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Background: Since the past decades, there has been increasing acceptance and public interest in herbal products and therapies in both developing and developed countries. So, we cannot assure pharmaceutical industries insulation from adulterations and quality decrement. Therefore, quality control for efficacy and safety of herbal products is at prime concern. Bhringraj is a plant of immense value. It is a plant from the family Asteraceae. Besides curing diseases it also improves general health. Bhringaraj Vati is not mentioned in any classics. It is an Anubhuta drug formulated for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Objective: The present study is aimed at setting up a standard profile of Bhringaraj Vati through Pharmacognostical and Physicochemical parameters. Methods: Raw drugs identification and authentication was done by pharmacognostical study i.e. morphological features, organoleptic characters and powder microscopy. Physicochemical evaluation was carried out of final product. Results & conclusion: Pharmacognostical study of raw drugs showed presence of starch grain, trichome with smooth surface, collapse spongy parenchyma, fibers with wide lumen, micro-crystals etc. Pharmaceutical evaluation showed results PH 7,loss on drying 7.5%w/w, Ash value 35%w/w, Acid insoluble ash 19.5%w/w, Water soluble extract 15.9%w/w, Methanol Soluble Extract 9.36 %w/w, Hardness 2.35 kg/cm2. The result of present study will also serve as reference standards in the preparation of drug formulation.
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Int J Pharma Res Health Sci. 2019; 7 (3): 2997-3000
2997
IIIIIIIII© International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences. All rights reserved
DOI:10.21276/ijprhs.2019.03.08
M Panigrahi et al. CODEN (USA)-IJPRUR, e-ISSN: 2348-6465
Original Article
A Pharmacognostical and Physicochemical Evaluation
of Bhringraj Vati
Madhumita Panigrahi 1, *, A S Baghel 2, Hitesh Vyas 3, Harisha C R 4, V J Shukla 5, Kabi
Prasad Mohanty 6
12nd year Ph.D. Scholar of basic Principles Department, IPGT & RA, GAU, Jamnagar, India.
2Professor & HOD of Department of Basic Principles, IPGT & RA, GAU, Jamnagar, India
3Professor, Department of Basic Principles, IPGT & RA, GAU, Jamnagar, India
4HOD of Pharmacognosy laboratory, IPGT & RA, GAU, Jamnagar, India
5HOD of Pharmaceutical laboratory. IPGT & RA GAU, Jamnagar, India
63rd yr. MD scholar of Shareera Rachana department, Major S.D. Singh Ayurveda medical college & hospital (U.P.), India
A RT IC LE I NF O A B S T R A C T
______
1. INTRODUCTION
Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of hazardous risk
factors, provides a favorable stage for developing
cardiovascular disease, particularly heart failure and type 2
diabetes mellitus. 1Recent epidemiological studies on
International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences
Available online at www.pharmahealthsciences.net
Received: 06 Jun 2019
Accepted: 28 Jun 2019
Background: Since the past decades, there has been increasing acceptance and public
interest in herbal products and therapies in both developing and developed countries. So, we
cannot assure pharmaceutical industries insulation from adulterations and quality
decrement. Therefore, quality control for the efficacy and safety of herbal products is a prime
concern. Bhringraj is a plant of immense value. It is a plant from the family Asteraceae.
Besides curing diseases, it also improves general health. Bhringaraj Vati is not mentioned in
any classics. It is an Anubhuta drug formulated for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome.
Objective: The present study is aimed at setting up a standard profile of Bhringaraj Vati
through Pharmacognostical and Physicochemical parameters.Methods: Raw drugs
identification and authentication were done by pharmacognostical study, i.e., morphological
features, organoleptic characters, and powder microscopy. The physicochemical evaluation
was carried out of the final product.Results& conclusion: Pharmacognostical study of raw
drugs showed the presence of starch grain, trichome with a smooth surface, collapse spongy
parenchyma, fibers with the wide lumen, micro-crystals, etc. Pharmaceutical evaluation
showed results PH 7,loss on drying 7.5%w/w, Ash value 35%w/w, Acid insoluble ash
19.5%w/w, Water-soluble extract 15.9%w/w, Methanol Soluble Extract 9.36 %w/w,
Hardness 2.35 kg/cm2.The result of the present study will also serve as reference standards
in the preparation of drug formulation.
Keywords: Bhringaraj Vati, Pharmacognosy, Physico-chemical analysis.
Corresponding author *
Dr Madhumita Panigrahi
2nd year Ph.D. Scholar of basic Principles Department, IPGT
& RA, GAU, Jamnagar, India.
Email- drmadhumit.panigrahi@gmail.com
Int J Pharma Res Health Sci. 2019; 7 (3): 2997-3000
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IIIIIIIII© International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences. All rights reserved
metabolic syndrome, have shown that the prevalence of
metabolic syndrome increase with age. In the USA, the
prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is estimated 34% of
the adult population.2Diet, exercise, and medications can
help to improve this condition.
Metabolic syndrome seems to be alike Rasavaha
Srotodusti&MedavahasrotoDusti mentioned in Ayurveda.
The manifestation of both Srotodusti occurs as a group of
symptoms of Atisthula and Purvarupa of Prameha, suggest
the underlying hampered uptake and metabolism mechanism
of glucose and fat. The causes of metabolic syndrome like
inactive lifestyle, excessive fatty diet, alcohol, and lack of
exercise, day time sleep are similar to the causes of
Rasavaha Srotodusti&MedavahaSrotodusti, forced to
believe both metabolic syndrome and both Rasavaha
Srotodusti&MedavahaSrotodusti to be originated from the
same source. The consumption of causative factors of both
Rasavaha Srotodusti&Medavahasrotasa Dusti, vitiate Agni
especially Rasadhatvagni&Medadhatvagni, produce Aama
and excessive Meda resulting in obstruction of Vata, which
can result in further complications and progression of the
disease. Metabolic syndrome is a lifestyle disorder
occurring due to faulty lifestyle. Lifestyle modification or
correction is the primary and utmost intervention for
prevention and treatment of such diseases. Bhringaraj Vati is
not mentioned in any classics. It is an Anubhuta drug
formulated by giving seven Bhavanas of Bhringaraj
Swarasa to Bhringaraja Churna. Standardization of drug
means confirmation of its identity and determination of its
quality and purity to justify their acceptability in modern
system of medicines.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of Raw Drugs:
Bhringraj Churna was collected from local market where-as
fresh Bhringraj was collected from the local area near
Jamnagar. Bhringraj Swaras was extracted in the Pharmacy
of Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar.
Table 1: Botanical name & part used
Sanskrit name
Botanical name
Bhringraj
Eclipta alba Hassk
Preparation of Bhringraj Vati:
Take fine powder (#120) of Bhringraj Churna. Then seven
Bhavana of Bhringaraj Swarasashould is given separately
one by one for one day each.Then Vati was prepared.T hen
after it was stored in an airtight container. The whole process
of Vati preparation was done at the Pharmacy of Gujarat
Ayurveda University, Jamnagar under a sterile environment.
Pharmacognostical Evaluation:
The raw drug was identified and authenticated by the
Pharmacognosy laboratory, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat
Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The identification was
carried out based on organoleptic characters and powder
microscopy of the drug. Powdered tablets of the drug were
subjected to organoleptic and microscopic evaluation
separately and confirmed the genuineness of the raw drug.
The tablets were dissolved in the distilled water, filtered, air
dried and studied under the corl Zeiss Trinocular microscope
attached with a camera with stain and without stain. The
microphotographs were also taken under the microscope. 3,4
Physicochemical parameters
The drug was analyzed by using qualitative and quantitative
parameters at Pharmaceutical Chemistry Laboratory of
I.P.G.T. &R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar.
Physical tests like the average weight of Vati, average
hardness, loss on drying, ash value, insoluble acid ash, PH,
and chemical tests like water-soluble extractive, methanol
soluble extractive were taken.5,6
HPTLC
Methanol extracts of drugs were spotted on pre-coated silica
gel GF 60254 aluminum plates as 5mm bands, 5mm apart
and 1cm from the edge of the plates, using a Camag
Linomate V sample applicator fitted with a 100 μL Hamilton
syringe. Toluene (7 ml), Ethyl acetate (2 ml), Acetic acid (1
ml) was used as the mobile phase. After development,
Densitometric scanning was performed with a Camag T.L.C.
scanner III in reflectance absorbance mode at 254 nm and
366 nm under control of win CATS software (V 1.2.1
Camag). The slit dimensions were 6 mm x 0.45 mm, and the
scanning speed was 20 mm s-1.
3. OBSERVATIONS & RESULTS
Pharmacognostical evaluation
Table 2: Organoleptic features of Bhringraj Vati
Parameter
Results
Color
Dark grey
Odor
Characteristic
Test
Bitter astringent
Touch
Hard, Solid
Microscopic evaluation:
Diagnostic powder characters of Vati showsFibers become
shorter with smooth surface, Simple starch grain, Trichome
with smooth surface, Drastic damage on epidermal cell &
stomata, collapse spongy Parenchyma, Fibers with wide
lumen, Micro-crystals, disturbed fragment of wavy
parenchyma, Disturbed parenchyma cells with chlorophyll
pigment, Drastic disturbed pollen grains, Fragment of
disturbed annular piral vessels. (Plate1. 1-12).
Physico-chemical Parameters :
Physico-chemical parameters of Bhringraj Vati like total ash
value, water-soluble extract, soluble methanol extract,ph 5%
v/w aqua solution,loss on drying, average weight, hardness
all were found to be within the normal range.7,8,9,10
Details are given in Table 3.
Table 3: Physico-chemical Parameters of Bhringraj Vati
Sr no.
Parameters
Results
1
Loss on Drying at 110 c
7.5 % w/w
2
Total Ash value
35 % w/w
3
Acid-insoluble Ash
19.5% w/w
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IIIIIIIII© International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences. All rights reserved
4
Water Soluble Extract
15.9 % w/w
5
Methanol Soluble Extract
9.36 %w/w
6
pH 5% v/w aqua solution
7
7
Average weight
330 mg
8
Tablet Hardness
2.35 kg/cm2
HPTLC
HPTLC was carried out after organizing an appropriate
solvent system in which maximum 11 spots were
distinguished at 254 nm and seven spots at 366 nm. Results
are depicted in Table 4, Plate 1, Fig. 1, Fig. 2.
Table 4: Results of HPTLC of Bhringraj Vati
Track
Solvent system
Observation under UV radiation
254 nm
366 nm
No.of
spots
Rf value
No.of
spots
Rf value
Bhringraj
Vati
Toluene (7ml) :
Ethyl acetate
(2ml):
Acetic acid
(1ml)
11
0.02, 0.10, 0.16,
0.19, 0.33, 0.45,
0.50, 0.56, 0.65,
0.72, 0.93
7
0.03, 0.16, 0.33,
0.50, 0.56, 0.72,
0.93
4. DISCUSSION
The pharmacognostic evaluation showed that organoleptic
characters of the sample were dark grey in color,
characteristic odor, bitter astringent in taste, hard and solid
in touch. Microscopically study showed that fibers, simple
starch grain, trichome, epidermal cell, stomata, parenchyma,
micro-crystals, wavy parenchyma, parenchyma cells with
chlorophyll pigment, pollen grains, annular spiral vessels
show that the ingredient was present in the finished product
and also proven that the purity of the finished product.
The physicochemical parameters play an important role in
the standardization of formulation. According to the present
study, the total ash is particularly important in the evaluation
of purity of drugs, i.e., the presence or absence of foreign
matter such as metallic salts or silica.11,12According to API
the total ash value of Bhringraj Churnashould not be more
than 22%.13 But here the total ash value of the final product
is higher, i.e., 35%. The amount of Acid insoluble matter
present in the product i.e.19.5% w/w. According to API, the
Acid insoluble ash value of Bhringraj Churna should not be
more than 11%. But here the total Acid insoluble ash value
of the final product is higher, i.e., 19.5%. Here we can
assume that these value changes due to the seven Bhavana of
Bhringraj Swaras given during preparation of Vati. The
water-soluble extractive values (15.9%w/w) indicated the
presence of sugar, acids, etc. The loss on drying at 105°C
was 10.25w/w. The pH from 7% w/v solution revealed that
pH of formulation was comparable and was neutral. The
Hardness (2.35 kg/cm2) of a Vati is a function of how much
pressure has been exerted in making it, and it varies with the
composition, thickness, shape, and diameter of tablets.14
Plate: 1. Powder microscopy of the drug Bhringraj Vati (Churna form)
1. Powder of Vati
2. Fibers become shorter
with a smooth surface
3. Simple starch grain
4. Trichome with
a smooth surface
5. Drastic damage on
epidermal cell &
stomata
6. collapse spongy
Parenchyma
7. Fibers with a wide
lumen
8. Micro-crystals
9. disturbed fragment
of wavy
parenchyma
10. Disturbed
parenchyma cells
with chlorophyll
pigment
11. Drastically disturbed
pollen grains
12. Fragment of
disturbed annular
piral vessels
Fig 2: HPTLC of Bhringraj Vatiat 254 and 366nm
Fig 3: HPTLC 3-D graph of Bhringraj Vatiat 254 and 366nm
Int J Pharma Res Health Sci. 2019; 7 (3): 2997-3000
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IIIIIIIII© International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences. All rights reserved
Fig 4: Chromatographic separation at day light, at 254 nm and at 366
nm
5. CONCLUSION
From the present investigation, various standardization
parameters such as Physicochemical standards,
Pharmacognostical Evaluation were carried out; it can be
concluded that the formulation of Bhingraj Vati contains all
good characters of an ideal Vati and it was found to be more
effective and economic. The study shows that the content of
formulation is of good quality and purity. The result of the
present study will also serve as reference standards in the
preparation of drug formulation and also helpful in further
clinical researches.
6. REFERENCES
1. Kaur J. A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic
Syndrome. Cardiology Research and Practice, Hindawi
Publishing Corporation, 2014, 21 pages,
doi:10.1155/2014/943162.
2. Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the
metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from
the third National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey. JAMA, 2002; 287(3):356-9.
3. Kumar V. Potential Medicinal Plants for CNS
Disorders: an overview. Phytother Res 2006; 20 (12),
1023-35.
4. Khandelwal KR, Practical Pharmacognosy. Nirali
Prakashan; Pune, 2008, p.13.
5. Anonymous, “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India” Govt
of India, Ministry of Health and Family welfare,
Publication department, New Delhi, Part II, Vol. II,
appendix, 1st edition, p. 233-235.
6. Anonymous, “Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India”,
Govt of India, Ministry of Health and Family welfare,
Publication department, New Delhi, Part II, Vol. II.
Appendix, 1st edition, p.165-167.
7. B. M. Mithal, A textbook of pharmaceutical
formulation, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, 6th edition,
1997, pg.-163.
8. Remington et al., Remington’s Pharmaceutical Science,
Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pennsylvenia, 16th
edition, 1980, Pg.-1559.
9. Remington et al., Remington’s Pharmaceutical Science,
Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pennsylvenia, 16th
edition, 1980, Pg.-1558.
10. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopeia of India, Ministry of
health & family welfare, Govt. of India, Part 1, Vol.I,
Appendix-2, 1st edition, 1999, Pg. 214.
11. Aulton ME. The science of dosage forms designs, New
Delhi Churchill Livingstone. 2ndedition, 2002, p. 205-
221.
12. WHO. Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant
Materials. AITBS Publishers. 2002,p. 46-51.
13. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Vol.
VIII, first edition, Govt. of India, Ministry of health &
family welfare. 2011, P.57.
14. Aulton ME. The science of dosage forms designs, New
Delhi Churchill Livingstone. 2ndedition, 2002, p.205-
221.
Conflict of Interest: None
Source of Funding: Nil
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Nirali Prakashan; Pune
  • K R Khandelwal
  • Practical Pharmacognosy
Khandelwal KR, Practical Pharmacognosy. Nirali Prakashan; Pune, 2008, p.13.
Govt of India, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Publication department
  • Anonymous
Anonymous, "Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India" Govt of India, Ministry of Health and Family welfare, Publication department, New Delhi, Part II, Vol. II, appendix, 1st edition, p. 233-235.
The science of dosage forms designs
  • M E Aulton
Aulton ME. The science of dosage forms designs, New Delhi Churchill Livingstone. 2 nd edition, 2002, p. 205-221.
A textbook of pharmaceutical formulation
B. M. Mithal, A textbook of pharmaceutical formulation, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi, 6th edition, 1997, pg.-163.