginal vitamin B6 status is associated with enhanced responsiveness to steroid hormone action, and may be a factor in the development of hormone-dependent cancer of the breast, uterus, and prostate. Estrogens do not cause vitamin B6 deficiency, but high doses of vitamin B6 may overcome some of the side effects of estrogens. At high levels of intake, such supplements may cause sensory nerve damage.
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Background & aims Despite the growing evidence about dietary patterns, this study aimed at the association between patterns of nutrients intake and psychological disorders. Methods In this cross-sectional study, diet and psychological factors including anxiety, depression, and general health (GHQ) were assessed through self-administered questionnaires in 3846 Iranian adults. Daily intakes of 57 nutrients and bioactive compounds were calculated. Nutrient patterns (NPs) were derived using factor analysis. Results Three NPs were identified: 1) high in individual amino acids, cobalamin, zinc, phosphorus, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol and pantothenic acid named as “omnivore”; 2) high in thiamin, folate, selenium, iron, starch, maltose, betaine, calcium, riboflavin, and niacin; named as “grains and dairy”. Mono-unsaturated fats, vitamin E and polyunsaturated fats were inversely associated with this pattern; 3) “fruits and vegetables” NP high in copper, vitamin C, glucose, fructose, potassium, dietary fiber, sucrose, vitamin A, magnesium and vitamin K. After adjustment for confounders, men in the top tertile of the omnivore NP had lower anxiety score than those in the bottom tertile (P = 0.04). Men in the highest tertile of the first NP were less likely to be depressed (OR = 0.50, 95%CI: 0.26–0.96; P-trend = 0.04). Women in the highest tertile of this pattern had lower GHQ scores than those in the bottom tertile (P = 0.01) and had lower odds of psychological distress (OR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.57–0.99, P-trend = 0.0.04). Conclusions An “omnivore” like diet high in amino acids, cobalamin, zinc, phosphorus, saturated fat, cholesterol and pantothenic acid is associated with reduced psychological disorders. Prospective studies are recommended to confirm our results.
Article
Yeast based spreads (YBS) such as marmite and vegemite, made from leftover brewer’s yeast extract are one of the world’s richest source of B vitamins. We evaluated symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress scores (DASS) in participants who consume or do not consume YBS. 520 participants completed a survey consisting of 70–94 questions relating to the consumption of YBS, dietary and lifestyle habits and mood symptoms of DASS. Parametric analysis co-varying for gender, diet, supplement use, soy milk and alcohol consumption and history of psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety were utilized to analyse the results. A significant improvement was noted in anxiety and stress but not depressive symptoms in those consuming YBS. Furthermore, those who consumed vitamin B12 fortified YBS showed even greater improvement in stress symptomology. Vitamin B supplementation appears to be an important additive supplementary source to improved stress and anxiety in the general adult population.
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Current advances in immunology have led to the identification of a population of novel innate immune T cells, called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. The cells in humans express an invariant TCRα chain (Vα7.2-Jα33) paired with a limited subset of TCRβ chains (Vβ2, 13 and 22), are restricted by the MHC class I (MH1)-related (MR)-1, and recognize molecules that are produced in the bacterial riboflavin (vitamin B2) biosynthetic pathway. They are present in the circulation, liver and at various mucosal sites (i.e. intestine, lungs and female reproductive tract, etc.). They kill host cells infected with bacteria and yeast, and secrete soluble mediators such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, etc. The cells regulate immune responses and inflammation associated with a wide spectrum of acute and chronic diseases in humans. Since their discovery in 1993, significant advances have been made in understanding biology of MAIT cells and the potential role of these cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune, inflammatory and infectious diseases as well as cancer in humans. The purpose of this review is to provide a current state of our knowledge about MAIT cell biology and delineate their role in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (sterile or caused by infectious agents) and cancer in humans. A better understanding of the role of MAIT cells in human diseases may lead to novel ways of immunotherapies.
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary pyridoxine (PN) deficiency on growth performance, intestinal immune function and the potential regulation mechanisms in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six diets containing graded levels of PN (0.12-7.48 mg/kg) for 70 days. After that, a challenge test was conducted by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results showed that compared with the optimal PN level, PN deficiency: (1) reduced the production of innate immune components such as lysozyme (LZ), acid phosphatase (ACP), complements and antimicrobial peptides and adaptive immune components such as immunoglobulins in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P < 0.05); (2) down-regulated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interleukin 4/13A (IL-4/13A) (rather than IL-4/13B), IL-10 and IL-11 partly relating to target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling [TOR/ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 (S6K1) and eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP)] in three intestinal segments of young grass carp; (3) up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) [not in the proximal intestine (PI) and distal intestine (DI)], IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-15 and IL-17D [(rather than interferon γ2 (IFN-γ2)] partly relating to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling [IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IKKγ/inhibitor of κBα (IκBα)/NF-κB (p65 and c-Rel)] in three intestinal segments of young grass carp. These results suggest that PN deficiency could impair the intestinal immune function, and the potential regulation mechanisms were partly associated with TOR and NF-κB signalling pathways. In addition, based on percent weight gain (PWG), the ability against enteritis and LZ activity, the dietary PN requirements for young grass carp were estimated to be 4.43, 4.75 and 5.07 mg/kg diet, respectively.
Article
Background: Damage to the myelin sheath (demyelination) is one of the main manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). Interestingly, both MS and vitamin B deficiency results in severe myelin degeneration that leads to loss in neuronal signal transmission. Objective: Deficiency in vitamin B complex vary, although common symptoms include fatigue, increased oxidative stress, inflammation and demyelination. In particular, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) has had increased attention for its role in the methylation process, involvement in myelination and re-myelination, and reversal of MS symptoms. Method: Here, we discuss the role of vitamin B complex (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12) in MS. Results: The anti-inflammatory and re-myelinating attributes of vitamin B complex members are promising, despite limited clinical studies. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for larger studies to determine the role of vitamin B supplementation alone, or in combination with other therapeutic agents, in prevention or reversal of MS, and aid in improved quality of life of MS patients.
Article
Background and Aims Low-grade inflammation, represented by minor C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation, has a critical role in the early stages of atherosclerosis and pantothenic acid (PA) may have an antioxidant effect in inflammatory process. However, the long-term relationship between PA intake and CRP has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the long-term relationship of PA intake to CRP concentration in healthy adults aged 40 years or older living in a rural area of South Korea. Methods A total of 908 subjects (349 men, 559 women) with repeated data on dietary PA intake and CRP concentration were included in the final analysis. To represent the long-term effect of PA intake, both PA intake at the baseline and average PA intake were used as the exposure, and CRP concentration at the third visit and its change from the baseline to the third visit were used as the outcome. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, a significant inverse relationship between PA intake and CRP concentration at the third visit was observed (P for trend = 0.001, β = -0.07 (P-value = 0.001) for PA baseline; P for trend = <.0001, β = -0.11 (P-value = 0.0004) for PA average (baseline, 2nd, 3rd)). Higher PA intake was significantly related to lower or attenuated increase in CRP concentration (P for trend = 0.002, β = -0.24 (P-value = 0.002) for PA baseline; P for trend = 0.001, β = -0.35 (P-value = 0.001) for PA average (baseline, 2nd, 3rd)). Conclusions In conclusion, dietary PA intake was inversely related to subsequent CRP concentration in both men and women aged 40 years or older in South Korea.
Article
Aims: Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ important for regulation of such physiological processes as energy metabolism or lipids homeostasis. In an obesity state, it participates in the induction of chronic systemic inflammation accompanied by pro-inflammatory cytokines and fatty acid elevation. For this reasons, adipose tissue is involved in, e.g., insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes or hyperlipidemia development. In our previous study, we have shown that riboflavin deficiency induces a pathological pro-inflammatory response of macrophages, the main component of adipose tissue. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the alteration of the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocytes. Main methods: The study was conducted on mouse 3T3 L1 preadipocytes differentiated to adipocyte and culture in the state of riboflavin deficiency (3.1nM) or control condition (10.4nM). The cell viability, adiposity and glucose uptake was assessed. Moreover, mRNA expression, as well as crucial pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6) and adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, resistin) release and NFκB activation, were evaluated. Key findings: Results showed that riboflavin deprivation induced a significant elevation in adipocyte lipolysis and enhance obesity-related apoptosis of adipocytes. The generation of reactive oxygen species was enhanced in riboflavin-deficient adipocytes by 43%. Moreover, NFκB phosphorylation and the expression and release of both TNFα, IL-6 as well as leptin were elevated in a deficient group what was accompanied by a reduction of adiponectin level. Conclusion: Our study shows that riboflavin deficiency can promote the intensification of pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte cells, leading consequently to the severity of chronic inflammation that accompanies obesity state.
Article
Scope: Macrophage plasticity allows adapting to different environments, having a dual activity in inflammatory-related diseases. Our hypothesis is that the type of dietary fatty acids into human postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), alone or in combination with niacin (vitamin B3), could modulate the plasticity of monocytes-macrophages. Methods and results: We isolated TRLs at the postprandial peak from blood samples of healthy volunteers after the ingestion of a meal rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Autologous monocytes isolated at fasting were first induced to differentiate into naïve macrophages. We observed that postprandial TRL-MUFAs, particularly in combination with niacin, enhance competence to monocytes to differentiate and polarise into M2 macrophages. Postprandial TRL-SFAs made polarised macrophages prone to an M1 phenotype. In contrast to dietary SFAs, dietary MUFAs in the meals plus immediate-release niacin primed circulating monocytes for a reduced postprandial pro-inflammatory profile. Conclusion: Our study underlines a role of postprandial TRLs as a metabolic entity in regulating the plasticity of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and also brings an understanding of the mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are environmental factors fostering the innate immune responsiveness in humans. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Increasing evidence indicates that there are various interactions between the nervous system and the immune system, and that the immune system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α) have been implicated in the neurobiological manifestations of depression. The immune/cytokine network has a powerful influence on the brain. In addition, deficiency in B vitamins has been linked to depression. Hence, greater knowledge of how immune cells change in the presence of vitamin B derivatives could improve understanding of how immune changes may correlate with depression, all of which are discussed herein.
Article
Study objectives: Vitamin D blood levels of 60-80ng/ml promote normal sleep. The present study was undertaken to explore why this beneficial effect waned after 2years as arthritic pain increased. Pantothenic acid becomes coenzyme A, a cofactor necessary for cortisol and acetylcholine production. 1950s experiments suggested a connection between pantothenic acid deficiency, autoimmune arthritis and insomnia. The B vitamins have been shown to have an intestinal bacterial source and a food source, suggesting that the normal intestinal microbiome may have always been the primary source of B vitamins. Review of the scientific literature shows that pantothenic acid does not have a natural food source, it is supplied by the normal intestinal bacteria. In order to test the hypothesis that vitamin D replacement slowly induced a secondary pantothenic acid deficiency, B100 (100mg of all B vitamins except 100mcg of B12 and biotin and 400mcg of folate) was added to vitamin D supplementation. Methods: Vitamin D and B100 were recommended to over 1000 neurology patients. Sleep characteristics, pain levels, neurologic symptoms, and bowel complaints were recorded by the author at routine appointments. Results: Three months of vitamin D plus B100 resulted in improved sleep, reduced pain and unexpected resolution of bowel symptoms. These results suggest that the combination of vitamin D plus B100 creates an intestinal environment that favors the return of the four specific species, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria that make up the normal human microbiome. Hypotheses: 1) Seasonal fluctuations in vitamin D levels have normally produced changes in the intestinal microbiome that promoted weight gain in winter. Years of vitamin D deficiency, however, results in a permanently altered intestinal environment that no longer favors the "healthy foursome". 2) Humans have always had a commensal relationship with their intestinal microbiome. We supplied them vitamin D, they supplied us B vitamins. 3) The four species that make up the normal microbiome are also commensal, each excretes at least one B vitamin that the other three need but cannot make. 4) Improved sleep and more cellular repairs eventually depletes body stores of pantothenic acid, causing reduced cortisol production, increased arthritic pain and widespread "pro-inflammatory" effects on the immune system. 5) Pantothenic acid deficiency also decreases available acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic nervous system. Unopposed, increased sympathetic tone then produces hypertension, tachycardia, atrial arrhythmias and a "hyper-adrenergic" state known to predispose to heart disease and stroke.
Article
Objective: Dexpanthenol (Dxp), antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, plays an important role in the repair systems against oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of Dxp on experimental endometriosis model. Study design: A prospective experimental study was conducted in Experimental Animal Laboratory of Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay. Twenty nonpregnant female Wistar albino rats, in which experimental model of endometriosis was surgically induced, were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was administered 500 mg/kg/d Dxp intraperitoneally for 14 days, and group 2 was given the same amount of saline solution. After 2 weeks of medication, the rats were killed and implant volumes, histopathologic scores; and levels of serum total antioxidant status, total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were evaluated. Plasma and peritoneal fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were analyzed. Results: The endometriotic implant volumes, histopathologic scores, and serum TOS and OSI values were significantly decreased (P < .05) in the Dxp group compared to the control group. Plasma and peritoneal fluid TNF-α levels were significantly decreased (P < .05) in the Dxp group compared to the control group. Conclusion: Dexpanthenol has free radical scavenger effects, and antioxidant properties has significantly regressed endometriotic implant volumes, histopathologic scores, and serum TOS and OSI values. Serum and peritoneal fluid TNF-α levels were significantly decreased in the Dxp group. So Dxp decreased oxidative stress.
Article
Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of D-, L-hopantenic acid (pantogam active) on cognitive and anxiety disorders in patients with arterial hypertension. Material and methods: Autors selected 80 inpatients of a cardiology department with the verified diagnosis of hypertension and comorbid cognitive and anxiety disorders (50 patients in the main group, 30 patients in the control one). All patients received standard cardiotropic hypotensive treatment. Patients of the main group received in addition pantogam active in the daily dose from 600 to 1200 mg. Psychopathological and psychometric examinations were conducted, the data were compared with the dynamics of physical parameters (ECG, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, blood chemistry). The duration of treatment with pantogam activ was 28 days. Results: There was a significant reduction in both cognitive and anxiety disorders in the main group compared with the controls and in patients with a history of stroke. The positive dynamics was observed during the treatment period. Conclusion: Authors support the possibility of using D-, L-hopantenic acid (pantogam active) as a drug of choice with bimodal activity (nootropic and tranquilizing) in the treatment of cognitive and anxiety disorders in patients with arterial hypertension. A rapid (in the first week) significant reduction of cognitive and anxiety disorders during the treatment with pantogam activ was noted.
Article
This study investigated the effects of dietary niacin on intestinal mucosal immune and physical barrier, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (255.63 ± 0.41 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of niacin (3.95, 14.92, 24.98, 35.03, 44.97 and 55.01 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Results observed that niacin deficiency decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 (C3) content in the intestine (P < 0.05), down-regulated mRNA levels of liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2), hepcidin, interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1 and inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) (P < 0.05), up-regulated tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, interferon γ2, interleukin 8, nuclear factor kappa B P65 (NF-κB P65), IκB kinase α (IKKα), IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) in all intestinal segments of young grass carp (P < 0.05). In addition, niacin deficiency increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents, decreased glutathione content, and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the intestine of young grass carp (P < 0.05). Additionally, niacin deficiency decreased mRNA levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, GPx, CAT, GST, GR, Claudin b, Claudin 3, Claudin c, Occludin, ZO-1, Claudin 15 and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) (P < 0.05), and increased Claudin 12, Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1a (Keap1a), myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) mRNA expression levels in the intestine of young grass carp (P < 0.05), while the mRNA level of Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1b (Keap1b) did not change (P > 0.05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased intestinal mucosal immune and intestinal physical function, as well as regulated mRNA levels of NF-κB P65, IκBα, IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, Nrf2, Keap1a, p38 MAPK and MLCK in the intestine of young grass carp. Based on the broken-line model analysis of intestinal lysozyme activity, the requirement of niacin for young grass carp (255.63 ± 0.41 g) were estimated to be 39.80 mg/kg diet.
Article
This study investigated the effects of riboflavin on intestinal immunity, tight junctions and antioxidant status of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets containing graded levels of riboflavin (0.63-10.04 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that riboflavin deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and contents of complement component 3 and reduced glutathione in the intestine of fish (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, riboflavin deficiency increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents and catalase activity (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish. Furthermore, real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to investigate mRNA expression patterns and found that the mRNA levels of interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1, Occludin, zonula occludens 1, Claudin-b and Claudin-c, inhibitor protein κBα, target of rapamycin, ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 and NF-E2-related factor 2, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were decreased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. Conversely, the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, nuclear factor kappa B p65, Ikappa B kinase β, Ikappa B kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, myosin light chain kinase and Claudin-12 were increased (P < 0.05) in the intestine of fish fed riboflavin-deficient diet. In conclusion, riboflavin deficiency decreased immunity and structural integrity of fish intestine. The optimum riboflavin level for intestinal acid phosphatase activity of young grass carp was estimated to be 6.65 mg/kg diet.
Article
Background: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of niacin on high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and cholesterol levels in non-ST elevated acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients. Methods: In this prospective, open label study, 48 NSTE-ACS were randomized to niacin or control group. Patients continued their optimal medical therapy in the control group. In the niacin group patients were assigned to receive extended-release niacin 500 mg/day. Patients were contacted 1 month later to assess compliance and side effects. Blood samples for hs-CRP were obtained upon admittance to the coronary care unit, in the third day and in the first month of the treatment. Fasting blood samples for cholesterol levels were obtained before and 30 days after the treatment. The primary end point of the study was to evaluate changes in hs-CRP, cholesterol levels, short-term cardiovascular events, and the safety of niacin in NSTE-ACS. Results: Baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics were similar between the two groups. Logarithmic transformation of baseline and 3(rd) day hs-CRP levels were similar between the groups; but 1 month later, logarithmic transformation of hs-CRP level was significantly lower in the niacin group (0.43 ± 0.39 to 0.83 ± 0.91, p = 0.04). HDL-C level was significantly increased in the niacin group during follow-up. Drug related side effects were seen in 7 patients in the niacin group but no patients discontinued niacin. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that lower dose extended release niacin can be used safely and decreases hs-CRP and lipid parameters successfully in NSTE-ACS patients. Key words: Acute coronary syndrome; hs-CRP; Inflammation; Niacin.
Article
Our study explored the effect of dietary thiamin on growth and immunity (intestine, head kidney, spleen and liver) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets containing six graded levels of thiamin at 0.12-2.04 mg/kg diet for 8 weeks. The percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency were lower in fish fed the 0.12 mg/kg diet. Thiamin deficiency decreased complement 3 content, lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase activities, mRNA levels of hepcidin and interleukin (IL) 10, elevated mRNA levels of interferon γ2, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β and IL-8 in intestine, head kidney, spleen and liver. The mRNA levels of inhibitor protein-κBα, target of rapamycin (TOR) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the activities and mRNA levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione reductase were down-regulated, mRNA levels of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK), IκB kinases (IKKβ and IKKγ), nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) and Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) were up-regulated in the intestine of fish fed the thiamin-deficient diet. Additionally, thiamin deficiency decreased claudin b, c and 3, ZO-1 and occludin mRNA levels in each intestinal segment, increased claudin 12 and claudin 15a mRNA levels in distal intestine. In conclusion, thiamin deficiency decreased fish growth and immunity of intestine, head kidney, spleen and liver. The dietary thiamin requirement of young grass carp (242-742 g) based on intestinal LA activity or PWG were determined to be 1.15 or 0.90 mg/kg diet, respectively. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Article
A cluster of inter-related conditions such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism, and hypertension is referred to as Metabolic Syndrome, which is a risk factor for the development of type-2 diabetes. The micro- and macro-vascular complications of diabetes contribute to its morbidity and mortality. In addition to its calcitropic effect, vitamin D is a regulator of gene expression as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Various cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort studies have indicated a beneficial effect from vitamin D supplementation on the development of type-2 diabetes. Binding of retinol-bound retinol-binding protein to a membrane-binding protein suppresses insulin signaling. All-trans retinoic acid, a derivative of vitamin A, reverses these effects, resulting in increased insulin sensitivity, suppression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) gene, and the induction of the glucokinase gene. Glucokinase and PEPCK are also regulated in opposite directions by the vitamin biotin, acting at the transcriptional level. Biotin also regulates the synthesis of insulin by the islet of Langerhans cells of the pancreas. The increase in advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is implicated in the initiation and progression of diabetes-associated microvascular diseases. Benfotiamine, a derivative of thiamine, and pyridoxamine, a vitamer of vitamin B6, both have anti-AGE properties, making them valuable therapeutic adjuvants in the treatment of diabetic complications. Thus, various vitamins and their derivatives have profound therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of type-2 diabetes.
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Neuroinflammation is a pathology common to many neurological diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) and stroke. However, therapeutic attempts to modulate neuroinflammation have proved difficult. Neuroinflammatory cells express HCA2, a receptor for the endogenous neuroprotective ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) as well as for the drugs dimethyl fumarate (DMF) and nicotinic acid, which have established efficacy in the treatment of MS and experimental stroke, respectively. This review summarizes the evidence that HCA2 is involved in the therapeutic effects of DMF, nicotinic acid, and ketone bodies in reducing neuroinflammation. Furthermore, we discuss the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of HCA2 activation in neuroinflammatory diseases and the therapeutic potential of recently developed synthetic ligands of HCA2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Liver is a vital organ for the detoxification of toxic substances present in the body and hepatic injury is associated with excessive exposure to toxicants. The present study was designed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effects of riboflavin against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic injury in rats. Rats were divided into six groups. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CCl4 in experimental rats. Riboflavin was administered at 30 and 100mg/kg by oral gavage to test its protective effect on hepatic injury biochemically and histopathologically in the blood/liver and liver respectively. The administration of CCl4 resulted in marked alteration in serum hepatic enzymes (like AST, ALT and ALP), oxidant parameters (like GSH and MDA) and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α release from blood leukocytes indicative of hepatic injury. Changes in serum hepatic enzymes, oxidant parameters and TNF-α production induced by CCl4 were reversed by riboflavin treatment in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with standard drug, silymarin also reversed CCl4 induced changes in biomarkers of liver function, oxidant parameters and inflammation. The biochemical observations were paralleled by histopathological findings in rat liver both in the case of CCl4 and treatment groups. In conclusion, riboflavin produced a protective effect against CCl4-induced liver damage. Our study suggests that riboflavin may be used as a hepato-protective agent against toxic effects caused by CCl4 and other chemical agents in the liver.
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Gestational diabetes (GD) is a common complication during pregnancy. Metabolic changes in GD affect fetal development and fetal glucose homeostasis. The present study utilized a rat model of GD to evaluate the effects of nicotinamide on diabetic parameters; antioxidant gene expression viz, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by neutrophils and enhancement of lymphocyte mediated immune response. Nicotinamide (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was orally supplemented to gestational diabetic rats from days 6 through 20 of gestation. After GD induction, the control group had elevated glucose and reduced insulin while nicotinamide (100 & 200 mg/kg) supplementation reversed these changes. The same doses of nicotinamide upregulated mRNA expressions of SOD and CAT genes in liver but reduced the oxidative burst activity of neutrophils in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) or E. coli activation. Nicotinamide (100 & 200 mg/kg) supplementation also increased expression of activated T helper (CD4+CD25+) cells and induced proliferation of splenocytes. These findings provide evidence for utilizing nicotinamide as supplement or adjunct to support existing therapeutic agents for gestational diabetes and in pregnant individuals with weakened immune systems.
Article
Aims: We compared the effects of riboflavin pre-injection, co-injection and post-injection on several symptoms of zymosan-induced peritonitis in male Swiss mice. Additionally, the effects of i.p. injection of riboflavin itself were elucidated. Main methods: Peritonitis was induced in Swiss mice (50 animals) by i.p. zymosan (Z; 40mg/kg) injection. Riboflavin (R; 0, 20, 50, or 100mg/kg) was applied either alone or in combination with zymosan. In the latter case riboflavin was administered either together with zymosan (R group), or 30min before zymosan (R-Z group), or 1h later (Z-R group). The nociceptive response was evaluated by counting body writhes. The peritoneal exudates retrieved 4h after the R or Z injection were analyzed for the numbers and apoptosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and levels of metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), nitric oxide, and inflammatory cytokines, IL-12p70, TNFα, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ. Key findings: Riboflavin itself induced nociceptive-related body writhes and a moderate inflammatory response manifested by PMN influx and the release of some cytokines and MMP-9. In contrast, antinociceptive properties of riboflavin were significant in the ZR group co-injected with the lowest dose of riboflavin (ZR20). At the 4th hour of zymosan-induced peritonitis an intraperitoneal accumulation of PMNs was decreased in the riboflavin-treated groups and cytokine profiles were modified according to riboflavin dose and the time of injection. Significance: Riboflavin itself induces low-grade nociception and inflammation while its effects on zymosan-induced inflammation are dependent on the dose and time of its application: either before or during inflammation.