ArticlePDF Available

The Social Media Party: Fear of Missing Out (FoMO), Social Media Intensity, Connection, and Well-Being

Authors:

Abstract

The human need to belong is an innate drive that dictates much of our behavior. Informed by The Belongingness Hypothesis and Information Foraging Theory, the present study examines the relationship between FoMO and well-being. Study 1 (107 college students) investigates the relationship between FoMO, social media intensity and social connection. Results find that FoMO is positively associated with social media intensity, but negatively associated with social connection. The mediation tests, interestingly, reveal more positive results regarding FoMO. Specifically, FoMO has a positive indirect effect on social connection through social media intensity, suggesting that FoMO may, in some cases, be a good thing leading to enhanced social connection. Study 2 (458 college students) finds that FoMO impacts subjective well-being both directly (negatively) and indirectly (positively) through its impact on social media intensity and social connection. Results of the two studies reveal a nuanced model of FoMO and its relationships with social media intensity, connection, and well-being. FoMO can have a positive impact on well-being if it leads to social media use that fosters social connection. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed.
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
https://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=hihc20
International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction
ISSN: 1044-7318 (Print) 1532-7590 (Online) Journal homepage: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/hihc20
The Social Media Party: Fear of Missing Out
(FoMO), Social Media Intensity, Connection, and
Well-Being
James A. Roberts & Meredith E. David
To cite this article: James A. Roberts & Meredith E. David (2019): The Social Media Party: Fear of
Missing Out (FoMO), Social Media Intensity, Connection, and Well-Being, International Journal of
Human–Computer Interaction, DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2019.1646517
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2019.1646517
Published online: 26 Jul 2019.
Submit your article to this journal
Article views: 166
View related articles
View Crossmark data
The Social Media Party: Fear of Missing Out (FoMO), Social Media Intensity,
Connection, and Well-Being
James A. Roberts and Meredith E. David
Marketing Department, Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, USA
ABSTRACT
The human need to belong is an innate drive that dictates much of our behavior. Informed by The
Belongingness Hypothesis and Information Foraging Theory, the present study examines the relation-
ship between FoMO and well-being. Study 1 (107 college students) investigates the relationship
between FoMO, social media intensity and social connection. Results find that FoMO is positively
associated with social media intensity, but negatively associated with social connection. The mediation
tests, interestingly, reveal more positive results regarding FoMO. Specifically, FoMO has a positive
indirect effect on social connection through social media intensity, suggesting that FoMO may, in
some cases, be a good thing leading to enhanced social connection. Study 2 (458 college students)
finds that FoMO impacts subjective well-being both directly (negatively) and indirectly (positively)
through its impact on social media intensity and social connection. Results of the two studies reveal
a nuanced model of FoMO and its relationships with social media intensity, connection, and well-being.
FoMO can have a positive impact on well-being if it leads to social media use that fosters social
connection. Study limitations and future research directions are discussed.
1. Introduction
Sarah is twenty-one years old and a classic texts major at
a small private university in upstate New York. She spends
a good portion of the day scanning her social media feeds for
news on friends, classmates, and even complete strangers. She
scrolls social media before she goes to bed, often awakes to
notifications during the night, and social media is the first
thing she checks after waking in the morning. Most of the
time she scrolls through her various social media accounts
without any clear objective, other than to fulfill a nagging
sense that she may be missing out on something important.
The above composite is typical of the important role social
media plays in the life of the archetypal college student. Social
media addresses/exploits the need to belong that is present (in
varying degrees) in individuals of all ages (Beyens, Frison, &
Eggermont, 2016; Nadkarni & Hofmann, 2012). In a generation
thatischaracterizedbyadesiretobeconstantlyconnected,social
media allows its users to constantly monitor their social networks
for any developments (David, Roberts, & Christenson, 2017;
Roberts, Petnji YaYa, & Manolis, 2014;Roberts&Pirog,2013).
As noted by Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan, and Gladwell
(2013), social media has a dual nature itcanopenmultiple
avenues for interaction and/or it can expose users to a vast array of
opportunities for interaction that are too numerous to pursue.
The fear of missing out (FoMO) is best understood as a
pervasive apprehension that others might be having
a rewarding experience from which one is absent(Przybylski
et al., 2013, p. 1841). Three-quarters of young adults have self-
diagnosed as having experienced a fear of missing out on enjoy-
able activities experienced by others, and, importantly, sharedon
social media (Przybylski et al., 2013). Why has the FoMO
reached such epidemic proportions? And, why is social media
so popular among young adults?
First and foremost, humans are social animals. Our innate
need to belong is essential to both our physical and mental
well-being. A strong social network increases our likelihood of
living longer and happier lives (Holt-Lunstad, Smith, &
Layton, 2010). A real or imagined sense of social exclusion
can negatively impact both the quantity and quality of our
lives (Konrath, 2018). From an evolutionary perspective,
social exclusion was often life threatening; social groups
which ostracized or excluded individuals often became stron-
ger together, while the excluded individual(s) often died
(Gruter & Masters, 1986). Indeed, the potential threat of
social exclusion poses a significant threat to ones innate
need to belong (Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Baumeister &
Tice, 1990; Williams, 2007).
Previous research on the relationship between social media
use and well-being has been equivocal. Heavy social media use
has been linked to a variety of negative psychological out-
comes including increased stress levels, anxiety, depression,
lower levels of self-esteem, reduced relationship quality, and
lower sleep quality, as well as increased suicidal ideation and
suicide events among adolescents (Adams & Kisler, 2013;
CONTACT James A. Roberts jim_roberts@baylor.edu Marketing Department, Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, One Bear Place, # 98007,
Waco, Texas 76798-8007, USA.
Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at www.tandfonline.com/hihc.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANCOMPUTER INTERACTION
https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2019.1646517
© 2019 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Kross et al., 2013; Tromholt, 2016; Twenge, Joiner, Rogers, &
Martin, 2018; Woods & Scott, 2016).
Social media use has also been linked to positive psycho-
logical outcomes, particularly, building social capital (Ellison,
Steinfeld, & Lampe, 2007; Green-Hamann, Eichhorn, &
Sherblom, 2011), self-esteem (Best, Manktelow, & Taylor,
2014), connection with others (Sheldon, Abad, & Hinsch,
2011), and lessened feelings of depression (Deters & Mehl,
2013). Recent research suggests a possible explanation for this
apparent anomaly (Shaw, Timpano, Tran, & Joorman, 2015;
Verduyn et al., 2015).
1.1. The present study
The role FoMO plays in social media use, a sense of connec-
tion with others, and ultimately, psychological well-being is
the primary focus of the present research. The present study
makes several important contributions to the current litera-
ture. First, and as shown in our conceptual model in Figure 1,
the role of FoMO in social media use is investigated. The
Belonging Hypothesis (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) and
Information Foraging Theory (Muntinga & Taylor, 2018;
Trepass, 2018) are used to explain why individuals turn to
social media to assuage the innate need of all humans to be in
relationship with others. This is an evolving area of research
and is particularly important given the rising use of social
media, yet paradoxically, an increasing sense of social isola-
tion among industrialized populations (Holt-Lunstad et al.,
2010).
A second contribution of the present study is that it
hypothesizes and tests a sequence by which FoMO drives
social media use, which in turn impacts social connection,
and ultimately affects psychological well-being. FoMO is
usually associated with lower connection and well-being, but
our data shows that if manifested in social media intensity,
FoMO can foster social connection and well-being. The
apparent contradiction in the larger culture between increas-
ing use of social media and attendant increasing sense of
social isolation underscores the importance of research that
investigates the impact of social media use on well-being.
2. Theoretical support for the proposed model
2.1. FoMO and social media intensity
In their pioneering research on the fear of missing out
(FoMO), Przybylski et al. (2013) defined the fear as a perva-
sive apprehension that others might be having rewarding
experiences from which one is absent(p. 1841). People
with a high FoMO want to be constantly connected with
others and stay abreast with what others are doing (Abeele
& Rooij, 2016; Beyens, Frison, & Eggemont, 2016; Przybylski
et al., 2013). The need to belong, to feel close and connected
to others, is a basic psychological need that drives our beha-
vior as humans (Deci & Ryan, 2000). As found by Przybylski
et al. (2013), a deficit in the psychological need for relatedness
is likely to increase ones FoMO. In turn, this heightened
FoMO finds a convenient outlet in social media where users
can stay continually in touch with their peer group.
Using a student sample of 296 Israeli undergraduate stu-
dents, Alt (2015) found that FoMO leads to increased social
media use in the classroom. FoMO was found to mediate the
impact of two academic motivations and social media use.
A later study by Alt (2017) corroborated her earlier finding
that FoMO is positively associated with social media engage-
ment, thus underscoring the importance of FoMO as an
explanatory variable in studies of social media use.
In studying smartphone use and FoMO among a sample of
296 college students, Wolniewicz, Tiamiyu, Weeks, and Elhai
(2018) found that FoMO was positively associated with pro-
blematic smartphone and social smartphone use. The authors
used a 4-item measure of social uses of ones smartphone such
as making voice calls or videos, texting, e-mailing or using
social media sites. Consistent with Uses and Gratifications
Theory, Wolniewicz et al. (2018) results explain how an
individual high in FoMO is more likely to use his/her smart-
phone for social purposes including social media to stay
connected with his/her social network. Similar research by
Makki, DeCook, Kadylak, and Lee (2018) focused on
Snapchat and found that use of the social media platform
was associated with individualsinnate desire to be accepted,
affiliated, and connected with others. Indeed, the
Belongingness Hypothesis explains that, “…human beings
have a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least
a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, and significant inter-
personal relationships(Baumeister & Leary, 1995, p. 497).
The need to belong, argue Baumeister and Leary, is an innate
human motivation that drives much of our interpersonal
behavior. Thus, it is likely that FoMO drives social media
use. Further support for this prediction is provided by
Information Foraging Theory.
Information Foraging Theory explains that, from an evolu-
tionary perspective, humans have an innate drive to seek
information (Gazzaley & Rosen, 2016). Like animals foraging
for food (Muntinga & Taylor, 2018), humans are constantly
seeking information particularly regarding their relation-
ships with others. Social media addresses this important
need by providing access to information about others that
Figure 1. Conceptual model.
2J. A. ROBERTS AND M. E. DAVID
feeds an instinctive need for information regarding our rela-
tionships. Hours spent on social media can be explained,
especially for teens and young adults, by an intense desire to
gather information that signals ones place in the social hier-
archy (Roberts et al., 2014; Whiting & Williams, 2013).
Trepass (2018) argues that information foraging can be con-
sidered rational and goal-driven activity at all levels of gran-
ularity.Indeed, the emergence of social media has provided
access to a wide range of activities and personal information
on others which has heretofore been largely unavailable,
Based on this review, we posit that FoMO is positively
associated with social media intensity. However, and as dis-
cussed next, a closer look at the Belongingness Hypothesis
may suggests that, although FoMO likely encourages informa-
tion foraging and drives social media use, it is unlikely that
FoMO is positively associated with well-being related out-
comes. Indeed, the research findings of Baker, Kreiger, and
Leroy (2016) corroborate the positive impact of FoMO on
social media use and provide evidence of a negative impact of
FoMO overall. Using a sample of 368 U.S. college students,
the researchers found that heightened FoMO was positively
associated with time spent on social media. Higher levels of
FoMO were also associated with a higher incidence of depres-
sive symptoms and more negative physical symptoms such as
headaches, shortness of breath, chest pain, and sore throats.
2.2. FoMO, social media intensity, social connection, and
well-being
The Belongingness Hypothesis explains that satisfying the
innate need to be in relationships with others requires two
criteria must be met (Baumeister & Leary, 1995):
(1) People need to have frequent and reasonably pleasant
interactions with several significant others.
(2) The interactions between relationship partners must
occur in a stable and persistent framework of concern
for each other.
The above criteria have interesting implications for the grow-
ing use of social media to establish and maintain social rela-
tionships. First, as noted by Baumeister and Leary (1990),
interactions with a constantly changing flux of relationship
partners (think 500 Facebook friends) will be less fulfilling
than interactions with a few, close relationship
partners. Second, irregular or inconsistent contact/interaction
with close confidants is also less satisfying. Thus, it seems
likely that FoMO is negatively associated with social connec-
tion and overall well-being.
Oberst, Wegmann, Stodt, Brand, & Chamarro (2017) argue
that the positive rewards associated with social media use may
foster compulsive checking behaviors and excessive use of
social media and may ultimately hinder psychological well-
being. FoMO, the authors argue, although not the exclusive
purview of social media users, might lead individuals to check
their social media feeds more frequently to stay in constant
contact with the activities of important others. Clayton,
Leshner, and Almond (2015) conducted an experiment in
which 40 iPhone users were randomly assigned to complete
word puzzles either with or without their phones present in
their possession. During part of the task, researchers called the
study participantsphones, as a means by which to assess the
impact of phone separation on well-being. The results
revealed how phone separation has harmful effects on psy-
chological outcomes (e.g., state anxiety), as well as on physio-
logical outcomes including increased heart rate and blood
pressure (Clayton et al., 2015).
Przybylski et al. (2013) investigated the emotional and
behavioral correlates of FoMO in a sample of young adults
and concluded that, although FoMO is positively associated
with higher use of Facebook, it is also associated with poorer
mood states and lower levels of life satisfaction. Similarly,
research with a nationally representative sample of 2,079
British adults assessed the correlation between FoMO and
the psychological needs variables of autonomy, competence,
and relatedness, as well as well-being and found that all three
of the psychological needs were inversely associated with
FoMO (Przybylski et al., 2013). As these needs went unmet,
FoMO correspondingly increased. These findings seem to
suggest that FoMO may well be associated with lower social
connection and overall well-being.
Based on the above, it can be posited that FoMO is nega-
tively associated with feelings of social connection and psy-
chological well-being. Importantly, however, additional
research and empirical findings seem to suggest that FoMO
could in some situations foster social connection, in which
case it may not be harmful to well-being. Specifically, and as
discussed next, social media intensity likely plays a key med-
iating role between FoMO and both social connection and
well-being.
A small body of research has found that social media use
can help build bridging, bonding, and maintained social capi-
tal (Burke & Kraut, 2014; Ellison et al., 2007; Riedl, Köbler,
Goswami, & Krcmar, 2013). Steinfield, Ellison, and Lampe
(2008) found that intensity of Facebook use among college
students was a robust predictor of bridging social capital
a year later. Students with lower self-esteem benefited more
from their Facebook use than those with higher levels of self-
esteem. A recent meta-analysis by Domahidi (2018) analyzed
342 effect sizes from 63 studies which included data from over
35,000 individuals; the results showed a small positive rela-
tionship (r = .15) between online media use and perceived
social resources.
Using an experimental design, Deters and Mehl (2013)
tested the effect of posting status updates on Facebook on
psychological well-being, and found that posting status
updates to Facebook reduced loneliness. The authors posited
that the decrease in reported loneliness was due to a sense of
better connection with ones friends. Interestingly, the impact
of posting status updates was independent of social feedback
from members of the subjects friend networks.
Similarly, a study by Seo, Kim, and Yang (2016) used
a combination of information gathered from the participants
Facebook page and self-reported data to examine whether
social interactions on Facebook lead to more positive well-
being. The results showed that more interactions with
Facebook friends lead to greater perceptions of social support,
which in turn reduced ones loneliness (Seo et al., 2016).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANCOMPUTER INTERACTION 3
These findings are consistent with research which has shown
that the simple act of sharing personal information lights up
reward areas in the brain; specifically, important neurochem-
ical releases occur when we share personal information
(which is greatly enhanced by the variety of social media
available) (Richtel, 2014). Based on this review, it is hypothe-
sized that the intensity of social media use derived from ones
FoMO may well foster social connection and ultimately
increase ones well-being.
Overall then, it is hypothesized that FoMO is positively
associated with social media intensity, but negatively asso-
ciated with feelings of social connection and psychological
well-being. Importantly, we expect to find that FoMO can
foster social connection, in which case it may not be harmful
to well-being. Specifically, our conceptual model (see Figure
1) includes mediation and predicts that social media intensity
derived from a fear of missing out fosters social connection
and ultimately enhances well-being. Two studies were con-
ducted to test these predictions.
3. Method
Two studies were conducted to test our conceptual model.
Study 1 examined the relationships between FoMO, social
media use, and social connection. Given a small, but evolving
body of literature which has found that social media use may
help build social capital, Study 2 tested whether increasing
social media use could have a positive impact on psychologi-
cal well-being through its salubrious impact on social connec-
tion. It is predicted that FoMO is negatively associated with
social connection and well-being unless it transpires through
effective use of social media.
3.1. Study 1
3.1.1. Sample, procedure, and measures
One hundred and seven undergraduate students (47% female)
at a large U.S. university participated in the study. Participants
were invited into a lab and seated at individual computers
where they would complete the study questionnaire online.
The study included measures of FoMO, social media intensity,
and social connection. FoMO (α= .88, M = 2.49, SD = .83)
was accessed using the 10-item measure by Przybylski et al.
(2013). Example items include I fear my friends have more
rewarding experiences than me,”“I get anxious when I dont
know what my friends are up to,, and It bothers me when
I miss an opportunity to meet up with friends.Social media
intensity (α= .86, M = 2.90, SD = .89) was measured using the
6-item Ellison et al. (2007) scale. The items were assessed on
a 5-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly
agree. Example items include Social media is part of my
everyday activity,”“I feel out of touch when I havent logged
onto Facebook for a while,and Social media sites have
become part of my daily routine.Social connection
(α= .90, M = 5.16, SD = 1.24) was assessed using a 9-item
measure by Lee and Robbins (1995). A 7-point Likert scale
was used to assess the items. Example items included I feel
distant from people,”“I catch myself losing all sense of
connectedness with society,and I have no sense of together-
ness with my peers.
3.1.2. Results
The Process Model 4 (Preacher & Hayes, 2008)was used to
test our conceptual model including predictions involving
mediation (Krieger & Sarge, 2013). To begin, the model tested
the relationship between FoMO and social media intensity
(F
(1, 105)
= 21.43, p< .01, R
2
= .17). As predicted, the results
indicated that FoMO is positively associated with social media
intensity (β= .44, p< .01). Next, the model tested whether
FoMO and social media intensity are directly associated with
social connection. The results (F
(2, 104)
= 7.22, p< .01,
R
2
= .12) indicated that FoMO is negatively associated with
social connection (β=.55, p< .01), and social media inten-
sity is positively associated with social connection (β= .35,
p< .05). Importantly, and in support of mediation, the indir-
ect effect of FoMO on social connection (through social
media intensity) is significant and positive (β= .16,
SE = .08, 95% CI: .01, .33).
Overall, these findings support our predictions.
Interestingly, although FoMO is negatively associated with
social connection, the mediation tests revealed more positive
results surrounding FoMO. Specifically, FoMO had an indir-
ect effect on social connection through social media intensity,
thus suggesting that FoMO may in some instances be a good
thing which can lead to greater feelings of social connection.
Study 2 sought to extend study 1 by examining the same
relationships but also including a measure of well-being and
testing it as an ultimate outcome of FoMO (through social
media intensity and social connection).
3.2. Study 2
3.2.1. Sample, procedure, and measures
The sample consisted of 458 undergraduate students from
alarge U.S. university (55% male, M
age
= 20.35, SD = .940).
The study 2 questionnaire included measures of FoMO
(α= .86, M = 2.50, SD = .79) (Przybylski et al., 2013), social
media intensity (α= .87, M = 2.86, SD = .99) (Ellison et al.,
2007), and social connection (α= .93, M = 5.15, SD = 1.22)
(Lee & Robbins, 1995), all of which were assessed using the
same scales as previously in study 1. In addition, study 2 also
included a measure of subjective well-being. Specifically, sub-
jective well-being (α= .89, M = 3.01, SD = .59) was assessed
using a 5-item measure by Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and
Griffiths (1985).
3.2.2. Results
The Process Model 6 (Preacher & Hayes, 2008)was used to
test our conceptual model including predictions involving
sequential mediation (Krieger & Sarge, 2013). Unlike the
Process Model 4, the Process Model 6 offers a test of sequen-
tial, or serial, mediation; since study 2 measured subjective
well-being and was designed to test our complete conceptual
model in which subjective well-being is an ultimate outcome
of FoMO (through its impact on social media intensity and
social connection), the Process Model 6 was the most appro-
priate to method to analyze the study data. To begin, the
4J. A. ROBERTS AND M. E. DAVID
model tested the relationship between FoMO and social
media intensity. As predicted, and consistent with the findings
in Study 1, the results (F
(1, 459)
= 93.65, p< .01, R
2
= .17)
indicated that FoMO is positively associated with social media
intensity (β= .52, p< .01).
Next, the model tested whether FoMO and social media
intensity are directly associated with social connection. The
results (F
(2, 458)
= 34.63, p< .01, R
2
= .13) indicated that
FoMO is negatively associated with social connection
(β=.61, p< .01), and social media intensity is positively
associated with social connection (β= .14, p< .05). The model
next tested the relationship that FoMO, social media intensity,
and social connection have with subjective well-being. The
results (F
(3, 457)
= 58.36, p< .01, R
2
= .28) showed a significant
relationship between social connection and subjective well-
being (β= .17, p< .01). In addition, FoMO is a significant
predictor of subjective well-being (β=.19, p< .01). Social
media intensity had a marginally significant effect on well-
being (β=.05, p= .05). Further, the mediation results
suggested that although FoMO has a negative indirect effect
on well-being through social media intensity (β=.026;
SE = .01, 95% CI: .056, .001) and through social connection
(β=.101; SE = .02, 95% CI: .141, .069) separately, the
results provided evidence suggesting that FoMO can have
a positive effect on well-being when acted upon by engaging
in social media so as to enhance social connection (β= .012;
SE = .01, 95% CI: .001, .026).
Importantly, the results showed support for sequential
mediation, suggesting that FoMO has an indirect positive
effect on well-being through social media intensity and social
connection (β= .012; SE = .01, 95% CI: .001, .026). Table 1
summarizes the results of studies 1 and 2. Overall, these
results suggest that FoMO can have a positive impact on well-
being if acted upon by engaging in social media in a manner
that fosters social connection. These findings seem to high-
light the potential importance of the way in which social
media is used.
4. General discussion, and conclusions
Despite the emergence of social media that allows one to be
continually connected to others, research suggests that both the
quantity and quality of social relationships in industrialized
societies has decreased. Individuals are perhaps more socially
isolated now than ever before. Most Americans report having
no confidant (Holt-Lunstad et al., 2010). The primary focus of
the present research was to investigate the Howof the rela-
tionship between FoMO and well-being. We found support for
the process (How) by which FoMO is linked to well-being.
As hypothesized, the present study found that FoMO is
positively associated with social media intensity. Although the
correlational nature of these studies precludes one from any
causal attributions, it is likely that FoMO encourages the use
of social media to stay connected. As informed by the
Belongingness Hypothesis and Information Foraging Theory,
humans have an innate drive to be in relationships with
others. Social media is simply an omni-present conduit for
attempting to make such connections. The dual nature of
social media, however, suggests that, faced with a nearly
unending number of opportunities to connect, such social
media use may increase ones FoMO. A bi-directional causal
flow between the two constructs is a distinct possibility which
merits further research scrutiny (Buglass, Binder, Bette, &
Underwood, 2017).
Study results suggest that, although FoMO is generally nega-
tively associated with social connection and well-being, this is
not always the case. Importantly, the results show a more
nuanced model of FoMO and its relationships with social
media use, connection, and well-being. FoMO drives social
media intensity and has an indirect positive effect on social
connection through social media intensity, thus suggesting
that FoMO may in some instances be a good thing which can
lead to greater feelings of social connection. Although FoMO
has a negative indirect effect on well-being through social media
intensity and through social connection separately, the results
provide evidence suggesting that FoMO can have a positive
effect on well-being if acted upon by engaging in social media
in a manner that fosters social connection.
4.1. Limitations and future research directions
The present research and the results provided herein must be
tempered by certain limitations. First, although a strong case
has been made theoretically and empirically that FoMO is
associated with social media intensity, experimental research
is needed to examine the direction of the causal flow between
FoMO and social media use.
Table 1. Study 1 and study 2 results.
Path
a
Coefficient
b
SE t
95%
Confidence
Interval
Study 1: FoMO Social Media
Intensity
Study 2: FoMO Social Media
Intensity
.44***
.52***
.095
.054
4.63
9.68
.25, .63
.41, .63
Study 1: FoMO Social
Connection
Study 2: FoMO Social
Connection
.55***
-.61***
.151
.074
3.64
8.24
.85, .25
-.75, .46
Study 1: Social Media Intensity
Connection
Study 2: Social Media Intensity
Connection
.35**
.14**
.141
.059
2.49
2.34
.07, .63
.02, .25
Study 2: FoMO Subjective Well-
being
.19** .035 5.57 .25, .13
Study 2: Social Media Intensity
Well-being
.05* .026 1.92 .10, .00
Study 2: Social Connection
Well-being
.17*** .021 8.07 .13, .21
Study 1 Mediation:
FoMO Social Media Intensity
Connection
Study 2 Mediation:
FoMO Social Media Intensity
Well-being
FoMO Connection Well-
being
FoMO Social Media Intensity
Connection
Well-being
.16**
.03**
.10**
.01**
.081
.014
.019
.006
.01, .33
.06, .00
.14, .07
.00, .03
a
Study 1 results (F
(2,104)
= 7.22, p< .01 R
2
= .12) based on the Preacher and Hayes
(2008) Model 4; Study 2 results (F
(3,457)
= 58.36, p< .01 R
2
= .28) based on the
Preacher and Hayes (2008) Model 6
b
* denotes p< .10, ** denotes p< .05, *** denotes p< .001
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANCOMPUTER INTERACTION 5
It is likely that the causal flow between the two variables
may be bi-directional (Buglass et al., 2017). FoMO is likely an
innate drive to be in relationship with others that positively
impacts ones social media use. The greater the FoMO, the
more one turns to social media to regain a sense of belonging.
It is equally likely, however that being exposed to a myriad of
opportunities on social media will, in turn, increase ones
FoMO. This tendency to be overwhelmed by social opportu-
nities on social media has been referred to as the dual nature
of social media (Przybylski et al., 2013).
Additionally, as noted by Przybylski et al. (2013), the pre-
sent study treated FoMO as an individual difference variable.
It is possible that both time and context could impact ones
sense of FoMO. FoMO, assert the authors, may vary across
the span of months, weeks, or even within the course of
a single day. Longitudinal and experimental research will
help address such concerns.
Lastly, it may be an over-simplification to treat social media
use as a catch-all for time spent on social media. A small body of
emerging research suggests it is not the time spent on social
media that dictates its relationship with well-being but how that
time is spent. Passive use of social media (also referred to as
lurkingor creeping) has been found in several studies to be
negatively associated with well-being while active use of social
media (posting, commenting, and interacting) has been found
to be positively associated with several psychological well-being
measures (Deters & Mehl, 2013;Shawetal.,2015;Verduyn
et al., 2015). Additional research is needed to examine the
impact of how one uses social media and its relationship to
both physical and psychological well-being.
References
Abeele, M. V., & Rooij, T. V. (2016). Fear of missing out (FoMO) as
a predictor of problematic social media use. International Conference
on Behavioral Addictions, Geneva, Switzerland.
Adams, S. K., & Kisler, T. S. (2013). Sleep quality as a mediator between
technology-related sleep quality, depression, and anxiety.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking,16(1), 2531.
doi:10.1089/cyber.2012.0157
Alt, D. (2015). College studentsacademic motivation, media engagement
and fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior,49,11119.
doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.057
Alt, D. (2017). Studentssocial media engagement and fear of missing out
(FoMO) in a diverse classroom. Journal of Computers in Higher
Education,29, 388410. doi:10.1007/s12528-017-9149-x
Baker, Z. G., Krieger, H., & LeRoy, A. S. (2016). Fesar of missing out:
Relationships with depression, mindfulness, and physical symptoms.
Translational Issues in Psychological Science,2(3), 275282.
doi:10.1037/tps0000075
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for
interpersonal attachments as a fundamental drive. Psychological
Bulletin,117(3), 497529.
Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. (1990). Anxiety and social exclusion.
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology,9(2), 165195. doi:10.1521/
jscp.1990.9.2.165
Best, P., Manktelow, R., & Taylor, B. (2014). Online communications, social
media and adolescent wellbeing: A systematic narrative review. Children
and Youth Review,41,2736. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.03.001
Beyens, I., Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2016). I dont want to miss
a thing: Adolescentsfear of missing out and its relationship to
adolescentssocial needs, facebook use, and facebook related stress.
Computers in Human Behavior,64,18. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.083
Buglass, S. L., Binder, J. F., Bette, L. R., & Underwood, D. M. (2017).
Motivators of online vulnerability: The impact of social network site
use and FoMO. Computers in Human Behavior,66, 248255.
doi:10.1016/j.chb.2016.09.055
Burke, M., & Kraut, R. E. (2014). Growing closer on Facebook: Changes
in tie strength through social network site use. In Proceedings of the
32nd annual ACM conference on human factors in computing systems
(pp. 41874196). Toronto, ON: ACM.
Clayton, R. B., Leshner, G., & Almond, A. (2015). The extended iSelf:
The impact of iPhone separation on cognition, emotion, and
physiology. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication,20,
119135. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12109
David, M. E., Roberts, J. A., & Christenson, B. (2017). Too much of
a good thing: Investigating the association between actual smartphone
use and individual well-being. International Journal of Human-
computer Interaction. doi:10.1080/10447318.2017.1349250
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The whatand whyof goal pursuits:
Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological
Inquiry,11, 227268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01
Deters, F. G., & Mehl, M. R. (2013). Does posting Facebook status
updates increase or decrease loneliness? An online social networking
experiment. Social Psychology and Personality Science,4(5), 579586.
doi:10.1177/1948550612469233
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffiths, S. (1985). The
satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment,49(1),
7175. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
Domahidi, E. (2018). The associations between online media use and
usersperceived social resources: A meta-analysis. Journal of Computer-
Mediated Communication,23, 181200. doi:10.1093/jcmc/zmy007
Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of
Facebook Friends: Social capital and college studentsuse of online
social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication,
12(4), 11431168. doi:10.1111/jcmc.2007.12.issue-4
Gazzaley, A., & Rosen, L. D. (2016). The distracted mind: Ancient brains
in a high-tech world. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Green-Hamann, S., Eichhorn, K. C., & Sherblom, J. C. (2011). An
exploration of why people participate in second life social support
groups. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication,16, 465491.
doi:10.1111/jcmc.2011.16.issue-4
Gruter, M., & Masters, R. D. (1986). Ostracism as a social and biological
phenomenon: An introduction. Ethology & Sociobiology,7(34),
149158. doi:10.1016/0162-3095(86)90043-9
Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith, T. B., & Layton, J. B. (2010). Social relationships
and mortality risk: A meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine,7(7),
e1000316. doi:10.137/journal.pmed.1000316
Konrath, S. (2018, May 7). Americans are becoming more socially iso-
lated, but theyre not feeling lonelier. The Conversation.
Krieger, J. L., & Sarge, M. A. (2013). A serial mediation model of message
framing on intentions to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV)
vaccine: Revisiting the role of threat and efficacy perceptions. Health
Communication,28(1), 519. doi:10.1080/10410236.2012.734914
Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Park, J., Seungjae, D., Lin, N., Shablack, H.,
Ybarra, O. (2013). Facebook use predicts declines in subjective
well-being in young adults. PLoS One,8(8), e69841. doi:10.1371/jour-
nal.pone.0069841
Lee, R. M., & Robbins, S. B. (1995). Measuring belongingness: The social
connectedness and the social assurance scales. Journal of Counseling
Psychology,42, 232241. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.42.2.232
Makki, T. W., DeCook, J. R., Kadylak, T., & Lee, O. J. (2018). The social
value of snapchat: An exploration of affiliation motivation, the tech-
nology acceptance model, and relational maintenance in Snapchat use.
International Journal of HumanComputer Interaction,34(5),
410420. doi:10.1080/10447318.2017.1357903
Muntinga, T., & Taylor, G. (2018). Information-seeking strategies in med-
icine queries: A clinical eye tracking study with gaze-cued retrospective
think-aloud protocol. International Journal of Human-computer
Interaction,34(6), 506518. doi:10.1080/10447318.2017.1368949
Nadkarni, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2012). Why do people use Facebook?
Personality and Individual Differences,52, 243249. doi:10.1016/j.
paid.2011.11.007
6J. A. ROBERTS AND M. E. DAVID
Oberst, U., Wegmann, E., Stodt, B., Brand, M., & Chamarro, A. (2017).
Negative consequences from heavy social networking in adolescents:
The mediating role of fear of missing out. Journal of Adolescents,55,
5160. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.12.008
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies
for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator
models. Behavior Research Methods,40, 879891.
Przybylski, A. K., Murayama, K., DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013).
Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing
out. Computers in Human Behavior,29, 18411848. doi:10.1016/j.
chb.2013.02.014
Richtel, M. (2014). A deadly wandering: A tale of tragedy and redemption
in the age of attention. New York, NY: William Morrow.
Riedl, C., Köbler, F., Goswami, S., & Krcmar, H. (2013). Tweeting to feel
connected: A model for social connectedness in online social
networks. International Journal of Human-computer Interaction,29
(10), 670687. doi:10.1080/10447318.2013.768137
Roberts, J. A., Petnji YaYa, L. H., & Manolis, C. (2014). The invisible
addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female
college students. Journal of Behavioral Addictions,3(4), 254265.
doi:10.1556/JBA.3.2014.015
Roberts, J. A., & Pirog, S. F., III. (2013). A preliminary investigation of
materialism and impulsiveness as predictors of technological addictions
among young adults. Journal of Behavioral Addictions,2(1), 5662.
Seo, M., Kim, J., & Yang, H. (2016). Frequent interaction and fast feedback
predict perceived social support: Using Crawled and self-reported data
of Facebook users. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication,21,
282297. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12160
Shaw, A. M., Timpano, K. R., Tran, T., & Joorman, J. (2015). Correlates
of Facebook usage patterns: The relationship between passive
Facebook use, social anxiety symptoms, and brooding. Computers in
Human Behavior,48, 575580. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.003
Sheldon, K. M., Abad, N., & Hinsch, C. (2011). A two-process view of
Facebook use and relatedness need-satisfaction: Disconnection drives
use, and connection rewards it. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology,100(94), 766775. doi:10.1037/a0022407
Steinfield, C., Ellison, N. B., & Lampe, C. (2008). Social capital, self-este
em, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis.
Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,29(6), 434445.
doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2008.07.002
Trepass, D. 2018. Information foraging theory, the glossary of human
computer interaction. Retrived from www.interaction-design.org/lit
erature/book/the-glossary-of-human-computer-intera
Tromholt, M. (2016). The Facebook experiment: Quitting Facebook leads
to higher levels of well-being. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social
Networking,19(11), 661666. doi:10.1089/cyber.2016.0259
Twenge, J. M., Joiner, T. E., Rogers, M. L., & Martin, G. N. (2018).
Increases in depressive symptoms, suicide-related outcomes, and sui-
cide rates among U.S. adolescents after 2010 and links to increased
new media screen time. Clinical Psychological Science,6,317.
doi:10.1177/2167702617723376
Verduyn, P., Lee, D. S., Park, J., Shablack, H., Orvell, A., Bayer, J.,
Kross, E. (2015). Passive Facebook usage undermines affective
well-being: Experimental and longitudinal evidence. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: General,144(2), 480488. doi:10.1037/
xge0000057
Whiting, A., & Williams, D. (2013). Why people use social media:
A uses and gratifications approach. Qualitative Market Research:
An International Journal,16(4), 362369. doi:10.1108/QMR-06-
2013-0041
Williams, K. D. (2007). Social ostracism: The kiss of death. Social and
Personality Psychology Compass,1/1(2007), 236247. doi:10.1111/
j.1751-9004.2007.00004.x
Wolniewicz, C. A., Tiamiyu, M. F., Weeks, J., & Elhai, J. D. (2018).
Problematic smartphone use and relations with negative affect, fear
of missing out, and fear of negative and positive evaluation. Psychiatry
Research,262, 618623. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2017.09.058
Woods, H. C., & Scott, H. (2016). #Sleepyteens: Social media use in
adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression
and low self- esteem. Journal of Adolescence,51,4149. doi:10.1016/j.
adolescence.2016.05.008
About the Authors
James A. Roberts is the Ben H. Williams Professor of Marketing at
Baylor University. He has approximately 80 articles published in numer-
ous journals including Computers in Human Behavior, the Journal of
Applied Psychology, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Journal
of Consumer Psychology, Psychology & Marketing, and many others.
Meredith E. David (PhD, University of South Carolina) is an Assistant
Professor of Marketing in the Hankamer School of Business at Baylor
University. Her research focuses on consumer behavior and appears in
journals including the Journal of Business Research, Journal of
Advertising, European Journal of Marketing, and Psychology & Marketing.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMANCOMPUTER INTERACTION 7
... In general, psychological well-being refers to life satisfaction and fulfillment, including individuals' emotional reactions to both short moments and long periods of time [27,28]. The psychological well-being theory assumes that the short moments and long periods of time should fulfill individuals' social, psychological, and physical needs to maintain a high level of psychological well-being [28][29][30][31]. Interestingly, the extant literature indicates the positive relationship between psychological well-being and the use of social media platforms, such as digital content consumption and virtual interactions with others on social media, by highlighting that it increases individuals' feelings of belonging and provides individuals with confidence in life [27,28,30]. ...
... The psychological well-being theory assumes that the short moments and long periods of time should fulfill individuals' social, psychological, and physical needs to maintain a high level of psychological well-being [28][29][30][31]. Interestingly, the extant literature indicates the positive relationship between psychological well-being and the use of social media platforms, such as digital content consumption and virtual interactions with others on social media, by highlighting that it increases individuals' feelings of belonging and provides individuals with confidence in life [27,28,30]. Therefore, social media platforms have the potential to meet users' social, psychological, leisure, and even physical needs, increasing their level of psychological well-being [30]. ...
... Interestingly, the extant literature indicates the positive relationship between psychological well-being and the use of social media platforms, such as digital content consumption and virtual interactions with others on social media, by highlighting that it increases individuals' feelings of belonging and provides individuals with confidence in life [27,28,30]. Therefore, social media platforms have the potential to meet users' social, psychological, leisure, and even physical needs, increasing their level of psychological well-being [30]. However, heavy social media users may often displace social activities in the real world by being addicted to social media use, focusing on maintaining their life satisfaction primarily via digital activities [30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This empirical research investigated the structural relationships between social media influencer attributes, perceived friendship, psychological well-being, loyalty, and perceived social responsibility of influencers, focusing on the perspective of social media users. More specifically, this study conceptually identified social media influencer attributes such as language similarity, interest similarity, interaction frequency, and self-disclosure and examined the respective effects of each dimension on perceived friendship and psychological well-being, consequently resulting in loyalty toward social media influencers. The authors collected and analyzed data from 388 social media users in the United States via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk with multivariate analyses to test the hypothesized associations among the variables in this study. The findings indicated that perceived friendship was significantly influenced by language similarity, interest similarity, and self-disclosure, but did not have a significant impact on psychological well-being. Additionally, perceived friendship significantly affected psychological well-being and loyalty, and psychological well-being significantly influenced loyalty. Lastly, social media influencers’ social responsibility moderated the path from psychological well-being to loyalty. Based on these findings, this study proposes theoretical and managerial implications for the social media influencer marketing context.
... The current study sought to understand the relationships, if any, between social media usage (including purpose and frequency), the "FoMO", an individual's perception of others' behavior as seen on social media, and the intention to follow public health recommendations, such as avoiding indoor gatherings during outbreaks of a communicable disease. We first wanted to determine whether increased social media usage led to greater feelings of FoMO, which prior research suggests, but has not confirmed (e.g., Roberts & David, 2020). Our regression analyses found that, indeed, a higher frequency of social media use, no matter the purpose, is correlated with higher levels of FoMO. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research has suggested that social media usage increases during times of social isolation. However, rather than making users feel more connected to others, social media may cause negative mental health and relational outcomes, including a fear of missing out (FoMO). Against the backdrop of the global coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, this health communication study sought to understand the impact of physical and emotional isolation (i.e., prescribed social isolation) on people as we turned to social media more frequently. As the pandemic wore on, many remained online, watching people they knew “returning to normal,” potentially creating high levels of FoMO despite disagreeing with others’ decisions. This study examines whether social media use (frequency and purpose) influences individuals’ perception of the acceptability of others’ behavior, and whether those perceptions impact individuals’ own behavioral decisions. Participants (N = 459) from the United States were recruited from late 2021 to early 2022 to complete an anonymous online survey regarding the “acceptableness” of behavior shown in posts by friends and family. Results indicated that increased social media frequency was correlated with an increased sense of FoMO, which was significantly and positively associated with favorable perceptions of others’ behaviors, such as gathering indoors with others, even when public health officials discouraged it. However, FoMO was not significantly related to users’ personal intentions to follow public health recommendations. A post hoc analysis determined that fear of COVID-19 moderated the relationship between FoMO and the perception of others’ behavior, as well as the relationship between FoMO and behavioral intentions.
... They are seen as the potential markets for m-banking services in the developing countries (Purwono et al., 2021). Moreover, young consumers are seen as better equipped to leverage social media (Roberts and David, 2019). Hence, social media has widely been used to influence young consumers towards m-banking adoption (Greenwood et al., 2016;Tran and Corner, 2016;Kim and Ko, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effectiveness of social media on the different stages of consumers' cognitive stages through the Hierarchy of Effects (HOE) model for mobile banking adoption among consumers. A two-stage analytical approach with Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Neural Network (NN) analysis to bring out social media's distinctive and confirmatory influence on mobile banking consumers. Data from 482 respondents in the age group of 18 years to 30 years (the young consumers) from India was analyzed for social media influence on different cognitive stages of mobile banking acceptance. Results show the increasing tendency of social media influence with increasing cognitive level. Among the four cognitive stages (Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action-AIDA model) of m-banking adoption, Action and Interest stages are the most influenced stages by the social media, followed by Desire and Attention. This research provides a two-stage analytical approach by combining "SEM and NN" to assess the impact of the integration of AIDA constructs. We develop an original integrated model which outlines the phenomenon of the diffusion of information from social media on different cognitive stages of young mobile banking consumers.
... Dempsey et al., 2019), and negative humor(Elhai et al., 2020;Wolniewicz et al., 2018): Feelings and emotions which are important aspects of the negative affections that make up subjective well-being.Such anxiety generated by FoMO tends to negatively impact SWB(Stead & Bibby, 2017). This has been related to the perception of quality of life, both because it is inversely correlated with life satisfaction(Can & Satici, 2019;Sha et al., 2019) and because of the negative correlation with emotional well-being(Chai et al., 2019;Roberts & David, 2019). Increased exposure to critical social situations such as the pandemic leads to psychopathological consequences ...
Article
Full-text available
This article pairs journalism studies and social psychology to investigate, with a quantitative method, audience perceptions of news media in the initial stages of the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil by verifying the relations among media credibility, subjective well-being (SWB), and fear of missing out (FoMO). All told, 306 Brazilians took part in this study, answering a questionnaire to elicit demographic data, perceptions of media credibility, and behavioral characteristics. The findings revealed high averages of measures of news media credibility, with over 70% of respondents evaluating the work of the press as excellent or good. People with higher averages of negative affects tended to perceive the news media as more reliable. Furthermore, individuals who reported fear of missing out on the news during Covid-19 experienced more negative affect, and attributed greater credibility to news media. These findings show that in a time of fear and uncertainty, citizens seem to trust solid institutions more, accepting their reports less critically. We also found that unknown risks can attract attention more than regular events, tending to keep vigilance on specific news. Future studies can add additional measures of FoMO and use more diverse samples in different contexts.
... Despite the potential advantages that recommendation algorithms provide to users, they also have the "dark side" (Salmela-Aro et al., 2017;Springer and Whittaker, 2018;Ma et al., 2021). Previous research has shown that as a structural power that constrains users' agency (Reviglio and Agosti, 2020;Schwartz and Mahnke, 2021), recommendation algorithms pose a range of problems such as visibility hegemony (Swart, 2021), operational opacity (Kulshrestha et al., 2017), bias and discrimination (Kulshrestha et al., 2017), information overload (Lin et al., 2020), disinformation and misinformation (Clark, 2020) and privacy breaches (Lam and Hsu, 2006), which may lead to negative psychological and behavioral responses from platform users, such as social media fatigue Dhir et al., 2019;Whelan et al., 2020;Fan et al., 2021;Pang, 2021), fear of missing out (Roberts and David, 2020;Tandon et al., 2021), and forced disconnection (Nguyen, 2021;Vanden Abeele et al., 2022), platform migration (Maier et al., 2015;Luqman et al., 2017), etc. Although such researches have explored the operation mechanisms of algorithm from an ontological perspective, focusing on its structuring power (i.e., the structural limitations of data-tracking apps on user information access and platform use) (Beer, 2017;Ford, 2021;Morrison, 2021;Welch, 2021), little attention has been paid to the dynamic processes of how users encounter algorithm and exploit their agency (DeVito et al., 2017;Ettlinger, 2018;Klinger and Svensson, 2018;Rubel et al., 2020;Karizat et al., 2021;Velkova and Kaun, 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents have gradually become a vital group of interacting with social media recommendation algorithms. Although numerous studies have been conducted to investigate negative reactions (both psychological and behavioral reactance) that the dark side of recommendation algorithms brings to social media users, little is known about the resistance intention and behavior based on their agency in the daily process of encountering algorithms. Focusing on the concept of algorithm resistance, this study used a two-path model (distinguishing resistance willingness and resistance intention) to investigate the algorithmic resistance of rural Chinese adolescents (N = 905) in their daily use of short video apps. The findings revealed that the perceived threat to freedom, algorithmic literacy, and peer influence were positively associated with the resistance willingness and intention; while the independent psychology on algorithmic recommendations significantly weakened resistance willingness and intention. Furthermore, this study verified the mediating role of resistance willingness and intention between the above independent variables and resistance behavior. Additionally, the positive impact of resistance willingness on resistance intention was confirmed. In conclusion, this study offers a comprehensive approach to further understanding adolescents’ algorithmic resistance awareness and behavior by combining psychological factors, personal competency, and interpersonal influences, as well as two types of resistance reactions (rational and irrational).
... The intensity of digital communication tools use and perceived usefulness of social media According to many researchers, the use of digital technologies significantly increased citizens' involvement in public affairs and consequently fostered digital democracy (Linders, 2012). Previous studies have shown that the intensity of digital communication tools use positively impacts building, bonding, and maintaining social capital (Ellison et al., 2007;James and Meredith, 2020;Park and Kim, 2013;Riedl et al., 2013;Stojanovic et al., 2018). Therefore, we argue that the intensive use of various digital tools in city branding matters will strengthen relationships between the local authorities and citizens. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to explore the impact of digital communication tools application by citizens and the perceived usefulness of social media on the relationship between citizens and local authorities. The data were gathered in April–September 2020 through a survey (CAWI) among citizens of Poznan, Poland (n=502), and Kutaisi, Georgia (n=504), and were analyzed with structural equation modeling. The findings show that the intensity of digital communication tools usage for participation in the city branding and the perceived usefulness of social media contribute to the lasting relationships between citizens and local authorities in both countries. The novelty of this research concerns comparing two countries with different levels of development. Georgia is a developing economy in Europe and is in the process of modernizing the local governance across the cities. Poland, however, is a mature economy with a post-transformation heritage, where its cities benefit from considerable experience in building and developing citizen participation policies. Furthermore, the research was conducted amid the COVID-19 pandemic and evidenced the growing popularity of digital tools adoption by citizens in city matters. This study contributes to understanding the impact of digital tools on the relationship between citizens and local authorities in terms of city brand management. Citizens' participation in the city branding process via various digital communication tools increased citizen commitment towards long-lasting collaboration with local authorities. Moreover, citizens' perception of social media usefulness positively influences their desire to engage in the city branding process online, supporting the trust-building and collaboration between citizens and local authorities. Points for practitioners The intensiveness of digital tools usage – governments should identify the tools already trusted and popular among their audience and employ those tools to a greater extent to maximize the chances of feedback, high citizen participation, and commitment. Citizens’ perception of social media – such characteristics as ease of use, transparency, ease of communication with the municipality, and safety encourage citizens to get involved in the city brand management process. Consequently, local authorities should consider the features mentioned above and develop the online tools quality.
... As a result of diminished social involvement, loneliness significantly impacts an individual's mental health. Furthermore, increased smartphone addiction has been related to poor mental health (Roberts & David, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic during initial lockdowns created a problematic situation in which individuals were forced to remain within their homes and were forced to follow social distance restrictions for the well-being of themselves and others. In response, people use social networking sites on mobile phones to gather information about the COVID-19 epidemic. This study aims to investigate the influence of lockdowns on mobile phone usage among university students. Moreover, the harmful effects of COVID-19, such as anxiety, social isolation, and nomophobia among national and international students, are also investigated. The total sample size for this cross-sectional study is 438 individuals. The sample consists of Pakistani students studying at local universities (58.7%) and Pakistani students studying abroad (41.3%). The indigenous data is gathered through convenience sampling. The snowball sampling approach is adopted to acquire data from overseas. The findings show that the excessive use of mobile phones for browsing social networking sites to get information about the pandemic caused COVID-19 anxiety, nomophobia (“no-mobile-phone” phobia), and feelings of social isolation. Our results indicate that the COVID-19 outbreak greatly impacted students’ massive mobile phone use and psycho-social well-being, regardless of their geographic location.
Article
Phubbing among undergraduate has become an area of increasing research interest in recent years. In recent years, studies on phubbing have increased. However, no empirical study has deal with the mediating effect of fear of missing out (FoMO) on the relationship between dark triad and phubbing. The dark triad refers to three personality traits: Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism. Machiavellianism is characterized by prioritizing one’s own wishes and desires. Psychopathy, is a personality trait where lack of emotion and self-control is seen. Narcissism is characterized by low empathy and egocentrism. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine whether FoMO mediator between dark triad and phubbing among undergraduates. For this purpose, structural equation modeling and bootstrapping method was used. Mediation analyses were performed using AMOS 22.00. The present study comprised 506 undergraduate (%70.7 female; %29.3 male). The age of the participants ranged between 18 and 29 (x = 22.41).The measures used included the General Scale of Phubbing, Fear of Missing Out Scale, and Dirty Dozen Scale. The results showed that FoMO mediated the relationship between dark triad and phubbing. The results of bootstrapping procedure indicated that the indirect effect of FoMO on the relationship between dark triad and phubbing was significant. In conclusion, the study suggests that FoMO is a meaningful mediator in the relationship between dark triad and phubbing. Research results are discussed in the light of the related literature and suggestions are presented for future researchers.
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is often characterised by changes in sleep patterns, with reports that the average adolescent does not get the recommended sleep time. Recent qualitative research has identified the use of electronics at bedtime and engagement with social media platforms as barriers to gaining sufficient time and quality of sleep during adolescence. A systematic review and thematic synthesis was undertaken following the three-step thematic synthesis framework. Four databases were searched, and full texts were screened based on pre-existing inclusion/exclusion criteria. Fourteen studies were included, encompassing 967 participants. Three analytical themes were developed: 1) social motivations; 2) habitual smartphone use and 3) recognition of a problem. Findings confirmed how bedtime social media use requires a new framework for recognising the importance of peer relations, where increased frequency and immediacy of communication lays the foundation for social accountability to meet communicative norms and fear of missing out. In the review, adolescents commonly express a lack of control in relation to their social media use which triggered discussion of the habitual aspects of bedtime social media use. The importance of intervention strategies which recognise the wider peer-to-peer social implications of bedtime social media use is discussed with some practical insights offered.
Article
The novel corona virus posed major challenges for Germany in 2020. To contain and combat the pandemic, contact restrictions, mandatory masks and distance regulations, curfews and entry bans were imposed, and state borders were closed (Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, 2021). The reduction of physical contacts and meeting places led to an increased turn to virtual contacts and an online dating boom (Bitkom, 2020). The aim of the present study is to analyze online dating behavior during the first lockdown in Germany and to compare users* of different online dating platforms (online dating agencies, online dating sites, social dating, adult dating, niche providers) in their experience and behavior. In an online survey N = 1805 (online dating users: n = 971, non-users: n = 834) an increased intensity of use was found. During the lockdown, online dating portals were used not only to find a partner, but also to engage in social interaction. According to the respondents, the lack of physical presence was compensated by text-based messages, phone calls, voice messages or video chats; an increase in the quality and quantity of communication was clearly perceived by some users, and physical meetings (dates) were mainly shifted outdoors. The significance of the results is discussed from a theoretical and practical point of view. Keywords: online dating, covid-19 pandemic, lockdown, stress and strain.
Article
Full-text available
Research suggests that people around the world spend anywhere from an hour to as much as ten hours daily on their smartphones. However, the vast majority of this research has used self-reported data, which is widely considered unreliable. The present research is among the first to capture actual smartphone use and to examine its relationship with individual and relational well-being. Results reveal that, although smartphone use is generally negatively associated with well-being, this is not always so. Deeper analyses show that certain categories of apps are positively associated with well-being, thus revealing a more nuanced relationship between smartphone use and individual well-being. Research which suggests a negative association between smartphone use and well-being may represent an oversimplified perspective of a complex relationship.
Article
Full-text available
With the growing attention paid to fear of missing out (FoMO) psychological phenomenon in explaining social media engagement (SME), this mixed-method research measured the relative impact of FoMO on students’ SME for personal reasons during lectures. The moderating effect of culture (minority vs. non-minority students) on the connection between FoMO and SME was also considered. Quantitative data were gathered from 279-undergraduate students. The structural equation modeling results showed a positive moderate connection between the FoMO and SME variables. The bootstrapping result showed a significant indirect effect between the minority group of students and SME through increased levels of FoMO. A sequential explanatory strategy was used to refine and interpret the quantitative results. Accordingly, qualitative data were gathered by using semi-structured interviews to assist in explaining the findings of the quantitative phase. The qualitative data suggested several explanations for students’ distractive behavior enabled by technology during class. The main recurrent theme was the frequently used instructional activities based on the teacher-centered pedagogical approach. This approach imposed greater challenges for minority students as they tend to grapple with a host of language barriers. These students reported using social media tools to seek help from friends during lectures and feared missing out a useful assistance. Another finding showed that mainly non-minority students who experienced FoMO admitted using social media during lessons regardless of the teaching method implemented.
Article
Full-text available
Social networking sites (SNS) are especially attractive for adolescents, but it has also been shown that these users can suffer from negative psychological consequences when using these sites excessively. We analyze the role of fear of missing out (FOMO) and intensity of SNS use for explaining the link between psychopathological symptoms and negative consequences of SNS use via mobile devices. In an online survey, 1468 Spanish-speaking Latin-American social media users between 16 and 18 years old completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Social Networking Intensity scale (SNI), the FOMO scale (FOMOs), and a questionnaire on negative consequences of using SNS via mobile device (CERM). Using structural equation modeling, it was found that both FOMO and SNI mediate the link between psychopathology and CERM, but by different mechanisms. Additionally, for girls, feeling depressed seems to trigger higher SNS involvement. For boys, anxiety triggers higher SNS involvement.
Article
Conflicting findings have emerged from the large number of studies on the relationship of online media use (OMU) and users’ perceived social resources (PSR). In contrast to the numerous primary studies, a comprehensive meta-analysis on the relationship between the use of different online media and PSR has been lacking to date. The findings presented are based on 342 effect sizes from 63 studies and represent data from over 35,500 individuals. The results reveal a small and positive relationship between the two variables. Detailed analyses suggest that the use of different online media, as well as the measurement of OMU and PSR, might affect the relationships obtained. Implications and directions for theoretical development and empirical research are also discussed.
Article
In two nationally representative surveys of U.S. adolescents in grades 8 through 12 (N = 506,820) and national statistics on suicide deaths for those ages 13 to 18, adolescents’ depressive symptoms, suicide-related outcomes, and suicide rates increased between 2010 and 2015, especially among females. Adolescents who spent more time on new media (including social media and electronic devices such as smartphones) were more likely to report mental health issues, and adolescents who spent more time on nonscreen activities (in-person social interaction, sports/exercise, homework, print media, and attending religious services) were less likely. Since 2010, iGen adolescents have spent more time on new media screen activities and less time on nonscreen activities, which may account for the increases in depression and suicide. In contrast, cyclical economic factors such as unemployment and the Dow Jones Index were not linked to depressive symptoms or suicide rates when matched by year.
Article
For many individuals, excessive smartphone use interferes with everyday life. In the present study, we recruited a non-clinical sample of 296 participants for a cross-sectional survey of problematic smartphone use, social and non-social smartphone use, and psychopathology-related constructs including negative affect, fear of negative and positive evaluation, and fear of missing out (FoMO). Results demonstrated that FoMO was most strongly related to both problematic smartphone use and social smartphone use relative to negative affect and fears of negative and positive evaluation, and these relations held when controlling for age and gender. Furthermore, FoMO (cross-sectionally) mediated relations between both fear of negative and positive evaluation with both problematic and social smartphone use. Theoretical implications are considered with regard to developing problematic smartphone use.
Article
Background: Medicines are increasingly purchased online, yet little is known regarding the ocular information-seeking behavior with medicine queries in search engines. A share of pharmacies found via search engines operate unlicensed and sell prescription-only medicines without a prescription. This study aimed to investigate how search engine users distinguish between genuine and falsified sources of information in terms of unlicensed and licensed online pharmacies in the case of medicine queries. Methods: Eye-tracking of search tasks (transactional, navigational, informational and two limited results) in a Google search engine environment with retrospective gaze-cued think aloud protocol. Purposive sample of N = 50 across three hospitals and one general practitioner. Results: Discovery of a trichotomy of ocular search strategies based on the inclusion or exclusion of URLs in the information-seeking process. Finding of dissonance to existing studies related to fixation duration of search engine result page (SERP) elements. Discovery of an addition to information foraging theory (IFT): proximal cues are, in environments with non-credible information, used in both positive and negative ways.
Article
The present study proposes that affiliation motivation plays a key role in driving Snapchat use. Constructs from the technology acceptance and relational maintenance literature were incorporated to examine the normative and interpersonal goals associated with Snapchat use. It was hypothesized that these two models and their associated constructs illustrate behavioral and cognitive phenomena that are tied to and fueled by the innate human desire to affiliate with others. The study was conducted using an online survey at a large, Midwestern university with a final student sample of 236. Perceived playfulness, subjective norm, trust, and critical mass (TAM constructs), as well as assurances and positivity (RM behaviors), were all found to be significantly and positively correlated with Snapchat use. This study highlights the interpersonal value of Snapchat and adds to the existing literature examining various information and communication technologies (ICTs) as tools for relational maintenance.
Article
Most people use Facebook on a daily basis; few are aware of the consequences. Based on a 1-week experiment with 1,095 participants in late 2015 in Denmark, this study provides causal evidence that Facebook use affects our well-being negatively. By comparing the treatment group (participants who took a break from Facebook) with the control group (participants who kept using Facebook), it was demonstrated that taking a break from Facebook has positive effects on the two dimensions of well-being: our life satisfaction increases and our emotions become more positive. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that these effects were significantly greater for heavy Facebook users, passive Facebook users, and users who tend to envy others on Facebook.