ArticlePDF Available

Effects of aerobic exercise on thyroid hormonal change responses among adolescents with intellectual disabilities

Authors:

Abstract

Objective We aimed to investigate the impact of a 16-week aerobic exercise programme on the changes in the plasma level concentration of thyroid hormones in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. Methodology Using purposive sampling, a total of 36 adolescents with intellectual disabilities were selected to participate in the study. The training programme consisted of 16 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercises at an intensity of 45–75 hours. These exercises were performed in three sessions a week, and each session took 30–45 min: 10 min warm-up, 15–30 min main aerobic workout and 5 min cool-down exercises. The plasma levels of triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) and of thyroid stimulating hormone were measured before and after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise intervention. Results After 16 weeks of intervention, a significant change was observed in the plasma level concentration of thyroid (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormones (p<0.05) in the group treated with aerobic exercise. Conclusion We concluded that aerobic exercise had an impact on the change in the plasma level concentration of thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormones in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.
AltayeKZ, etal. BMJ Open Sp Ex Med 2019;5:e000524. doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000524 1
Open access Original article
Effects of aerobic exercise on thyroid
hormonal change responses among
adolescents with intellectual disabilities
Kefelegn Zenebe Altaye, 1 Soumitra Mondal,2 Kesatie Legesse,2
Mahmud Abdulkedir3
To cite: AltayeKZ, MondalS,
LegesseK, etal. Effects of
aerobic exercise on thyroid
hormonal change responses
among adolescents with
intellectual disabilities. BMJ
Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
2019;5:e000524. doi:10.1136/
bmjsem-2019-000524
Accepted 16 May 2019
1Department of Sport Science,
Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia
2Department of Sport Science,
Mekelle University College of
Natural and Computational
Sciences, Mekelle, Ethiopia
3Department of Microbiology &
Immunology, Mekelle University,
Mekelle, Ethiopia
Correspondence to
Dr Kefelegn Zenebe Altaye;
kefelegnmu@ gmail. com
© Author(s) (or their
employer(s)) 2019. Re-use
permitted under CC BY-NC. No
commercial re-use. See rights
and permissions. Published by
BMJ.
What is the new nding?
Aerobic exercise increases the concentration of
triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine in the blood,
which have an exciters effect on the central nervous
system, leading to academic improvement and suc-
cess of adolescents with intellectual disabilities.
Aerobic exercise can decrease the concentration of
thyroid stimulating hormone in the blood of adoles-
cents with intellectual disabilities.
Aerobic exercise can maintain the equilibrium in thy-
roid and thyroid stimulating hormone homeostasis in
adolescents with intellectual disabilities.
What is already known?
Aerobic physical exercise has a great impact on
energy expenditure, reduces body fat mass and im-
proves the lung function of individuals with intellec-
tual disabilities.
Aerobic physical exercise increases the metabolism
of lactic and fatty acids and affects changes in hor-
monal concentrations in adolescents with intellectu-
al disabilities.
Aerobic physical exercise plays a signicant role in
increasing brain function, which is linked to cogni-
tive development and academic achievement in ad-
olescents with intellectual disabilities.
ABSTRACT
Objective We aimed to investigate the impact of a
16-week aerobic exercise programme on the changes
in the plasma level concentration of thyroid hormones in
adolescents with intellectual disabilities.
Methodology Using purposive sampling, a total of 36
adolescents with intellectual disabilities were selected to
participate in the study. The training programme consisted
of 16 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercises
at an intensity of 45–75 hours. These exercises were
performed in three sessions a week, and each session
took 30–45 min: 10 min warm-up, 15–30 min main aerobic
workout and 5 min cool-down exercises. The plasma levels
of triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) and of
thyroid stimulating hormone were measured before and
after 16 weeks of aerobic exercise intervention.
Results After 16 weeks of intervention, a signicant
change was observed in the plasma level concentration
of thyroid (T3 and T4) and thyroid stimulating hormones
(p<0.05) in the group treated with aerobic exercise.
Conclusion We concluded that aerobic exercise had an
impact on the change in the plasma level concentration of
thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormones in adolescents
with intellectual disabilities.
INTRODUCTION
Intellectual disability (ID) is characterised
by significant limitations in cognitive func-
tioning, adaptive behaviour, and conceptual,
social and practical skills. In addition, when
compared with their typically developed
peers, persons with ID are more likely to be
obese, less likely to be physically active and are
twice as likely to develop a chronic disease.1
Also, compared with their normal peers,
they are more limited in how well and how
quickly they can learn, and score the lowest
and more likely to repeat each class level.2
The percentage of individuals with ID who
completed primary education is significantly
lower than persons without disabilities,3 and
often they have cognitive problems associated
with carrying out exercises.4 The worldwide
and Ethiopian prevalence of ID is 1.3%.5
ID is associated with lower levels of thyroid
hormones. In relation to these, thyroid
hormone deficiency during fetal and post-
natal development may cause retarded brain
maturation, intellectual deficits, and in some
cases neurological impairments.6 However,
proportional secretion of tetraiodothyronine
(T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) accelerates
growth and stimulates activities in the nervous
system.7 Therefore, thyroid hormones are
important for normal brain and nervous
system development and function.8
Previous studies reported that aerobic
exercise increases total serum T3 and
T4.9 10 Consequently, a moderate-intensity
level of exercise can increase T4 concentra-
tion in the blood.11 Aerobic exercise has been
copyright. on 24 July 2019 by guest. Protected byhttp://bmjopensem.bmj.com/BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med: first published as 10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000524 on 23 July 2019. Downloaded from
2AltayeKZ, etal. BMJ Open Sp Ex Med 2019;5:e000524. doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000524
Open access
Table 1 Demographic characteristics of adolescents with
intellectual disabilities in the aerobic and control groups
Variables
Aerobic group Control group
Mean SD Mean SD
Age (years) 14.44 1.199 14.389 1.145
Height (metre) 1.50 0.042 1.49 0.046
Mass (kg) 49 5.89 48.16 6.148
associated with a progressive decrease or an improvement
in serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH).12 On the
contrary, 12 weeks of aerobic exercise had shown an insig-
nificant change in the plasma level of TSH, T3 and T4
hormones among sedentary women. These hormonal fluc-
tuations are dependent on the intensity, duration and type
of exercise and on the individual’s age,13 and still contradic-
tory results were seen on the effects of aerobic exercise on
thyroid hormonal change responses.14 Little information
has been seen on the effects of aerobic exercises on thyroid
hormone change responses in adolescents with ID.
Therefore, we designed the present study to investigate
the effects of 16 weeks of aerobic exercises on hormonal
change concentration in adolescents with ID. This was
done using quasi-experimental research design and
using T3, T4 and TSH as outcome markers. Based on
the findings of the study, the lifestyle and participation
of adolescents with ID in social and economic activities
might be enhanced to support their family and their
country at large. The study may also serve as a spring-
board for those who are interested to conduct further
similar research in the area, especially by including diet
as one of the variables, among others.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study design
A quasi-experimental design was employed to investigate
the effects of 16 weeks of aerobic exercise on thyroid
hormonal change responses in adolescents with ID in
Dessie-Kombolcha.
Sample and sampling technique
The study has two groups: experimental and control
groups. The participants were free from epilepsy and
autism disorders. The total number of the population
was 72, and in the current study 36 of them, which were
50% of the total population, were purposively taken as
a sample and were randomly selected and placed in the
experimental and control groups. All participants were
randomly divided into two groups, control and experi-
mental groups, with 18 participants each. After explaining
the purposes of the study and the privacy of informa-
tion to the participants and their guardians, they were
completely satisfied to cooperate and signed a consent
agreement to participate in this study. The participants
of the experimental group were invited to take orien-
tation about how to execute planned aerobic exercises
before the first day of the actual training period, while
the participants of the control group committed to not
participate in any exercise except their formal schools
physical exercise periods during the 16-week period of
the study.
Blood analysis
In order to measure the plasma level of TSH and thyroid
hormones (T3 and T4), blood samples were drawn from
adolescents 48 hours before the first training session and
48 hours after the last training session. Samples of blood
specimen were collected in sitting position by qualified
laboratory technicians. Six millilitres of venous blood
were drawn from each participant’s vein pretest and post-
test. The blood samples were drawn into tubes containing
an anticoagulant. All blood samples were preserved in a
frozen condition at −20°C and were conserved until anal-
ysis. All variables were measured by ELISA using Autobio
laboratory kits.
Training protocol
The training programme consisted of 16 weeks of
moderate-intensity aerobic exercises and was conducted
after receiving parental consent. These exercises were
performed three sessions a week, and each session took
30–45 min. Each session consisted of 10 min of warm-up
exercises, 15–30 min of main aerobic workout and 5 min
cool-down exercises. Study participants and their parents/
guardians have a complete right to reduce and stop the
exercise, and it is their obligation to inform the fitness
training programme personnel should any symptoms
develop. Therefore the fitness trainer can reduce or stop
the exercise programme should any symptoms develop
and will indicate that this was done for the benefit and
safety of the participants. Moreover the participants have
an absolute right to withdraw from the programme by
themselves or with the help of their parents/guardians.
Statistical analysis
In this study, independent t-test was used to compare
intergroup variations between experimental and control
groups on the effects of 16 weeks of aerobic exercise on
thyroid hormone change responses in adolescents with
ID. Significance level was considered at p0.05.
RESULTS
Thirty-six adolescents with ID were studied. Table 1 shows
the mean and SD of age, height and mass of adolescents
with ID. For adolescents with ID treated with aerobic
exercise, the mean (SD) age, height (in metre) and mass
(in kilogram) were 14.44 (1.199), 1.50 (0.042) and 49
(SD=5.89), respectively, and for the control group the
mean (SD) age, height and mass were 14.389 (1.145),
1.49 (0.046) and 48.16 (6.148), respectively.
Table 2 shows the mean and SD score in hormonal
concentration change responses between the experi-
mental and control groups using independent t-test in T3
(, p=0.0005), the mean and SD score in hormonal change
copyright. on 24 July 2019 by guest. Protected byhttp://bmjopensem.bmj.com/BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med: first published as 10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000524 on 23 July 2019. Downloaded from
3
AltayeKZ, etal. BMJ Open Sp Ex Med 2019;5:e000524. doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000524
Open access
Table 2 Average and SD of thyroid hormone change
responses in adolescents with intellectual disabilities
between the control and experimental groups using
independent t-test
s/n Variables Group Mean±SD t value df P value
1 T3 Aerobic 1.713±0.224 4.953 34 0.005*
Control 1.421±0.11
2 T4 Aerobic 8.349±1.043 5.253 34 0.0001*
Control 6.617±0.931
3 TSH Aerobic 1.097±0.157 −2.971 34 0.0001*
Control 1.413±0.423
*The mean difference is signicant at p<0.05.
T3, triiodothyronine; T4, tetraiodothyronine; TSH, thyroid stimulating
hormone; s/n, serial number.
responses between the experimental and control groups
using independent t-test in T4 (t=5.253, p=0.0001), and
the mean and SD score in hormonal change responses
between the experimental and control groups using
independent t-test in TSH (t=−2.971, p=0.0001).
DISCUSSION
We aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on
thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormonal concentration
change responses in adolescents with ID. Based on the
findings of the study, the aerobic exercise intervention
had shown a significant change response in the plasma
levels of TSH and thyroid hormones (T3, T4) when
compared with the control group.
The results of this study are consistent with previous
studies9–12 15 that reported serum TSH was found signifi-
cantly decreased and T3 and T4 significantly increased
with aerobic exercise intervention. Acute aerobic exer-
cise performed at moderate intensity induced significant
increases in total serum T3 and T4. This confirms that
aerobic exercise may enhance the thyroid hormone
concentration in the serum. However, the present study
was in contrast to previous studies8 16 17 that reported
aerobic exercise had no significant effect on thyroid
hormone concentration. These variations might be due
to the specific characteristics of students with ID. Individ-
uals with ID have thyroid hormone deficiency18 and have
lower aerobic fitness levels compared with their equiva-
lent able peers.1 2 19 Thus,20 confirmed that all these can
be improved by physical exercise.
In this study, significant improvements in T3, T4
and TSH in response to aerobic exercises might be
the specific characteristics of those adolescents with ID
and the methodological differences in the type, inten-
sity and frequency of the training protocol. Thus, the
researcher believed that 4 months of aerobic intervention
programme is possibly too long to achieve equilibrium in
thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone homeostasis in
adolescents with ID.
Aerobic exercise has a number of physiological and
psychological impacts. It has a great impact on the growth
of new blood vessels in the brain, which increases cognitive
impairments,21 improves lung function in ID,22 increases
the efficiency of aerobic endurance,23 and increases T3
and T4 levels,11 which have an effect on the exciter nerve
cells of the central nervous system,24 leading to academic
improvement and success of students.25 Thus, aerobic
physical exercise has a therapeutic effect, and parents
can use it as a treatment to minimise the physiological
causes of cognitive impairment and improve the lifestyle
of adolescents with ID. Thus, adolescents with ID should
be motivated to undertake regular aerobic exercises to
enhance their participation in educational, social and
economic activities. An investigation on thyroid and
thyroid stimulating hormonal change responses in rela-
tion to adolescents with ID, which have been uncovered
by other researchers, should be considered a strength of
this study. The results of the study can be used as a spring-
board for those who are interested to conduct further
similar research work in this area, especially by including
diet as one of the variables, among others.
Limitations
The limitations of this study were the problem of working
with adolescents with ID and the lack of timely presence
of the study participants during the training sessions.
CONCLUSION
We concluded that aerobic exercises of moderate intensity
are an efficient method to change the plasma concen-
tration of thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormones in
adolescents with ID.
Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge the study
participants and their parents/guardians. All of their teachers, training coaches and
school directors who helped in this study are greatly appreciated.
Contributors All authors made great contributions to the completion of the study.
MA participated in the methodology and data analysis. KL participated in the
sequence alignment and interpretation of data, and drafted the manuscript. KZA
contributed to writing the original draft and preparation. SM participated in writing
and review, sequence alignment, and editing of the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specic grant for this research from any
funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-prot sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The experiment complied with the laws of ethical clearance
committee (HRERC), and the College of Health Science, Mekelle University
approved the study (ERC0775/2016). Informed consent was obtained from all
participants and their parents/guardians before testing and commencing the study.
The participants and their parents/guardians signed and conrmed their voluntary
agreement to full participation in this scientic training session project. With regard
to ethical conditions of the research, the researchers made sure that no one was
affected by this scientic study. Only 6 mL of blood was taken from the study
participants during each of the pretests and post-tests.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement Data are available upon reasonable request.
Open access This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which
permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially,
and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is
properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the
use is non-commercial. See:http:// creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by- nc/ 4. 0/.
copyright. on 24 July 2019 by guest. Protected byhttp://bmjopensem.bmj.com/BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med: first published as 10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000524 on 23 July 2019. Downloaded from
4AltayeKZ, etal. BMJ Open Sp Ex Med 2019;5:e000524. doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000524
Open access
REFERENCES
1. Fernhall B. Physical tness and exercise training of individuals with
mental retardation. MedSci Sports Exerc 1993;25:442–50.
2. Axuter D, Pyfer J, Huetting C. Principles and methods of adapted
physical education and recreation. 3th edn. Mosby year book,
2005.
3. Posarac A, Mitra S, Vick B. Disability and poverty in developing
countries potentials. J Cogn Neurosci 2011;3:151–65.
4. Hayakawa K, Kobayashi K. Physical and motor skill training
for children with intellectual disabilities. Percept Mot Skills
2011;112:573–80.
5. Iqbal M, Baig MA, Bhinder MA, etal. Factors causing mental
retardation. AJSC 2016;5:28–37.
6. Bernal J, Anawalt B, Boyce A. Thyroid hormones in brain
development and function, 2015.
7. Sherwood L. Human physiology. In: Arbogast M, Hopperstead K,
Lee J, eds. From cell to system. 6th edn. China, 2007.
8. Rahimi E, Zadeh MY, Boostani AM. The effect of resistance training
on thyroid hormones. Euro J Exp Bio 2013;3:443–7.
9. Ciloglu F, Peker I, Rehlivan A, etal. Exercise intensity and its effects
on thyroid hormones. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2005;6:830–4.
10. Klubo-Gwiezdzinska J, Bernet VJ, Wartofsky L. Exercise and thyroid
function. J Sport Exerc Psychol 2013:85–119.
11. Barari RA. Endurance training and ginger supplement on TSH, T3,
T4 and testosterone and cortisol hormone in obese men. Iran J
Basic Med Sci 2016;3:96–103.
12. Krotkiewski M, Sjostrom L, Sullivan L, etal. The effect of acute and
chronic exercise on thyroid hormones in obesity. Acta Med Scand
1984;216:269–75.
13. Lencu C, Nicula R, Lotrean MR. Hormonal response to physical
exercise Răspunsul hormonal la efortul zic:Palestrica of the third
millennium – Civilization and Sport. 2016;17:56–60.
14. Arkadar R, Rosa MR, Moretti G. Physiological change of exercise
of thermo genesis, thyroid homeostasis and inammation. Arch
Endocrinol Metab 2016;3.
15. Bansal A, Kaushik A, Singh CM, etal. The effect of regular physical
exercise on the thyroid function of treated hypothyroid patients: an
interventional study at a tertiary care center in Bastar region of India.
Arch Med Health Sci 2015;3:244–6.
16. Onsori M, Galdari M. Effects of 12 weeks aerobic exercise on
plasma level of TSH and thyroid hormones in sedentary women. Eur
J Sport Sci 2015;4:45–9.
17. Sullo A, Brizzi G, Maffulli N. Deiodinating activity in the brown
adipose tissue of rats following short cold exposure after strenuous
exercise. Physiol Behav 2003;80:399–403.
18. Rivas M, Naranjo JR. Thyroid hormones, learning and memory.
Genes Brain Behav 2007;6(Suppl 1):40–4.
19. Davies KJ, Packer L, Brooks GA. Biochemical adaptation of
mitochondria, muscle, and whole-animal respiration to endurance
training: archsbiochem Biophys 1981;209:539–44.
20. Gillespie M. Cardiovascular tness of young Canadian children
with and without mental retardation. Educ Train Dev Disabil
2003;38:296–301.
21. Pang MYC, Eng JJ, Dawson AS, etal. The use of aerobic exercise
training in improving aerobic capacity in individuals with stroke: a
meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil 2006;20:97–111.
22. Godman H. Regular exercise changes the brain to improve memory,
thinking skills. Harvard health letter 2018.
23. Ozmen T, Ryildirim NU, Yuktasir B, etal. Effects of school-based
cardiovascular-tness training in children with mental retardation.
Pediatr Exerc Sci 2007;19:171–8.
24. Prentice WEMalinee V, Red S, eds. Rehabilitation techniques in
sports medicine. USA: EdwardG Bartell, 1999.
25. Taras H, Howard T. Physical activity and student performance at
school. J Sch Health 2005;75:214–8.
copyright. on 24 July 2019 by guest. Protected byhttp://bmjopensem.bmj.com/BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med: first published as 10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000524 on 23 July 2019. Downloaded from
... Increasing the aerobic capacity can produce a short-term increase in serum T3. Altaye et al 44 studied the effect of regular aerobic exercise on thyroid hormonal alteration in adolescents with intellectual disabilities. They detected that performing a mild aerobic exercise for 12 weeks significantly increased plasma concentrations of T3, T4, and TSH. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: In response to the COVID-19 disaster, people have developed several psychological problems mainly stress, anxiety, and depression. These psychological problems have been seen in either normal people during the lockdown (who are waiting to get infected with COVID-19) and patients with COVID-19 (who are waiting for death). These psychological problems adversely affect immune functions causing more increase in the severity of COVID-19 associated disorders and death rates. Increasing the aerobic capacity is one of the effective methods that could be used to decrease stress, anxiety, and depression. Besides, increasing the aerobic capacity increases immune functions through autonomic regulation. Thus, this review was developed to summarize the effect of increasing the aerobic capacity on psycho-immune hormones commonly disturbed in people during the lockdown or patients with COVID-19 infection. Materials and methods: This review was carried out by searching through Web of Science, Scopus, EBSCO, Medline databases. The search was conducted over clinical trials, literature reviews, and systematic reviews. The search included the possible effects of increasing the aerobic capacity on the functions of psycho-immune hormones. Results: This review found that increasing the aerobic capacity can decrease psychological problems commonly seen in people with COVID-19 and increase immune functions by modulating the levels of glucocorticoid, oxytocin, insulin, thyroid hormones. Conclusions: This review demonstrated that increasing the aerobic capacity is a recommended treatment for decreasing the psychological problems commonly seen in people with COVID-19 because it has the potential for decreasing psychological problems and improving immune functions which would help counter COVID-19.
... Numerous sociological studies have shown that a habit of doing sport and exercises should be formed in the person's childhood, and the people who bear main responsibility for the process are the parents, especially if they raise a child with intellectual disabilities [ 8,9,10,11,12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article looks into the issue of social adaptation and personal adjustment of people with disabilities through their active participation in regular classes of adaptive exercise therapy. Based on state statistics, scientific publications analysis and research work a hypothesis was put forward that there is an additional factor that plays a significant role in the family upbringing scheme and helps to foster interest in adaptive exercise therapy and adaptive sports among intellectually impaired children. The purpose of the study was to identify a factor or group of factors in the family upbringing scheme which are relevant to methodology of arranging PE and sports events for children with intellectual disabilities. The sample group consisted of women whose children, including those with intellectual disabilities, attended sports schools in Russia. Among the methods applied during the study there were psychodiagnostic methods of written and oral interviews, questionnaires. The results of the procedures of statistical and factor analysis revealed destructive aspects in the field of child-parent relationship as well as interpersonal relationship. The family dysfunctions correction will make it possible to apply integrative technologies in organizing sports and recreational events for families where children with intellectual disabilities are brought up.
... In our previous study, we reported that aerobic exercise can affect the serum concentration level of T3, T4 and TSH (Zenebe et al., 2019;Altaye et al., 2019). However, specifically no research has been done on the effect of resistance exercise intervention on thyroid hormones and thyroid stimulating hormone serum concentration level among school children with intellectual disability in Ethiopian. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mental Retardation (MR) is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a significant impairment of cognitive and development due to abnormalities in the structure or function of brain. Mentally Retarded persons have IQ less than 70. The worldwide prevalence of MR is 1-3%. A number of factors including environmental factors, genetic factors, malnutrition, maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy, drug and poverty are responsible for MR. The congenital dysfunction of brain and injury of brain can also cause MR. The leading cause of MR births include Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Down's syndrome and metabolic disorders like PKU.
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The aim of this study was the effect of 8 weeks endurance training with gingere xtract on some of anabolic and catabolic hormone in obese men students. Materials & Methods: 32 of the male students at the University Khatamolanbiya as subjects in this study were selected and randomly divided into four groups: a control group, Ginger groups, training group and training and Ginger group. The experimental group consisted of 8 weeks of endurance training three times a week. The dependent variable of this study is included TSH,T3,T4,testosterone and cortisol. Blood samples from after 12 hour fast and before and after 8 weeks (48 hours after the last training session) were collected. Result: the results showed that endurance training not significant difference in TSH and T3. but T4 mean in pre and post test has shown that difference means are meaningful increase in extract and train and extract groups. Of course testosterone mean in pre and post test has meaningful increase in training and training and extract group. Also Comparison of testosterone means between groups showed that Endurance training group compared to the Ginger group and training and ginger groups were significantly different. But cortisol mean in pre test and post test has shown that difference means are meaningful decrease in training and extract group. Conclusion:These results suggest that intensity and duration of the exercise training are important and an increase in accessible energy would result in a change in thyroid hormones levels.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Thyroid hormone is a key substance in normal homeostasis, having variable influence on cell metabolism on different organs. Hypothyroidism is common, potentially serious, often clinically overlooked, readily diagnosed by laboratory testing, and eminently treatable. Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of finding the effect of regular physical exercise of medium-intensity on thyroid function in patients already undergoing treatment for hypothyroidism. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 ambulatory treated hypothyroid patients were included in the study. Serum samples were collected and evaluated for triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) both before and after 3 months of daily 1 h physical exercise, from those patients doing exercise and from those who did not do any physical exercise. T -test was used to find a significant difference between the two groups. Results: Serum TSH was found to be significantly decreased in patients of regular exercise group postinterventionally ( P P = 0.43). Serum T3 and T4 were also found to be significantly raised in regular exercise group postinterventionally ( P = 0.007 and P P = 0.92 and P = 0.73 respectively). On inter group comparison significant decrease in TSH was found in regular exercise group ( P = 0.002) and significant increase was found in levels of T3 ( P = 0.002) and T4 ( P = 0.001) in regular exercise group. Mean weight was also found to be decreased in regular exercise group postinterventionally. Conclusion: Every hypothyroid patient should do regular physical exercise along with thyroxine replacement to improve thyroid function.
Article
Full-text available
The experimental intervention of exercise training has been used to study mitochondrial biosynthesis, and the physiologic integration of subcellular, cellular, and whole-animal energetics. Gross mitochondrial composition was unchanged in rat muscle by a 10-week program of endurance treadmill running. The mitochondrial concentration of iron-sulfur clusters, cytochromes, flavoprotein, dehydrogenases, oxidases, and membrane protein and lipid, as well as the ratios of each component to the others, maintained constant proportions. The mitochondrial content of muscle, however, increased by approximately 100% as did absolute tissue oxidative capacity. The soluble portions of mitochondria maintained a constant total protein content and mass, relative to the membrane fraction, despite adaptive changes in the specific activities of some citric acid-cycle enzymes. Mitochondria from endurance-trained muscles generated normal transmembrane potentials, ADP/O ratios, and respiratory control ratios. Muscle oxidase activity was highly correlated (r = 0.92) with endurance capacity, which increased 403%. Whole-animal maximal O2 consumption (), however, increased only 14% and was a relatively poor predictor of endurance. Thus, mitochondrial factors, rather than , must play an important role in dictating the limits of endurance activity. Conversely, was strongly related to the maximal intensity of work which could be attained aerobically (r = 0.82). Comparison of O2 consumption at the mitochondrial, muscle, and whole-animal levels revealed that maximal muscle oxidase activity was not an absolute limitation to : It is concluded that other factors intervene to control the percentage of muscle O2 consumption capacity which may be utilized during exercise.
Chapter
Thyroid hormone receptors are present in virtually every tissue in the body, thereby permitting an important physiologic role for the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The aim of this chapter is to describe the effects of thyroid function on exercise tolerance with a special focus on cardiovascular, pulmonary, and skeletal muscle function as well as to describe the changes in the pituitary–thyroid axis induced by exercise. Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired left ventricular diastolic function during exercise, blunted vasodilatation secondary to reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, reduced pulmonary forced vital capacity and tidal volume at the anaerobic threshold, and, finally, impaired oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of skeletal muscle. Hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at rest, lack of an increase or even a drop in LVEF with exercise, increased oxygen demand, low efficiency of cardiopulmonary function, respiratory muscle weakness, and impaired work capacity. Physical activity affects the pituitary–thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroxine. Factors that mitigate alterations in thyroid hormone economy with exercise include age, baseline fitness, nutritional status, ambient temperature, altitude, as well as the time, intensity, and type of exercise performed. The most consistent finding is that reverse T3 tends to increase with exercise. This may reflect an adaptive mechanism aimed at more efficient energy expenditure.
Article
This study investigated the effectiveness of using special training machines for children with intellectual disabilities to strengthen their body's inner muscles and improve their ability to maintain standing posture and improve walking movement. The participants were 23 high school age boys with intellectual disabilities who had difficulties expressing greetings, and needed to be led by the hand when walking. Four special training machines were used for walking movements, for standing and walking balance, for leg-hip extension, and for ipsilateral movement in a sitting position. Each participant underwent 30 min. of training once a week over a 3-mo. period during school time. Body control ability required to perform each training exercise was improved over the training period. A significant improvement was observed in the 50-m dash, mean 10-m walk time, and 10-m obstacle course walk. The hip joint split angle showed a significant increase. Legal guardians all reported their child had "improved and/or progressed" for each of the targeted movements.
Article
Individuals with mental retardation (MR) typically exhibit lower levels of cardiovascular fitness than their non-disabled peers. However, there seems to be a gap in the literature with respect to comparative studies between younger children with and without MR. The present investigation compared cardiovascular fitness levels of youth with and without MR. Sixty young (30 with MR, 30 non-disabled) performed a 20-m shuttle run designed to assess cardiovascular fitness. Results indicated that non-disabled children exhibited significantly greater levels of aerobic fitness than did those with MR. Findings illustrate the need for critical examination of physical activity programs for children with MR, as lags in fitness evidenced versus non-disabled peers approximately 50 years ago still exist
Article
Thyroid hormones were measured before, during and after acute exercise (60 min) or physical training (3 months) in obese women. Thyroid stimulating hormone concentration increased during acute work and decreased immediately after. No changes were seen during the two following days. An increase was seen after ten days as well as after three months of physical training. Thyroxine concentrations showed no changes. 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine decreased slightly immediately after acute exercise, and after three months of physical training, 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse triiodothyronine) increased slowly during and after acute exercise. A negative correlation was found between changes in fasting insulin and thyroxine and a positive correlation between changes in blood pressure and triiodothyronine after training. Lack of agreement in previous reports is probably due to methodological differences such as methods more or less susceptible to fatty acid interference, and thyroid hormones changing differently during acute work and before and after physical training. The duration of the study may also be of importance, even 3 months possibly being too short for attaining equilibrium in thyroid homeostasis.