ArticlePDF Available
230 Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology - 19: 230-234, 2019
MS Carneiro et al.
RB005014 – a sugarcane culvar with high
llering and agroindustrial yield
Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro1*, Roberto Giacomini Chapola1,
Antonio Ribeiro Fernandes Junior2, Danilo Eduardo Cursi1,
Thiago Willian Almeida Balsalobre1 and Hermann Paulo
Abstract: RB005014 was developed for the Brazilian central-south region, for
harvesng between July and September and planng on soils that have mod-
erate or higher ferlity levels. It has high llering, high sucrose yield, excellent
ratooning ability aer mechanical harvesng, resistance to the main diseases
and carries the Bru1 gene of brown rust resistance.
Keywords: Saccharum spp., improvement, disease resistance.
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology
19: 230-234, 2019
Brazilian Society of Plant Breeding.
Printed in Brazil
*Corresponding author:
ORCID: 0000-0002-9835-7205.
Received: 26 February 2018
Accepted: 14 February 2019
1 Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Depar-
tamento de Biotecnologia e Produção Vegetal
e Animal, 13.600-970, São Paulo, SP, Brazil
2 Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Estação
Experimental de Valparaíso, 16.880-000,
Valparaíso, SP, Brazil
Modern sugarcane culvars have a complex genome, due to large genome
size arround 10 Gb, a variable ploidy level and constant aneuploidy resulng
in highly heterozygous hybrids (Vieira et al. 2018). Culvated sugarcane is
a vegetavely propagated crop, which takes approximately 8 to 12 years to
improve and release more producve culvars.
The Sugarcane Breeding Program of the Federal University of São Carlos
– PMGCA/UFSCar ( is part of the Inter-University
Network for the Development of Sugarcane Industry – RIDESA (www.ridesa. In over 40 years, 94 RB sugarcane culvars were released, currently
planted on nearly 64% of the sugarcane growing area in Brazil (Daros et al.
2015, Chapola et al. 2016).
The RIDESA network aims to develop high-yielding culvars with a high
sucrose content, resistance to the main diseases and adapted to dierent climate
and soil condions (Carneiro et al. 2016, Daros et al. 2018). Furthermore, the
stability of culvar yields in mechanical planng and harvesng systems has been
a challenge and concern for RIDESA (Daros et al. 2018). In this context, the high
llering and excellent ratooning ability of RB005014, even under mechanical
harvesng, indicate the culvar as promising. Moreover, this sugarcane culvar
is suitable for mechanized planng and has good resistance levels against the
major sugarcane diseases.
Culvar RB005014 was derived from a biparental cross of the full-sib
genotypes SP80-1816 x RB855536 (Figure 1). At the beginning of the year
RB005014 – a sugarcane culvar with high llering and agroindustrial yield
231Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology - 19: 230-234, 2019
2000, the cross was carried out at the experimental site
Estação de Floração e Cruzamento da Serra do Ouro (lat 9º
13’ S, long 35º 50’ W, alt 450 m asl), in the municipality of
Murici, Alagoas, of the Federal University of Alagoas. Later
in the same year, sugarcane caryopses were planted and
germinated in a greenhouse at the experimental staon
of the Federal University of São Carlos (lat 22° 21’ S, long
47° 23’ W, alt 620 m asl), in the city of Araras, São Paulo.
Thereaer the sugarcane plantlets were individualized and
planted at an experimental eld in order to establish the
rst selecon stage (T1). In this phase, each genotype,
represented by a single clump, was mass-selected in the
rst ratoon crop for general morphological criteria like
as higher Brix, resistance to the main diseases, absence
of owering, stalk number and reduced bagasse pith
(Morais et al. 2015).
The clones selected in the T1 stage were taken to the second selecon stage (T2), which also had standard
commercial culvars for comparison of yields. In this phase, the genotypes were grown at two locaons in the state
of São Paulo: Araras (lat 22° 21’ S, long 47° 23’ W, alt 620 m asl) and Valparaiso (lat 21° 13’ S, long 50° 52’ W, alt 439
m asl). The experiment in T2 stage was evaluated in an augmented randomized incomplete block design (Federer
1956), with plots consisng of two 2.5-m rows, with one replicaon. Genotypes in T2 stage were assessed in plant
cane and ratoon crops likewise in T1 stage, plus the variables stalk weight per plot (WP) and kilogram brix per plot
(KBP) (Kang et al. 1983). Clones selected during T2 stage advanced for the third selecon stage (T3) as described
by Carneiro et al., (2016). In T3, clones were evaluated at three sites under dierent climate and soil condions,
in dierent regions of Sao Paulo state (Tarumã-SP (lat 22° 44’ S, long 50° 34’ W, alt 429 m asl), Nova Europa-SP (lat
21° 46’ S, long 48° 33’ W, alt 502 m asl), Barra Bonita-SP (lat 22° 28’ S, long 48° 33’ W, alt 526 m asl). The selecon
in T3 stage was performed considering the performance of the clones across all evaluated environments and both
plant and ratoon crops. The selecon criteria were ulized sucrose content in sugarcane (PC, in %) and kilogram pol
per plot (KPP).
The selected genotypes were planted in the experimentaon stage (ES), in which they were assessed in 15 elds
trials allocated in the diverse in regions of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul: Tarumã-SP (lat 22° 44’ S, long 50° 34’
W, alt 429 m asl), Nova Europa-SP (lat 21° 46’ S, long 48° 33’ W, alt 502 m asl), Barra Bonita-SP (lat 22° 28’ S, long
48° 33’ W, alt 526 m asl), Guaíra-SP (lat 20° 19’ S, long 48° 18’ W, alt 518 asl), Pradópolis-SP (lat 21° 21’ S, long 48°
4’ W, alt 533 asl), Promissão-SP (lat 21° 32’ S, long 49° 51’ W, alt 425 asl), Valparaíso-SP (lat 21°13’ S, long 50° 52’
W, alt 439 m asl), Olímpia-SP (lat 20° 44’ S, 48° 54’ W, alt 480 asl), Tanabi-SP (lat 20° 37’ S, long 49° 39’ W, alt 521 m
asl), Paraguaçu Paulista-SP (lat 22° 24’ S, long 50° 34’ W, alt 509 m asl), Piracicaba-SP (lat 22° 43’ S, long 47° 38’ W,
alt 526 m asl), Orindiúva-SP (lat 20° 11’ S, long 49° 21’ W, alt 487 m asl), Guariba-SP (lat 21° 21’ S, long 48° 13’ W, alt
649 m asl), Sandovalina-SP (lat 22° 27’ S, 51° 45’ W, alt 383 m asl), Angélica-MS (lat 22° 9’ S, long 53° 46’ W, alt 366
m asl)), recording the data of three to four cycles. The elds tests were established in the randomized block (3 or 4
replicates), with standard commercial culvars as controls, alocated in the blocks. The traits assessed were sucrose
content in sugarcane (PC, in %), tons of stalks per hectare (TSH), tons of pol per hectare (TPH), and ber content
(in, %). The clone adaptability and stability were esmated according by Eberhart and Russell (1966). The selected
genotypes of ES were evaluated to maturaon curve, according to the sucrose content in sugarcane (PC, in %).
Culvar RB005014 has an intermediate development cycle and upright growth habit. The stalks have a medium
diameter, a high amount of wax, a greyish green color and the leaf blades are green and waxy. The llering capacity in
plant and ratoon crops is high, with excellent canopy cover, high ratooning ability even under mechanical harvesng,
and sugarcane longevity (several harvests from one planng). In addion, culvar RB005014 has a high agro-
Figure 1. Pedigree of sugarcane culvar RB005014.
232 Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology - 19: 230-234, 2019
MS Carneiro et al.
industrial yield, yield stability and good ber content.
Under the condions of central-south region of Brazil, the
recommended harvest me for RB005014 is the middle
of the growing season, between July and September
(Figure 2). Under these condions, culvar RB005014
rarely owers and produces lile or no pith.
Culvar RB005014 had responsiveness to improvements
soil and climac condions. Considering the standard
commercial culvar (RB867515), the culvar RB005014
had greater agricultural yield (TSH) in the intermediate
to favorable environments, whereas in restricted
environments presented TSH lower yields than standard
commercial (Figure 3). The RB005014 was evaluated in pre-
commercial areas, and RB005014 culvar recommendaon
is for favorable and intermediate soil and climatic
condions, according to the classicaon of Prado (2008).
Culvar RB005014 produced an agricultural yield (TSH)
of more than 119 T ha-1 and a cane sucrose content (PC,
in %) of approximately 15.5%. The performance of this
culvar with regard to the agroindustrial yield (in tons
of pol per hectare - TPH) was excellent, higher to that
of commercial standard culvars of intermediate/late
maturaon, considering the mean data of 13 eld tests
with three to four harvests each (Figure 4).
Disease reacon
Culvar RB005014 was subjected to tests of arcial
inoculaon and natural infecon with the main sugarcane
diseases, together with other genotypes. These tests
assessed the reaction of clones and cultivars against
these diseases under the conditions of central-south
region of Brazil.
Disease evaluaon under natural infecon condions
were performed in areas with weather conditions to
pathogen occurrence and, consequently, with high inoculum pressure. Thereby, we evaluated under natural infecon
condions the main sugarcane diseases; orange rust (Puccinia kuehnii), brown rust (Puccinia melanocephala), smut
(Sporisorium scitamineum), leaf mosaic (sugarcane mosaic virus) and leaf scald (Xanthomonas albilineans). The
evaluaon is based on the number of infected clumps (% incidence) for smut, mosaic and scald, and based on the
leaf area percentage with symptoms (% severity) for orange and brown rusts (Amorim et al. 1987).
Greenhouse tests of arcial inoculaon with smut fungus spores and contaminaon with mosaic virus suspension
were carried out, as described by Matsuoka (1979). The evaluaon was followed by scale for each disease, which
considers the amount of infected plants (% incidence) and the clones were categorized as resistant, intermediate
or suscepble. The results in both tests indicated RB005014 as highly resistant to the diseases evaluated (Table 1);
therefore, it is recommended for planng without restricon.
The brown rust resistance in modern sugarcane culvars is largely due to the Bru1 gene presence. Thereby, to verify
if culvar RB005014 has this resitance gene, the genomic DNA was extracted as described by Aljanabi et al. (1999)
Figure 2. Maturaon curve of sugarcane culvar RB005014 in
comparison with the commercial standard culvars RB867515
and RB92579.
Figure 3. Adaptability and stability of culvar RB005014 in com-
parison with the commercial standard culvar RB867515. The
mean data of tons of stalks per hectare (TSH) were adjusted based
on regression analysis (Eberhart and Russell 1966). The points
indicate the dataset of 13 experiments, with four harvests each.
RB005014 – a sugarcane culvar with high llering and agroindustrial yield
233Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology - 19: 230-234, 2019
and aer that the presence of the Bru1 gene was detected
using the molecular markers R12H16 and 9O20-F4-RsaI
(Costet et al. 2012). The PCR reacons and amplicaon
condions were carried out as proposed by Costet et al.
(2012). The result showed that Bru1 gene was present
in culvar RB005014, aested by the posive diagnosis
of the two molecular markers evaluated (haplotype 1).
The samples of culvar RB005014 are keepng and
distributed by the Sugarcane Breeding Program (hps:// of the Department of Biotechnology, Plant and Animal Producon, Center of Agricultural
Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, Araras, São Paulo, Brazil.
Figure 4. Isoquants of mean tons of pol per hectare (TPH) in funcon of sucrose content (PC in %), in sugarcane and tons of stalks
per hectare (TSH) in 13 experiments. In the black circle, culvar RB005014 is compared with standard commercial culvars (gray
circles) and clones (void circles).
Table 1. Reacon of sugarcane culvar RB005014 to diseases in
the central-south region of Brazil
Disease Culvar RB005014
Smut R
Brown rust R+
Orange rust R
Mosaic R
Leaf Scald R
R = resistant; + = Presence of molecular markers Bru1 (haplotype 1: presence of the
two markers R12H16 and 9O20-F4-RsaI)
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... The Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar) had a sugarcane breeding program (PMGCA) recognized worldwide and that is part of the the Inter-University Network for the Development of Sugarcane Industry (RIDESA, RIDESA is a a network of ten public Federal Universities that have successfully developed sugarcane cultivars adapted to different environments and agricultural managements enabling cultivation in more than 9 million hectares in Brazil , Daros et al. 2017, 2018, Carneiro et al. 2019. A new cultivar, RB985476, released by PMGCA/UFSCCar, has high tillering and excellent ratooning ability even under mechanized harvesting. ...
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RB985476 has a high tillering capacity, excellent canopy cover, high longevity, high agro-industrial yield, medium to low fiber content and high germination capacity after mechanical harvesting. RB985476 is resistant to smut, brown and orange rusts and recommended for harvest in the middle growing season in the south-central region of Brazil.
... The Inter-University Network for the Development of the Sugarcane Industry (RIDESA) is responsible for the development of sugarcane cultivars with improved traits, e.g., a high agro-industrial yield, resistance to the major pests and diseases, high sugar content in different growth periods and high suitability for mechanical planting and green cane harvesting (Barbosa et al. 2012, Barbosa et al. 2015, Carneiro et al. 2015, Carneiro et al. 2019, Daros et al. 2017and Daros et al. 2018. To minimize yield losses due to water deficiency, the Sugarcane Breeding Program of the Center of Agricultural Sciences (CECA) of the Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), member of RIDESA, has developed a series of cultivars tagged RB (Republic of Brazil), with high agro-industrial yield for harsh conditions (poor soils and water stress). ...
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Sugarcane cultivar RB0442 has a high yield, late maturation and good drought tolerance. It is recommended for planting in restrictive environments, mainly with water-deficient soils, and is resistant to the major sugarcane diseases of the Northeastern region of Brazil.
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Cultivar RB036091 is an early-maturing sugarcane with a long period of industrial suitability; in the Central South region of Brazil, harvest is recommended between April and August, and the cultivar is indicated for planting on moderate to highly fertile soils. It is widely adaptable and has a high sugar yield and stability of agricultural yield.
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The sugarcane cultivar RB036066 is medium-maturing and has a long period of industrial suitability; in the South-Central region, harvest is recommended between June and September, and it is indicated for planting on medium to highly fertile soils. The cultivar is widely adaptable and has high sugar yield and stability of agricultural production.
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Traditional sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum officinarum) proved highly susceptible to diseases, and this led breeders to progress to interspecific crosses resulting in disease resistance. A backcrossing program to S. officinarum was then required to boost sucrose content. Clonal selection across generations and incorporation of other germplasm into cultivated backgrounds established the (narrow) genetic base of modern cultivars (Saccharum spp.), which have a man-made genome. The genome complexity has inspired several molecular studies that have elucidated aspects of sugarcane genome constitution, architecture, and cytogenetics. However, there is a critical shortage of information on chromosome behavior throughout meiosis in modern cultivars. In this study, we examined the microsporogenesis of a contemporary variety, providing a detailed analysis of the meiotic process and chromosome association at diakinesis, using FISH with centromeric probes. Chromosomal abnormalities were documented by examining high quality preparations of pollen mother cells (700 in total). Approximately 70% of the cells showed abnormalities, such as metaphase chromosomes not lined up at the plate, lagging chromosomes and chromosomal bridges, and tetrad cells with micronuclei. Some dyads with asynchronous behavior were also observed. Due to the hybrid composition of the sugarcane genome, we suggest that bivalent incomplete pairing may occur in the first prophase leading to univalency. The presence of rod bivalents showing the lagging tendency is consistent with a reduction in chiasma frequency. Finally, the presence of chromatin bridges indicates the indirect occurrence of chromosomal inversions, although chromosome fragments were not clearly recognized. Possible reasons for such meiotic abnormalities and the large prevalence of bivalent formation are discussed.
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The sugarcane cultivar RB036088 is late-maturing, harvested from September to November in south-central Brazil, and is recommended for soils with medium to high fertility. It stands out with continuously high sugar yield over the harvests, longevity of the ratoon plants, high tillering capacity and can be harvested mechanically.
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The sugarcane varieties RB975201 and RB975242 were developed and released for harvest at the end of the season (late maturation) in the Central-South region of Brazil. In specific environments, these varieties were compared with commercial standards in sugar yield per area. They are resistant to major sugarcane diseases and present the Bru1 gene of resistance to brown rust.
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Sugarcane is the main source for sugar production and the most important crop for energy production, as well as for byproducts like ethanol and fibers in the world. With a complex genome, the plant has its species from crosses between species of the genus Saccharum, which were the basis for sugarcane breeding programs worldwide. The production of sugarcane has increased worldwide due to breeding programs that have developed more productive clones for specific uses and adapted to different climatic conditions. The future objective of breeding programs is to develop sugarcane with high productivity, high sucrose content, drought tolerance, and high production of ethanol and biomass, i.e., plants with high fiber content and with cell walls easily broken to favor the production of ethanol from bagasse, efficient plants with low nitrogen fertilizer use, and others, and consequently to reduce environmental impacts. Currently, the demand for products derived from sugarcane is consistently increasing; the ethanol byproduct has been pointed out as one of the important sources to feed the demand for renewable energy in fossil and nonrenewable fuel substitution programs in different countries around the world. This chapter describes the genetic improvement of sugarcane and its current goals.
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This study was undertaken to determine phenotypic and genetic correlation coefficients among several agronomic traits in sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and to analyze their interrelationships through path-coefficient analyses. Other objectives were to determine broad-sense heritability and genetic advance under selection for the traits studied. Random selections from two biparental crosses (‘CP 59-50’ ✕ ‘CP 57-603’ and ‘CP 62-374’ ✕ ‘CP 57-614’) were evaluated in the field for several attributes in plant cane, and first- and second-ratoon crops. Genetic path-coefficient analyses indicated plant height to be less important than stalk diameter and stalk number as a component of cane yield; but at the phenotypic level, all three components were of equal importance. Sucrose (%) had a large direct positive effect on sugar per ton of cane (S/T) whereas Brix (percent soluble solids) had a small negative direct influence on S/T. The S/T component exerted a greater direct effect on tons per hectare of sugar (THS) than did tons per hectare of cane (THC). Broad-sense heritability estimates based plot means for various traits ranged from a low of 77% for THS to a high of 94% for stalk diameter. Expected genetic advance for various traits was reasonably high under selection intensities of 2 to 30%. THC estimated from the weight of a 10-stalk sample per plot was genetically and phenotypically correlated with THC determined by weighing the entire plot (rs = 0.92, rp = 0.64) which suggested that a 10-stalk sample per plot would be adequate to determine THC.
The model, Yij = μ1 + β1Ij + δij, defines stability parameters that may be used to describe the performance of a variety over a series of environments. Yij is the variety mean of the ith variety at the jth environment, µ1 is the ith variety mean over all environments, β1 is the regression coefficient that measures the response of the ith variety to varying environments, δij is the deviation from regression of the ith variety at the jth environment, and Ij is the environmental index. The data from two single-cross diallels and a set of 3-way crosses were examined to see whether genetic differences could be detected. Genetic differences among lines were indicated for the regression of the lines on the environmental index with no evidence of nonadditive gene action. The estimates of the squared deviations from regression for many hybrids were near zero, whereas extremely large estimates were obtained for other hybrids.
We have optimized a simple and rapid method for isolating milligram quantities of high quality DNA from polysaccharide- and polyphenolic-rich tissue such as sugarcane, lettuce and strawberry. The protocol utilizes fresh tissue without making use of liquid nitrogen or freeze-drying for initial grinding of the tissue and it significantly minimize the use of lab materials. At least one hundred samples can be processed daily by one person. The isolated DNA is essentially free of polysaccharides, polyphenols, RNA and other major contaminants, as judged by: its clear color, its viscosity, A260/A280 ratio, digestibility with restriction enzymes, and suitability for Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)- and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based techniques.