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Physical properties and consumer acceptability of basic muffin made from pumpkin puree as butter replacer

Abstract

Muffin is a product that highly appreciated by consumers and one of the main ingredients of muffin production is butter which contains high cholesterol and saturated fat. However, in recent years, consumers’ demand increases for healthier ingredient and similar taste to the origin. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the physical properties and sensory acceptability of butter replacement with pumpkin puree on basic muffin ingredient. Muffin formulations of three were formulated to replace butter with pumpkin puree at concentrations: 20% (Formulation A), 25% (Formulation B); and 30% (Formulation C). A muffin formulated with butter was served as a control. All muffins were analysed for muffin’s height, texture profiles, colour, and consumer acceptability. Results found that replacement of pumpkin puree in muffin formulations increased (P>0.05) muffin height. Replacement of pumpkin puree in muffin formulations (from 30% to 20%) was also significantly increased (P<0.05) hardness and chewiness of muffins as compared to control muffin. However, the cohesiveness of muffins was not differed (P>0.05) among all formulations. Analysis of colour found that lightness (L*) of pumpkin puree muffins significantly decreased (P<0.05) as compared to control muffin when the amount of pumpkin puree was increased in muffin formulations (from 20% to 30%). However, replacement of pumpkin puree in muffin formulations increased (P>0.05) a* (green to red) and b* (blue to yellow) values of muffins. In the assessment of pumpkin puree muffin acceptability, Hedonic test obtained that consumers preferred muffin with 30% of pureed pumpkin replacement with control muffin in all attributes (colour, aroma, texture, taste, and overall acceptance) and comparable (P>0.05) with control muffin. Thus, these findings suggested that 30% pumpkin puree was feasible to be used as butter replacer in muffin formulation.
*Corresponding author.
Email: norlela@usim.edu.my
eISSN: 2550-2166 / © 2019 The Authors. Published by Rynnye Lyan Resources
Food Research 3 (6) : 840 - 845 (December 2019)
Journal homepage: http://www.myfoodresearch.com
FULL PAPER
Physical properties and consumer acceptability of basic muffin made from
pumpkin puree as butter replacer
*Arifin, N., Siti Nur Izyan, M.A. and Huda-Faujan, N.
Food Biotechnology Programme, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia,
71800 Nilai Negeri Sembilan
Article history:
Received: 20 February 2019
Received in revised form: 4
July 2019
Accepted: 6 July 2019
Available Online: 17 July
2019
Keywords:
Muffin,
Pumpkin puree,
Texture profile,
Sensory acceptability
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.26656/fr.2017.3(6).090
Abstract
Muffin is a product that highly appreciated by consumers and one of the main ingredients
of muffin production is butter which contains high cholesterol and saturated fat. However,
in recent years, consumersdemand increases for healthier ingredient and similar taste to
the origin. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the physical properties and
sensory acceptability of butter replacement with pumpkin puree on basic muffin
ingredient. Muffin formulations of three were formulated to replace butter with pumpkin
puree at concentrations: 20% (Formulation A), 25% (Formulation B); and 30%
(Formulation C). A muffin formulated with butter was served as a control. All muffins
were analysed for muffins height, texture profiles, colour, and consumer acceptability.
Results found that replacement of pumpkin puree in muffin formulations increased
(P>0.05) muffin height. Replacement of pumpkin puree in muffin formulations (from
30% to 20%) was also significantly increased (P<0.05) hardness and chewiness of muffins
as compared to control muffin. However, the cohesiveness of muffins was not differed
(P>0.05) among all formulations. Analysis of colour found that lightness (L*) of pumpkin
puree muffins significantly decreased (P<0.05) as compared to control muffin when the
amount of pumpkin puree was increased in muffin formulations (from 20% to 30%).
However, replacement of pumpkin puree in muffin formulations increased (P>0.05) a*
(green to red) and b* (blue to yellow) values of muffins. In the assessment of pumpkin
puree muffin acceptability, Hedonic test obtained that consumers preferred muffin with
30% of pureed pumpkin replacement with control muffin in all attributes (colour, aroma,
texture, taste, and overall acceptance) and comparable (P>0.05) with control muffin. Thus,
these findings suggested that 30% pumpkin puree was feasible to be used as butter
replacer in muffin formulation.
1. Introduction
Muffin can be categorised as a quick bread product
which made with baking powder as a leavening agent.
The principal ingredients of muffins include flour, sugar,
fat, and egg. Each ingredient plays an important role in
the structure, appearance, and eating quality of the final
product. Butter is commonly used as a fat ingredient in
muffin formulation. It contributes to desirable mouthfeel,
unique texture in muffin as well as provide unique
aroma, and flavour extension (Brown, 2011). However,
butter contains high cholesterol and saturated fats
(Hendricks et al., 1999) which can lead to increase
cholesterol in human blood (Lichtenstein et al., 1999).
Pumpkin puree is a product from pumpkin flesh
which a member of Cucurbitaceae family (Hosseini
Ghaboos et al., 2016). Pumpkin puree contains a lot of β-
carotene pigment which are precursors of vitamin A and
their consumption has been associated to prevent
cardiovascular diseases and some cancers (Provesi et al.,
2011). This pigment provides an intense orange-yellow
colour to pumpkin puree and also has a sweet taste that
might contribute to good flavour to the end product
(Scheuer et al., 2014). Besides, pumpkin puree also
contains vitamin B1, B2, B6, C, E, and K, contains low
energy and a considerable amount of fibre (Jacobo et al.,
2011).
Recently, Schatzel (2018) reported that butter can be
replaced with other fruit sources include pumpkin puree,
apple sauce, or avocado in baked products. However,
replacing of fruit source in foods is challenging since it
may negatively affect the physical properties and sensory
acceptability of the foods. For examples, biscuit
formulated with different ratio of pumpkin puree and
841 Arifin et al. / Food Research 3 (6) (2019) 840 - 845
eISSN: 2550-2166 © 2019 The Authors. Published by Rynnye Lyan Resources
wheat flour decreased in diameter and thickness
(P>0.05) but significantly (P<0.05) increased in bulk
density when ratio of pumpkin puree increased in biscuit
formulation Furthermore, overall acceptability of the
biscuit was found significantly decreased (P<0.05) when
ratio of pumpkin puree and wheat flour increased at
40:60 (Gurung et al., 2016).
Previously, several researchers evaluated physical
properties and sensory acceptability of bakery products
with pumpkin puree in bread (Scheuer et al., 2014),
biscuit (Gurung et al., 2016), cake (Karaoğlu and
Kotancilar, 2009), and cookie (Kia and Hosseini
Ghaboos, 2018). However, limited scientific studies
were carried out to use pumpkin puree as butter replacer
in muffin production. Thus, the aim of this research was
to replace butter in basic muffin formulation with
pumpkin puree. Furthermore, the objectives of the study
were to determine the physical properties and sensory
acceptance of muffin made from pumpkin puree.
2. Materials and methods
2.1 Materials
All ingredients of basic muffin including all-purpose
flour (Anchor), sugar, salt, baking powder, egg,
pumpkin, milk, and butter were bought from a
supermarket in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
2.2 Sample preparation
2.2.1 Pumpkin puree
Pumpkin puree was prepared according to Baier and
co-researchers (2018). Ripe pumpkin fruit was brought
from a supermarket in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
Prior to puree preparation, pumpkin was cut into halves
and the seeds and strings were removed to obtain the
orange flesh. The pumpkin was then cut into small cubes
and washed using distilled water. The cut pumpkin was
roasted uncovered using the oven (Cornell), at 200°C for
40 to 60 mins. The aim of roasting pumpkin was to add
extra depth to the flavour of pumpkin and makes it a
little sweeter and richer. Lastly, the skin was peeled off
and the pumpkin was put in the processor to produce a
puree.
2.2.2 Muffin production
Production of the muffin was adopted from Romero-
Lopez et al. (2011). A control sample of the muffin was
formulated using butter while the other three
formulations of muffins were formulated with different
percentage of pumpkin puree to replace butter. The three
muffin formulations were A (muffin with 20% pumpkin
puree), B (muffin with 25% pumpkin puree), and C
(muffin with 30% pumpkin puree) (Table 1). Initially,
butter or pumpkin puree and sugar were added into a
mixer bowl and mixed together in an electric mixer.
Then, 90 g of whole eggs were added and mix
thoroughly into the mixture. Next, flour (300 g), baking
powder (15 g), sugar (195 g), and salt (7.5 g) were mixed
and sifted before adding into the mixer bowl. After that,
milk (225 mL) was gradually added into the mixture
while mixing ingredient until homogeneous. Finally, the
muffins were baked in a pre-heated oven at 200°C for 30
mins. The muffins were allowed to cool down at room
temperature (25oC) before analysis.
2.3 Physical analysis
2.3.1 Muffin height determination
Muffin height was measured from the top of muffin
(peak) to the bottom of muffin cup before baking and
after 1 hr of cooling at room temperature (25oC) using a
ruler in centimetre (cm) (Scheuer et al., 2014).
2.3.2 Texture analysis
A double compression test was performed with
spherical probe using 0.25 inch of diameter using
Texture Analyzer (TA-XT Plus Model, Stable Micro
System, Surrey, London) (AltamiranoFortoul et al.,
2013). The initial height of compression was set at 50%
with speed 1 mm/s and 5 s waiting time was used for this
analysis. The texture parameters analysed were hardness,
springiness, cohesiveness, and chewiness.
FULL PAPER
Ingredients Control (butter)
Formulation A Formulation B Formulation C
(Muffin with 30%
pumpkin puree)
(Muffin with 25%
pumpkin puree)
(Muffin with 20%
pumpkin puree)
All-purpose flour (Anchor) (g) 300 300 300 300
Pumpkin Puree (g) - 30 37.5 45
Egg (g) 90 90 90 90
Milk (ml) 225 225 225 225
Butter (g) 150 - - -
Sugar (g) 195 195 195 195
Salt (g) 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5
Baking powder (g) 15 15 15 15
Table 1. Muffin formulations
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2.3.3 Colour measurement
Determination of muffin colour was analysed using
colorimeter (LabScan®XE Spectrophotometer Model,
HunterLab) based on L*a*b* colour scale system. L*
value represents lightness/darkness, a* value represent
redness/greenness and b* value represents yellowness/
blueness. Prior to analysis, each muffin (20 g) was
ground to small particles before putting in a specific
plate. Colour of the muffins were automatically
measured and displayed in computer screen according to
the manufacturers instruction.
2.4 Sensory analysis
Determination of consumer acceptability was done
using Hedonic test according to Meilgaard et al. (2007).
The analysis was conducted in individual booths at
Sensory Laboratory, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia,
Nilai, Malaysia. A total of 60 consumer panellists
participated in this test to evaluate muffin with 20%,
25%, and 30% of pumpkin puree compared to butter. A
scale of 9-points was used in this test which ranging
from scale 1 (extremely dislike) to scale 9 (extremely
like). Each panellist evaluated attributes of appearance,
colour, texture, taste, and overall acceptance. Each
muffin sample was cut into a rectangle shaped and
served to panellists with random three-random-digit
number to avoid bias.
2.5 Statistical analysis
All data were analysed with one-way analysis of
variance or ANOVA, followed by Tukeys test to
compare the means between samples. Data was analysed
using Minitab® software, Release 16
(McKenzie et al., 1995) and the statistical
significance was established at (P<0.05). All
experiments was carried out in triplicate.
3. Results and discussion
3.1 Muffin physical properties
Table 2 shows the height of muffin with 20%, 25%
and 30% of pumpkin puree in muffin formulations.
Results found that replacement of pumpkin puree in
muffin increased (P>0.05) the height of muffin
compared to control muffin which was prepared with
butter. The height of butter muffin was 4.90 cm while the
ranged of pumpkin puree was from 5.00 to 5.13 cm
(Table 2). The increment in height of the muffin might
be due to the starch properties belong to the pumpkin.
Indeed, the starch content of pumpkin in the mature stage
was 117.45 mg/g (Sharma and Ramano Rao, 2013).
Starch has the ability to absorb water through starch
gelatinisation and resulted in a higher volume of the
product. Previously, Khalil (1998) stated that there was
an increase in height in the low fat cake as carbohydrate-
based fat replacers were used along with emulsifier. This
could explain why the muffin height in pumpkin puree
muffins was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in control
muffin.
Results of muffins texture are also shown in Table 2
and obtained that hardness and chewiness of pumpkin
puree muffin were significantly higher (P<0.05) than in
control muffin. The hardness and chewiness of control
muffin were 164.98N and 31.47 N/cm, respectively.
However, the range of hardness and chewiness of
pumpkin puree muffins were from 275.73 to 352.30 N,
and from 62.82 to 97.04 N/cm, respectively. In fact,
hardness was defined as the maximum peak force during
the first compression cycle (first bite) indicating the
hardness or softness of the product. Increment of
hardness in pumpkin puree muffin might be associated
with tenderising action of gluten, starch, and water. The
increasing amount of pumpkin puree in muffins were
significantly (P<0.05) promote a consistent soft muffin.
The muffin hardness of formulation A (20% pumpkin
puree), formulation B (25% pumpkin puree), and
formulation C (30% pumpkin puree) were 352.30 N,
325.72 N, and 275.73 N, respectively. In fact, Kia and
Hosseini Ghaboos (2018) also reported that filling
cookies prepared with higher percentage of pumpkin
puree than dates obtained softer texture than
formulations with lower percentage of pumpkin puree
than dates in filling cookie.
The increasing amount of pumpkin puree in muffins
was also consistently decreased (P<0.05) the chewiness.
These findings were parallel to the hardness as
FULL PAPER
Formulation Control (butter)
Formulation A Formulation B Formulation C
(Muffin with 20%
pumpkin puree)
(Muffin with 30%
pumpkin puree)
(Muffin with 25%
pumpkin puree)
Height (cm) 4.90±0.20a 5.13±0.12a 5.00±0.10a 5.13±0.15a
Hardness (N) 164.98±1.16d 352.30±2.57a 325.72±0.85b 275.73±2.80c
Springiness (cm) 0.91±0.00b 0.97±0.02a 0.97±0.02a 0.97±0.01a
Chewiness (N/cm) 31.47±4.59d 97.04±1.72a 85.86±1.48b 62.82±0.91c
Cohesiveness (ratio) 0.24±0.01a 0.24±0.02a 0.24±0.01a 0.24±0.02a
Table 2. Height and texture profile for muffin with various percentage of pumpkin puree
Superscripts within same row with different letter are significantly different at (P>0.05)
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chewiness was defined as the energy required to
masticate a solid food to a state ready for swallowing
(Karaoğlu and Kotancilar, 2009). Pumpkin puree muffins
were also significantly (P<0.05) decreased springiness of
muffin. Indeed, springiness is related to the height that
the food recovers during the time that elapses between
the end of the first bite and the start of the second bite. In
this study, the springiness value of butter muffin was
0.91 cm while the springiness values of all pumpkin
puree muffin were 0.97 cm (Table 2). Cohesiveness is
defined as the ratio of the positive force during the
second compression to that during the first compression.
This parameter is the strength of internal bonds which
make up the body of the product (Sarıçoban et al., 2009).
From Table 2, cohesiveness values of butter muffin and
all pumpkin puree muffin formulations were 0.24.
3.2 Muffin colour
Colour is one of the most important attributes that
affect directly the consumer preference of any product.
The colour for L*, a* and b* values were statistically
analysed in Table 3. In fact, L* values represent
lightness/darkness, a* represent red/green colour, and b*
represent yellow/blue colour. Control muffin was found
the highest values of L* (71.30) as compared to muffin
with pumpkin puree (63.61 to 66.35) suggesting darker
colour of the latter samples. Perhaps, this finding can be
attributed to the occurrence of non-enzymatic browning
between beta-carotene pumpkin puree and flour upon
baking muffin. Similarly, Zhou et al. (2013) reported
that the occurrence of non-enzymatic reaction also took
place together with oxidation and isomerization of beta-
carotene had changed the colour parameters of pumpkin
candy. While the low L* value of control muffin could
be due to the pale colour of the butter as compared to
pumpkin puree. Pumpkin is rich with β-carotene content
contribute to a very bright orange colour of pumpkin.
However, the L* value (darkness to whiteness) of
pumpkin puree muffin decreased as the percentage of
pumpkin puree increased as shown in Table 3.
On the other hand, a* (red/green) and b* (yellow/
blue) values of the muffins showed no significant
difference (P>0.05) among all the samples. Control
muffin which produced using butter had the least a*
(6.77) and b* (36.53) values while formulation C (muffin
with 30% pumpkin puree) obtained the highest value of
a* (10.45) and b* (40.18). The high values of both a*
and b* in muffin with pumpkin puree could be also due
to the yellow/orange pigments of β-carotene. The
redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values in cookies also
increased when the percentage of pumpkin puree as
filling increased and was significantly higher (P<0.05)
than the control sample which used dates as cookies
filling (Kia and Hosseini Ghaboos, 2018).
3.3 Muffin consumer acceptability
Table 4 presents data of hedonic test of muffins by
consumer panellists. Results obtained that the
acceptability of control muffin in terms of the aroma,
texture, taste, and overall acceptance were the highest
(P<0.05) compared to all pumpkin puree muffin except
for colour. The mean scores of attributes aroma, texture,
taste, and overall acceptance of control muffin were
6.80, 6.32, 7.20, and 7.02, respectively. As expected,
panellists most preferred yellow colour of muffin with
30% pumpkin puree which the mean scores were 6.62
(P>0.05). The higher amount of pumpkin puree in
muffin provide better appearance and pleasant of yellow
colour since pumpkin flesh contained β-carotene (red-
orange colour pigment) which this was also correlated
with b* value (40.18) of the muffin (formulation C).
Several researchers also found that yellow colour of food
products increased mean scores of panellists in colour
attribute. For example, Kia and Hosseini Ghaboos (2018)
found that colour of cookies filling with 25% pumpkin
puree was the most like (4.10) compared to without
pumpkin puree filling (3.90) (P>0.05). In addition, the
chickpea flour that contributed to yellowish colour also
increased panellistsmean scores when the percentage
was increased in imitation chicken nugget product
formulations (Sharima-Abdullah et al., 2018).
Panellists most preferred aroma, taste, texture, and
overall acceptance of control muffin (butter formulation)
(Table 4) because butter have a distinct flavour and
aroma as well as provide mouthfeel sensation for better
consumption (Rios et al., 2014). In the recent year,
Mohan et al. (2018) reported that increasing ratio of
avocado puree to butter in cookies decreased (P>0.05)
the mean scores of attributes aroma, taste, flavour, and
overall acceptance compared to control (butter cookies).
Furthermore, increasing ratio pumpkin puree to date in
cookies filling were also significantly (P<0.05)
decreased panellistsmean scores of flavour, and overall
acceptance. However, in this study, it was found that the
mean scores of attributes of aroma, taste, texture, and
overall acceptance of pumpkin puree muffin increased
with the increasing amount of pumpkin puree
replacement (Table 4). Therefore, it is suggested that the
addition of pumpkin puree has a feasibility to replace
butter in muffin formulation. According to Colla et al.
(2018), a successful fat-replacement product must
replicate texture, mouthfeel, and flavour of the original
fat.
4. Conclusion
This study demonstrated that the pumpkin puree
FULL PAPER
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eISSN: 2550-2166 © 2019 The Authors. Published by Rynnye Lyan Resources
muffin significantly increased (P<0.05) hardness and
chewiness of muffin compared to control muffin.
Increasing of pumpkin puree percentage for butter
replacer in muffin changed the darkness, redness, and
yellowness of muffin products. In the overall acceptance
of pumpkin puree muffin, it was obtained that 30% of
pumpkin puree replacement in muffin was most
acceptable and might be due to attractive yellow colour
and better sweet taste of pumpkin. Thus, this study
concluded that 30% pumpkin puree has the potential to
be used as butter replacer in the formulation of muffin.
Furthermore, the nutritional properties and caloric value
of this pumpkin puree muffin will be studied in the
future project.
Conflict of Interest
No conflict of interest
Acknowledgments
The authors are grateful to Faculty Science and
Technology, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia
for the use of all laboratory facilities, apparatus, and
financial support of this entire work. Special thanks also
go to Mrs. Rina Wahap, Mrs. Normah Haron, Mrs.
Norhafiza Abdul Ghafar, and to all laboratory assistants
of Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Sains
Islam Malaysia, for their assistance in this work.
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FULL PAPER
Formulation Control (butter)
Formulation A Formulation B Formulation C
(Muffin with 20%
pumpkin puree)
(Muffin with 25%
pumpkin puree)
(Muffin with 30%
pumpkin puree)
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a* 6.77± 2.02a 10.02±2.09a 9.52±1.22a 10.45±1.74a
b* 36.83± 1.01a 38.02±0.68a 39.21± 2.03a 40.18±1.11a
Formulation Control (butter)
Formulation A Formulation B Formulation C
(Muffin with 20%
pumpkin puree)
(Muffin with 25%
pumpkin puree)
(Muffin with 30%
pumpkin puree)
Colour 6.57±1.58a 6.48±1.67a 6.58±1.49a 6.62±1.54a
Aroma 6.80±1.59a 5.92±1.60b 6.25±1.79ab 6.57±1.53ab
Texture 6.32±1.50a 5.08±1.83b 5.35±1.81b 5.55±2.00ab
Taste 7.20±1.21a 5.70±1.37b 6.02±1.24b 6.70±1.00a
Overall Acceptance 7.02±1.46a 6.05±1.21b 6.18±1.19b 6.82±1.11a
Table 4. Mean scores of hedonic test of muffin with various percentage of pumpkin puree
Table 3. Colour analysis using hunter lab for muffin with various percentage of pumpkin puree
Superscripts within same row with different letter are significantly different at (P>0.05)
Superscripts within same row with different letter are significantly different at ( P>0.05)
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FULL PAPER
... The trend similar to the biscuit with the addition of carrots powder [23] and biscuit with the addition of pumpkin powder [24]. According to Arifin et al [25] the lower L* indicates a darker color caused by nonenzymatic browning between the beta carotene in pumpkin puree and flour that occurs during the baking process. In addition, the decrease in L* value occurs due to browning reaction as a result of Maillard reaction and degradation of carotenoid pigments [10]. ...
... In addition, the decrease in L* value occurs due to browning reaction as a result of Maillard reaction and degradation of carotenoid pigments [10]. The increase in a* and b* value along with the increase in the concentration of puree added is caused by the higher beta carotene content which carries a yellow/orange color [23,25]. Hardness is the amount of force required to break the sample [26]. ...
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... In the texture profile analysis, from Table 2, the hardness of samples measured showed that both muffin with egg replacers become softer compared to controller (p<0.05). In fact, hardness was defined as the maximum peak force during the first compression cycle (first bite) indicating the softness or hardness of the product (Ariffin, et al., 2019). The firmness of muffins was directly related to the density of the tested materials (indirectly to its volume). ...
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According to Savage (2007), 1% to 2% of all children are egg allergies and these situations are very common. And for this reason, egg replacers that can be easily used by home cooks is an important area of research. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the physical properties of egg replacements with aquafaba and flaxseed on a basic muffin ingredient. Muffin formulations of two formulated to replaced the egg, Formulation 1 (using aquafaba) and Formulation 2 (using flaxseed). A muffin formulated with egg was served as a control muffin. All muffins were tested for muffins' height, moisture content, texture profiles (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and adhesion) and consumer acceptability. All data were analyzed with one way ANOVA, using Tukey's test to compare the means of the samples using SPSS software. Results found that both egg replacers in muffin formulations were significantly different as compared to control muffin for muffin's height. While moisture content and texture (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and adhesion) was not significantly as compared to control muffins. It shows that in terms of moisture and texture, muffins with egg replacers, both aquafaba and flaxseed similar like control muffins and feasible to be used as an egg replacers in muffin formulation.
... Reformulation studies on muffins have mostly used recipes consisting of basic ingredients which do not represent modern industrial scale production (e.g., with the use of emulsifiers, humectants and texture enhancers) [42,43]. Moreover, studies have not been designed to evaluate the industrial applicability of the reformulated muffins, as they have not investigated the effect of reformulation on essential characteristics of the end-product [23,44]. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of reducing sugar and fat in muffins by creating and reformulating an industrial recipe that has similar macronutrient distribution of store-branded/packaged muffins using two clean-label substitutes: inulin and green banana flour. ...
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This study demonstrates a scenario of industrial reformulation by developing muffins that resemble store-branded ones and testing the possibility of reformulating them using inulin and green banana flour (GBF). Ten different formulations were created through reducing 10% or 30% of sugar and/or fat. Physical characteristics, consumer acceptance and purchase preferences, baking losses, nutritional properties, shelf-life, as well as cost and industrial processability were considered and discussed. Results on physical properties showed that firmness had increased in reformulated muffins while springiness only decreased when both sugar and fat were reduced by 30% (p < 0.05). Texture and sensory properties of reformulated muffins were acceptable, and the purchase intent rate was high. Regarding the nutritional properties, muffins incorporating more than 10% of fibres allowed the addition of nutritional claims. The incremental area under the curve iAUC120min of blood glucose in healthy adults (n = 13) was significantly lower than control after ingesting 30% reduced sugar or fat muffins using inulin (p < 0.01). The microbial profile was not affected by reformulation during storage at 25 °C for 10 days. This study concluded that there is a significant potential to industrially produce reduced sugar or fat muffins using inulin or GBF up to 30% without significantly deteriorating quality attributes.
... Furthermore, as well-known a lot of works that are related for the supplementations of plant origin additives to the confectionary. For instance, pumpkin powder in sponge cake has raised level of β-carotene and protein (Hosseini Ghaboos et al., 2018), melon in jam is important source of antioxidants (Benmeziane et al., 2018), mango in jelly is a good alternative for increasing the content of phytochemical compounds (Gurak et al., 2018), pumpkin puree has the potential to be used as butter replacer in the formulation of muffin (Arifin et al., 2019), physicochemical and sensory properties of baked cake 'kuih bakar' can be maintained by using fresh soy milk as a substitution of the traditional coconut milk (Maimanah-Faizah et al., 2020), belimbi fruit jam prepared from maltitol and belimbi fruit jams from sucrose may be labeled as 'jam' product as well as 'reduced-calorie jam' (Ho et al., 2020) and other. ...
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... According toSharima-Abdullah et al. (2018), the yellow colour of ICNs which contain 10 up to 30% of chickpea flour increased from 27.46 to 40.26. The yellow colour of a food product mainly influences consumer preference(Arifin et al., 2019;Sharima- Abdullah et al., 2018). ...
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Fat provides important sensory properties to baked food products, such as colour, taste, texture and odour, all of which contribute to overall consumer acceptance. Baked food products, such as crackers, cakes and biscuits, typically contain high amounts of fat. However, there is increasing demand for healthy snack foods with reduced fat content. In order to maintain consumer acceptance whilst simultaneously reducing the total fat content, fat replacers have been employed. There are a number of fat replacers that have been investigated in baked food products, ranging from complex carbohydrates, gums and gels, whole food matrices, and combinations thereof. Fat replacers each have different properties that affect the quality of a food product. In this review, we summarise the literature on the effect of fat replacers on the quality of baked food products. The ideal fat replacers for different types of low-fat baked products were a combination of polydextrose and guar gum in biscuits at 70% fat replacement (FR), oleogels in cake at 100% FR, and inulin in crackers at 75% FR. The use of oatrim (100% FR), bean puree (75% FR) or green pea puree (75% FR) as fat replacers in biscuits were equally successful.
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In recent years, consumers’ demand increases for healthier foods with nutritional benefits and similar taste to the origin. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical properties and proximate composition as well as consumer preference of imitation chicken nuggets or ICNs formulated with different percentage of chickpea flour and textured vegetable protein (TVP). A commercial brand of chicken nugget was chosen as control experiment to compare its characteristics with ICNs. Five formulation of ICNs were prepared with the percentage of chickpea flour to TVP of ICNs were: A (30:10), B (25:15), C (20:20), D (15:25), and E (10:30). Results found that all ICNs were found significantly lower (P<0.05) in cooking loss, lightness, hardness, chewiness, springiness, cohesiveness, and water activity than in control nugget. However, all ICNs were higher (P<0.05) in yellow colour than in control nugget. The ash, protein, and carbohydrate contents of ICNs were higher (P<0.05) than in control nugget but were lower (P<0.05) in moisture and fat content. However, hedonic test found that consumers preferred (P<0.05) control nugget compared to all ICNs. The ICN E which contained percentage of chickpea flour to TVP (10:30) was the most preferred by consumers in term of texture, taste, and overall acceptance compared to all ICNs. This findings showed that formulation of ICNs with chickpea flour with TVP could be accepted by consumers but further research should be focused on the optimised amounts of the chickpea flour in the ICNs. Thus, the sensory characteristics with these proteins and the nutritional values should be improved similar to those with chicken.
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Fats and oils are very important raw materials and functional ingredients for several food products such as confectionery, bakery, ice creams, emulsions, and sauces, shortenings, margarines, and other specially tailored products. Formulated products are made with just about every part of chemistry, but they are not simple chemicals. In general, they consist of several, and often many, components. Each of these components has a purpose. Most formulated products have a micro- or nano-structure that is important for their function, but obtaining this structure is often the big challenge. Due to a rise in overweight or obesity, health concerns have increased. This fact has led to the need to the develop products with low fat content, which have become a market trend. In addition, the development of new products using fat substitutes can be a good option for companies that are always trying to reduce costs or substitute trans fat or saturated fat. However, the successful development of these products is still a challenge because fat plays multiple roles in determining the desirable physicochemical and sensory attributes, and because the consumers who want or need to replace these ingredients, seek products with similar characteristics to those of the original product. Important attributes such as smooth, creamy and rich texture; milky and creamy appearance; desirable flavor; and satiating effects are influenced by the droplets of fat, and these characteristics are paramount to the consumer and consequently crucial to the success of the product in the market. Therefore, it is important to identify commercially viable strategies that are capable of removing or reducing fat content of food products without altering their sensory and nutritional characteristics. This paper intended to provide an overview about the role of fat in different food systems such as chocolate, ice cream, bakery products like biscuits, breads, and cakes considering the major trends of the food industry to meet the demands of modern society.
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Changes in the contents of carotenoids and their true retentions (% TR) during the production of puree of Cucurbita moschata ‘Menina Brasileira’ and of Cucurbita maxima ‘Exposição’ pumpkins and the stability of such compounds during 180days of storage were monitored by liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Cooking caused higher losses than commercial sterilisation. High losses of xanthophylls such as lutein and violaxanthin were noted during processing and storage of pumpkin puree. Such losses show the low stability of these compounds. The major carotenoids, pro-vitamin A carotenes, namely, α-carotene and all-trans-β-carotene for C. moschata ‘Menina Brasileira’ and all-trans-β-carotene for C. maxima ‘Exposição’ obtained high retentions (>75%) after processing. A slight degree of isomerisation of β-carotene was noted in the puree samples, but with low concentrations of cis-isomers. Storage for 180days did not significantly affect (P⩽0.05) the concentrations of these carotenoids.
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Infrared-vacuum dehydration characteristics of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated in a combined dryer system. The effects of drying parameters, infrared radiation power (204–272 W), system pressure (5–15 kPa), slice thickness (5 and 7 mm) and time (0–220 min) on the drying kinetics and characteristics of pumpkin slices were investigated. The vacuum pressure, lamp power and slice had significant effect on the drying kinetics and various qualities of the dried pumpkin. Moisture ratios were fitted to 10 different mathematical equations using nonlinear regression analysis. The quadratic equation satisfactorily described the drying behavior of pumpkin slices with the highest r value and the lowest SE values. The effective moisture diffusivity increased with power and ranged between 0.71 and 2.86 × 10−9 m2/s. With increasing in infrared radiation power from 204 to 272 W, β–carotene content of dried pumpkins decreased from 30.04 to 24.55 mg/100 g. The rise in infrared power has a negative effect on the color changes (ΔE). The optimum condition was determined as power, 238W, pressure, 5 kPa and slice thickness, 5mm. These conditions resulted into dried pumpkin slices with maximum B-carotene retention.
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The effect of the puncturing settings (crosshead speed and punch cross-section) on the crust mechanical parameters was investigated using breads with two different crust thickness. Results showed that, greater punch cross-section was associated to compression behavior, which reduced the sensibility to detect changes in the crust structure. Moreover, low crosshead speed (0.5 mm/s) puncture test provided information about the cellular structure of the crust. The relationship between the puncturing parameters and the water activity and moisture content together with the crust microstructure analysis revealed that for obtaining reliable information about the structural ruptures related to crispiness texture, it is necessary to use low crosshead speeds (0.5 mm/s) and low punch cross-section (3 mm2). Crust microstructure observations indicate that the crust layers and the size and shape of the air cells are responsible of the puncturing behavior. Texture of the bread crust is an important parameter used to define the quality of crispy breads and their freshness. Consequently, the extension of crust crispiness is still a priority for the baking industry. Different methods have been proposed for assessing the mechanical properties of the bread crust, although punching is a common feature in all of them. However, there is no information about the incidence of punching settings on the bread crust mechanical parameters. Water activity and moisture content of the crust, besides scanning electron microscopy of the crust section, were used to confirm the reliability of the mechanical parameters. The study allows defining the best conditions to study the crust's mechanical properties providing information about the internal cell structure. Results could be very useful at research level and also for the baking industry when investigating crust freshness.
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Pumpkins were processed at high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) ranging from 350 to 550 MPa for 0.5 min to 30 min. Two different nonlinear mathematical models were compared to fit the inactivation kinetics. The second model consistently produced better fits to the inactivation data than the first model (Weibull model). According to the inactivation of microorganisms, pumpkin was subjected to 450 MPa/15 min and 550 MPa/10 min. The microbiological and physicochemical changes in pumpkin subjected to (HHP) and thermal-treated (854 °C/5 min) were compared during 4 °C storage. The total plate counts (TPC) treated with thermal processing, 450 MPa/15 min and 550 MPa/10 min were 5.12, 4.02 and 1.71 log10 CFU/g, respectively on the 60th day. The growth of microorganisms caused the increase in ΔE, decrease in hardness in other treatments. Treatment of 550 MPa for 10 min had little effect on color during storage. There were no significant changes in the L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ values (p > 0.05). The hardness of pumpkin treated with 550 MPa/10 min decreased by 32.28% after 60 days. A greater retention of the original color, Vc and antioxidant capacity and increased total phenols were observed in 550 MPa/10 min-treated samples immediately after processing. During storage, color changed, Vc content, total phenols and the antioxidant activity were decreased. While the soluble solids content (SSC), sugars and pH value of pumpkin with HHP or thermal treatment did not show significant change immediately during 60-day storage. Based on these results, working at 550 MPa for 10 min ensures physicochemical and high standard of sanitation parameters in pumpkin.