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A Framework For Representing Knowledge

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... Minsky called the model a frame that is "a data structure for representing a stereotyped situation…," "We can think of a frame as a network of nodes and relations.". [30] ...
... From an AI/ML perspective, Minsky contributed considerably to psychological decision framing during the 1980s and 2000s. His landmark books "Society of Mind" [41] and "The Emotion Machine" [23] illustrated how to develop a mind-frame for knowledge representation [30]. A critical aspect of Minsky's work is that he deliberately blurs the line between computer science and psychology for the next generation of researchers. ...
... Minsky [30] also suggested that each frame should be associated with different kinds of information. Some information is about what will be expected next, and others are about what to do if the expectations are not met. ...
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Strategic Decision-Making is always challenging because it is inherently uncertain, ambiguous, risky, and complex. It is the art of possibility. We develop a systematic taxonomy of decision-making frames that consists of 6 bases, 18 categorical, and 54 frames. We aim to lay out the computational foundation that is possible to capture a comprehensive landscape view of a strategic problem. Compared with traditional models, it covers irrational, non-rational and rational frames c dealing with certainty, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, chaos, and ignorance.
... Furthermore, framing involves frame generation, on the one hand, and frame reception and enacting, that is, mobilization based on the frame, on the other (Minsky, 1975). A conflict event is defined by an actor or an observer based on the social environment and institutional setting that shape social relations. ...
... Such frames of identities have led to the exclusion of the Fulanis from many things in the society including politics, and participation in major activities in society. This seems to agree with the idea that framing involves frame generation, on the one hand, and frame reception and enacting, that is, mobilization based on the frame, on the other hand (Minsky, 1975). This plays out in the social relationships that result from framing. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how framing of conflict in different phases is constructed and how the specific framing affects the development of the conflict and its management in the farmer–herder conflict in the Asante Akyem North District of Ghana. Design/methodology/approach The study area is Agogo which falls within the Asante Akyem North District in Ghana. The study used a qualitative approach whose philosophical ontology and epistemology believe that meaning is constructed (interpretivism). It further used a case study design using in-depth interviews, focus group discussion and observation guide. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The data were analysed using the thematic analysis approach. Ethical considerations such as informed consent, willingness and anonymity of respondents were duly respected. Findings The findings highlighted that the conflict actors formed frames such as identity-relational, affective-intellectual and negotiation-win frames as the drivers of the conflict. In this conflict, the farmers who are indigenes and custodians of the land feel more potent over the transnational migrants who are pastoralists and argue that the herdsmen be flushed out without negotiation. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is one of the papers that bring to light the psychological dimension of the causes of the farmer–herder conflict in Ghana.
... This regularity is apparently suggestive of the cognitive structures referred to as frames. For the purposes of our research, we accept the understanding of frame proposed by Marvin Minsky (1975) as a set of characteristics essential for identifying an object or a situation. We also share the understanding of frame as a multilevel cognitive structure including a network of nodes and relations filled with specific data called terminals or slots that can be shared by different frames (Kubryakova, 1996;Minsky, 1975). ...
... For the purposes of our research, we accept the understanding of frame proposed by Marvin Minsky (1975) as a set of characteristics essential for identifying an object or a situation. We also share the understanding of frame as a multilevel cognitive structure including a network of nodes and relations filled with specific data called terminals or slots that can be shared by different frames (Kubryakova, 1996;Minsky, 1975). ...
... The expert then performs poorly, at a lower level than the novice (25)(26)(27)(28)(29). We also risk surprises when we must use the best-fitting frame (30). Dynamic conjunctions of facts have different relations than we expected, or events may abruptly change trajectory. ...
... In a disaster, we work with only partially known elements or information that cannot be separated from irrelevant information (33). Quantitative measures, hierarchy, metrics as points and lines, or discrete representations do not work in the topological, commonsense space (30). Rather than categories classified by metrics, common sense organizes knowledge in topological forms connected for their value to solve problems and support the social ...
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A disaster is an environmental disruption of medical care, a victim generator that disrupts the ability to treat multiple patients. We classify to understand and make sense of the world, but a disaster has flux, uncertainty, and ambiguity, bedeviling our ability to classify. Structures in the abstract are more amenable to classification and give a sense of order. This ‘top-down’ perspective, however, is outside the flux of events. Within the flux of events, a ‘bottom-up’ perspective, the operator is personally at risk, and changing contexts necessitates updating less reliable information. In classifying, we lose details due to irrelevance, but what is irrelevant now may become relevant later. Different communities working in the disaster space may or may not cooperate. ‘Boundary objects’ are ambiguous yet constant objects shared by adjacent domains, contributing to cooperation even when the communities do not understand each other. Infrastructure as human behavior reaches beyond the single event. We can identify and use boundary objects for the rapid development of communication when disaster brings diverse organizations together.
... Посредством использования методики метафорического моделирования Дж. Лакоффа и М. Джонсона (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980), а также методики фреймового моделирования М. Минского (Minsky, 2019), описаны и структурно упорядочены концептуальные метафоры со сферами-мишенями «Война» и «Мир», объединенные сферой-источником «Время и пространство». С целью обозначить социально-дискурсивное и идеологическое направление исследования, использован дискурсивнопрагматический метод Н. В. Слухай (Slukhai, 2019), с помощью которого представлен перечень нарративов в структуре каждого метафорического фрейма. ...
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Аннотация Одним из действенных когнитивных инструментов скрытого воздействия на человека является внедрение нарративов и интенций в его подсознание используя единицы псевдотождества, в частности концептуальную метафору. Настоящее исследование посвящено когнитивно-прагматическому моделированию хронотопической метафоры в составе концептов «Война» и «Мир» в украинском русскоязычном дискурсе периода гибридной войны. На материале публикаций интернет-изданий «Зеркало недели», «Две тысячи», «Вечерние вести» за период 2014–2019 гг. произведен когнитивно-дискурсивный анализ современной хронотопической метафоры. В работе восстановлена образная пространственно-временная парадигма концептов и охарактеризован ее прагматический потенциал. Наряду с этим определено место концептов в кругу бинарных оппозиций «свое-чужое», «верх-низ», «хтоническое-сакральное», перечислены реализованные метафорами нарративы и определены когнитивные векторы осмысления войны и мира в свете российской агрессии против Украины. Детальное исследование когнитивных метафор из сферы-источника «Время и пространство» как средства концептуализации войны и мира в новостном дискурсе указало на существование в нем хронотопов войны и мира. В данном контексте хронотоп определяется как этноспецифическое, исторически и культурно обусловленное представление о пространственном и темпоральном плане войны и мира, апеллирующее к архаическим представлениям этноса и вербально объективированное речевыми единицами с пространственной и временной семантикой. Установлено, что представление о мире выстраивается на основе представлений о войне, а хронотоп мира связан с милитарным хронотопом, поскольку негативный конец аксиологической шкалы человека всегда длиннее, чем позитивный. Успешное достижение мира предполагает пересечения хтонического пространства войны. Поэтому в работе особое внимание уделено описанию качественных параметров хронотопов войны и мира, а также образных средств их объективации. Результаты исследования демонстрируют мировоззренческие установки, эксплицированные хронотопической метафорой, а также определяют ее роль как эффективного инструмента для воздействия на общественное сознание.
... So, at this stage of signal proceeding we could define an object identified by three factors: valley, to which our behavior has led, the rout as a purposeful process and emotional tension associated with them. These three factors form frame [13]. There could be some different nuances in the way of defying of each parameter, for example we can define emotional response the same way as at the stage of feature extraction by increasing the values of the emotional state. ...
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In this work, we develop a cognitive approach modelling the genesis and manifestation of the emotional processes based on the pragmatic meaning of signals. We analyse the emotional reactions that activate perception, the process of thinking and acting in a complex structure and form the specific significance of information and appropriate behaviour. Three stages of signal processing are distinguished in our research; We pay special attention to problems of the identifying of the features of one object, the connection between the object and the word as well to the semantic analysis of this connection. The research is carried out taking into account the current level of the scientific understanding and modelling of the information processes in its pragmatic context and achievements of the theory of artificial intelligence and neural networks.
... Grimm et al., 2007). Minsky (1974) developed data structures for representing stereotyped situations called frames. The idea behind it is using "object-oriented groups of procedures to recognize and deal with new situations" (cf. ...
Thesis
The hazard and operability (HAZOP) method is widely used in chemical and process industries to identify and evaluate hazards. Due to its human-centered nature, it is time-consuming, and the results depend on the team composition. In addition, the factors time pressure, type of implementation, experience of the participants, and participant involvement affect the results. This research aims to digitize the HAZOP method. The investigation shows that knowledge-based systems with ontologies for knowledge representation are suitable to achieve the objective. Complex interdisciplinary knowledge regarding facility, process, substance, and site information must be represented to perform the task. A result of this work is a plant part taxonomy and a developed object-oriented equipment entity library. During ontology development, typical HAZOP scenarios, as well as their structure, components, and underlying causal model, were investigated. Based on these observations, semantic relationships between the scenario components were identified. The likelihood of causes and severity of consequences were determined as part of an automatic risk assessment using a risk matrix to determine safeguards reliably. An inference algorithm based on semantic reasoners and case-based reasoning was developed to exploit the ontology and evaluate the input data object containing the plant representation. With consideration given to topology, aspects like the propagation of sub-scenarios through plant parts were considered. The results of the developed knowledge-based system were automatically generated HAZOP worksheets. Evaluation of the achieved results was based on representative case studies in which the relevance, comprehensibility, and completeness of the automatically identified scenarios were considered. The achieved results were compared with conventionally prepared HAZOP tables for benchmark purposes. By paying particular attention to the causal relationships between scenario components, the risk assessment, and with consideration of safeguards, the quality of the automatically generated results was comparable to conventional HAZOP worksheets. This research shows that formal ontologies are suitable for representing complex interdisciplinary knowledge in the field of process and plant safety. The results contribute to the use of knowledge-based systems for digitizing the HAZOP method. When used correctly, knowledge-based systems can help decrease the preparation time and repetitious nature of HAZOP studies and standardize results.
... cognitive frame), психолошке матрице за организовање значења различитих нивоа општости, одређене знањима и очекивањима формираним на основу припадности индивидуе одређеној култури. Овај појам почиње да има ширу примену у когнитивним наукама и у вештачкој интелигенцији захваљујући Марвину Минском (Minsky, 1975), који фрејмове дефинише као културно формиране когнитивне метаконцепте који поседују извесну стабилност и представљају основно средство у навигацији искуственим универзумом, омогућавајући интерпретирање и стварности и артефаката, у перцепцији, искуству и комуникацији (Милосављевић Милић, 2015: 13). Мински упућује на могућност да се о фрејму мисли као о мрежи чворишта и релација, при чему су горњи делови фрејма фиксирани и представљају ствари које су увек тачне у погледу неке ситуације, док доњи нивои структуре садрже терминале или слотове који садрже специфичне податке и који спецификују услове који се морају испунити (1975: 2). ...
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Razumevanju digitalne sfere i njenog uticaja na razvoj kulture, savremene umetničke prakse i složene međuodnose u medijskim sistemima, kako onima koji deluju na globalnom nivou, tako i oni- ma koji se uspostavljaju unutar država-nacija, može se prići sa mnogo različitih stanovišta i iz ugla različitih naučnih disciplina. Nesumnjivo, kada je o kulturi reč, ovo je trenutak kada kulturne politike i institucionalni aparat države imaju manji značaj od algo- ritama koji prate ukus i ponašanje publike kao potrošača, pa onda dalje nameću, podstiču, „nagovaraju“ one još uvek neopredeljene da se i sami uključe i postanu deo globalnog trenda. Bihejvioralna ekonomija (Thaler & Sunstein) pokazala je kako čak i nenametljivim nagovaranjem (nudge) ljudi mogu brzo menjati svoje odluke. Ova teorija donela je njenom autoru čak i Nobelovu nagradu za ekono- miju 2017. godine pa, iako se može koristiti u kulturnom razvoju, zdravstvenom prosvećivanju, podizanju ekološke svesti, ipak je primetno da se društvene mreže i njihovi složeni algoritmi koriste pre svega za promociju već popularnih proizvoda koji često i nemaju nikakvu vrednost za potrošača, ostvarujući tako izuzetnu dobit. Stoga je ključno pitanje da li se i ova, i mnoge druge nauč- ne teorije, u digitalnom svetu mogu primenjivati u cilju javnog interesa i ostvarivanju javnog dobra, ili će društvene mreže, iza kojih stoji globalni svetski kapital, pre svega voditi računa o sop- stvenim ekonomskim interesima i time zloupotrebljavati infor- matičku moć koju poseduju i same komunikacione kanale koje kreiraju i kontrolišu.
... We represent norms as frames to tie together the actions, contextual preconditions, and corresponding evaluation and prevalence values. Frames were introduced as data structures for structured knowledge representation and reasoning (Minsky 1975). A frame expresses knowledge of a set of concepts connected to one another via relations or slots. ...
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To interact with humans, artificial intelligence (AI) systems must understand our social world. Within this world norms play an important role in motivating and guiding agents. However, very few computational theories for learning social norms have been proposed. There also exists a long history of debate on the distinction between what is normal (is) and what is normative (ought). Many have argued that being capable of learning both concepts and recognizing the difference is necessary for all social agents. This paper introduces and demonstrates a computational approach to learning norms from natural language text that accounts for both what is normal and what is normative. It provides a foundation for everyday people to train AI systems about social norms.
... cognitive frame), психолошке матрице за организовање значења различитих нивоа општости, одређене знањима и очекивањима формираним на основу припадности индивидуе одређеној култури. Овај појам почиње да има ширу примену у когнитивним наукама и у вештачкој интелигенцији захваљујући Марвину Минском (Minsky, 1975), који фрејмове дефинише као културно формиране когнитивне метаконцепте који поседују извесну стабилност и представљају основно средство у навигацији искуственим универзумом, омогућавајући интерпретирање и стварности и артефаката, у перцепцији, искуству и комуникацији (Милосављевић Милић, 2015: 13). Мински упућује на могућност да се о фрејму мисли као о мрежи чворишта и релација, при чему су горњи делови фрејма фиксирани и представљају ствари које су увек тачне у погледу неке ситуације, док доњи нивои структуре садрже терминале или слотове који садрже специфичне податке и који спецификују услове који се морају испунити (1975: 2). ...
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Razumevanju digitalne sfere i njenog uticaja na razvoj kulture, savremene umetničke prakse i složene međuodnose u medijskim sistemima, kako onima koji deluju na globalnom nivou, tako i onima koji se uspostavljaju unutar država-nacija, može se prići sa mnogo različitih stanovišta i iz ugla različitih naučnih disciplina. Nesumnjivo, kada je o kulturi reč, ovo je trenutak kada kulturne politike i institucionalni aparat države imaju manji značaj od algoritama koji prate ukus i ponašanje publike kao potrošača, pa onda dalje nameću, podstiču, „nagovaraju“ one još uvek neopredeljene da se i sami uključe i postanu deo globalnog trenda. Bihejvioralna ekonomija pokazala je kako čak i nenametljivim nagovaranjem (nudge) ljudi mogu brzo menjati svoje odluke. Ova teorija donela je njenom autoru čak i Nobelovu nagradu za ekonomiju 2017. godine pa, iako se može koristiti u kulturnom razvoju, zdravstvenom prosvećivanju, podizanju ekološke svesti, ipak je primetno da se društvene mreže i njihovi složeni algoritmi koriste pre svega za promociju već popularnih proizvoda koji često i nemaju nikakvu vrednost za potrošača, ostvarujući tako izuzetnu dobit. Stoga je ključno pitanje da li se i ova, i mnoge druge naučne teorije, u digitalnom svetu mogu primenjivati u cilju javnog interesa i ostvarivanju javnog dobra, ili će društvene mreže, iza kojih stoji globalni svetski kapital, pre svega voditi računa o sopstvenim ekonomskim interesima i time zloupotrebljavati informatičku moć koju poseduju i same komunikacione kanale koje kreiraju i kontrolišu.
... Variants of this balance have been proposed by many as a useful heuristic to quantify the diagnosticity of a feature relative to a category. Drawing from Minsky's (1975) classical work, Smith et al. (1988 were the first to propose that a prototype is a frame, a structured set of features rather than an abstract individual, as proposed in the original formulations of prototype theory (Rosch, 1973). Frames decompose properties into attributes-value pairs. ...
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In this paper, I argue for a tight relation between three semantic phenomena: similarity statements, privative adjectives, and bare plural and indefinite singular generics. I capture all of these phenomena as arising from compositional operations on rich lexical meanings. In the spirit of Del Pinal's Dual Content Semantics, these lexical meanings are divided into a category-membership determining and truth-conditionally relevant component (E-structure) and a bundle of traits associated with the lexical item (C-structure). This unified treatment solves a number of empirical issues related to these three phenomena. (i) The treatment of generics given here explains a long-standing problem in the generic literature, namely why generic sentences can embed gender-specific traits ("ducks lay eggs"). I observe different felicity patterns concerning these sentences between bare plural generics and singular indefinite generics, and show that the theory given here, unlike alternative accounts, handles them well. (ii) I give a semantic account of similarity verbs. This account derives naturally the seemingly problematic features of some uses of similarity, e.g. non-distributivity (someone who looks like a British judge needn't look neither like a Brit nor like a judge). I do so by observing that this behavior is rooted in genericity, and by extending the treatment of indefinite singular generics to similarity. (iii) I give a semantic account of problematic adjectives, including privatives like "fake" or subsectives like "typical". I remark on structural problems with recursivity in Del Pinal's DCS. I argue that for the system to be fully recursive, the cluster of associated properties (C-structure) must be newly computed any time the truth-conditional content changes. Once we incorporate this principle, we can deliver specific and right predictions on the meaning of expressions like "fake fake agent", "fake typical gun" or "typical typical wolf". I then discuss ways in which the compositional mechanisms given here can be justified by psychological theories of concepts. More specifically, I argue that psychological essentialism provides a useful platform to understand the difference between category membership and associated properties. Psychologically, diagnostic traits are ways to infer the presence of an unobservable quintessence of, e.g., leoninity. Compositionally, these diagnostic traits enter the truth conditions when the subject matter is not membership, but resemblance or typicality. Then, I discuss in what ways psychologists have proposed to cash out the notion of diagnosticity, and what effects these proposals would have on the compositional operations I proposed. Finally, I show how the present unified account fares better than alternative accounts of the single phenomena. Explanatorily, it is both more unifying and more easily connectable to psychological theories of conceptual representations so that there are non-underspecified predictions. Empirically, it naturally solves empirical puzzles faced by other accounts.
... Thagard's model of conceptual change in science is built upon the notion of a conceptual system [36]. A conceptual system is a set of nodes interconnected via various kinds of links, a structure that closely resembles frames [9,22]. More specifically there are two kinds of nodes and four kinds of links that can figure in a conceptual system. ...
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Thagard (1992) presented a framework for conceptual change in science based on conceptual systems. Thagard challenged belief revision theorists, claiming that traditional belief-revision systems are able to model only the two most conservative types of changes in his framework, but not the more radical ones. The main aim of this work is to take up Thagard’s challenge, presenting a belief-revision-like system able to mirror radical types of conceptual change. We will do that with a conceptual revision system, i.e. a belief-revision-like system that takes conceptual structures as units of revisions. We will show how our conceptual revision and contraction operations satisfy analogous of the AGM postulates at the conceptual level and are able to mimic Thagard’s radical types of conceptual change.
... A major function served by expert intermediaries is to help information seekers explore and learn about their general topic area in order to refine their topics; 2. The search intermediaries we have been studying (most of whom are both expert intermediaries and indexers at Chemical Abstracts Service) make extensive use of subject-specific knowledge to generate such suggestions for topic refinement; 3. An important component of the process of generating suggestions for refining a topic can be modeled as the application of knowledge-based search tactics to subject-specific knowledge represented as frames (Minsky 1975). ...
... Bartlett's notion of schema was picked up by , and then Rumelhart (1975) also resurrected Bartlett's idea and terminology, once again in the study of memory. Minsky (1975) introduced his idea of "frames" and Schank (1975) the idea of "scripts", both of which are similar to Bartlett's schemata. influential book on cognitive science methods in mathematics learning leant heavily on the idea of schemes. ...
... Il remarque l'absence d'intérêt de la plupart des chercheurs pour le rôle de l'imagination dans les activités « intellectuelles » (un concept qu'il retrouve abondamment dans les travaux de Kant) « The ideas about cognitive models that we will be making use of have developed within cognitive linguistics and come from four sources: Fillmore's frame semantics (Fillmore 1982b), Lakoff and Johnson's theory of metaphor and metonymy (Lakoff and Johnson 1980), Langacker's cognitive grammar (Langacker 1986), and Fauconnier's theory of mental spaces (Fauconnier 1985). Fillmore's frame semantics is similar in many ways to schema theory (Rumelhart 1975), scripts (Schank and Abelson 1977), and frames with defaults (Minsky 1975 pressible by an individual language or by language in general -apparently involves a selection from or constraints on general conception, it is qualitatively of a piece with it. ...
Thesis
L’utilisation d’un langage, et aussi, de ce fait, des langues naturelles, repose sur la possibilité de combiner des éléments constitutifs de son vocabulaire selon des règles spécifiques dans des énoncés pourvus de sens. L’ensemble de ces éléments est habituellement appelé « Lexique ». Chez qui peut utiliser un langage sans recourir à un support externe, ce lexique est intériorisé et considéré comme « mental ». L’objectif de cette recherche était de construire un modèle d’un tel « Lexique Mental » .La construction du modèle met à contribution trois sources théoriques : la Linguistique Cognitive, la théorie des cadres (« frames ») dans sa version initiée par Barsalou et ses développements ultérieurs (Löbner), et la catégorisation du réel ainsi que sa formulation axiomatique par les Ontologies Formelles, dont DOLCE et GFO ont été les versions les plus citées.Ce modèle est articulé en trois niveaux (lexical, sémantique et conceptuel) : un lexème (unité lexicale) est rattaché à une ou plusieurs structures sémantiques et inversement (pour rendre compte des notions « champ lexical », polysémie » et « synonymie »), une structure sémantique, rattachée à un modèle cognitif, qui résulte de la factorisation de connaissances encyclopédiques sous l’arbitrage de schémas pré-conceptuels. Nous nous sommes concentrés sur la représentation de processus pour illustrer l’architecture du modèle. De ce fait, nous en avons établi une typologie sur la base de cinq facteurs (composition, gradualité, temporalité, échelle et télicité), que nous avons associé à la modification par quantification de leur structure de base. Ce faisant, nous avons distribué la portée de leurs quantificateurs entre huit variantes (durée, rythme, distance, maximalisation, délai, persistance, itération et fréquence).
... Of course, many such frameworks have already been proposed and it is apparent that they have features that address some issues raised in the current paper. For instance Minsky's Frames [21] and Schanks' Scripts [22]. group together concepts and relationships associated with a particular type of object, situation or event. ...
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The Winograd Schema Challenge is a general test for Artificial Intelligence, based on problems of pronoun reference resolution. I investigate the semantics and interpretation of Winograd Schemas, concentrating on the original and most famous example. This study suggests that a rich ontology, detailed commonsense knowledge as well as special purpose inference mechanisms are all required to resolve just this one example. The analysis supports the view that a key factor in the interpretation and disambiguation of natural language is the preference for coherence. This preference guides the resolution of co-reference in relation to both explicitly mentioned entities and also implicit entities that are required to form an interpretation of what is being described. I suggest that assumed identity of implicit entities arises from the expectation of coherence and provides a key mechanism that underpins natural language understanding. I also argue that conceptual ontologies can play a decisive role not only in directly determining pronoun references but also in identifying implicit entities and implied relationships that bind together components of a sentence.
... Such an interpretation resembles considerably Minsky's original idea of 'frames' as a cognitive construct consisting of default slots (term by Minsky, 1975). Those slots reflect and correspond to conventionally salient situational elements typically highlighted in a text. ...
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Despite their efficiency and their-practically-mandatory use in political campaigns, slogans are a largely under-researched area of political discourse. This paper focuses on political slogans and investigates them from a cognitive perspective. It aims to provide a description of the conceptual structure underlying political slogans, which could also serve as a stepping stone for further investigations of their 'witty', 'catchy', and 'quotable' character. The paper demonstrates that the conceptual elements in the scenario prototypically employed in political slogans are the ones of leader, people being led, a social issue/ a solution to a social issue/ a goal, time, and space. The analysis demonstrates how these scenario elements function prototypically. This hypothesized conceptual structure is tested against a dataset specifically compiled for the present purposes. The dataset includes 25 slogans used within UK and USA political contexts over the last 70 years. The analysis conducted is qualitative.
... Several interpretations of viewpoint notion are possible. One of the first references to viewpoints was proposed by Minsky [17]: viewpoints correspond to different perceptions of an object with respect to observer's position. The second interpretation is a knowledge domain one: viewpoints correspond to the different ways to translate knowledge with respect to the social position, know-how and competence of an expert. ...
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The semantic annotations presented in current research are based on consensual descriptions of domain knowledge which are used to generate a consensual interpretation of the resource content. Sometimes specialists in a domain want to enrich this interpretation with specific interpretations based on their specialties, consistent with the interpretations of other specialists. However, extant work cannot enrich consensual annotations with heterogeneous annotations. We propose an approach constructs a consensual (global) annotation and then enriches the consensual annotation with heterogeneous (local) annotations, each of which is a specification of the global annotation. The heterogeneous annotations are consistent with the global interpretations and with one another. What is unique in our approach is that one element in a resource can be annotated with different specific concepts, based on different viewpoints. Our approach utilises a multi-viewpoints ontology, with heterogeneity at the local level and consensus at the global level.
... Os conceitos metonímicos não se constituem de maneira aleatória e sua noção está ligada à de frame. Para Minsky (1975), um frame pode ser tido como uma estrutura que representa situações e que indexa vários tipos de informações, possíveis contextos e, ainda, expectativas sociais . Nas palavras deste autor, determinada cena ou situação pode conter diferentes frames de um sistema e eles "[...] descrevem a cena de diferentes pontos de vista, e as transformações entre um frame e outro representam os efeitos da mudança de um lugar para outro." ...
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Este terceiro número do volume dezoito da Revista do GEL apresenta nove artigos da edição temática “O contato linguístico e a área transatlântica”, organizada pelos professores doutores Alexander Yao Cobbinah (USP, Brasil), Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo (UM, Macau, China) e pela professora doutora Márcia Santos Duarte de Oliveira (USP, Brasil). Além disso, esse número apresenta seis artigos do fluxo ordinário e uma resenha crítica, em que são discutidas diferentes materializações do fenômeno linguístico por meio da Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional, Análise Crítica do Discurso, Ecolinguística, Sintaxe Funcional, Sociolinguística Laboviana, Morfologia Prosódica, Gramática do Design Visual, Teoria da Metáfora e Metonímia Conceptuais e Historiografa da Linguística.
... Modele pe bază de scheme cognitive De la celebrele studii ale lui Bartlett (1934), schemele cognitive au devenit concepte centrale în descrierea memoriei sociale, fiind de-a lungul timpului obiectul unor variate dezvoltări şi reconceptualizări. În anii '70-'80, perspectiva propusă de Minsky (1975) şi Neisser (1976) asupra schemelor cognitive, definite ca blocuri organizate de cunoştinţe sau cadre de referinţă care selectează şi integrează informaţia congruentă semantic, respingând sistematic informaţia incongruentă, a devenit influentă şi în cogniţia socială. Asociate schemelor cognitive, stereotipurile au fost considerate un fel de "filtre care funcţionează pe criterii de congruenţă semantică" (Sherman, Macrae & Bodenhausen, 2000). ...
... Respecto al "formato de representación" en la memoria de los diferentes sistemas de conocimiento, tema fundamental en la inteligencia artificial, entre otras teorías, y fruto de la confluencia de los trabajos en psicología y en inteligencia artificial, destacan la propuesta por Minsky (1975) sobre los "marcos' ...
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En los últimos años se ha producido un profundo cambio conceptual respecto a la lectura. Los resultados de la investigación en este campo han ido mostrando que los postulados formulados por los modelos predominantes antes de finales de los 70, que concebían al lector como un receptor pasivo del contenido del texto o como un ejecutor de destrezas rutinarias, y que durante mucho tiempo han servido de fundamento a los procedimientos tradicionales de enseñanza de la comprensión lectora, carecen de validez. Ante ello han ido surgiendo una serie de modelos alternativos (interactivos, metacognitivos, etc.) Que, desde una perspectiva cognitiva, consideran que la comprensión lectora es un proceso de construcción del significado del texto en el que el lector participa activamente, y en el que interactúan múltiples variables. La investigación en el seno de estos modelos ha demostrado que la ejecución efectiva dentro de cualquier dominio complejo, como lo es el proceso de comprensión lectora, requiere conocimiento sobre ese dominio, procedimientos específicos para operar en él y conocimientos y estrategias más generales que favorezcan la actuación consciente y el autocontrol. También se ha comprobado que las personas con déficits cognitivos suelen experimentar problemas en todas estas áreas, por lo que la instrucción más efectiva es la que las tiene en cuenta a todas ellas, y fomenta la participación activa y la actuación independiente. Sin embargo, son muy escasos los programas que, centrándose en el proceso, se han desarrollado para enseñar estrategias múltiples de comprensión a personas con déficits cognitivos y, con frecuencia, en la rehabilitación de estos sujetos se siguen utilizando los procedimientos tradicionales de enseñanza de la comprensión lectora, que fundamentalmente se centran en el producto. Por ello, con el objetivo de establecer el marco general y los principios básicos necesarios para crear un programa de instrucción adecuado (y una batería de evaluación válida para comprobar su eficacia), en la primera parte de esta tesis: se describe brevemente el contexto general en el que se enmarca nuestro estudio, y se analizan los principales modelos generales sobre lectura y específicos sobre comprensión lectora que se han propuesto; nos ocupamos de la naturaleza y funcionamiento de las principales variables, procesos y componentes que intervienen en la actividad de comprensión de textos; se analizan los distintos métodos que se han propuesto para evaluar la comprensión lectora, haciendo especial hincapié en sus ventajas y limitaciones; se describen las diferencias entre los lectores de alta y baja capacidad de comprensión; se revisan algunos de los estudios experimentales de intervención que han intentado mejorar la comprensión lectora en alumnos de educación básica; nos ocupamos de precisar lo que entendemos por "sujetos con déficits cognitivos", y abordaremos la cuestión de su enseñanza, especialmente en relación a la comprensión lectora. Tras revisar los supuestos teóricos que han guiado nuestra investigación se describe y discute, en la segunda parte, el trabajo experimental realizado, el cual ha consistido en el diseño y valoración de un programa encaminado a la enseñanza de estrategias múltiples para la comprensión de textos a personas con déficits cognitivos. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la superioridad del programa que hemos creado frente a un procedimiento tradicional de enseñanza de la comprensión lectora. En concreto, nuestro programa fue claramente superior a la hora de favorecer el desarrollo del conocimiento y uso de las estrategias de control del proceso de comprensión, y del uso de las estrategias necesarias para la realización de inferencias y predicciones, y también se mostró superior para fomentar el desarrollo del conocimiento y uso de estrategias de síntesis.
... Лакофф визначає фрейм як "ментальні структури, що формують наш образ сприйняття світу" [7, с. 15]. У сучасній лінгвістичній науці співіснують два ключові підходи до розуміння природи фрейму: когнітивний, ідейним батьком якого є М. Мінський [8], та інтеракціональний, заснований на ідеях І. Гоффмана [2]. М. Мінський тлумачить фрейм як статичну структуру для представлення стереотипної ситуації, а І. Гоффман інтерпретує фрейм з позицій динамічного підходу як певну перспективу сприйняття ситуації, що зумовлює розуміння того, "що саме відбувається" [2, с. 4]. ...
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This article presents an analysis of how the conceptual metaphor NATURE is A DOCTOR is framed in the news texts addressing environmental issues in the British online-outlet “METRO” during the coronavirus pandemic. Key words: conceptual metaphor, coronavirus pandemic, framing, online media.
... The other source for habitats is the knowledge representation techniques of classical AI: scripts for representing stereotypical events and episodic knowledge (Schank & Abelson, 1977), and especially the notion of a frame (Minsky, 1975). Minsky developed the concept of a frame during a seminar in the spring of 1972 that was dedicated to Newell and Simon's (1972) book Human Problem Solving, starting from Bartlett's (1932) notion of a schema. ...
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We have recently begun a project to develop a more effective and efficient way to marshal inferences from background knowledge to facilitate deep natural language understanding. The meaning of a word is taken to be the entities, predications, presuppositions, and potential inferences that it adds to an ongoing situation. As words compose, the minimal model in the situation evolves to limit and direct inference. At this point we have developed our computational architecture and implemented it on real text. Our focus has been on proving the feasibility of our design.
... Okviri (engl. frames) [6] su tehnika prikaza znanja izvedena iz semantičkih mreža. Osnovna ideja ovog pristupa je korištenje okvira umjesto koncepata u semantičkim mrežama. ...
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Ogromna količina ljudskog znanja zapisana je u nestrukturiranom obliku, a pretvaranje znanja u strukturirani oblik, proces poznat kao ekstrakcija znanja, često je složen, skup i vremenski zahtjevan. Cilj ove doktorske disertacije je razvoj modela za ekstrakciju znanja iz teksta na hrvatskom jeziku te korištenju znanja prikazanog u obliku semantičkog hipergrafa. Predloženi model objedinjuje razvoj preciznijih modela za automatsko označivanje vrsta riječi, automatsko ovisnosno parsanje teksta te automatsko označivanje semantičkih uloga koje se temelje na arhitekturi duboke neuronske mreže i učenja prenošenjem. Za učenje prenošenjem, u zadatku automatskog označivanja vrsta riječi, korišten je BERT model čija se arhitektura temelji na mehanizmu pažnje. Za korištenje ekstrahiranog znanja razvijen je mehanizam za zaključivanje koji se temelji na upotrebi rječnika predikata i ulančavanju pravila unaprijed. Mehanizam koristi metode za pretraživanje znanja koje se temelje na semantičkim ulogama i vektorskim reprezentacijama. Istraživanje je provedeno na hr500k korpusu i posebno razvijenom SemCro korpusu koji je korišten za vrednovanje semantičkog hipergrafa i kvalitete ekstrahiranog znanja. Metrika korištena za usporedbu strukture hipergrafa temelji se na sličnosti matrica susjedstva. Predloženi BERT model je ostvario bolje rezultate u odnosu na referentne modele. Predloženi model prikaza znanja nalazi svoju primjenu u inteligentnim sustavima koji se temelje na znanju i u drugim zadacima obrade prirodnog jezika kao što su sažimanje teksta, razrješavanje koreferencija, odgovaranje na pitanja i slično. Razvoj, vrednovanje te implementacija prototipa inteligentnog sustava za ekstrakciju i korištenje znanja prikazanog semantičkim hipergrafom dodatni je znanstveni doprinos ovog rada. Osnovno ograničenje ovog istraživanja je veličina SemCro korpusa za treniranje i vrednovanje.
... 201). In Artificial Intelligence, Minsky (1975) defines schema as "frames" to account for the "mental constructs of knowledge derived from an individual. Rumelhart (1980), Carrell and Eisterhold (1983) and Hudson (1982) used the term schema in reading to indicate the essential role played by the reader's background knowledge in understanding reading comprehension. ...
... The notion frame goes back to Minsky's in uential paper on knowledge representation (Minsky, 1975), and since then it has been a central, but also ambiguous and controversial, concept in many disciplines (for an overview cf. Ziem, 2008, pp. ...
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This paper introduces and compares the currently most important approaches to frames: the FrameNet project pursued at the ‘International Computer Science Institute’ in Berkeley and Barsalou’s cognitive frame theory supplemented by Löbner’s concept type theory. On the basis of empirical findings of a case study on associative anaphora, it is argued that both approaches complement each other in several respects. While, for example, Barsalou’s theory concentrates on sortal concepts, disregarding semantic and syntactic valences of each word in each of its senses, FrameNet focuses on relational concepts, particularly verbs and deverbal nouns. In contrast to frames as described in terms of valency patterns within FrameNet, linguistic approaches drawing on Barsalou’s theory emphasize that frames are embedded structures having a rich internal structure. By comparison, serious shortcomings and drawbacks of each approach become apparent.
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Memory for time is influenced by reconstructive processes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study investigated whether the effect of schematic prior knowledge on temporal memory for movie scenes, produced by the incomplete presentation (cut) of the movie at encoding, is modulated by cut position, retention interval, and task repetition. In a timeline positioning task, participants were asked to indicate when short video clips extracted from a previously encoded movie occurred on a horizontal timeline that represented the video duration. In line with previous findings, removing the final part of the movie resulted in a systematic underestimation of clips' position as a function of their proximity to the missing part. Further experiments demonstrate that the direction of this automatic effect depends on which part of the movie is deleted from the encoding session, consistent with the inferential structure of the schema, and does not depend on consolidation nor reconsolidation processes, at least within the present experimental conditions. We propose that the observed bias depends on the automatic influence of reconstructive processes on judgments about the time of occurrence, based on prior schematic knowledge.
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Framing involves how language users conceptualize what is happening in interaction for situated interpretation of roles, purposes, expectations, and sequences of action, thus show significant conceptual relevance to the analysis of routinized institutional communication. Having established a working definition of framing based on an intensive review of previous research, this study investigates university students’ and tutors’ framing behaviors in interactive small group talk. Two types of framing-in-interaction, -alternate framing of a single situation and co-framing within/beyond speaker role boundary-, are identified, examined, and characterized from a conversation-analytic perspective. The findings suggest that alternate framings co-occur with traceable interactional devices for sequential organization when the single situation at talk takes on divergent meaning to be accessed. Co-framings happen when at least one (group) of participants is highly goal-oriented, showing conditional relevance to the prior courses of action and more explicit negotiation of epistemic stances. Framing, therefore, can be arguably taken as a global organization resource to characterize contextualization in institutional communication.
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Conceptual spaces are a frequently applied framework for representing concepts. One of its central aims is to find criteria for what makes a concept natural. A prominent demand is that natural concepts cover convex regions in conceptual spaces. The first aim of this paper is to analyse the convexity thesis and the arguments that have been advanced in its favour or against it. Based on this, I argue that most supporting arguments focus on single-domain concepts (e.g., colours, smells, shapes). Unfortunately, these concepts are not the primary examples of natural concepts. Building on this observation, the second aim of the paper is to develop criteria for natural multi-domain concepts. The representation of such concepts has two main aspects: features that are associated with the concept and the probabilistic correlation pattern which the concept captures. Conceptual spaces, together with probabilistic considerations, provide a helpful framework to approach these aspects. With respect to feature representation, the existence of characteristic features (i.e., that apples have a specific taste) is essential. Moreover, natural concepts capture peaks of a probabilistic distribution over complex spaces. They carve up nature at its joints, that is, at areas with no or low probabilistic density. This last aspect is shown to be closely related to the convexity demand.
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Номинативный аспект рекламного текста имеет сложную природу: с одной стороны, он представляет собой соединение тесно взаимодействующих событийных номинаций, в развёртывании которых участвуют в различной степени и элементные номинации; с другой стороны. Он представляет собой соединение двух референциальных основ – фактуальной и модальной, а также двух пластов языковых наименований, формирующих соответственно фактуальные и модальные номинативные зоны идентификации денотатов и характеризации их свойств и отношений в отражаемом текстом фрагментом действительности. Для вычленения референциальной основы текста используется информационно-смысловой анализ, единицей которого предлагается горизонтальный информационно-смысловой комплекс, соотносящийся с конкретным субъектом и и позволяющий установить такие компоненты референциального комплекса, как денотаты – через информационно-смысловые блоки субъекта и объекта, свойства денотатов – через квалификативные блоки, отношения между денотатами – через блоки действия/состояния, свойства отношений – через блоки квалификации действий, места и времени. Номинативный аспект рекламных текстов обнаруживает некоторые особенности, обусловленные его композиционными и функционально-стилистическими параметрами. Наиболее распространённая четырёхчастная блочная композиция рекламного текста включает: 1) Слоган: краткий рекламный лозунг, призыв, афоризм, заголовок. 2) Зачин: небольшой текст, расписывающий основную мысль слогана. 3) Информационный блок: информирует аргументирующий текст (основной текст). 4) Справочные сведения: адрес, контактные средства связи, условия поставки и т.д. Универсальная референциальная основа рекламного текста включает: 1) блоки денотатов адресанта (рекламодателя), адресата рекламного текста (потребителя), а также рекламируемой услуги или продукта; 2) обширный и сложный по структуре квалификативный референциальный блок, характеризующий денотаты рекламодателя и рекламируемой услуги или продукта. Блоки денотатов обязательны в слогане и информационной части, в справочных данных и зачине рекламного текста они факультативны. Языковые средства представления денотатов, их свойств и отношений формируют фактуальные зоны идентификации и характеризации. В зоне идентификации преобладают нарицательные существительные и личные местоимения. В зоне характеризации преобладают формы сравнительной и превосходной степеней прилагательных. В модальной составляющей референциальной основы рекламного текста доминирующим является блок межличностной субъективной модальности. Для блока субъективно-личностной модальности рекламного текста на обоих языках характерна функциональная перспектива отчуждения. Модальная зона идентификации представлена всем корпусом языковых средств, формирующих фактуальный план рекламы, модальная зона характеризации формируется, в основном, оценочными языковыми средствами, используемыми в фактуальной зоне характеризации. Сопоставительный анализ номинативного аспекта, способов и средств его представления в английских и русских рекламных текстах показал, что универсальными являются как модели развёртывания фактуальной и модальной референциальных основ, так и способы языкового представления их компонентов (денотатов, свойств денотатов, отношений и свойств отношений денотатов) – идентификация и характеризация. Номенклатура основных языковых единиц, формирующих фактуальные и модальные зоны идентификации и характеризации также универсальна. Однако, наряду с универсальными в сопоставляемых текстах отмечаются и уникальные явления. К таковым относятся различия в стилистической отнесённости языковых единиц, градации оценки в их семантике, морфологических форм времени и наклонения глаголов, модальных глаголов в зонах характеризации. Последнее обусловлено не только узусом сопоставляемых языков, но и различиями экстралингвистического характера. В процессе варьирования универсальной референциальной основы в зависимости от композиционного типа данного конкретного рекламного текста, возникают дополнительные вариантные модели референциальной основы рекламного текста. Поскольку номинативный аспект английского и русского рекламного текста обладает определённой вариативностью представления в данных двух языках, эти различия могут играть значительную роль при составлении рекламных текстов на этих языках и могут влиять на эффективность рекламных текстов. Поэтому важно эти различия учитывать при составлении рекламных текстов русскоговорящими для англоговорящих (и наоборот), а также при переводе рекламных текстов как с русского языка на английский, так и с английского языка на русский.
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Chapter
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Book
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LegalTech 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, Tokenization, smart contract, AI, Eu ID. The use of technological solutions, increasingly often referred to as LegalTech, in the administration of justice is nowadays necessary. It is impossible to imagine courts functioning without information systems or law firms not using electronic databases of case law and legal literature. However, technology is developing further and starting to go beyond the comfort zone of traditional legal services. Solutions are appearing which can and sometimes do replace people in tasks which people used to deal with not so long ago. Such solutions are e.g. those based on artificial intelligence, resulting in various algorithms functioning in practice, not always understandable for statistical users of legal services. This is, among other reasons, why in many aspects the use of the LegalTech tool raises significant doubts and leads to many unavoidable questions, including: Will traditional lawyers survive? Will robots and automatons replace us? Will artificial intelligence replace us in providing legal advice, creating contracts or issuing judgments? Is the effectiveness of LegalTech tools greater than the work of traditional lawyers? Or perhaps we are irreplaceable, irremovable and have nothing to worry about, and the role of the lawyer will not change? Of course, such and similar questions can be multiplied, and the answer to them basically boils down to explaining what the various LegalTech tools are, whether and how to implement them, and whether it is necessary or just useful? In this monograph we try to explore this research area and to bring the reader closer to the next stage of development of law, which more and more courageously uses various technological tools. Undoubtedly, the previously separate “worlds” of law, engineering, information technology and technology have come together in everyday life. Traditionally, the law regulated technical issues, defined technical standards, influenced the way IT systems were built or operated, including Internet platforms, while engineers followed the advice or opinions of lawyers. It was the law and lawyers who regulated technology and indicated the directions of implementation. However, the last stage of the digital revolution has quite significantly changed this situation, resulting in the equalization of law and technology, and thus the influence of lawyers on engineers. Increasingly, engineering is entering a domain that until recently was reserved exclusively for lawyers, and information systems are effectively replacing the work of a lawyer. In some aspects, such as Blockchain orBitcoin, engineering has even overtaken the law, forcing lawyers to learn, pioneered research directions and forced new, necessary regulations on the market. And, as you might think, more challenges lie ahead, and there is no turning back from the digital road. It is the time of algorithms, the time of legal technologization, the time of LegalTech. Therefore, the aim of our research is not only to indicate how the law and the lawyer's work is changing now, but also how much this area will change in the coming years. The book is an effect of scientific research of an inter-university team of an international group of scientists dealing with problems of new technologies and law in the aspect of digital economy 3.0 and economy 4.0. The first results of the team's work have already been published in Polish as part of the publication “LegalTech. Czyli jak bezpiecznie z narzędzi IT w organizacji, w tym w kancelarii oraz dziale prawnym” (LegalTech. How to safely use IT tools in an organisation, including a law firm and a legal department), published by C.H. Beck (Warsaw 2021). The current publication is a slightly revised and updated version of the Polish book, which also includes new texts and a new perspective on the rapidly changing technological reality that surrounds us. The publication is divided into two parts. The first part is more theoretical and explains the basic aspects and legal framework of technological tools, while the second part presents LegalTech solutions functioning in selected countries around the world. In the first part, we reflect on the limits of technology, algorithms and various possibilities of applying LegalTech tools in practice. In turn, in the second part, we show how particular legislators have applied technological possibilities and how this has improved the work of their judiciary. Undoubtedly, our publication does not explain all aspects of technological tools in the administration of justice. However, we believe that it can provide a voice in the discussion on the current and future shape of the legal services market. Therefore, we encourage you to discuss it with us. Since the work has a collective character, it should be emphasised here that the individual authors represent their own views. The fact that in such a group we do not always agree on a particular thought, in our opinion, only proves that we are open to other views, and the law is only the art of interpretation, for which in the changing technological reality, there is much room.We must add that the publication was financed within the framework of a scientific project conducted at the Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow Academy. 30.06.2021 Krakow, Dariusz Szostek, Mariusz Załucki
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