ArticlePublisher preview available

Dietary chia seeds (Salvia hispanica) improve acute dyslipidemia and steatohepatitis in rats

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract and Figures

Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) are rich in omega fatty acids. Dyslipidemia and steatohepatitis are diseases that require effective treatments in obese and non‐obese patients. The aim was to evaluate the effect of chia intake on acute tyloxapol (TI)‐induced dyslipidemia, on acute carbon tetrachloride (TC)‐induced steatohepatitis, and on mixed damage (TC+TI) in non‐obese rats. Four experimental groups were fed for 4 weeks a diet with established rodent food (DE), and four groups were fed a diet with 15% added chia (DC). Plasma samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, biochemical liver damage markers, and tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α). Liver samples were used to quantify glycogen, catalase, lipid peroxidation, and TNF‐α. A histopathological analysis was performed. DC intake partially or totally prevented steatohepatitis, and reduced lipids in the dyslipidemic groups. The hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of chia may be correlated to its high content of α‐linolenic acid (omega‐3) and phenolics. Practical applications Metabolic syndrome is associated with non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which are currently the most common causes of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Dyslipidemia is a significant risk factor for NAFLD and NASH. Non‐obese patients may have NAFLD or NASH. Metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia are more strongly associated with NAFLD in non‐obese than in obese patients. This is the first study evaluating the hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of chia seed intake on acute dyslipidemia and/or steatohepatitis caused by the individual or combined administration of the inducers tyloxapol and carbon tetrachloride, respectively, in non‐obese rats. The pharmacological effects of dietary chia are correlated to its high content of omega‐3 and omega‐6 (1:1), protein, dietary fiber, and phenolics. The results suggest that inclusion of chia in diets of non‐obese patients with dyslipidemia and/or NAFLD/NASH may improve their health state and preventing cirrhosis or HCC.
This content is subject to copyright. Terms and conditions apply.
J Food Biochem. 2019;43:e12986. wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jfbc  
|
 1 of 17
https://doi.org/10.1111/jc.12986
© 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Received:11March2019 
|
  Revised:27J une2019 
|
  Accepted:30June2019
DOI: 10.1111/jfbc .12986
FULL ARTICLE
Dietary chia seeds (Salvia hispanica) improve acute dyslipidemia
and steatohepatitis in rats
Eduardo Fernández‐Martínez1| Ivet G. Lira‐Islas1| Raquel Cariño‐Cortés1|
Luis E. Soria‐Jasso1| Elizabeth Pérez‐Hernández2| Nury Pérez‐Hernández3
1Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistr y and
Pharmacology, Centro de Investigación
en Biología de la Reproducción, Área
AcadémicadeMedicina,Institutode
CienciasdelaSalud,UniversidadAutónoma
delEstadodeHidalgo,Pachuca,México
2Hospital de Ortopedia “Dr. Victorio de la
FuenteNar váez”,IMSS,CiudaddeMéxico,
México
3Programa Institucional de Biomedicina
Molecular, Escuela Nacional de Medicina y
Homeopatía,InstitutoPolitécnicoNacional,
CiudaddeMéxico,México
Correspondence
Eduardo Fernández‐Martínez, Laboratory
of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology.
Centro de Investigación en Biología de la
Reproducción,ÁreaAcadémicadeMedicina,
Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad
AutónomadelEstadodeHidalgo.C alleDr.
Eliseo Ramírez Ulloa no. 400, Col. Doctores,
PachucaHidalgo,42090,México.
Emails:efernan@uaeh.edu.mx,tomedyfm@
hotmail.com
Funding information
UniversidadAutónomadelEstadode
Hidalgo,Grant/AwardNumber:PAI-UAEH,
keyDI-IC SA-MED-SF-046,projectnumber3
Abstract
Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) are rich in omega fatty acids. Dyslipidemia and
steatohepatitis are diseases that require effective treatments in obese and non‐obese
patients.Theaimwas toevaluatetheeffectofchiaintakeon acutetyloxapol(TI)-
induced dyslipidemia, on acute carbon tetrachloride (TC)‐induced steatohepatitis,
andonmixeddamage(TC+TI)innon-obeserats.Fourexperimentalgroupswerefed
for 4 weeks a diet with established rodent food (DE), and four groups were fed a
diet with 15% added chia (DC). Plasma samples were analyzed for total cholesterol,
triglycerides, glucose, biochemical liver damage markers, and tumor necrosis factor‐α
(TNF‐α).Liversampleswereusedtoquantify glycogen,catalase,lipidperoxidation,
and TNF‐α. A histopathological analysis was performed. DC intake partially or
totally prevented steatohepatitis, and reduced lipids in the dyslipidemic groups. The
hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of chia may be correlated to its high
content of α‐linolenic acid (omega‐3) and phenolics.
Practical applications
Metabolicsyndromeisassociatedwithnon-alcoholicfattyliverdisease(NAFLD)and
non-alcoholicsteatohepatitis(NASH),whicharecurrentlythemost common causes
of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide.
Dyslipidemia is a significant risk factor forNAFLD and NASH. Non-obese patients
mayhaveNAFLDorNASH.Metabolicsyndromeanddyslipidemiaaremorestrongly
associatedwith NAFLD innon-obese thanin obesepatients.This is the first study
evaluating the hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of chia seed intake on
acute dyslipidemia and/or steatohepatitis caused by the individual or combined
administration of the inducers tyloxapol and carbon tetrachloride, respectively, in
non‐obese rats. The pharmacological effects of dietary chia are correlated to its high
content of omega‐3 and omega‐6 (1:1), protein, dietary fiber, and phenolics. The results
suggest that inclusion of chia in diets of non‐obese patients with dyslipidemia and/or
NAFLD/NASHmayimprovetheirhealthstateandpreventingcirrhosisorHCC.
KEYWORDS
chia, dyslipidemia, fatty acids, fatty liver, omega‐3, steatohepatitis
... S. hispanica provides a balanced amount of nutrients composed of insoluble fibers, proteins with a high quality of amino acids, high content of antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin. Many studies described its potential for treating obesity [35], diabetes [35][36][37], hypertension [36], cardiovascular disease [37], NAFLD [38], hyperlipidemia [39], inflammation and oxidative stress [40,41]. Table 1. ...
... An overview summary on the most abundant bioactive compounds in each species, its applications, and the number of citations for each. The in vivo study on male Wistar rats [39] investigated the anti-steatotic effect of chia seeds by taking four rat groups fed DE (diet of standard food) and 4 groups fed DC (diet with added chia) for 4 weeks. After this period the groups were further divided into 2 control groups, two groups received tyloxapol to induce acute dyslipidemia, 2 groups received (CCl4) to induce acute steatohepatitis, and the last 2 groups were treated with tyloxapol + CCl4 to induce acute dyslipidemia along with NASH. ...
... Male Wistar rats Dyslipidemia NAFLD/NASH Prevention of cholestasis elevation (AP, GGTP, and TB) ↓ ALT ↓ Liver and plasma TNF-α ↓ TG and total Chol ↓ LP and CAT activities [39] In vivo Adult female Wistar rats Hyperlipidemia ↑ SOD and CAT activities ↑ PPAR-α expression ↑ HDL-Chol ↓ TC, IL-1β, VLDL-Chol, & LDL-Chol ↓ NFκB expression [40] In vivo Male Wistar rats Obesity Dyslipidemia Improvements in insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile (TG, FFA, & Chol) ↓ FAT/CD 36 plasma membrane levels ↓ Fat synthesis enzyme activities (ATP CL, FAS, G-6-P DH, and PEPCK) ↓ PKCβ and SREBP-1 protein levels [42] In vivo Wistar rats SRD-fed Dyslipidemia Insulin resistance ↓ Body weight ↑ CAT, SOD, & GPx activities ↑ SOD and GPx mRNA ↑ PPAR-α protein level [43] ↑ Nrf2 expression ↑ n-3/n-6 FA ratio of membrane phospholipid ↓ IL-6 and TNF-α ...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous plants, plant extracts, and plant-derived compounds are being explored for their beneficial effects against overweight and liver diseases. Obesity is associated with the increased prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), becoming the most common liver disease in Western countries. Obesity and NAFLD are closely associated with many other metabolic alternations such as insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Many herbs of the Lamiaceae family are widely employed as food and spices in the Mediterranean area, but also in folk medicine, and their use for the management of metabolic disorders is well documented. Hereby, we summarized the scientific results of the medicinal and nutraceutical potential of plants from the Lamiaceae family for prevention and mitigation of overweight and fatty liver. The evidence indicates that Lamiaceae plants may be a cost-effective source of nutraceuticals and/or phy-tochemicals to be used in the management of metabolic-related conditions such as obesity and NAFLD. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SciFinder were accessed to collect data on traditional medicinal plants, compounds derived from plants, their reported anti-obesity mechanisms, and therapeutic targets.
... Current lifestyle patterns and unhealthy eating habits may lead to various diseases, such as gastrointestinal and mainly metabolic disorders. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of risk factors, including an imbalance in carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, and can be manifested as obesity, diabetes (or hyperglycemia and insulin resistance), hyperlipidemia (elevated triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (COL) levels), cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis and hypertension), and even non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) [1][2][3][4]. On its own, NAFLD is known as the hepatic manifestation of MetS. ...
Article
Full-text available
The components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hepatogastrointestinal diseases are widespread worldwide, since many factors associated with lifestyle and diet influence their development and correlation. Due to these growing health problems, it is necessary to search for effective alternatives for prevention or adjuvants in treating them. The positive impact of regulated microbiota on health is known; however, states of dysbiosis are closely related to the development of the conditions mentioned above. Therefore, the role of prebiotics, probiotics, or symbiotic complexes has been extensively evaluated; the results are favorable, showing that they play a crucial role in the regulation of the immune system, the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, and the biotransformation of bile acids, as well as the modulation of their central receptors FXR and TGR-5, which also have essential immunomodulatory and metabolic activities. It has also been observed that they can benefit the host by displacing pathogenic species, improving the dysbiosis state in MetS. Current studies have reported that paraprobiotics (dead or inactive probiotics) or postbiotics (metabolites generated by active probiotics) also benefit hepatogastrointestinal health.
... Chia showed positive effects against induced obesity in animal models (Carnier et al., 2017), and some of the outcomes were improvement of acute dyslipidemia and steatohepatitis in rats (Fernández-Martínez et al., 2019), reduction adipose tissue inflammation (Martino et al., 2020), and improvement of white adipose tissue browning in high-fat diet-induced-obese mice . ...
Article
To feed and provide Food Security to all people in the world is a big challenge to be achieved with the 2030 Agenda. Undernutrition and obesity are to the opposite of a healthy nutritional status. Both conditions are associated with unbalanced nutrition, absence of food or excess of non-nutritive foods intake. These two nutritional conditions associated with food production are closely related to some goals highlighted by the United Nations in the 2030 Agenda to achieve sustainable world development. In this context, the search for alternative foods whose sustainable production and high nutritional quality guarantee regular access to food for the population must be encouraged. Alternative foods can contribute to Food Security in many ways as they contribute to the local economy and income generation. Popularizing and demystifying the uses of unconventional food plants, ancestral grains, flowers, meliponiculture products, and edible insects as sources of nutrients and non-nutrients is another challenge. Herein, we present an overview of alternative foods – some of them cultivated mostly in Brazil – that can be explored as sources of nutrients to fight hunger and malnutrition, improve food production and the economic growth of nations.
... This seed is a natural source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, soluble fibers, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals (Muñoz et al., 2013). In addition, its consumption has been associated with the prevention of countless diseases, such as inflammatory disorders, with heart and cardiovascular protective effects, with positive effects on the immune system, control of dyslipidemia, control of diabetes and control of hypertension and triglycerides, among others (Chicco et al., 2009;Citelli et al., 2016;de Souza Ferreira et al., 2015;Fernández-Martínez et al., 2019;Tamargo et al., 2020;Ullah et al., 2016). However, the chia seed is known not only for these attributes but also for its ability to exude a mucilage with interesting physical, chemical and technological properties (Capitani et al., 2013;Muñoz et al., 2012b). ...
Article
The chemical, functional and thermal properties of the mucilage from two phenotypes of chia seeds were investigated. In white and black-spotted seeds, the polysaccharides showed significant differences in total sugar content (between 78.9 ± 2 % and 71.3 ± 2 %, respectively) and in the nitrogen, carbon and oxygen content. Both polysaccharides were mainly composed of xylose, with arabinose, glucose, mannose and galactose in lower proportions, and there were significant differences in the levels of arabinose, galactose, glucuronic acid, mannose and xylose found between them. The mucilages from both phenotypes showed similar absorption bands in the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra with small differences. The black mucilage showed a higher thermal stability at temperatures up to 287 °C. Finally, both polysaccharides showed a high solubility, high water absorption capacity and excellent water- and oil-holding capacities; therefore, both polysaccharides represent an excellent alternative for use as a functional ingredient in the food industry, regardless of the phenotype.
Article
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil and Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) extract on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) release in liver tissue of diabetic rats. Material and Method: Experimental groups were created as control, sham, chia, dandelion, diabetes (DM), diabetes+chia (DC), and diabetes +dandelion (DD). Body weight and blood glucose measurements were taken on the 1st, 3rd, and 17th days of the study and evaluated statistically. A one-way ANOVA test was performed to determine the differences between the groups. The Duncan test was used to compare significant differences between groups. At the end of the study, Masson's trichrome staining and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining were employed for histological examinations of liver tissues, and the distribution of TNF-α and IL-6 was examined by applying the Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method. Results: It was determined that body weight and blood glucose measurements were significantly decrease for the DC group compared to other groups. Immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-6 was found to decrease in DC and DD groups at close to the control levels. Conclusion: Based on our results, it was thought that the use of chia and dandelion in diabetes may contribute to the alleviation of disease-related complications by having a positive effect on proinflammatory cytokine levels.
Article
Full-text available
This review article depicts the possible replacement of staple cereal sources with some pseudocereals like Chia, Quinoa, Buckwheat, and Amaranth, which not only provide recommended daily allowance of all nutrients but also help to reduce the chances of many non-communicable infections owing to the presence of several bioactive compounds. These pseudocereals are neglected plant seeds and should be added in our routine diet. Besides, they can serve as nutraceuticals in combating various diseases by improving the health status of the consumers. The bioactive compounds like rutin, quercetin, peptide chains, angiotensin I, and many other antioxidants present in these plant seeds help to reduce the oxidative stress in the body which leads toward better health of the consumers. All these pseudocereals have high quantity of soluble fiber which helps to regulate bowel movement, control hypercholesterolemia (presence of high plasma cholesterol levels), hypertension (high blood pressure), and cardiovascular diseases. The ultimate result of consumption of pseudocereals either as a whole or in combination with true cereals as staple food may help to retain the integrity of the human body which increases the life expectancy by slowing down the aging process
Article
This review article depicts the possible replacement of staple cereal sources with some pseudocereals like Chia, Quinoa, Buckwheat, and Amaranth, which not only provide recommended daily allowance of all nutrients but also help to reduce the chances of many non-communicable infections owing to the presence of several bioactive compounds. These pseudocereals are neglected plant seeds and should be added in our routine diet. Besides, they can serve as nutraceuticals in combating various diseases by improving the health status of the consumers. The bioactive compounds like rutin, quercetin, peptide chains, angiotensin I, and many other antioxidants present in these plant seeds help to reduce the oxidative stress in the body which leads toward better health of the consumers. All these pseudocereals have high quantity of soluble fiber which helps to regulate bowel movement, control hypercholesterolemia (presence of high plasma cholesterol levels), hypertension (high blood pressure), and cardiovascular diseases. The ultimate result of consumption of pseudocereals either as a whole or in combination with true cereals as staple food may help to retain the integrity of the human body which increases the life expectancy by slowing down the aging process.
Article
There is an increasing demand for gluten‐free foods; however, standard gluten‐free foods are deficient in nutrients. This study investigated the use of alternative grains (chia, millet and quinoa) in gluten‐free breads to evaluate their sensory properties (fresh and following a partial bake method). A sensory trial (n = 98) asked participants to consider six fresh bread samples made from chia, millet and quinoa, using 9‐point hedonic scales and check‐all‐that‐apply. A second sensory trial (n = 89) was then completed using par‐baked bread samples of the different formulations. The sensory properties and the acceptability of the bread were significantly affected by the chia and quinoa flour. The millet flour did not change the acceptability of the bread. Furthermore, the partial baking method (after 90 days of frozen storage) did not significantly affect the acceptability of the breads made with chia, millet and quinoa, but it did affect the acceptability of the control bread prepared with brown rice flour. Overall, millet flour could be incorporated into gluten‐free breads made following a partial baking method without affecting consumer acceptability. Future studies should use a trained panel to evaluate how the breads differ based on the partial baking method. Consumers were invited to evaluate seven different gluten‐free breads made from chia, millet, and quinoa. The breads were evaluated fresh and following a partial baking method (90 days of frozen storage). The millet flour and the partial baking method did not affect the acceptability of the bread.
Article
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is an herbaceous plant used as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA) source that presents a range of beneficial effects on human health. Herein, it was used a chia oil containing over than 62% of α-linolenic acid (ALA), a compound widely related to anti-inflammatory actions. Chia oil effect was tested using paw edema and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, and ear edema induced by croton oil, histamine, and capsaicin. Croton oil was used in both preventive and therapeutic treatment schedules of chia oil while histamine and capsaicin were used only in preventive treatment schedule. Chia oil mechanism of action was investigated using nociception and paw edema response induced by intraplantar injection of acidified saline (ASIC activator), PGE2 (prostaglandin pathway), cinnamaldehyde (TRPA1 activator), bradykinin (BK pathway), menthol (TRPM8 activator), and capsaicin (TRPV1 activator). Further, RT-PCR for pro-inflammatory mediators (TRPA1, NF-κB, PPAR-γ, COX-2, IL-6, TNF, FPR2, FAAH, MAGL, and IL-12A) induced by carrageenan, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and the cell viability were then accessed. Later, chia oil actions were evaluated in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a multiple sclerosis (MS) model. Chia oil showed anti-edematogenic and anti-hyperalgesic effects when administered 1 h before pro-inflammatory stimulus – particularly carrageenan and croton oil. Moreover, chia oil upregulated the mRNA levels of COX-2 and formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) while reduced IL-6 expression in the spinal cord of mice submitted to i.pl. injection of carrageenan. Interestingly, chia oil mediates antinociceptive effects in mice decreasing the nociceptive response induced by acidified saline, PGE2, and cinnamaldehyde, but not by bradykinin, menthol, and capsaicin. On the EAE model, chia oil preventively administered attenuated EAE-induced motor deficits and mechanical hyperalgesia in mice, suggesting a valuable effect of chia oil supplementation in regulating inflammatory responses and some immune functions during immune-mediated inflammatory disorders (IMID). Nonetheless, additional reports will need to assess the effect of chia oil in well-controlled clinical trials performed in MS patients.
Article
Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. In addition to interfering with serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides, hyperlipidemia is involved in oxidative stress increase and reduction of the endogenous antioxidant defenses. The fruit peel of Annona crassiflora crude extract (CEAc) and its polyphenols-rich fraction (PFAc) were investigated against hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and hepatic oxidative stress in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Lipid parameters in serum, feces and liver, as well as hepatic oxidative status, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems were analyzed. Pre-treatment with CEAc for 12 days decreased hepatic triglycerides and total cholesterol, and similar to PFAc, increased the high-density lipoprotein level. There were reductions in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, as well as restoration of the glutathione defense system and total thiol content in the liver of the hyperlipidemic mice treated with PFAc. The fruit peel of A. crassiflora, a promising natural source of bioactive molecules, showed a potential lipid-lowering action and hepatoprotective activities triggered by reduction of oxidative damage and maintenance of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems impaired by the hyperlipidemic state.
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is a lethal complication of liver cirrhosis. We aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with liver cirrhosis and AUGIB who were admitted to hospital on regular hours and off-hours. Methods: This retrospective study screened all cirrhotic patients with AUGIB who were admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to June 2014 for the test cohort and from December 2014 to March 2018 for the validation cohort. A 1:1 propensity score matching analysis was performed to adjust the Child-Pugh and MELD scores. In-hospital mortality, 5-day rebleeding rate, length of stay, and total payment were primary outcomes. Results: Overall, 826 and 173 patients with liver cirrhosis and AUGIB were included in the test and validation cohorts, respectively. After propensity score matching, 226 and 40 patients were included in the test and validation cohorts, respectively. The overall analysis of the test cohort found significantly higher Child-Pugh score (P=0.006), 5-day rebleeding rate (18.69% versus 10.72%, P=0.001), and total payment (¥25,906.83 versus ¥22,017.42, P<0.001) in patients admitted on off-hours. By contrast, the overall analysis of the validation cohort did not find any difference in Child-Pugh score, 5-day rebleeding, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, or hospital payment between patients admitted on regular hours and off-hours. Similarly, the propensity score matching analyses of both test and validation cohorts found no difference in these primary outcomes between the two groups. Conclusions: Off-hours admission might not be negatively associated with the outcomes of patients with liver cirrhosis and AUGIB.
Article
Full-text available
Restructuring pork (RP) by adding new functional ingredients, like Chia oil (one of the richest natural source of α-linolenic acid) or hydroxytyrosol (HxT) (potent antioxidant), both with hypolipidemic activities, is one of the strategies that may help to reduce the potential negative effects of high meat products consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Chia oil- or HxT-enriched-RP effect on the lipoprotein profile of aged rats fed high-fat, high-energy, and cholesterol-enriched diets. RP samples were prepared by mixing lean pork and lard with or without Chia oil (152.2 g/kg fresh matter) or HxT (3.6 g/kg fresh matter). Diets were prepared by mixing a semisynthetic diet with freeze-dried RP. Groups of 1-year male Wistar rats were fed the following experimental diets for 8 weeks: C, control-RP diet; HC, cholesterol-enriched-RP diet; and Chia oil-RP (CHIA) and HxT, Chia oil- or hydroxytyrosol-RP, cholesterol-enriched diet. Plasma lipid, lipoprotein profile, SREBP-1c protein, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor gene (Ldlr) expressions were evaluated. Compared to C diet, the HC diet increased plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, total lipids, and SREBP-1c expression, but reduced Ldlr expression and significantly modified the lipoprotein profile, giving rise to the presence of high levels of atherogenic cholesterol-enriched very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) particles. Compared to the HC diet, the HxT diet did not produce significant changes in feed intake but it reduced the body weight. Chia oil and HxT partially arrested the negative effects of the high-fat, high-energy, and cholesterol-enriched meat-based diets on lipemia and lipoproteinemia, mostly by reducing the amount of cholesterol content in VLDL (60% and 74% less in CHIA and HxT vs. HC, respectively) and the VLDL total mass (59% and 63% less in CHIA and HxT vs. HC, respectively). Free fatty acids (FFA) significantly correlated with adipose tissue weight and VLDL total mass (both p < 0.05), and plasma triglycerides, phospholipids, total lipids, and SREBP-1c (all p < 0.001), suggesting the important role of FFA in lipoprotein metabolism. Results support the recommendation to include these ingredients in pork products addressed to reduce the presence of increased atherogenic particles in aged people at CVD risk consuming large amounts of pork.
Article
Full-text available
Obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease defined by excess of adipose mass and constitutes a serious health problem. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting a wide range of inflammatory adipocytokines, which leads to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and metabolic disorders. The traditional Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high phenolic-rich foods intake, including extra-virgin olive oil, nuts, red wine, vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole-grain cereals. Evidence for polyphenols’ effect on obesity and weight control in humans is inconsistent and the health effects of polyphenols depend on the amount consumed and their bioavailability. The mechanisms involved in weight loss in which polyphenols may have a role are: activating β-oxidation; a prebiotic effect for gut microbiota; inducing satiety; stimulating energy expenditure by inducing thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue; modulating adipose tissue inhibiting adipocyte differentiation; promoting adipocyte apoptosis and increasing lipolysis. Even though the intake of some specific polyphenols has been associated with body weight changes, there is still no evidence for the effects of total polyphenols or some polyphenol subclasses in humans on adiposity.
Article
Full-text available
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in industrialized nations and is strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of NAFLD continues to rise along with the epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic homeostasis is linked to the circadian clock (rhythm), with multiple signaling pathways in organs regulated by circadian clock genes, and recent studies of circadian clock gene functions suggest that disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, including the metabolic syndrome. In the industrialized world, various human behaviors and activities such as work and eating patterns, jet lag, and sleep deprivation interfere with the circadian rhythm, leading to perturbations in metabolism and development of the metabolic syndrome. In this review, we discuss how disruption of the circadian rhythm is associated with various metabolic conditions that comprise the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD.
Article
Full-text available
Cirrhosis is the common end stage of a number of chronic liver conditions and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. With the growing epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide and will become one of the leading causes of cirrhosis. Increased awareness and understanding of NAFLD cirrhosis are essential. To date, there has been no published systematic review on NAFLD cirrhosis. Thus, this article reviews recent studies on the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of NAFLD cirrhosis.
Article
Full-text available
In previous studies, it has not been reported that protein isolated from chia interferes favorably with antibacterial activity, and reduces cholesterol synthesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether commonly used commercial microbial proteases can be utilized to generate chia protein-based antibacterial and hypocholesterolemic hydrolysates/peptides, considering the effects of protein extraction method. Alcalase, Flavourzyme and sequential Alcalase-Flavourzyme were used to produce hydrolysates from chia protein (CF), protein-rich fraction (PRF) and chia protein concentrates (CPC1 and CPC2). These hydrolysates were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive (G⁺) and Gram-negative (G⁻) microorganisms. The protein hydrolysates were purified by ultrafiltration through a membrane with 3 kDa nominal molecular weight, for evaluation of hypocholesterolemic activity. An inhibition zone was observed when the hydrolysate was tested against S. aureus, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were obtained. Peptides from chia protein with molecular mass lower than 3 kDa reduced up to 80.7% of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) enzymatic reaction velocity. It was also observed that, independent of the method used to obtain chia proteins, the fractions showed relevant bioactivity. Moreover, the intensity of the bioactivity varied with the method for obtaining the protein and with the enzyme used in the hydrolysis process. This is the first report to demonstrate that chia peptides are able to inhibit cholesterol homeostasis.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to analyze and characterize the influence of chia seeds (CS) addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) on wheat bread properties. Bread properties that underwent evaluation included chemical composition, fatty acid composition, total phenolics content, volume, baking losses, crumb texture, and color and sensory analysis. The addition of CS decreased baking losses and the volume of bread. The color of the crumb with CS was much darker as compared with the control sample. The texture analysis showed that the CS caused a decrease in the hardness of the crumb. Most importantly, the addition of CS increased the nutritional value of the bread. Bread with CS contained more dietary fiber and mineral components. Moreover, it has been observed that in comparison to the control product bread with CS was characterized by a rich fatty acids composition and higher level of phenolic compounds. Most importantly, the results showed that the substitution of wheat flour with chia seeds up to 6% did not negatively affect the final product acceptance.
Article
Full-text available
It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, trimethylamine (TMA)-N-oxide (TMAO) is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella) through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and treatment of CMDs through modulating gut microbiota.
Article
Introduction: Multiple parallel factors are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Currently recommended therapies for NASH include vitamin E and pioglitazone, besides dietary and lifestyle changes. Areas covered: This review focuses on the clinical development of several emerging drugs for the treatment of NASH and the impact of these drugs on current treatment standards. Expert opinion: Four drug classes (FXR agonists, CCR2/CCR5 antagonists, ASK1 inhibitors, and PPARα/δ agonists) have moved into phase 3 trials for their investigation as NASH treatments. Results from phase 2 trials of other therapeutic agents with other pharmacological actions are also expected. The importance of combinational therapies with synergistic benefits engaging different targets, is now understood. Furthermore, studies have determined that the Mediterranean diet is beneficial for patients with NAFLD, while the traditional Okinawan diet is also considered useful. In the future, it will be important to establish new biomarkers to assess NAFLD activity, furthermore non-invasive diagnostic methods will promote the development of new drugs for NASH.
Article
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), today a major global public health problem, is a cluster of clinical, metabolic, and biochemical abnormalities, such as central adiposity, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemias. These MetS-related traits significantly increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, adverse cardiac events, stroke, and hepatic steatosis. The pathogenesis of MetS is multifactorial, with the interplay of environmental, nutritional, and genetic factors. Chronic low-grade inflammation together with visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction, and insulin resistance plays a major role in the progression of the syndrome by impairing lipid and glucose homeostasis in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as the liver, muscle, and adipocytes. Adipose-derived inflammatory cytokines and non-esterified fatty acids establish the link between central obesity IR, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Various studies have reported an association between MetS and related traits with single-nucleotide polymorphisms of different susceptibility genes. Modulation of cytokine levels, pro-oxidants, and disturbed energy homeostasis, in relation to the genetic variations, is described in this review of the recent literature, which also provides updated data regarding the epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, and pathogenesis of MetS.