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Participatory Innovation and Prototyping in the Cultural Sector: A case study

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Figures

Makerspace, Harold Washington Library Center, Chicago. Source: Flickr, ChiPubLib, Makerspace, October 18, 2013. In some museum organisations, maker spaces host hackathon events, such as the Museum VX Hackathon collaborative of The Canadian Museum of History and the Canadian War Museum (http://museumvx.ca/). Hackathons are examples of a participative event, often involving a mix of public and museum staff, based on the maker movement and rapid prototyping, resulting in digital products or prototypes (Rey 2017). Fab Labs are a scaled type of maker space that enables the development of intellectual and fabricated materials using advanced digital tools, e.g. computers and circuit boards, design software, 3D and additive printers, laser cutters, and other resources, such as milling and soldering tools. The Fab Lab movement has been principally led by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Bits and Atoms. The Fab Foundation (http://fabfoundation.org/) is the worldwide network that facilitates and supports Fab Lab members in an open, creative community approach to education and enterprise. An early learning Fab Lab (https://bayareadiscoverymuseum.org/exhibits/fablab) is part of the Bay Area Discovery Museum. The lab focuses on learning and enabling children to intentionally build science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) skills through hands-on learning. Exhibit entry is free for members and included in the price of museum admission. There are Fab Lab members on every continent that are innovating at local and wider contexts. The Wanger Family Fab-Lab at Madatech Israel (https://www.madatech.org.il/en/fab-lab) National Museum of Science, Technology and Space in Haifa, Israel, features 350 square meters of fab space, and is one of the largest 3D printing fab-labs in the world. Fab Lab Barcelona, based at the Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, is
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1
Participatory Innovation and Prototyping in the
Cultural Sector: A Case Study
Stefania Boiano
Ann Borda
Guiliano Gaia
InvisibleStudio LTD
Health and Biomedical Informatics Centre
InvisibleStudio LTD
London UK
The University of Melbourne
Melbourne, Australia
London UK
stefania@invisiblestudio.net
aborda@unimelb.edu.au
giuliano@invisiblestudio.it
This paper explores the growing pervasiveness of forms of participatory innovation in the cultural
sector, with a particular focus on the integration of prototyping approaches. Participatory uses of
prototyping are underpinning new developments and opportunities for museums and galleries in
transforming both internal and public involvement in the co-design of services and engagement. This
transformation is illustrated through landscape perspectives and real-world learnings.
Participatory innovation. Prototyping. Museums. Design Thinking.
1. INTRODUCTION
The concept of participatory innovation generally
takes on the form of an integrated approach that cuts
across different approaches about how
organizations can meaningfully involve their
audiences and other stakeholders in innovation
(Dawson 2017).
Participatory innovation is aligned to a suite of
methods and contextual processes which can be
applied across different sectors. Specifically, the
concept of participatory design arose in Scandinavia
in the 1980s as a form of cooperative design or
collective resource approach in which strategies and
techniques were developed for workers to influence
the design and use of information and
communication technologies (ICT) in the workplace
(Bodker et al 2004, Buur & Matthews 2008, Cross
1992). This approach has evolved into design and
development processes in which stakeholders are
invited to participate and contribute on an equal
footing, not simply as critics and evaluators of
product and system concepts, but as co-designers
(Buur & Matthews 2008, Anttiroiko 2016). So-called
co-design (as the now commonly applied term) is
closely associated with human-centred design
processes (Szebeko & Tan 2010). According to Buur
and Matthews (2008), a participatory Innovation
project is characterized by five types of activities
organised in a cross disciplinary innovation team
that involves key stakeholders in an organization or
group in which the team is embedded; Such
activities can include Field study; Sense-making:
Co-Ideation; Business modelling; and Co-design.
Rather than data-driven and analytical processes
that decision-makers often use, these activities take
on a human-oriented, situational perspective to
explore daily living, relationships, behaviours,
actions and context. Typically, the co-design stage
allows for evaluating and communicating the
potential of these ideas and strategies which arise in
previous stages and the use of tools such as
concept sketches, scenarios, and prototypes, for
example (Bodker et al 2004, Buur & Matthews
2008). These guide stakeholders and users in
taking abstract ideas, concepts, and suggestions
and making them into tangible outcomes.
The seminal publication, Participatory Museum by
Nina Simon (2010) outlines approaches for
museums to become more open to participation,
involving users to inform, co-design, and innovate
projects and programs, as well as providing
platforms for users to construct their own meanings
with the institution. Closely related to these concepts
is the notion of open innovation, a recent concept
coined by American organizational theorist, Henry
Chesbrough, which focuses on organisational
engagement with a wide range of stakeholders and
their perspectives to develop better products or
services (Chesbrough 2003). Haitham Eid (2016)
discusses a theoretical framework for an innovation
model specific to museums based on three
interconnected concepts of (1) open innovation, (2)
social enterprise, and (3) social innovation, each of
which are growing trends in the museum sector.
Together they represent a formula for innovation in
museums; namely those museum institutions which
adopt a social enterprise business model and utilize
open innovation strategies are better adept at
achieving social innovation.
Globally, the GLAM (Galleries, Libraries, Archives
and Museums) sector has been embracing open
Participatory Innovation and Prototyping in the Cultural Sector: A Case Study
Gaia, Boiano, Borda
2
movements - open access, open data, open source,
and open science, among others (Dawson 2017).
OpenGLAM (https://openglam.org/), for example, is
a global network of people and organisations who
are working to open up content and data held by
GLAM institutions to create a cultural commons.
Such trends have elicited new forms of participation,
innovation, and engagement, as well as methods of
involving not only traditional visitors or users, but
multiple stakeholders, such as academia, industry,
government, and other cultural organizations.
2. PROTOTYPING
If we truly want to understand and influence how
corporate cultures create valuable new products, we
need to understand more fully the role that culture
plays in creating new prototypes. (Schrage 1996)
Prototyping is a particular activity that has been
increasingly applied over the last decade through
visualization and design thinking methods, and
provides a means of rapidly innovating cultural
services with low resource, such as digital
exhibitions and visitor engagement (Turnbull 2011).
Mitroff-Silvers (2014) defines ‘prototyping’ as the
practice of building low-fidelity representations of
products, services, or experiences in order to learn
and test before proceeding. In the museum sector, it
has been regularly applied to the context of
exhibition interactives, websites and signage, but
can also relate to other digital products, interactions,
and internal processes. The Minneapolis Institute
of Art, for instance, has been rethinking its
organizational innovation approach by creating an
agile work environment to support a culture of rapid
iteration and experimentation (Hegley et al 2016),
and the British Museum has adopted a process of
running sprints (Mitroff Silvers 2016).
2.1 Design Thinking
Prototyping is most often an integral part of a
human-centred design method called design
thinking. Design thinking refers to structured
processes that encourage creativity in problem-
solving. Research in design thinking can be traced
over several decades (Cross 1992), leading to its
validation in organisational processes, for example,
as part of the ‘Unified Innovation Process Model for
Engineering Designers and Managers’ developed
by the product consultancy IDEO, and in the
establishment of the Hasso-Plattner-Institute of
Design (d.school - https://dschool.stanford.edu/
) at Stanford University in California in 2005 (Plattner
2011). The Stanford-based d.school initially trained
engineers and scientists to become innovators, and
its approach has since become a pervasive method
that brings together a set of principles that include
empathy with end-users, rapid prototyping, and a
tolerance for failure (Plattner 2011, Merritt 2017).
In recent years it has been successfully adapted as
a tool for fostering creativity and solving complex
problems by a generation of cultural organisations.
For example, Design Thinking for Museums
(https://designthinkingformuseums.net/) is a web
portal (Mitroff Silvers 2013, Mitroff Silvers et al.
2014) which shares relevant case studies in the
sector, blog posts and resources. It grew out of a
2012 partnership between the San Francisco
Museum of Modern Art and Stanford University’s
d.school.
2.2 Prototypes at scale
Prototyping also appears at different scales with the
rise of makerspaces and Fab Labs becoming an
international phenomenon, and the global presence
of Living Labs that are bringing "together
interdisciplinary experts to develop, deploy, and test
in actual living environments new technologies
and strategies for design that respond to this
changing world" (Lepik, Krigul & Terk, 2010).
2.2.1 Maker spaces and Fab Labs
The rise of open fabrication and prototyping
spaces is an international phenomenon that are
advancing invention among different stakeholders
and are becoming recognised as sites of civic and
social innovation. In the U.S., The Institute of
Museum and Library Services has invested in a
national makerspace programme in libraries and
museums, partnering with the Children’s Museum of
Pittsburgh and San Francisco’s Exploratorium to
support hands-on, mentor-led learning and STEM
skills(https://www.imls.gov/issues/national-
issues/making).
The Maker Lab in Chicago
(https://www.chipublib.org/maker-lab/) is one of the
first free and publicly accessible maker spaces in the
U.S. situated in the Harold Washington Library
Center. The Maker Lab features introductory
workshops and an open shop for personal projects
and collaboration.
Figure 1: Makerspace, Harold Washington Library
Center, Chicago. Source: Flickr, ChiPubLib
Makerspace, October 18, 2013.
Participatory Innovation and Prototyping in the Cultural Sector: A Case Study
Gaia, Boiano, Borda
3
In some museum organisations, maker spaces host
hackathon events, such as the Museum VX
Hackathon collaborative of The Canadian Museum
of History and the Canadian War Museum
(http://museumvx.ca/). Hackathons are examples of
a participative event, often involving a mix of public
and museum staff, based on the maker movement
and rapid prototyping, resulting in digital products
or prototypes (Rey 2017).
Fab Labs are a scaled type of maker space that
enables the development of intellectual and
fabricated materials using advanced digital tools,
e.g. computers and circuit boards, design software,
3D and additive printers, laser cutters, and other
resources, such as milling and soldering tools. The
Fab Lab movement has been principally led by
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center
for Bits and Atoms. The Fab Foundation
(http://fabfoundation.org/) is the world-wide network
that facilitates and supports Fab Lab members in an
open, creative community approach to education
and enterprise.
An early learning Fab Lab is part of the Bay Area
Discovery Museum
(https://bayareadiscoverymuseum.org/exhibits/fab-
lab). The lab focuses on learning and enabling
children to intentionally build science, technology,
engineering, and math (STEM) skills through hands-
on learning. Exhibit entry is free for members and
included in the price of museum admission.
There are Fab Lab members on every continent that
are innovating at local and wider contexts. The
Wanger Family Fab-Lab @ Madatech Israel
National Museum of Science, Technology and
Space in Haifa, Israel
(https://www.madatech.org.il/en/fab-lab), features
350 square meters of fab space, and is one of the
largest 3D printing fab-labs in the world. Fab Lab
Barcelona (https://iaac.net/research-
departments/fab-lab-barcelona/), based at the
Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, is
the headquarters of the global coordination of the
Fab Academy program and its own programming
supports different educational and research
programs related to the multiple scales of the human
habitat.
Fab Labs in Sub-Saharan African offer educational
objectives that compensate for the lack of
equipment in universities, or for women, to facilitate
their social and professional integration (Leyronas
2018). For example, the Blolab in Bénin
(http://www.blolab.org/), has the objective of
promoting digital literacy among young people and
local professionals (e.g. artisans, farmers), as well
as helping them build inexpensive, accessible and
rapidly developed solutions (Leyronas 2018).
2.2.2 Living Labs
Living Labs were developed as a concept around the
1990s and pioneered by the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology (MIT) and Georgia Tech in the U.S.
to bring "together interdisciplinary experts to
develop, deploy, and test - in actual living
environments - new technologies and strategies for
design that respond to this changing world" (Lepik,
Krigul & Terk, 2010; Eskilinen et al. 2015).
An example of an early cultural-led living lab was the
Creativity and Cognition Studios (CCS) at the
Powerhouse Museum in Sydney, which launched an
initiative in 2004 called Beta_space. Beta_space
was an experimental exhibition area within the
Powerhouse, which extended the interactive art
research studios of CCS into the public context
showing interactive artworks at different stages,
from early prototype to end product (Muller 2006).
The development of Living Labs in Europe
accelerated over the past decade, largely due to
targeted national and European Policy and
Innovation initiatives, e.g. the 2020 Policy
Frameworks and Digital Agenda that prioritised
placing the user at the centre of the innovation
lifecycle within real-life settings. The European
Network of Living Labs (ENoLL) is the largest
formalised entity of Living Labs world-wide. Among
relevant areas of thematic work of ENoLL is Culture
& creativity” providing an arena of experimentation
and protoyping in which citizens partnering with
industry and public sectors are tasked with
overcoming societal challenges using design driven
co-creation processes to develop products and
services. Examples of cultural partnerships that are
part of the ENoLL network include: Barcelona City’s
Barcelona Laboratori
(www.openlivinglabs.eu/livinglab/barcelona-
laboratori) which is working within the wider context
of culture, including science, technology and arts, in
promoting and activating “Creativity and Innovation
in the city. SAT Montreal in Canada was founded in
1996 as the Society for Arts and Technology (SAT).
SAT (https://sat.qc.ca/fr/tag/living-lab) is a hybrid
cultural institution, combining venue, artist
residencies, research laboratories and a training
centre.
Outside of ENOLL, the Living Laboratory
(livinglab.org) at the Museum of Science in Boston,
U.S. has been operational since 2005 and has
connected the public with child development
research by collaborating with local research
institutions, including Harvard University, Boston
College, Tufts University, Northeastern University,
Boston University, Children's Hospital and others.
Deliverables include hands-on child development
activities for museums to use with caregivers, a
program implementation toolkit, and professional
development events for museum and research
professionals. Similarly, the Living Lab at the
Canada Science and Technology Museum
Participatory Innovation and Prototyping in the Cultural Sector: A Case Study
Gaia, Boiano, Borda
4
(https://uottawalivinglab.weebly.com/the-living-
lab.html) in Ottawa is collaborating with the
University of Ottawa on language and cognitive child
development studies.
Vilariño and Karatzas (2018) describe a Library
Living Lab initiative at the Public Library of Miquel
Batllori Volpelleres in Sant Cugat del Valles
Barcelona. The Library Living Lab brings together
various stakeholders around the public library with
the aim of exploring new methods and tools that
allow users to better enjoy culture both individually
and collectively. The Library Living Lab has
implemented a diverse set of activities; such as The
Library Visits the Museum which seeks to break
down the walls that separate museums and libraries;
and the Interest Group on Educational Apps that
investigates learning methods and tools using
mobile apps in schools (Vilariño & Karatzas 2018).
2.2.3 Startups and incubators
Startups and accelerators have become an integral
part of regional and district innovation economies.
They also have enormous potential for cultural
institutions to move into the center of participatory
innovation (Ciecko & Turoczy 2017, Murphy 2018).
An early prototype is the EMC Arts Innovation Labs
in the U.S. (http://emcarts.org/programs/innovation-
labs) which has been described as “a deep dive
program for museums, performing arts
organizations, and arts development agencies
experimenting with new practices.”
Beyond the co-working model, museums
investing in startups is currently a paradigm shift that
is slowly gaining growth (Ciecko & Turoczy 2017,
Murphy 2018). Of the museums which are
developing a presence, The New Museums’ NEW
INC incubator in New York (http://www.newinc.org/)
is an experimental initiative of the New Museum
launched in 2014. NEW INC is a shared workspace
and professional development program that has
brought together over 100 cultural practitioners and
creative entrepreneurs, including tenants Rhizome
and Columbia University’s GSAPP Incubator.
In 2016, the Australian Centre for the Moving
Image (ACMI) in Melbourne, Australia, launched
ACMI X (https://www.acmi.net.au/acmi-x/) as a new
co-working space that assembles a mix of
filmmakers, digital and visual artists, digital
producers, web developers, screenwriters and
designers to foster experiments in media,
technology & user experience. Te Papa, the national
museum of New Zealand, launched Mahuki
(http://www.mahuki.org/) in 2016 to accelerate local
startups focused on developing world-leading digital
businesses for the GLAM sector.
Most recently The Museum of the Future in Dubai
has announced a new accelerator programme to
create visitor experiences. The museum, currently
under construction, sees itself as a unique
incubator for futuristic design and innovation, and
as a platform to demonstrate and test upcoming
inventions and prototypes (Bridge 2018).
Figure 2: The Museum of the Future ©Dubai Future
Foundation 2019. www.museumofthefuture.ae
3. CASE STUDY AND LEARNINGS
In this section, we (the authors representing
InvisibleStudio) delve into what has been learnt by
applying digital prototyping principles and
methodologies in three recent (from 2017 to early
2019) case histories, namely the Museo Egizio of
Turin, the Imperial War Museums London and the
Poldi Pezzoli House Museum of Milan.
Details about specific projects are summarised as
they are still ongoing and not formally released.
However, we discuss the advantages and
challenges that we have encountered when staff
members of our host museums utilised a prototyping
approach in designing three different digital
products, as follows:
1. Audio/Video mobile apps
2. Multimedia in the galleries
3. Museum websites
Note that wherever we use the term design thinking
or co-design these are related to the Stanfords
d.school approach. The d.school has developed a
five-step process: interviewing and observing in the
field; synthesizing insights; generating ideas;
building prototypes; and testing with users (Plattner
2011, Mitroff Silvers, Wilson, & Rogers, 2013).
3.1 Audio/video mobile apps
Audio guides and video guides are among the most
pervasive interpretation tools museums offer their
visitors. Therefore, it is feasible for museums to
experiment with human centred design techniques
to better understand users needs, as the British
Museum achieved for its audio guide (Mannion,
Participatory Innovation and Prototyping in the Cultural Sector: A Case Study
Gaia, Boiano, Borda
5
Sabiescu & Robinson 2015, 2016). Particularly,
audio and video content are difficult to correct after
production, while text and images can be somewhat
easier to change. Consequently, we think it is very
important to start the actual audio/video production
after the research and testing phases.
In our projects we experimented with three types of
prototypes: audio, paper and digital - described
below.
1. Audio Prototyping
Audio prototyping often means creating quick and
dirty audio files to be tested for their length, content,
and tone of voice. While audio files are relatively
easy to produce - a smartphone with a standard
microphone and earphones can produce a good
quality audio prototype - we found in our experience
that the rate of museums producing a test version of
their audio guides is still surprisingly low.
The production process for many museums is to
involve curators producing the text, which are then
passed onto a production company to produce the
final audio guide using professional readers and
additional sound effects.
A drawback with this process is that curators tend to
produce text which is scientifically or historically
accurate but not optimized for the end user in an
audio format.
Reading and recording texts and then testing them
in the galleries is a powerful tool for museum
curators to improve the content and make it more
enjoyable. Audio files can be tested by curators on
themselves, on other colleagues, or on random and
targeted visitors in order to gain different levels of
knowledge about responses to the subject and to the
museum. Curators can also easily mount the
different audio files in a draft audio tour using free
websites like IZI.Travel (https://izi.travel/en); this
way users can be asked to follow a full tour by
themselves without the presence of the author, who
might bias the testers perception.
We have noticed significant results in situations in
which curators record and test their own material.
This often resulted in the use of simpler words and
shorter texts. Just by reading the content out loud
curators realized that some sentences were
cacophonic or over-complicated. Moreover, the
listening experience when standing and walking in
the galleries is quite different from reading the same
text at ones own desk and can lead to refinements
to the original text.
Curators were often reluctant to have other people
listen to their recordings, mainly due to lack of
confidence about their read out-loud skills and/or
voice quality which were not considered comparable
to professional actors. This was seen as impacting
the quality of the reading. One way to overcome this
problem was to use A/B testing, i.e. producing two
different versions of the same audio, e.g. different
content, length, or tone of voice, and then inviting
users to listen to each version and choose their
preferred version. In this way it was possible to judge
specific elements for quality for the published
version.
Video content is more difficult to test, because the
difference between a sample video produced quickly
with a smartphone and a professionally shot and
edited version can be qualitatively different enough
to impact test results. In this case, it can be more
efficient to secure a draft version provided by the
production group to be tested directly in the
galleries.
2. Paper Prototyping
While audio prototyping is a robust tool for testing
content and length of the audio portion of the audio
guide, it cannot be easily applied to verify navigation
or other non-audio features. In this case paper and
digital prototyping can be better applied.
Figure 3: Paper Prototyping of a tablet app (Source:
Invisible Studio ©2018)
Paper prototyping involves creating paper versions
of various screenshots to simulate a navigation.
Users can interact with these as if they were a real
digital interface, i.e. clicking on links, enlarging
images etc. Although it may seem counterintuitive,
paper prototyping can be very effective in
highlighting basic usability problems and navigation
flaws. It can also make people more willing to
suggest modifications because the draft stage of
the prototype is self-evident. Moreover, an
approach with paper prototypes brings in visitors as
co-creators instead of simply passive users. (Boiano
& Gaia 2017).
Paper prototyping however has some
disadvantages; for example, there are certain
animations, such as fade effects, that cannot be
realistically simulated, and people tend to interact
Participatory Innovation and Prototyping in the Cultural Sector: A Case Study
Gaia, Boiano, Borda
6
slightly differently with the paper prototype than they
might with a keyboard and digital prototype (Gao
2018). Speed of interaction is also affected:
switching from a screen to another on paper is
considerably slower than with a digital prototype.
3. Digital Prototyping
Another way of prototyping mobile applications is to
build quick interactive prototypes through the use of
specific apps or software. There are several
available applications, e.g. Marvel
(marvelapp.com/pop/) and Invision
(www.invisionapp.com/) which can assist in building
digital interactive prototypes for mobile users.
Prototyping is a balance of time and achieving
realism; the more realistic, the more time and effort
required to put into the prototype. From our
experience, realistic prototypes should ideally come
at a later stage when you there is an opportunity to
focus on the design details. Low-fidelity prototypes
are recommended for the early stage as they are
better for sketching out the basic navigation and
interaction. Their flexibility also allows for quicker
changes.
Finally, if the museum aims to prototype a different
digital product, such as a mobile chatbot, a good
way to test is to invite real people to act as the
chatbots. One can use existing Messenger
platforms like Facebook Messenger or Whatsapp,
with a predefined script from which they can copy
and paste the answers. The authors have tested this
feature while developing the Milan House Museum
chatbots (Boiano et al. 2018) with good results.
3.2 Multimedia in the Galleries
Testing multimedia installations in the galleries can
be undertaken with Paper/cardboard prototyping,
Role-playing, Digital prototyping and/or a
combination of all these methods.
Figure 4: Video Simulation in gallery testing. Source:
Invisible Studio ©2018
One factor to take into consideration is whether or
not testing can be conducted within the actual
context of the galleries. During our projects we have
experienced this as an important aspect because
the gallery context is very specific and can
significantly influence test results. For example, in
one testing round, an audio installation was being
evaluated, and while it gave good results in offices,
when tested in the noisy and distracting environment
of the galleries, it gave completely different and less
satisfying results.
Figure 5: Building a cardboard encasing around a screen
for gallery testing. (Source: Invisible Studio ©2018)
Effective tools for testing in the galleries include:
Tablets and interactive screens (e.g.
movable interactive whiteboards) with or
without cardboard encasings;
Mobile projectors (e.g. with movable
screens if necessary);
Portable audio equipment, but need to be
powerful enough to convey realistic results;
Paper prototypes of digital interactions to
test basic content and navigation;
Role Playing, with museum staff enacting
services or even digital installations. For
example, in a museum project an audio
service was tested with a curator offering
real time information on objects chosen by
users.
If testing in the galleries is not possible, due to
technical limitations or multimedia cannot be fitted in
a new exhibition environment that is in planning
stage, then the lack of the gallery context will need
to be factored in. This means that, in order to be
meaningful, the testing should focus on specific
aspects of the interaction or on the content, instead
of testing the whole experience which cannot be
recreated in its entirety.
3.3 Museum website prototyping
Museum websites can be effectively prototyped
using presentation software, such as Keynote or
Powerpoint. Websites can also be effectively tested
Participatory Innovation and Prototyping in the Cultural Sector: A Case Study
Gaia, Boiano, Borda
7
on remote visitors. One can either produce the
interface with Google Slides and then share it with
test users, or apply screen sharing capabilities of
teleconferencing software, such as Skype, Zoom or
Google Hangout to organize remote testing
sessions.
Paper prototyping can be considered for website
testing and prototyping. The testing
recommendations outlined for audio/video guides
and mobile apps can be effectively used for museum
websites as well. However, we recommend museum
staff to prioritise the mobile version. The use of
Mobile First indexing
(https://developers.google.com/search/mobile-
sites/mobile-first-indexing) means Google defaults
to the mobile version. Visitor statistics further
confirm that mobile traffic surpasses desktop
browser traffic, according to the Statista survey in
2018 (Statista 2018). Visitors are likely to use
smartphones to consult the museum website both
prior to the visit and during their visit in the galleries.
4. CHALLENGES
One of the most common challenges in prototyping
are time constraints. Prototyping can be seen as
time consuming, and contributing to project delays
with already tight deadlines. Notwithstanding it can
be conversely argued that prototyping in the design
phase often leads to savings in the medium to long
term and resulting in better quality and user
satisfaction. It is also knowing when prototyping is
appropriate and what stages to apply prototyping in
a project lifecycle.
Participatory innovation itself opens up to both
potential and challenges for museums. It feasibly
relies on appropriate governance, resource and
infrastructure, and not least on stakeholder
contributions to be truly inclusive (Simon 2010,
Mclean 2011, Anttiroiko 2016). Depending on scale
and other attributes, there are further challenges in
managing complexity and intellectual property in
regard to innovation outcomes themselves. To offset
some of these challenges, this might entail clearer
roles in participatory innovation processes for more
diverse community members and participants.
5. CONCLUSION
The sector has a strong provenance with decades
long experience in piloting emerging and embedded
technologies through prototyping, and in its
understanding of user-centric interaction in building
digital experiences. In this way, prototyping is not
only an efficient and creative process in terms of
production, but it is a critical means to strengthen the
relationship between museums and its audiences by
making them an essential part of museum design
and production processes.
Similarly, there is clear evidence of the potential of
cultural heritage organisations to play a significant
role in advancing participatory innovation. Bridging
expert knowledge with the knowledge of audiences
and community participants can bring further
opportunities to scale innovation, and to better
address the major socio-technological and
environmental challenges which we all share.
6. REFERENCES
Anttiroiko, A.-V. (2016) City-as-a-Platform: The Rise of
Participatory Innovation Platforms in Finnish Cities.
Sustainability, 8(9), pp2-31.
Bødker, K., Kensing, F., & Simonsen, J. (2004)
Participatory IT design: Designing for business and
workplace realities. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
Boiano, S. & Gaia, G. (2017) How We Helped the Museo
Egizio of Turin to Re-Think its Audio Guide Using Design
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... The travelers can ride the car on their own without any guide & the travel chatbot installed in the car keeps on describing each place. This technology is named as an Audio tour, which is preferred by the travelers who wish to have privacy & travel alone with their families (Boiano et al., 2019). ...
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