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Abstract

Purpose This paper aims to evaluate different logistics configuration to deliver batteries from the supplier to the production lines of a European carmaker who is implementing new propulsions for its models. Design/methodology/approach Several scenarios about the supply chain for traction batteries have been identified based on the company’s requirements and constraints. Then, the variables used for the assessment of each scenario have been selected to calculate the unit battery supply chain cost. Findings The results underline that a direct transport without intermediate nodes is the cheapest one. On the contrary, an additional warehouse makes the organization of the network more complex. However, with this configuration, it is possible to cover the risk of supply since that a certain level of inventory is always guaranteed. Research limitations/implications This study is limited to the analysis of only one model car, and just manual operations have been taken into account for computing the human resource time and cost. The present study is one of the first works exploring the organization of the supply chain for the batteries integrated in electric and hybrid vehicles together with the choice of the location of the related warehouses. Originality/value This paper is one of the first work on the assessment of batteries’ supply chain that are going to be integrated in low impact vehicles, focusing on location of the associated warehouse. The evaluation is carried out by taking into account all the sources of cost.

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... In particular the implementation of DBPs for EVBs is of interest. Given the ongoing efforts to electrify and decarbonize transport systems, the production volumes of EVBs are expected to rise dramatically in coming years (Rafele et al., 2020;Stampatori et al., 2020). Besides environmental, geopolitical and social issues are also expected to further the adoption of DBPs. ...
... Besides environmental, geopolitical and social issues are also expected to further the adoption of DBPs. For example, EVBs often contain critical raw materials (e.g., lithium, natural graphite and cobalt) (Mayyas et al., 2019;Rafele et al., 2020;Stampatori et al., 2020), or may be associated with poor working conditions or human rights problems in the upstream supply chain (Albertsen et al., 2021;Mayyas et al., 2019;Sovacool et al., 2019). In such a context, a DBP could adopt a role as enabler in the creation of sustainable and circular EVB value chains. ...
... As Germany is one of the leading automotive producing economies in the world (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie, 2020), targeting publications written in German enabled us to gain additional access to automotive-related references. Owing to the global character of EVB value chains (Rafele et al., 2020), publications were not excluded based on their geographical context. ...
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... In particular the implementation of DBPs for EVBs is of interest. Given the ongoing efforts to electrify and decarbonize transport systems, the production volumes of EVBs are expected to rise dramatically in coming years (Rafele et al., 2020;Stampatori et al., 2020). Besides environmental, geopolitical and social issues are also expected to further the adoption of DBPs. ...
... Besides environmental, geopolitical and social issues are also expected to further the adoption of DBPs. For example, EVBs often contain critical raw materials (e.g., lithium, natural graphite and cobalt) (Mayyas et al., 2019;Rafele et al., 2020;Stampatori et al., 2020), or may be associated with poor working conditions or human rights problems in the upstream supply chain (Albertsen et al., 2021;Mayyas et al., 2019;Sovacool et al., 2019). In such a context, a DBP could adopt a role as enabler in the creation of sustainable and circular EVB value chains. ...
... As Germany is one of the leading automotive producing economies in the world (Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie, 2020), targeting publications written in German enabled us to gain additional access to automotive-related references. Owing to the global character of EVB value chains (Rafele et al., 2020), publications were not excluded based on their geographical context. ...
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The transition to circular battery value chains is perceived to yield sustainability-related benefits, such as relief of environmental stresses, and security of critical raw material supplies. To enable such a transition, value chain stakeholders require data to derive meaningful information to support respective decision-making situations. Digital battery passports (DBP) hold the potential to resume a role as valuable data source, thus supporting sustainable product management-related decision-making situations, and function as enablers for more sustainable and circular value chains. This work provides a conceptual DBP for an electric vehicle traction battery (EVB), demonstrating information needs, which a DBP needs to fulfil to resume an enabling function. The concept was developed by pursuing a stakeholder mapping according to the supply chain-oriented process of identifying stakeholders, systematic literature review according to PRISMA, and bottom-up concept development approach. The concept comprises four main information categories: (1) battery, (2) sustainability and circularity, (3) diagnostics, maintenance, and performance, and (4) value chain actors. The concept further details information types needed to enable sustainable and circular value chains. In addition, three potential DBP use cases of distinct EVB value chain stakeholders are presented to illustrate the concept’s supporting function.
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Purpose – To investigate dependencies that arise between companies during the ramp- up of production volume in the electric vehicle (EV) supply chain. Design/methodology/approach – An inter-company case study method has been used. Data was collected via tours of manufacturing plants, workshops and interviews from multiple tiers in a supply chain, namely a niche EV manufacturer, as well as two of its tier one suppliers and five of its tier two suppliers. Findings – As production volumes increased, a more relational approach was found to be necessary in inter-company relationships. Our research showed that key suppliers, in addition to providing the parts, pursued a supply chain orchestrator’s role by offering direct support and guidance to the niche EV manufacturer in designing and executing its development plans. Research limitations/implications – Resource Dependence Theory (RDT) is used to analyse and explain the changing dependencies throughout the planning and execution of production ramp-up. Practical implications – This study will help supply chain managers to better manage resource dependencies during production ramp-up. Originality/value – This study explores dependencies during the early stages of the production ramp-up process in the EV sector, which is in itself in the early stages of evolution. RDT is employed for the first time in this context. This study has moved beyond a simple dyadic context, by providing empirical insights into the actions taken by an EV manufacturer and its suppliers, toward a multi-tier supply chain context, to better manage resource dependencies. Keywords – Electric Vehicle, Resource Dependence Theory, Supply Chain Management, Production Ramp-up, Case Study.
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Purpose Australia is one of the ten largest emitters of greenhouse gases but stands out from the others due to its economic growth without recession for 26 consecutive years. This paper aims to focus on the energy-growth nexus and the effects of energy consumption on the environment in Australia. Design/methodology/approach This analysis is performed using annual data from 1965 to 2015 and the autoregressive distributed lag model. Findings The paper finds empirical evidence of a trade-off between economic growth and carbon dioxide (CO2) intensity. The results show that increased gross domestic product (GDP) in Australia increased investment in renewable energy sources (RESs), although the renewable technology is limited and has no impact on reducing CO2 intensity in the long run. In contrast to investment in RES, fossil fuels, coal and oil, are decreased by GDP. However, oil consumption increased renewable energy consumption, and this reflects the pervading effect of the growing economy. Originality/value Overall, this paper contributes to the literature by analysing the behaviour of both energy consumption and the environment on the growing Australian economy. In addition, this paper goes further by studying the impact of economic growth on renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, as well as on CO2 emissions. The study is conducted on a single country for which literature is scarce, using a recent approach and a long time period.
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This paper studies a three-period electric vehicle battery recycle and reuse closed-loop supply chain consisting of a battery manufacturer and a remanufacturer. Differing from other products and existing research, used electric vehicle batteries can be instantly reused for other purposes before recycling, such as energy storage. In order to optimise total profits in the whole supply chain in different batteries period of use, this paper develops the optimal pricing strategy between manufacturer and remanufacturer, discusses the relationships between return yield, sorting rate, recycling rate in order to optimise total profit in different period. The result suggests that, comparing with new battery manufacturing, battery recycling and reusing would contribute to reduce raw material consumption hence reduce environmental impact, but may not gain financial benefits. It also notes that although the close-loop supply chain is nonlinearly complicated, some relationships between parameters can be treated as linear or quadratic. The results of this research will help practitioners to better understand the entire closed-loop supply chain in order to enhance its collaboration.
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Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems affecting the general population's health and wellbeing. This article analyses the role companies and public‐sector institutions play in reducing air pollution. Corporations are motivated by a social commitment and the need to improve their productive processes, while public bodies endeavour to reduce air pollution to improve citizens' quality of life. This paper drills down into the impact of eco‐innovation as a mechanism for companies to achieve this dual aim. We look at a set of 31 countries between 2006 and 2013 using fixed‐effects Ordinary Least Squares panel data methodology. The results corroborate the positive influence of corporate social responsibility on reducing air pollution. Furthermore, this influence is reinforced when environmental regulation is developed. Finally, we observe that eco‐innovations have a mediating effect on the relationship between sustainable firms and air pollution.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze emission trading applications in the European Union (EU) and to benefit from its experiences; also to discuss different types of energy financing mechanisms for Turkey, an emerging market which faces a fast growth of energy demand. Design/methodology/approach The Kyoto Protocol and its market‐based flexible mechanisms to reduce emissions worldwide are explained. The logic and development phases of an emission trading scheme (ETS) started in 2005 in the EU are given in response to this protocol's targets. With lessons learned from the ETS, the position of Turkey in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and its strategy to find solutions for a low carbon economy are underlined, as it can be assumed to be a reference point for other emerging markets. Findings This ETS became the main vehicle for EU member states to enforce themselves, to be in line with their Kyoto's emission reduction targets via some mechanisms and it has the potential to be leader in the formation of a global emission trading program. It made possible the transfer of technology and experience to emerging countries. Turkey should be aware and well prepared, for the post‐Kyoto period, to benefit from similar mechanisms to finance its energy investments. Practical implications The paper is a useful source of information for ETS. Social implications This paper gives information on emission reduction mechanisms used worldwide by countries which aim to be a low carbon economy. Originality/value This paper fulfils a resource need for the structure of ETS and the position of Turkey as an emerging market with Kyoto's Protocol.
Article
Energy storage will play an important role in the Government of India's efforts to meet the ambitious targets with regards to electric mobility and renewable energy. Among the different types of storage technologies, lithium-ion battery (LIB) is considered to be the best suited for electric vehicles (EVs). LIBs can also address intermittency problems in renewable energy integration with the grid. It is estimated that 13.8 GWh of battery capacity is required by 2020 for the EV sector and 15 GWh battery capacity is needed for grid storage requirements. Indigenization of LIB manufacturing can help to meet this large-scale demand. Moreover, indigenization has the potential to bring down the cost of a battery. One of the key components in manufacturing LIBs is lithium (as raw material), which needs to be imported as India does not have sufficient reserves. Therefore it is important to estimate the total amount of lithium required for fulfilling the domestic demand. To set-up indigenous manufacturing facilities, it is important to identify the key players in the global supply chain of the LIB industry and formulate policies that enable the success of this industry in India. This study presents a review of a complete supply chain related to manufacturing LIBs, along with policy instruments to support the domestic battery demand and supply ecosystem.
Article
Large-scale adoption of electric vehicles can reap significant energy and environmental benefits while also reducing reliance on fossil fuels. Nonetheless, accompanying the benefits of electric vehicles, several economic and ecological challenges arise from the production of Lithium-ion batteries, which are currently the most popular type of batteries used in electric vehicles. Remanufacturing is a promising end-of-life strategy and can lead to more sustainable Lithium-ion battery supply chains to support large-scale adoption of electric vehicles. Several factors will dictate the feasibility and effectiveness of remanufacturing, including economic viability, production capability, and battery demand and supply. Unfortunately, while there exists significant research efforts on remanufacturing at the laboratory scale, there lacks research that investigates Lithium-ion battery remanufacturing at the enterprise scale. Motivated by this, in this paper, a state-of-the-art closed loop supply chain network model for Lithium-ion battery remanufacturing considering different quality levels of spent battery returns is proposed. An optimization model is developed to maximize the network profit and a sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of several important model parameters on the profitability of the proposed supply chain network. A numerical case study is implemented which shows that 9.81–30.93% increase in profit can be achieved if remanufacturing is integrated in Lithium-ion battery supply chain networks. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis shows that careful implementation of the proposed algorithm coupled with understanding of battery parameters are the keys to implementing cost-effective electric vehicle Lithium-ion battery supply chains. In all, this research will help stimulate the implementation of remanufacturing, promote economically and environmentally sustainable supply chain management in the electric vehicle battery industry, and support the transportation sector in reducing environmental burdens.
Article
Batteries find their application in various fields. The resulting requirements are characterised in terms of necessary power and energy. In this paper, we suggest to characterise batteries in the same coordinates by determining the energy for varying load power. The resulting E–P-curves can help to compare different cells in the relevant aspects and can be used to design battery storage systems. Therefore, we show the influence of different operating parameters on the charging as well as the discharging behaviour. These are the minimum voltage, the maximum discharge current, the maximum operating as well as the ambient temperature and the initial state of charge. If it is allowed to discharge the battery with a peak current for a short time, the influence can be quantified by the suggested method as well. The method is illustrated by taking different lithium-ion batteries as examples.
Article
Developing the next generation high energy density and safe batteries is of prime importance to meet the emerging challenges in electronics, automobile industries and various energy storage systems. High voltage lithium ion batteries (LIBs) and solid state batteries (SSBs) are two main directions gaining increasing interests in recent years, due to their visible applications in the near future. In both of the two kinds of batteries, the electrolytes play a pivotal role but also create several bottle-neck problems. In this review, recent progress in designing electrolytes for high voltage LIBs and SSBs is summarized. First, the solvents, additives, ionic liquids and super-concentrated salts strategy for constructing the high voltage liquid electrolytes are reviwed, and then the applications of inorganic solids, solid polymers, gel and ionic liquids in solid state electrolytes are presented. Finally, the general design rules of the electrolytes and their current limitations and future prospects are briefly discussed.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to apply an empirically based approach to develop a decision-making model that comprehensively incorporates the potential affecting factors and the related significant drivers that support network designers in selecting the appropriate strategic supply chain configuration or checking the coherence of an existing supply chain structure in four industry sectors. Design/methodology/approach The decision-making model is developed based on an empirical study that integrates multiple case studies and statistical analyses. In total, 113 best-in-class manufacturing firms in four sectors are studied to investigate their strategic supply chain configurations and the information of identified affecting drivers. The factor analysis and regression analysis are conducted to classify the drivers into five factor groups, and to identify the significant drivers used to develop the decision-making model. Findings The findings of this research are three-pronged. First, 12 significant drivers related to 5 factor groups affecting strategic supply chain network design (SCND) are identified. Second, a decision-making model is developed to support users in strategic SCND. Last, the main characteristics of various strategic supply chain configurations are summarized in four industry sectors. Research limitations/implications The authors identified valuable insights for both academics and practitioners based on the identified significant affecting drivers and the developed decision-making model. In addition, this study also proposes two potential research lines on the study of additional contextual affecting factors and decision issues in strategic SCND. Originality/value This study could be the first attempt to use an empirically based method to develop a decision-making model aimed at supporting the preliminary design of a supply chain network. Therefore, the drawbacks of a pure qualitative conceptual model and optimization model are eliminated.
Article
It is getting increasingly crucial for policymakers to acquire reliable price forecasts for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) to make choices and set priorities. Here, we examine the prospects for the wide deployment of BEVs, following an ex-post analysis of their learning rate and an ex-ante forecast of their price up to 2040. We make a clear distinction between the mainstream of BEVs and a hypothetical group of BEVs that are technically on a par with internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). To do so, we introduce a new index, in which the driving range and max-speed of a vehicle are coupled together, i.e., the Mobility-Diffusion coefficient. We highlight different shares of battery packs (i.e., 19 ± 1%), and the ensemble of electrification components (e.g., battery pack, electric motor, power electronics), i.e., electrification cost (52 ± 2%), in the price of a BEV. Our price projections suggest that there is no prospect of breakeven between BEVs and ICVs before 2040 for both groups of BEVs, because the current learning rates of 9 ± 2% and 15 ± 1% for the price and electrification costs, respectively, of BEVs. Strong and long-term support from policymakers is required to ensure competitiveness of BEVs with ICVs in the near future.
Article
In the battery sector, retailers can offer a joint maximization incentive to manufacturers to push up green activity program efforts and use the return rate as a marketing lever. Our results show that a joint maximization incentive always increases the manufacturers’ investments in green efforts and profits. Nevertheless, it benefits retailers only in a few cases. Also, a joint maximization incentive allows a decentralized closed-loop supply chain to achieve the same level of social and environmental performance as a centralized one. Overall, a joint maximization incentive always allows the closed-loop supply chain to achieve the triple bottom line when retailers are economically better-off through its implementation. In the presence of competing retailers, a joint maximization incentive turns out to be more effective as it increases the chances to achieve the triple bottom line.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to show that intentional demand forecast bias can improve warehouse capacity planning and labour efficiency. It presents an empirical methodology to detect and implement forecast bias. Design/methodology/approach A forecast model integrates historical demand information and expert forecasts to support active bias management. A non-linear relationship between labour productivity and forecast bias is employed to optimise efficiency. The business analytic methods are illustrated by a case study in a consumer electronics warehouse, supplemented by a survey among 30 warehouses. Findings Results indicate that warehouse management systematically over-forecasts order sizes. The case study shows that optimal bias for picking and loading is 30-70 per cent with efficiency gains of 5-10 per cent, whereas the labour-intensive packing stage does not benefit from bias. The survey results confirm productivity effects of forecast bias. Research limitations/implications Warehouse managers can apply the methodology in their own situation if they systematically register demand forecasts, actual order sizes and labour productivity per warehouse stage. Application is illustrated for a single warehouse, and studies for alternative product categories and labour processes are of interest. Practical implications Intentional forecast bias can lead to smoother workflows in warehouses and thus result in higher labour efficiency. Required data include historical data on demand forecasts, order sizes and labour productivity. Implementation depends on labour hiring strategies and cost structures. Originality/value Operational data support evidence-based warehouse labour management. The case study validates earlier conceptual studies based on artificial data.
Article
Purpose Batteries installed on electric vehicles (EVs) should normally be removed when their capacity falls to 70-80%, but they are still usable for other purposes, such as energy storage. This paper studies an EV battery closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) consisting of a battery manufacturer and a remanufacturer. The manufacturer produces new batter-ies by using natural resources, while the remanufacturer collects returned batteries and makes decisions based on the return quality, that is, to reuse or recycle. The purpose of this research is to maximise the individual profits through optimising the amount of manufacturing and remanufacturing respectively, and optimising the purchase price of returned batteries. Design/methodology/approach Based on the Nash equilibrium, this paper develops a three-period model in the CLSC. In period 1, batteries are made from raw materials; in period 2, returned batteries from period 1 are sorted into low quality and high quality. Some high-quality returns can be reused for other purposes while those non-reusable returns are recycled into materials. In period 3, all the returns are recycled into materials. The analytical results are derived. Findings The result of the analyses suggest that (a) among the variables that affect the (re-)manufacturing decision, the purchase price for returned batteries plays a critical role. In particular, the price of low-quality returns has more influence than the price of high quality returns. (b) Interestingly, the higher purchase price for re-usable returns does not necessarily lead to a higher return rate of reusable returns. (c) The manufacturer’s profit is normally higher than the remanufacturer’s. This suggests the need to design incen-tives to promote the remanufacturing sector. (d) Although it is appreciated that max-imising the utilisation of batteries over the life-cycle would benefit the environment, the economic benefit needs further investigation. Originality/value Although the CLSC has been widely studied, studies on the EV battery CLSC are scarce. The EV battery CLSC is particularly challenging in terms of the reusability of returns because used EV batteries cannot be reused for the original purpose, which complicates CLSC operations. This paper explores the interrelationship between manu-facturer and remanufacturer, explaining the reasons why recycling is still underdevel-oped, and suggests the possibility of enhancing remanufacturing profitability.
Article
We consider an integrated model of inventory and warehousing decisions for a single product. In this model, dynamic lot size decisions are considered under constraints of the warehouse size that can be either increased or decreased at the beginning of each period. The ordering cost is typically a fixed cost and the holding cost is assumed to be a linear function. Each adjustment of the warehouse size incurs a fixed-plus-linear adjustment cost. A lease cost has to be paid for the warehouse size in each period. We provide an efficient algorithm to solve the problem. Further, we present computational experiments that show the efficiency of the algorithm and the effectiveness of the model.
Article
Electric vehicles (EVs) have recently attracted considerable attention and so did the development of the battery technologies. Although the battery technology has been significantly advanced, the available batteries do not entirely meet the energy demands of the EV power consumption. One of the key issues is non-monotonic consumption of energy accompanied by frequent changes during the battery discharging process. This is very harmful to the electrochemical process of the battery. A practical solution is to couple the battery with a supercapacitor, which is basically an electrochemical cell with a similar architecture, but with a higher rate capability and better cyclability. In this design, the supercapacitor can provide the excess energy required while the battery fails to do so. In addition to the battery and supercapacitor as the individual units, designing the architecture of the corresponding hybrid system from an electrical engineering point of view is of utmost importance. The present manuscript reviews the recent works devoted to the application of various battery/supercapacitor hybrid systems in EVs.
Article
Air pollution is the world’s largest single environmental risk according to the World Health Organization (WHO), which caused around seven million deaths in 2012. Extensive epidemiological studies have been carried out worldwide to examine the health impacts of ambient air pollution, consistently demonstrating significant health impacts of ambient air pollution. Air pollution problem in China is especially serious; it has become the fourth biggest threat to the health of the Chinese people. In this review, we summarized existing literature, compared health impact of air pollution between China and other countries, and found substantial heterogeneity in the risk estimates of air pollution. The effect heterogeneities may be due to the differences in the characteristics of populations (e.g., the proportion of the elder population and people with preexisting diseases), exposure profile (e.g., air pollution concentrations and composition), and regional climate. Although the magnitude of relative risk estimates of air pollution is generally similar with that in other parts of the world, air pollution is one of China’s most serious environmental health problems given the huge number of people exposed to high concentration levels of air pollution in China.
Article
Sustained growth in lithium-ion battery (LIB) demand within the transportation sector (and the electricity sector) motivates detailed investigations of whether future raw materials supply will reconcile with resulting material requirements for these batteries. We track the metal content associated with compounds used in LIBs. We find that most of the key constituents, including manganese, nickel, and natural graphite, have sufficient supply to meet the anticipated increase in demand for LIBs. There may be challenges in rapidly scaling the use of materials associated with lithium and cobalt in the short term. Due to long battery lifetimes and multiple end uses, recycling is unlikely to provide significant short-term supply. There are risks associated with the geopolitical concentrations of these elements, particularly for cobalt. The lessons revealed in this work can be relevant to other industries in which the rapid growth of a materials-dependent technology disrupts the global supply of those materials.
Article
Li-ion batteries have reached an inflection point. In the course of the next 5–10 years, the industry that manufactures them is expected to grow as much as ten times its current size. The supply chain that feeds the materials into that industry also has to expand at a similar rate. Will it be able to do so? Answering that question is crucial to the future of Li-ion batteries and their ability to solve a host of societal problems, from balancing a renewables-driven electricity grid to electrifying the entire transportation sector. Li-ion batteries have reached an inflection point. In the course of the next 5–10 years, the industry that manufactures them is expected to grow as much as ten times its current size. The supply chain that feeds the materials into that industry also has to expand at a similar rate. Will it be able to do so? Answering that question is crucial to the future of Li-ion batteries and their ability to solve a host of societal problems, from balancing a renewables-driven electricity grid to electrifying the entire transportation sector.
Article
One possibility for electrification of road transport consists of battery electric vehicles in combination with carbon-free sources of electricity. It is highly likely that lithium-ion batteries will provide the basis for this development. In the present paper, we use a recently developed, semi-quantitative assessment scheme to evaluate the relative supply risks associated with the elements used in the functional materials of six different lithium-ion battery types. Eleven different indicators in four supply risk categories are applied to each element; the weighting of the indicators is determined by external experts within the framework of an Analytic Hierarchy Process. The range of supply risk values on the elemental level is distinctly narrower than in our previous work on photovoltaic materials. The highest values are obtained for lithium and cobalt; the lowest for aluminium and titanium. Copper, iron, nickel, carbon (graphite), manganese and phosphorous form the middle group. We then carry out the assessment of the six battery types, to give comparative supply risks at the technology level. For this purpose the elemental supply risk values are aggregated using four different methods. Due to the small spread at the elemental level the supply risk values in all four aggregation methods also lie in a narrow range. Removing lithium, aluminium and phosphorous from the analysis, which are present in all types of battery, improves the situation. For aggregation with the simple arithmetic mean, an uncertainty analysis shows that only lithium-iron phosphate has a measurably lower supply risk compared to the other battery types. For the “cost-share” aggregation using seven elements, lithium cobalt oxide has a substantially higher supply risk than most other types.
Article
Purpose This paper investigates the diffusion dynamics of electric and hybrid commercial vans and its enabling factors in city logistics (CL) contexts. The case of parcel delivery in Torino, Italy, is considered. Attention is paid to the influence on the choice of low impact vehicles of not only public strategies but also operational aspects characterising urban freight distribution systems. Design/methodology/approach A System Dynamics model based on Bass diffusion theory computes the number of adopters of low emission vehicles together with the quantity of vans required and the associated economic savings. The model includes variables about freight demand, delivery frequency, van carrying capacity, routes, stops, distances travelled, and vehicle charging stations. A sensitivity analysis has been completed to identify the main diffusion levers. The focus is on advertising and other drivers such as public contributions, taxes traditional polluting vehicles are subjected to as well as routing optimization strategies. Findings Advertising programs, green image, and word of mouth drive market saturation although in a long time period. In fact, low impact vehicles do not offer any economic advantage over traditional ones requiring higher investment and operating costs. Public incentives to purchase both green vehicles and charging stations, together with carbon taxes and a congestion charge affecting polluting vehicles, are able to shorten the adoption time. In particular, public intervention reveals to be effective only when it unfolds through a number of measures that both facilitate the use of environmentally friendly vehicles and discourage the adoption of traditional commercial vans. Route optimization also hastens the complete market saturation. Research limitations/implications This work fosters research about the mutual relationships between the diffusion of low emission commercial vehicles and the operational and contextual CL factors. It provides a structured approach for investigating the feasibility of innovative good vehicles that might be part of assessments of CL measures and requirements. Finally, the model supports studies about the cooperation among stakeholders to identify effective commercial vehicle fleets. Practical implications This study fosters collaboration among CL players by providing a roadmap to identify the key factors for the diffusion of environmentally friendly freight vehicles. It also enables freight carriers to assess the operational and economic feasibility of adopting low impact vehicles. Finally, it might assist public authorities in capturing the effects of new urban transportation policies prior to their implementation. Originality/value Most of the current CL literature defines policies and analyses their effects. Also, there are several contributions on the diffusion of low emission cars. The present study is one of the first works on the diffusion of low impact commercial vehicles in urban areas by considering the associated key operational factors. A further value is that the proposed model combines operational variables with economic and environmental issues.
Article
Non-uniform distribution of current density and temperature is inevitable especially in high C-rate and it can lead to bad performance of battery. Therefore, the non-uniform effect (non-uniform temperature, current density and aging) on the pouch battery performance is studied with experiment and simulation. A new method, which measures the direct current resistance (DCR) based on the discharge curve, is proposed to get more detail of resistance variation. The measurement shows that the resistance of Lithium-ion pouch battery with non-uniform temperature is similar to that of average temperature. Then, effect of non-uniform aging is simulated based on the electro-thermal coupled model. It is found that battery suffering non-uniform aging has smaller discharging capacity relatively. The main cause for the discharge capacity reduction between the uniform and non-uniform aging battery is the big difference of local stoichiometry of cathode electrode θLiFePO4. The capacity reduction in 1 C rate occupies about 6% of the permissible capacity loss. Finally, tabs of battery are changed in order to acquire uniform temperature distribution. Battery whose tabs are put on the middle of the top side and the bottom side has a better performance in the opinion of thermal analysis.
Article
Closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) is a prominent concept emphasizing on both economic and environmental aspects. Since a CLSC comprises of forward and reverse supply chains, there are a variety of internal and external factors associated with its total expected profit. In a forward flow, volatility in transportation cost, holding cost, and forecasting the market's demand are the most challenging issues for decision makers, while determining the rate of returned products and efficiency in recycling the returned products are crucial parameters to predict in reverse flow. In this paper, it is aimed to develop and apply a fully fuzzy programming (FFP) method to determine the possible upper, middle, and lower ranges of profit for a multi-echelon battery CLSC with multi-components, multi-product in multi-period under imprecise information. In addition, we extend the proposed model to multi-objective to consider the green factors related to plants and battery recovery centers. Fuzzy analytic network process (Fuzzy ANP) is utilized to alter the qualitative measurements to the measurable parameters. Then, distance technique and ε-constraint method are utilized for solving the multi-objective problem. We illustrate the application of the model in Vancouver, Canada using maps.
Article
Warehouses play a significant role in all logistics networks. Any restriction in accessing warehouses leads to harmful influences in the network operations. Therefore, it is necessary to consider reliability for warehouse networks. In recent decades, researchers have developed different methods for reliable location of facilities against disruptions. Some disruptions may happen intentionally. Networks with valuable flows like cash transporting systems or military networks are at the risk of intentional disruption. All previous methods lead to the networks that carried out operations to protect the network after disruption. No significant effort has been done to prevent damage to network before disruption. In this paper, we have proposed a new concept called “prevention reliability” which prevents the network from intentional disruption and increases reliability before any attack. In other words, prevention reliability prevents disruption by inserting optimum number of fake items beside real items in the network to make a complicated environment for hostile. In this way, distinguishing real items would be more complicated, and so make more prevention for real items. In this paper, the reliable warehouse location problem is modeled by this concept and solutions are demonstrated by four data sets: a small data set is used to verify the model and two larger examples are used to check the efficiency of the model. Finally, a real world case study in the field of Tehran relief warehouses is investigated. A comparative analysis is also presented to illustrate the efficiency of proposed concept.
Article
The world continues to strive in the search for clean power sources to run the millions of different vehicles on the road on daily basis as they are the main contributors to toxic emissions releases from internal combustion engines to the atmosphere. These toxic emissions contribute to climate change and air pollution and impact negatively on people's health. Fuel cell devices are gradually replacing the internal combustion engines in the transport industry. Some notable challenges of the PEMFC technology are discussed in this paper. High costs, low durability and hydrogen storage problems are some of the major obstacles being examined in this investigation.The paper explores the latest advances in electric cars technology and their design specifications. The study also compares the characteristics and the technologies of the three types of electric cars now available in the market.
Article
Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to set forth a new economic model that includes variables that take account the mediator effect of global competitiveness index to better identify the whole phenomenon behind the relationship between GDP and competition in Europe. Design/methodology/approach – The authors test the consistency of the Baron and Kenny mediator model through an explanatory linear regression model, then the authors deploy a panel analysis and a simultaneous equation system to assess the model consistency to bypass much of the endogeneity problem. Findings – This paper’s findings show a positive influence of global competitiveness index on GDP and this effect is by far more evident when other variables (e.g. the logistics performance index) interact simultaneously. Research limitations/implications – The GCI is a correct variable to assess growth. The study shows how the recent economic crisis has increased the importance of competitiveness for economic recovery as well as key strategic decisions aimed at strengthening growth and competitiveness. Originality/value – This paper’s theoretical construct is a unique methodology applied to disentangle the role of a new model that takes account of global competitiveness index as a mediator variable to economic growth. Keywords Europe, International business, Panel data, Simultaneous equation Paper type Research paper
Article
Government subsidy and battery recycling are two common practical issues in the electric vehicle (EV) market. This study investigates a loss-averse EV manufacturer's optimal production strategy under uncertain market demand in the presence of both government subsidy and battery recycling. An analytical model is built and related optimal solution and numerical experiments are provided. Results indicate that increased subsidy promotes the manufacturer's optimal production quantity and expected utility. Increased battery recycling rate promotes the manufacturer's optimal production quantity. However, the manufacturer's expected utility decreases with the battery recycling rate if the optimal production quantity is sufficiently small. This result implies that the manufacturer may prefer a relatively small battery recycling rate when the market scale is small. Consequently, the government should establish regulations to promote battery recycling for environmental protection. We find that either subsidy or battery recycling can offset the negative effects of loss aversion on the optimal production quantity and expected utility. The majority of our results still hold if we consider multiple repurposing options for used batteries or an alternative subsidy mechanism. In particular, the manufacturer's optimal production quantity and expected utility are higher under cost subsidy mechanism than under consumer subsidy mechanism.
Article
The battery is a key component in Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) whose degradation should be considered in vehicle modeling and if the battery pack is to be used in a Vehicle to Grid (V2G) smart grid studies. Several researchers have proposed different methodologies for PEV batteries degradation modeling from various aspects. Most of the battery degradation literature consists of empirical-based studies with results extracted from experimental tests in laboratories. As such, the results have been presented in non-formulated forms and are of less effectiveness for smart grid researchers. Furthermore, the impact of battery degradation in V2G smart grid have not been examined in smart grid studies. This paper reviews and compares different battery technologies focusing on Lithium-ion batteries which dominant in today and future vehicle applications. After that the most prominent degradation models are assessed, the effects of degradation factors on battery performance are examined. The literature shows that the degradation causes can be categorized into two groups namely calendar ageing and cycling ageing. Generally, the calendar ageing is influenced by temperature, time, and state of charge, while the cycling ageing is influenced by cycle number, charge rate and depth of discharge. Finally, in this work a conceptual framework for battery degradation modeling is proposed that can be easily used in smart grid studies, without necessarily requiring a detailed understanding of fundamental electrochemical processes. The proposed framework considers not only the battery degradation modeling, but also that of other related components in a smart grid.
Article
The use of electric vehicles for goods distribution opens up a wide range of research problems. Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) operate on batteries that have a limited life, as well as specific charging and discharging patterns which need to be considered in the context of their use for goods distribution. While many transportation problems associated with the integration of freight electric vehicles in distribution management problems have been investigated, there is room for further research on specifically how to model battery degradation and behaviour in such problems. The aim of this paper is to provide tractable models for transportation scientists that will allow predicting the lifetime degradation and instantaneous charging and discharging behaviour of BEV batteries.
Article
Electric vehicle, as the most promising clean vehicle technology, has gained high priority in global transport technology roadmap. Although electric vehicles offer multiple benefits within the vehicle use phase, their energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions within the vehicle production phase are much higher than conventional vehicles. Recycling is considered as an effective way to tackle this issue. By employing a life cycle assessment framework, this study compares the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from electric vehicle production under the circumstances of no recycling and full recycling. Database is established based on the China 2025 case, where a large number of electric vehicles are expected to reach their end of life in the years to come. The results indicate that greenhouse gas emissions from electric vehicle production with and without recycling are 9.8 t CO2eq. and 14.9 t CO2eq., implying a 34% reduction through recycling. Specifically, the recycling of steel, aluminum and the cathode material of traction battery, among others, contribute to 61%, 13% and 20% of total reduction, respectively. Although the recycling of conventional vehicle components currently contributes the most to the overall reduction, the recycling of battery has a huge growth potential in the future. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that China should prioritize the recycling of electric vehicles, especially the batteries, to realize the cleaner production of electric vehicles.
Article
This manuscript proposes a model to support decision making and to help managers identify the best set of green and lean supply chain management practices to improve their eco-efficiency. To attain this objective, a mathematical model based on eco-efficiency concepts is suggested to overcome the trade-offs between lean and green practices. To illustrate the model application, a case study from an automotive supply chain is presented. Some management practices that are instituted for green or lean benefits have opposite effects on the environmental and economic performance of companies. One of the main findings of our study is that not all companies belonging to the same supply chain can be absolutely lean or green. There should be compromises in the individual companies’ behaviour so the environmental and economic constraints of the supply chain are both satisfied. The proposed model represents a strategic framework to support the design of eco-efficient supply chains.
Article
The current phase of global economy competitiveness under economic downturn are pushing many sectors related to manufacturing industry to adapt and discover new ways to make profitable businesses. In particular, there is a trend for manufacturers towards service oriented business models: That is selling the usage or even the product performance. However, these new business completely change the manufacturer's perspective over the costs and revenues arising during the product lifecycle, and therefore the relevance of concepts such as life cycle costs or maintenance management strongly increases. Thus, the reduction of costs related to the product usage and maintenance is mandatory in order to achieve a profitable business. This paper presents an example of this transition to service oriented business models. In particular, it presents the business opportunities of an SME that produces forklift truck solutions. The paper will focus on how maintenance technologies are enabling the generation of new service oriented business and how these new technologies do influence in the main KPIs of the company.