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Die deutsch-dänische Grenze von 1920 als Zäsur

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Abstract

Die deutsch-dänische Grenze von 1920 durchschneidet heute einen traditionell mehrsprachigen transnationalen Kommunikationsraum. Der Beitrag stellt die sprachgeschichtliche Entwicklung Schleswigs im Kontext der Grenzziehung dar und fokussiert dabei die Frage, welche Auswirkungen diese auf den Wandel der regionalen Varietätenrepertoires im Sinne von Auers (2005, 2011) Modell zur Repertoiretypologie hat.

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... This has led to different sociolinguistic scenarios for different historical periods, regions, and social groups, ranging from various types of diglossia (or, rather, polyglossia) and complex language shift scenarios to diverse settings of widespread individual and collective bi-or multilingualism (cf. Fredsted 2009, Höder 2019a). ...
... In the 20th century, in turn, many speakers shifted from dialectal to more standard-like regional varieties of German and Danish, respectively, in domains of everyday communication, resulting in declining dialect use and often even dialect loss (Höder 2019: 62). In the latter case, the process also entailed the replacement of a diglossic distribution of the dialects and the respective standard languages with diaglossic repertoires (Auer 2011) that comprise near-standard varieties as well as regiolectal varieties, in particular in South Schleswig (Höder 2011(Höder , 2019a, whereas speakers in North Schleswig maintain diglossia to a higher extent. ...
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Höder, Steffen. Forthc. Grammatical arealisms across the Danish-German border from a constructional perspective. In Horst Simon & Christian Zimmer (eds.), German(ic) in language contact: Grammatical and sociolinguistic dynamics.
... Winge 2004, Fredsted 2009). Hier ist nicht mit Sprachkontakt im Sinne einer geographisch fassbaren Sprachgrenze zu rechnen, sondern mit einer wechselseitigen räumlichen Durchdringung des Deutschen und Dänischen in einer sich wandelnden, dabei aber stets komplexen Domänenverteilung (Höder 2019). Territoriale, soziale und individuelle Zweisprachigkeit haben hier also Sprachgebrauch und Sprachwandel in ganz erheblichem Ausmaß geprägt. ...
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Das Niederdeutsche hat im 20. Jahrhundert massive Veränderungen durchlaufen, die sich in Zukunft eher noch verstärken dürften, und zwar vor allem im Hinblick auf seinen sprachsozialen Status, aber auch in sprachsystematischer Hinsicht. Diese Entwicklung hat im Wesentlichen mit dem hochdeutsch-niederdeutschen Kontakt zu tun. In diesem Beitrag möchte ich deutlich machen, dass dieser – aus puristischer Sicht gewiss bedauerliche – Wandel sich aus der Perspektive der bilingualen Sprecher als ökonomisch und damit als vorteilhaft verstehen lässt. Zugleich möchte ich zeigen, dass das Niederdeutsche dabei gerade in jüngster Zeit demselben Typ von Sprachwandel ausgesetzt ist, der sich zuvor bereits bei der Ausprägung des norddeutschen Hochdeutschen ausgewirkt hat.
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The majority and a large part of the German national minority living in the Danish part of the Danish-German border region have Danish as their first language. In the German part of the region, the Danish national minority has Danish as its official language, although it is most members' second language. To the German majority Danish is a foreign language. Border-region Danish includes a broad range of varieties, and studies from the last twenty-five years show that one of these varieties, the classical Sonderjysk dialect, is being replaced by regional Sonderjysk in the Danish majority, although it still has a high status within the German minority. South of the border the classical Sonderjysk dialect no longer has any function. The Danish minority has developed a regional minority language, South Schleswig Danish, which is characterized by German influence. However, it is not based on the dialect, but on standard Danish rigsmål. In the minority, this variety has high status outside the minority's educational sphere. This article discusses the sociolinguistic and ethnolinguistic variables involved in this multidimensional pattern of border-region Danish.
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