Introduction: In homeopathic philosophy, vital force is a non-material substrate that is responsible for maintaining the body’s sensations and functions and where homeopathic medicines act. In genetics, the body’s vital functions are controlled by biochemical information, which is contained in the cell genome and consists of a protein encoding portion (exome) and another that regulates this encoding scheme (epigenome). Both the philosophical vital force and the genome present properties of complex and dynamic self-organisation systems. Aims: This study aimed to explore and develop a philosophical-scientific correlation between vitalism and genetics according to the complexity paradigm. Results: Vital principle and genome present inseparable composition among distinct existing components that influence one another and form a network of connections that create complex and dynamic self-organisation behaviour. Described in both models, ‘vortex’ indicates the existence of a force coming from within the system that is externalised as an emergent, information-transmitting phenomenon. Supporting this correlation, some experimental studies show that homeopathic medicines act on the genome by modulating gene expression. Conclusions: In line with the similarity of existing characteristics and properties, the genome may be considered as hypothetical biological substrate of organic vital force.
Correlation between Vitalism and Genetics
According to the Paradigm of Complexity
Marcus Zulian Teixeira1
1School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Homeopathy 2020;109:3036.
Address for correspondence Marcus Zulian Teixeira, MD, PhD,
Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, Departamento de Ginecologia e
Obstetrícia, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 10° andar, sala
10.166, 05403-000, São Paulo/SP, Brazil
(e-mail: mzulian@usp.br; marcus@homeozulian.med.br).
In addition to the four scientic pillars (therapeutic simili-
tude, homeopathic pathogenetic trials, prescription of
potentised and individualised medicines), which support
homeopathic therapeutic practice, homeopathic philosophy
uses the vitalist concept and miasmatic theory to broaden
the understanding of the health-disease process and infer a
non-material representation or substrate that justies the
action of ultra-highly diluted medicines (at concentration
values beyond the Avogadro limit).
The hypothetical homeopathic vital force is substantially
linked to the physical body (organic vital force) and is
responsible for preserving the state of health and maintain-
ing life. Vital imbalance brings physical illnesses and, by
restoring the balance, the body returns to a state of health. As
a result of its dynamic and non-material nature, the vital
principle is inuenced by other types of energies or related
forces, such as the subtle manifestations of the psyche and
those of the mind. Since the potentised homeopathic med-
icine has a similar nature, it is able to restore vital harmony,
as long as it is used according to the therapeutic similitude
principle (curative vital reaction). The irrational vital force
differs in nature and kind from the intelligent spirit, which is
dened as an autonomous entity that is apart from the
inseparable physicalvital unity. Hahnemann did not delve
deeply into understanding the vital forces nature or essence,
complex systems
Abstract Background In homeopathic philosophy, vital force is a non-material substrate that is
responsible for maintaining the bodys sensations and functions and where homeo-
pathic medicines act. In genetics, the bodys vital functions are controlled by
biochemical information, which is contained in the cell genome and consists of a
protein encoding portion (exome) and another that regulates this encoding scheme
(epigenome). Both the philosophical vital force and the genome present properties of
complex and dynamic self-organisation systems.
Aims This study aimed to explore and develop a philosophical-scientic correlation
between vitalism and genetics according to the complexity paradigm.
Results Vital principle and genome present inseparable composition among distinct
existing components that inuence one another and form a network of connections
that create complex and dynamic self-organisation behaviour. Described in both
models, vortexindicates the existence of a force coming from within the system
that is externalised as an emergent, information-transmitting phenomenon. Support-
ing this correlation, some experimental studies show that homeopathic medicines act
on the genome by modulating gene expression.
Conclusions In line with the similarity of existing characteristics and properties, the
genome may be considered as hypothetical biological substrate of organic vital force.
March 24, 2019
accepted after revision
April 23, 2019
published online
July 18, 2019
DOI https://doi.org/
ISSN 1475-4916.
Copyright © 2020 The Faculty of
despite regarding it as the prima causa morbi of diseases. The
homeopathic vitalism presents a set of aspects that is similar
to that of other medical and philosophical concepts.15
In homeopathic miasmatic theory, which addresses the
nature of chronic diseases, Hahnemann adds the existence
of three chronic miasms (psora, sycosis, and syphillis) of
dynamic nature to their etio-pathogenesis (causam morborum
chronicum), by attributing them the prerogative of being the
main obstacle to the action of correctly prescribed homeo-
pathic medicines, thus preventing the curative vital reaction
from occurring.6
Studies conducted on complex and dynamic self-organi-
sation systems, which were employed in biomedicine to
broaden the understanding of homeostatic physiological
mechanisms, can be used in homeopathy to justify the modus
operandi of the vital principle, since both phenomena pre-
sent similar properties (non-linearity, self-organisation and
dynamism, among others).
In the eld of genetics, studies describe a non-coding
portion of the genome (epigenome) that controls the encod-
ing portion (exome) following a complex, dynamic and self-
organisation behaviour, thus allowing the production of
countless types of proteins that are responsible for preser-
ving the state of health and maintaining life. Thus, similar to
the vital principle, the cell genome (exome plus epigenome)
is continuously modulated throughout life, according to the
external and internal inuences affecting the individual,
activating or silencing the genes that are responsible for
the manifestation of physiological disturbances or diseases.
The current study aims to explore and describe the
philosophicalscientic correlation between vitalism and
genetics according to the paradigm of complexity, which
transcends the polarisation between holism and reduction-
ism, vitalism and materialism, and helps broaden the under-
standing of the disease process described by the
homeopathic model and the hypothesis researchers have
raised that the cell genome can be considered as the biolo-
gical representation or substrate of organic vital force.
Hahnemanns Vitalist Concept
The author has been studying homeopathic vitalism since
1996,25aiming at broadening the understanding of the
aspects that permeate the human disease mechanism, the
cure of diseases, and the action of highly diluted medicines.
According to Hahnemanns vitalist concept,15the
homeopathic vital force is similar to the Hippocratic vis
medicatrix naturae, automatically and instinctively activated
and subjected to the laws of the physical body.
Throughout life, the vital force is substantially linked to
the physical body (inseparable physicalvital unit or organic
vital force), thus making it possible for the body to have
sensations, perform its functions and display self-preserva-
tion abilities. When the vital force or principle, which
maintains the state of health and preserves life, fails to
perform its dynamic activity, the body gets sick or dies.
According to the homeopathic vitalist concept, every disease
is caused by the imbalance in the organic vital force, as a
result of a dynamic inuence of a disease-promoting agent
(internal and/or external morbic agents). In turn, healing
and the return to a state of health occur by restoring balance
or the integrity of the vital principle (Organon der Heilkunst,
6th ed., paragraphs 1016).1
However, despite grounding the healthdisease homeo-
pathic concept on the modus operandi of the vital force,
Hahnemann did not work to understand its nature, to
move away from the futility of transcendental speculations,
repeatedly stating i n his body of work th at there is no ne ed to
know the internal essence of the disease,the non-material
essence that produces the disease, the vital forceor under-
stand how the vital force causes the organism to display
morbid phenomena, that is, how it produces disease,sothat
they can be cured. He suggests that, rather than looking for
the prima causa morbi in the hidden interior of the organ-
ism, the healer must stick to the sensible and manifest
representation of the disease: in other words, to the signs
and symptoms that the patient presents as the main goal of
healing (Organon, Introduction, paragraphs 6131;The
Chronic Diseases, Preface to fourth volume).6
By this strictly clinical and experimental approach, where
vital force disturbance is reected outwardly by the mani-
fested signs and symptoms, the homeopathic physician
conducts the diagnosis and chooses the homeopathic med-
icine that causes similar manifestations in healthy experi-
menters (Organon, paragraph 7).1Thus, by producing an
articial disease that is very similar to the natural one, the
homeopathic medicine acts by triggering a reaction from the
vital principle against the pre-existing organic disturbance,
removing the signs and symptoms manifested by means of
the principle of symptomatic therapeutic similitude (Orga-
non, paragraphs 2125).1
Accordingly, homeopathic medicine, which is prepared
following a pharmaco-technical process of dynamisation
(that acts by dematerialising the matter itself;Organon,
paragraph 269),1can restore health and harmony to the vital
principle, since it possesses non-material (dynamic, virtual)
modier forcesof similar nature to that of the vital force
(Organon, paragraphs 11, 16).1By keeping the same previous
position of avoiding the deeper comprehension of the inner
nature of the vital force, Hahnemann re-states that the non-
material force hidden in the inner nature of medicines can in
itself never be discovered by us by a mere effort of reason
(Organon, paragraph 20).1
Since it behaves like other types of related energies,
Hahnemann compares the non-material force of homeo-
pathic medicine with the dynamic force of mineral magnet-
ism, electricity, galvanism, and electromagnetism (Organon,
paragraphs 286, 287).1
According to the Hahnemannian vitalist anthropology,5
the instinctive, irrational, and unintelligent, but energetic
automatic vital force(Organon, Introduction)1differs in
nature and kind from the rational and intelligent spirit,
which uses the physicalvital unit for the higher purpose
of our existence(Organon, paragraph 9).1This spirit (soul) is
differentiated from the vital principle as an autonomous
Homeopathy Vol. 109 No. 1/2020
Correlation between Vitalism and Genetics Teixeira 31
In addition to the spirit, Hahnemann adds to the human
non-material nature the mind or psyche, invisible subtle
organ of the mindor almost non-material, mental, and
emotional organs, entities that are responsible for mental
and psychic manifestations (thoughts, emotions, and feel-
ings), which inuence the vital force, physical body, and
health (Organon, paragraphs 215, 216):1hence the relevance
that is attributed to mental and psychic aspects in the etio-
pathogenesis of diseases (Organon, paragraph 213).1
In short, we observe in the homeopathic vitalist concept a
hierarchy of mutual inuences among the several instances, in
which the spirit manifests its potential by means of thoughts,
emotions, and feelings that emanate from the mind (psyche),
acting on the organic vital force and, consequently, on the
health-diseaseprocess.25However, since Hahnemann did not
probe the essence of this organic vital force or how it causes
diseases, he prepared an experimental treatment model based
on the symptomatic externalisation of the vital disturbance.
By proposing to act on the prima causa morbi of diseases
(vital dystonia) by means of its clinical representation
(totality of signs and symptoms), Hahnemann shielded the
homeopathic model from metaphysical speculations, thus
valuing the postulates that could be corroborated according
to the logical and scientic thinking of his time.
Complex and Dynamic Self-Organisation
In recent years, the concepts of complexity and self-organisa-
tion have been the object of study in diverse science elds and
were employed in broadening the understanding of how phy-
sical, biological, behavioural, social, political, economic and
cultural systems work. A growing number of studies in the
biomedicine eld employ the complexity paradigm to extend
understanding of the self-regulating homeostatic mechanisms
of the many physiological systems and body components.79
Etymologically speaking, complexitycomes from the
Latin word, complexus, which means that which is woven
together,twisted togetheror intertwined. Thus, in any
complex system, two or more distinct existing parts or
components must be interconnected and form a stable
structure. A complex system cannot be analysed or separated
into a set of independent elements without being destroyed
(a substantial and inseparable unit among parts). As a result
of this, it is not feasible to employ reductionist methods to
interpret or understand them.10,11
Complex and dynamic systems include countless simple
behaviour units that inuence one another in an intrinsic
network of connections, thus creating a complex global
behaviour. Such adaptive complex systems vio late the classic
principles of logic (determinism, reductionism, linear caus-
ality and continuity, among others), presenting specic
characteristics and properties. Among them, the self-orga-
nisation property stands out the one where the order/
disorder binomial emerges from the multiple interactions
among component units, and there is the need for some
mechanisms to pre-exist so that the phenomenon is mani-
fested. Examples of those are: thermodynamic opening
(energy ow through the system); non-linear, dynamic
behaviour; local interaction; large numbers of independent
components with distinct behaviours; occurrence of feed-
backs and related emerging phenomena (domino effect,
resonance, and vortex); organised global behaviour (meta
balancing) and multi-scale effects, among others.10,11
According to Palazzo,10 the science of complexity trans-
cends the polarisation between reductionism and holism,
allowingthe modelling of systemsthat simultaneously present
the distinction and connection characteristics, a model that is
observable in the mathematical and reversible concept of
network, which consists of nodes and connections among
them, thus allowing the parts to establish relationships among
one another. While the connections are neglected in the
reductionist approach, where only the nodes are valued, the
holistic approach eliminates as many distinctions as possible
among nodes, and values the connections only. Accordingly,
both methods reduce a complex phenomenon to a simple
representation, a loose set of differentiated nodes or a mass of
connections among equal nodes, neglecting essential aspects
of the phenomenons characteristics.
Correlation of Vitalism with the Paradigm of
In the homeopathic scientic literature, the complex and
dynamic system theory has been used to correlate the modus
operandi of the home opathic vital principle to self-regul ating
homeostatic mechanisms.1215 Despite not clarifying the
intrinsic nature of the organic vital force, this approach
assists in understanding the dynamics of the vital principles
action by outlining analogies among concepts, characteris-
tics and properties that are involved in the role it plays in
maintaining the overall state of health.
By correlating the modus operandi of the homeopathic vital
principle to the operational process of complex and dynamic
systems, Bellavite13 highlights three essential properties that
are common to both phenomena: non-linearity, self-organisa-
tion, and dynamism. To the assumption that the non-linearity
of complex systems describing a random behaviour that is
sensitive to small disturbances which results in the absence
of proportionality between rst stimulus (input) and nal
outcome (output) the authors correlate the assumption of
therapeutic similitude, where a primary and direct action of an
ultra-highly diluted homeopathic medicine (innitesimal dis-
turbance) triggers a secondary and inverse reaction (biphasic,
hormonal, paradoxical or rebound effect).14 The magnitude of
the effect of homeopathic high dilutions on the vital principle
also counters the classic linearity,since growing vital reactions
or therapeutic outcomes (outputs) are observed with reduced
concentration of the doses (inputs).12,15
Self-organisation is complex systemsproperty of display-
ing unpredictable global behaviour patterns, as a result of the
local interaction of its components. In homeopathy, self-
organisation of the vital principle displays its behaviour pat-
tern in the set of characteristic signs and symptoms manifested
that represent the interaction among the vital manifestations
of the many isolated physiological systems (network of
Homeopathy Vol. 109 No. 1/2020
Correlation between Vitalism and Genetics Teixeira32
connections creating the global complex behaviour). Accord-
ing to Bellavite:13 this notion of emergent properties of large
numbers of interacting parts also allows a reasonable expla-
nation of Hahnemannsvital forcein terms of total activity of
all the cells in the body, of complex feedbacks and homeo-
dynamics. It is a crucial aspect of the healing process that
billions of cells act in concert to destroy foreign invaders or
tumour cellsand to re-establish the healthy morphologicaland
functional state. This homeostatic self-regulation of the com-
plex physiological system (rebalancing of the vital principle)
may be obtained by administrating an individualised homeo-
pathic medicine or symptomatic simillimum that reproduces
the whole symptom pattern of the ill state.14
As a fundamental property of complex systems, dyna-
mism represents the ability to change continuously in
response to external and internal inuences or stimuli,
thus granting plasticity and self-organisation properties to
the systems. According to its author,13 if this dynamism is
clearly observed in the complexity of the etio-pathogenesis
of diseases, and is the result of the inuence of distinct
factors (environmental, psycho-emotional, physiopathologi-
cal and genetic, among others), it is also responsible for the
complexity of the healing process, where multifactorial
therapeutic action is needed for neutralising them. Concern-
ing the homeopathic model, the dynamic vital principle
disturbance is the result of distinct etio-pathogenetic factors
that are represented in the manifestation of the character-
istic symptomatic totality. In turn, vital rebalancing occurs by
neutralising the set of these symptomatic manifestations.
Other correlations between the vitalist phenomenon and
the properties of complex systems can also be outlined.
According to Palazzo,10 the vital force is related to vortex,
the emerging phenomenon that indicates the presence of a
force that comes from within the system, the result of the
very masses in circular motion that animate the phenom-
enon, experimentally evidenced in the cell membrane.16
Whirlpools in t roubled waters and tornadoes in turbulen t
skies are perfect examples of vortex. What is curious about
vortex is that, in its centre, no force seems to exist [despite]
sucking large masses from an undened point. This, how-
ever, is just an illusion caused by the circular movement of
the masses. If they are removed from the vortex, there will be
nothing left. It is like removing all of an onionslayers
expecting to nd anything inside it. However, by observing
the vortex, it is made clear that there is a force somewhere.
Where is it? Perhaps the answer is one of the most important
notions in the science of complexity: it comes from within
the system. Even when an external force seems to be orga-
nising the vortex, the very masses in circular movement are
the ones driving the phenomenon.10
According to Palazzo,10 this knowledge about the vortex
phenomenon is important because it ended a long-time
dispute between vitalism and materialism, by showing that
both views are correct, according to the analysis framework:
lifes very existence de pends on a vital force that corresponds
to the illusory suction force existing in the centre of the
vortex, and such vital force emerges from within the system,
with no need for any other external force to produce life.
One of the reasons why this knowledge is so important is
that it ended the long-time dispute between vitalism and
materialism. Vitalists defended the idea that lifes existence
depends on a vital force, while materialists believed that no
external force was needed to produce life. [...] Vitalists quite
rightly identied a vital force that corresponds to the illusory
suction force existing in the centre of the vortex. The
materialistic view is also correct, since such vital force
emerges from the systems interior. Nothing in the exterior
organises this vortex. Vital force is real, but it does not exist in
the usual sense of existence, since it has what is known as
So that hyper-existence occurs, Palazzo10 adds that the
system needs to meet the following conditions: th e emerging
phenomenon must be incorporated; the components must
be unbalanced; and there must be feedback. Should these
conditions occur, vortex will be manifest and the force
emerging from within the system will reach the surface.
This emerging phenomenon (vortex) corresponds to the
concept of force centres or chakra s (wheelsin Sanskrit) from
Traditional Hindu Medicine, according to which energy
vortices that are spread across the bodys surface vibrate
continuously and distribute vital energy or prana to the
physiological systems and body components.35,17 Accord-
ing to Traditional Chinese Medicine, similar denitions and
properties are attributed to the energy meridians and their
respective acupoints.35,18 It is worth pointing out that both
medical practices also present the properties of complex
systems, by grounding their vitalist therapeutic approaches
on the intricate network of connections comprising the force
centres and energy meridians respectively.1921
Genetics, Genome and Epigenome
The bodys vital functions are fundamentally controlled by
biochemical information contained in the DNA (set of
nucleotide sequences) or cell genome, which passes down
those characteristics to future generations and undergoes
mutations that allow evolutive adaptations to different
environmental factors to take place. The genome consists
of exome (protein encoding DNA portion that is needed for
maintaining and controlling physiological functions) and
epigenome (protein non-coding DNA portion that regulates
the expression of encoding genes). Whi le exome makes up 2%
of the genome, epigenome makes up the remaining 98%, thus
highlighting the complexity of the cell differentiation pro-
cess and the resulting regulation of organic homeostasis. In
1942, British geneticist Conrad H. Waddington created the
term epigenetics(from the Greek prex, epi, aboveor on
genetics or classic molecular biology) to designate the con-
trol of the epigenome over the exome and respective gene
After the fertilisation and fusion of the gametesgenetic
material, the zygote replicates the same genome (exome plus
epigenome) for the bodys other trillion cells, inuenced by
internal and external signals that affect the future indivi-
duals morphology, physiology and behaviour. So that this
inuence reaches the cell nucleus and the genes are able to
Homeopathy Vol. 109 No. 1/2020
Correlation between Vitalism and Genetics Teixeira 33
decode their nucleotide sequences into protein sequences, the
DNA needs to be unwrapped into structures called nucleo-
somes. This wrapping/unwrapping process of DNA encoding
regions (chromosome or chromatin remodelling) occurs by
means of epigenetic mechanisms in other words, chemical
changes that occur in the DNA molecules and histone protein,
among others. While the methylation of a certain DNA region
usually triggers chromatin wrapping and silences the respec-
tive encoding gene, histone acetylation is often related to
chromatin unwrapping and gene activation.23,24
The epigenetic alterations create a set of chemical pro-
cesses that are mediated by enzymes that represent an
additional mechanism of gene expression regulation at the
transcriptional level, shaping how the genome works and the
phenotypical prole by either activating or deactivating
genes, without the occurrence of any change in the nucleo-
tide sequence of the genetic code.25,26 The individual epi-
genome is passed down to the future generations25,27
following a specic epigenetic code and inuencing the
descendantshealthdisease correlation (trans-generational
epigenetic inheritance).28 By working as a highly intercon-
nected regulating network, this epigenotype is what
instructs the genome about when and where genes are to
be expressed. As for an orchestra composed of several
musicians, the stretches of DNA (exome plus epigenome)
transcribed in each cell type act jointly, allowing one or other
instrument to stand out from time to time.
In addition to being reversible, these epigenetic altera-
tions can be expressed on the genome of individuals at any
age, as long as they come in contact with internal and/or
external stimuli (habits and lifestyle, pollution and radiation,
medicines and hormones, inammation, stress, emo-
tions),24,25 activating or silencing genes that are responsible
for the manifestation of a wide range of diseases.2832
Correlation of Genetics with the Paradigm of
As creator of the term epigenetics, Waddingtons intuition
was that the process would consist of several concatenated,
network-articulated mechanisms in a way that any early-
stage modication could bring gradual but continuous mod-
ications to the subsequent stages, thus reaching a larger
number of tissues and organs, and making distinct pheno-
type modications.33
Similar to the vital principle or organic vital force, the
genome also presents characteristics and properties of com-
plex and dynamic self-organisation systems, opposing the
deterministic and reductionistic approach described in the
paradigm of molecular biology.34
As described byJura et al,35 advancesin the epigenetics eld
indicate that the phenotype manifested by each individual
emerges from acomplex interaction between genome and the
different environmental factors(epigenome). Gene expression
regulation is multifactorial, and includes DNA epigenetic
modication, RNA transcription, mRNA translation and
many additional modications in nascent proteins. In turn,
the transcription process is highly complex, and includes
hundreds of activating and silencing factors, as well asseveral
kinds of small molecular mass RNA (microRNA). Furthermore,
alternative mRNA splicing or editing can generate a polypep-
tide family from a single gene. DNA sequence encoding
rearrangementduring the somatic recombination is the source
of a wide variability of proteins, which seems to take place
randomly. Thus, according to its authors, the mechanism of the
DNA genetic information ow sent to encoded proteins does
not t with the reductionistic and deterministic linear rela-
tionship category, and is better described by non-linear mod-
els, such as that of complex systems.
Similar to the vital forces dynamic action, studies suggest
that the genome, as a non-linear, complex system, also
presents the vortex as an emerging genetic information-
transmitting phenomenon among cells,3639 since the DNA
double helix structure (interlaced laments in spiral format
rotated to the right) generates a longitudinal wave that
propagates in the direction of the magnetic eld vector.36
Thus, according to Palazzo10 and other authors,16 the very
DNA mass in circular motion would animate the phenom-
enon, and produce a force that would emerge from the cell
nucleus and convey the genetic information to every phy-
siological system and body component.
DNA generates a longitudinal wave that propagates in the
direction of the magnetic eld vector. Computed frequencies
from the structure of DNA agree with those of the predicted
biophoton radiation. The optimisation of efciency by mini-
mising the conduction losses leads to the double-helix struc-
ture of DNA. The vortex model of the magnetic scalar wave not
only covers many observed structures within the nucleus
perfectly, but also explains the hyperboloid channels in the
matrix when two cells communicate with each other. []The
characteristics of the potential vortex are signicant. With its
concentration effect, it provides for miniaturisation down to a
few nanometres, which allows enormously high information
density in the nucleus. [] it becomes clear that such a wave is
suitable to use genetic code chemically stored in the base pairs
of the genes and electrically modulate them, so as to piggy-
backinformation from the cell nucleus to another cell. At the
receiving end, the reverse process takes place and the trans-
ported information is converted back into a chemical struc-
ture. The necessary energy required to power the chemical
process is provided by the magnetic scalar wave itself.36
Correlation between Vitalism and Genetics
According to the Paradigm of Complexity
By comparing the vital principles overall characteristics with
those of the genome (exome plus epigenome) that were
described earlier, we highlighted several analogies between
them, such as organic vital force and genome are the key
substrates for life to emerge and be maintained (vitality of
living beings). The vital principle is responsible for keeping
sensations and body functions in balance, just like the genome
stores biochemical information that will produce the proteins
responsible for maintaining vital processes and developing
organisms. Diseases occur as a result of vital force imbalance,
as well as of disease-promoting genome modications, both
Homeopathy Vol. 109 No. 1/2020
Correlation between Vitalism and Genetics Teixeira34
being affected by the inuence of external and internal etio-
pathogenetic factors, among others.
When it comes to the properties of complex and dynamic
systems, which correlate the modus operandi of both phenom-
ena, the vital principle and genome present the following:
substantial composition among parts or behaviour units that
mutually inuence one another and form a connection net-
work that creates the complex and dynamic self-organisation
behaviour; emerging phenomena. Described in both models,
vortex supports the suggested correlation between vitalism
and genetics, indicating the existence of a force (vital forceor
DNA longitudinal wave) that comes from within the organic
system (physical-vital unitor cell nucleus) and is externa-
lised as the outcome of masses in circular motion as an
emergent and information-transmitting phenomenon.
In the eld of anthropology, Silva and Duarte40 analyse the
tensions between the vitalist and mechanist views according
to many authors, concluding that, in compliance with epige-
netics, genes perform an imaginary function that is similar to
that of the vital principle, correlating the complex, dynamic
and self-organisational nature of both phenomena. In the eld
of molecular biology, Kirschner et al41 correlate the epigenetic
properties with that of vitalism, suggesting the term mole-
cular vitalismto designate the eld of research on the inte-
grative physiology between cells and organisms.
Since 1997, Khuda-Bukhsh4244 and other authors45,46
have defended the hypothesis that homeopathic medicines
act on the genome by modulating disease-promoting gene
expression. In this context, dozens of experiments show that
potentised homeopathic medicines act at the gene regulatory
level according to three main types of effects: change in the
expression pattern of many genes; cytotoxicity or apoptosis in
cancer cells; therapeutic modication in gene expression.47
As implicated by the homeopathic vitalist concept, homeo-
pathic medicinescan be seen to restorethe bodys state of health
because they modulate vital principle dystonia. By inferring that
homeopathic medicines restore the bodys state of health by
modulating gene expression dystonia, the above experimental
studies support the hypothetical correlation between genome
(exome plus epigenome) and organic vital force.
In a recent study,47 the author developed a philosophical
scientic correlation between homeopathic chronic miasms
and disease-promoting epigenetic modications, leading to
the suggested isopathic use ofauto-sarcode of DNA as an anti-
miasmatic medicine and modulator of gene expression. In the
present study, by employing the paradigm of complexity, we
develop a philosophical-scientic correlation between vital-
ism and genetics.
By transcending the polarisation between holism and
reductionism, the science of complexity allows a functional
correlation (modus operandi) to be established between vital
principle and cell genome, highlighting that both models
consist of a network system with nodes and connections that
allows the distinct parts to relate to one another, while
valuing the whole and their units at the same time.
As ontological properties, organic vital force and genome
can be seen to represent the substrates that are responsible
for the emergence and maintenance of life, susceptibility to
diseases, and the action of potentised homeopathic medi-
cines. According to complex and dynamic self-organisation
systems, both models present non-linearity, self-organisa-
tion and dynamism.
Closing the dispute between vitalism and materialism,
vortex is an emerging phenomenon of complex systems that
shows that both concepts are correct, according to the analy-
tical framework: life and health depend on a vital force that
corresponds to thesuction force thatexists at the vortexcentre,
which originatesfrom within the system(substantial physical
vital unit or genome) and not as theresult of any external force.
By valuing the respective elds of research addressed, it is
suggested in this study that the organic vital force is able to
nd its biological representation in the cell genome (exome
plus epigenome), while in the previous study47 it was
proposed that homeopathic chronic miasms are able to
nd their representation in disease-promoting epigenetic
In accordance with these hypotheses, the isopathic use of
auto-sarcode of DNA47 could act therapeutically on the
imbalance of vital principle or genome and on the miasms
or disease-promoting epigenetic modications, through the
modulation of gene expression.
The vital force (or vital principle) is a philosophical non-
material substrate, theoretically responsible for main-
taining the bodys sensations and functions.
The cell genome controls the bodys vital functions and
consists of a protein encoding portion (exome) and
another that regulates this encoding scheme
Complex and dynamic self-organisation systems are
composed of distinct units of behaviour that inuence
each other, forming an int rinsic network of connect ions.
Both the vital principle and the genome (exome plus
epigenome) present properties of complex and dynamic
self-organisation systems.
It is hypothesised that the cell genome is the biological
representation of the organic vital force.
Conict of Interest
None declared.
1Hahnemann S. Organon der Heilkunst. Organon da arte de curar.
6th ed. Translated by Edméa Marturano Villela and Izao Carneiro
Soares. Ribeirão Preto: Museu de Homeopatia Abrahão Brick-
mann; 1995. Available at: http://homeoint.org/books4/organon/
index.htm. Accessed April 4, 2019
2Teixeira MZ. A concepção vitalista de Samuel Hahnemann [The
vitalist concept of Samuel Hahnemann]. Rev Homeopatia (São
Paulo) 1996;61:3944
3Teixeira MZ. O vitalismo hahnemanniano na prática clínica
homeopática [Hahnemanns vitalism in homeopathic clinical
practice]. Rev Homeopatia (São Paulo) 2000;65:2234
Homeopathy Vol. 109 No. 1/2020
Correlation between Vitalism and Genetics Teixeira 35
4Teixeira MZ. A natureza imaterial do homem: estudo comparativo
do vitalismo homeopático com as principais concepções médicas
elosócas [The non-material nature of the man: comparative
study of homeopathic vitalism with mainly medical and philo-
sophical concepts]. São Paulo: Editorial Petrus; 2000. Available at:
tor.asp?id=4. Accessed April 4, 2019
5Teixeira MZ. Antropologia Médica Vitalista: uma ampliação ao
entendimento do processo de adoecimento humano [Vitalist Med-
ical Anthropology:a broadening to the understandingof thehuman
illness process]. Rev Med (São Paulo) 2017;96:145158
6Hahnemann S. The ChronicDiseases, their Peculiar Nature and their
Homeopathic Cure. Dudley P, ed. Translated from the second
enlarged German edition of 1835 by Prof. Louis H. Tafel. With
annotations by Richard Hughes.Philadelphia: Boericke& Tafel; 1896
7Coffey DS. Self-organization, complexity and chaos: the new
biology for medicine. Nat Med 1998;4:882885
8Higgins JP. Nonlinear systems in medicine. Yale J Biol Med 2002;
9Bizzarri M, Palombo A, Cucina A. Theoretical aspects of systems
biology. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2013;112:3343
10 Palazzo LA. Complexidade, caos e auto-organização [Complexity,
chaos and self-organization]. In: III Ocina de Inteligência
Articial. Pelotas: Educat; 1999:4967. Available at: http://
nizacao.html. Accessed April 4, 2019
11 RamosDCS. Transdisciplinaridadeem saúde:uma análiseintegrativa
da literatura [Transdisciplinarity inhealth: an integrative analysis of
the literature]. [Master thesis]. Universidade Estadual Paulista,
Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu; 2009. Available at: https://
repositorio.unesp.br/handle/11449/98369. Accessed April 4, 2019
12 Bell IR, Baldwin CM, Schwart z GE. Translating a nonlinear systems
theory model for homeopathy into empirical tests. Altern Ther
Health Med 2002;8:5866
13 Bellavite P. Complexity science and homeopathy: a synthetic
overview. Homeopathy 2003;92:203212
14 Bellavite P, Olioso D, Marzotto M, Moratti E, Conforti A. A dynamic
network model of the similia principle. Complement Ther Med
15 Bell IR, Schwartz GE. Enhancement of adaptive biological effects
by nanotechnology preparation methods in homeopathic medi-
cines. Homeopathy 2015;104:123138
16 Fritzsche M, Li D, Colin -YorkH , et al. Self-organizing actin patterns
shape membrane architecture but not cell mechanics. Nat Com-
mun 2017;8:14347
17 Sweta KM, Awasthi HH, Godbole A, Prajapati S. Physio-anatomical
resemblance of inferior hypogastric plexus with Muladhara
Chakra: a cadaveric study. Ayu 2017;38:79
18 Fromknecht R, Goncalves M, Greten HJ, Machado J. Are conduits
superconductor-like and supported by tetrahedra structure of
hyaluronic matrix in living systems? New perspectives.
J Complement Integr Med 2013;10:259263
19 Bell IR, Koithan M, Pincus D. Methodological implications of
nonlinear dynamical systems models for whole systems of com-
plementary and alternative medicine. Forsch Komplement Med
20 Rioux J. A complex, nonlinear dynamic systems perspective on
Ayurveda and Ayurvedic research. J Altern Complement Med
21 Chang S. The mer idian system and mechanism of acupunct ure a
comparative review. Part 1: the meridian system. Taiwan J Obstet
Gynecol 2012;51:506514
22 Holliday R. Epigenetics: a historical overview. Epigenetics 2006;
23 Kouzarides T. Chromatin modications and their function. Cell
24 García R, Ayala PA, Perdomo SP. Epigenética: denición, bases
moleculares e implicaciones en la salud y en la evolución humana
[Epigenetics: denition, molecular bases and implications in
human health and evolution]. Rev Cienc Salud 2012;10:5971
25 Costa EBO, Pacheco C. Epigenética: regulação da expressão
gênica em nível transcricional e suas implicações [Epigenetics:
gene expression regulation at transcriptional level and its
implications]. Semina Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde 2013;
26 Schultz MD, He Y, Whitaker JW, et al. Human body epigenome
maps reveal noncanonical DNA methylation variation. Nature
27 Crews D, Gillette R, Scarpino SV, Manikkam M, Savenkova MI,
Skinner MK. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of altered
stress responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012;109:91439148
28 Jirtle RL, Skinner MK. Environmental epigenomics and disease
susceptibility. Nat Rev Genet 2007;8:253262
29 Waggoner D. Mechanisms of disease: epigenesis. Semin Pediatr
Neurol 2007;14:714
30 Santos-Rebouças CB, Pimentel MM. Implication of abnormal
epigenetic patterns for human diseases. Eur J Hum Genet 2007;
31 Esteller M. Epigenetics in cancer. N Engl J Med 2008;
32 Nestler EJ, Peña CJ, Kundakovic M, Mitchell A, Akbarian S. Epige-
netic basis of mental illness. Neuroscientist 2016;22:447463
33 Freitas-Silva LR, Ortega FJG. A epigenética como nova hipótese
etiológica no campo psiquiátrico contemporâneo [Epigenetics as
new etiological hypothesis in the contemporary psychiatric eld].
Physis: Revista de Saúde Coletiva 2014;24:765786
34 Waliszewski P, Molski M, Konarski J. On the holistic approach in
cellular and cancer biology: nonlinearity, complexity, and quasi-
determinism of the dynamic cellular network. J Surg Oncol 1998;
35 Jura J, Wegrzyn P, Jura J, Koj A. Regulatory mechanisms of gene
expression: complexity with elements of deterministic chaos.
Acta Biochim Pol 2006;53:110
36 Meyl K. DNA and cell resonance: magnetic waves enable cell
communication. DNA Cell Biol 2012;31:422426
37 Gulati S, Muller SJ, Liepmann D. Flow of DNA solutions in a
microuidic gradual contraction. Biomicrouidics 2015;
38 Taylor AJ, Dennis MR. Vortex knots in tangled quantum eigen-
functions. Nat Commun 2016;7:12346
39 Scheeler MW, van Rees WM, Kedia H, Kleckner D, Irvine WTM.
Complete measurement of helicity and its dynamics in vortex
tubes. Science 2017;357:487491
40 Silva G, Duarte LFD. Epigênese e epigenética: as muitas vidas do
vitalismo ocidental [Epigenesis and epigenetics: the sundry lives
of Western vitalism]. Horiz Antropol 2016;22:425453
41 Kirschner M, Gerhart J, Mitchison T. Molecular vitalism.Cell
42 Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Potentized homoeopathic drugs act through
regulation of gene-expression: a hypothesis to explain their
mechanism and pathways of action in vitro. Complement Ther
Med 1997;5:4346
43 Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Towards understanding molecular mechan-
isms of action of homeopathic drugs: an overview. Mol Cell
Biochem 2003;253:339345
44 Khuda-Bukhsh AR. Current trends in high dilution research with
particular reference to gene regulatory hypothesis . Nucleus 2014;
45 Dei A, Bernardini S. Hormetic effects of extremely diluted solu-
tions on gene expression. Homeopathy 2015;104:116122
46 Bellavite P, Signorini A, Marzotto M, Moratti E, Bonani C, Olioso
D. Cell sensitivity, non-linearity and inverse effects. Homeopathy
47 Teixeira MZ. Isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA as anti-mias-
matic homeopathic medicine and modulator of gene expression?
Homeopathy 2019;108:139148
Homeopathy Vol. 109 No. 1/2020
Correlation between Vitalism and Genetics Teixeira36
... Further based on these assumptions, we have also been proposing the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA (autoisotherapic of DNA) as a probable anti-miasmatic homeopathic medicine and modulator of gene expression. 1,2 Reiterating these philosophical-scientific correlations, numerous studies on telomeres (the terminal portion of chromosomes) indicate its role as a biomarker of cellular vitality, biological aging, and the health-disease process. In view of this evidence, telomere length (TL) could be clinically and experimentally used as a hypothetical biomarker of the organic vital force state, both in the disease-promoting vital imbalance and in the vital rebalancing resulting from therapeutic interventions. ...
... The objective of this article is to study the mechanism of action of telomeres and the telomerase enzyme in the integrity of chromosomes, in cellular vitality, in biological aging, and in the health-disease process, proposing to use TL as a biomarker of the organic vital force state and the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment in order to expand the philosophical-scientific correlations of homeopathic vitalism with modern genetics, as widely discussed in previous studies. 1,2 Cause of Diseases According to the Homeopathic Model ...
... In correlating the characteristics of the organic vital force with those of the genome, we highlight analogies between them, such as: the vital force and the genome are the fundamental substrates for the emergence and maintenance of life (vitality of living beings); the vital principle is responsible for maintaining the balance of the body's sensations and functions, just as the genome stores the biochemical information which will produce the proteins responsible for maintaining vital processes and developing organisms; diseases generally occur due to dystonia of the vital principle, as well as genomic changes which promote disease (the primary cause of diseases); the vital force and the genome are both affected by the influences of the same external and internal etiopathogenic factors, among others. 2 Furthermore, in correlating the characteristics of chronic miasms with those of epigenetic alterations, we highlight analogies between them, such as: most chronic diseases have a miasmatic (psora) or epigenetic cause which predisposes their appearance and prevents their natural resolution (fundamental cause of chronic diseases); the latency or manifestation of psora and the silencing or activation of disease-promoting genes are triggered by similar etiopathogenic factors; both chronic miasmas and disease-promoting epigenetic alterations are transmissible to future generations, and can be reversed by antimiasmatic drugs or epigenetic treatments, respectively. 1 Since 1997, Khuda-Bukhsh [17][18][19] and other researchers 20,21 defend the hypothesis that homeopathic medicines act in the genome, modulating disease-promoting gene expression. ...
Full-text available
Background: Philosophical–scientific correlations described in previous studies suggest that the genome can be the biological representation of the vital force, whilst the disease-promoting epigenetic alterations would be the biological representation of the chronic miasmas. In this study, we expand the functional correlation between vital force and chromosomes, describing the mechanism of action of the telomere–telomerase complex in the context of physiological balance. Aims: The aim of the work is to study the role of the telomere–telomerase complex in cell vitality, biological aging, and the health-disease process, with the goal of proposing the use of telomere length as a biomarker of the vital force state and the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment. Results: Similar to the vital force, telomere length and telomerase enzyme activity play an important role in maintaining cellular vitality, biological longevity, and physiological homeostasis. Telomere shortening functions as a biomarker of vital imbalance and is associated with numerous diseases and health disorders. On the other hand, health-promotion practices neutralize the pathological shortening of the telomeres, acting therapeutically in diseases or age-dependent health disorders. Conclusions: As a hypothetical biomarker of the vital force state, an intra-individual analysis of the mean leukocyte telomere length before, during, and after homeopathic treatment can be used as a biomarker of therapeutic effectiveness.
... As can be seen from Figure 8, the assistance to released persons is mainly provided in three ways, namely, recommending employment through skill training and implementing temporary assistance, with the three accounting for a large proportion of 71.2%, and the implementation of these relief measures needs the support of social forces, while the current help and education work is basically promoted by government departments, and the lack of participation of social member units restricts the development of help and education work [21]. In 2015, of the more than 800,000 people released after serving their sentences, only 94,700 received social assistance, accounting for only 11.7% of the total, and nearly 90% of those still did not receive social assistance. ...
Full-text available
In order to better solve the problem of the return of released prisoners to society and reduce the second crime rate after rehabilitation, the main factors affecting the rehabilitation of released prisoners and the specific situation of reoffending were studied from the perspective of social governance. There is a big difference between the sentence period of the first crime and the second crime. The proportion of those sentenced to less than 5 years for the first time is 86.1%, and the proportion of those sentenced to less than 3 years for the second time is 31.1%. Compared with the first crime, the proportion of those sentenced to more than 10 years has decreased by 56.7%, and the proportion of those sentenced to more than 10 years has increased by 8.6%. The figure shows that second offenses are more serious than first offenses. Those released from prison are likely to commit crimes again at any time after rehabilitation, and the proportion of reoffending within 5 years is 73.3%. The proportion of reoffenders who committed crimes for more than 5 years was 26.7%, indicating that the 5-year period after rehabilitation should be taken seriously to reduce the second crime rate. On this basis, the countermeasures for the rehabilitation of released prisoners are discussed.
... According to vitalist medical rationalities 75 , such as homeopathy and acupuncture, cellular activity, physiological homeostasis, and the health-disease process would be related to vital force or chi (tsri), respectively; cellular senescence, physiological imbalance, and the disease manifestation would occur due to the disturbance of the body vitality. In order to approximate different rationalities, recent studies correlate the characteristics and properties of the homeopathic vital principle with those of the genome (exome plus epigenome), suggesting that the genome would be the biological representation or substrate of the organic vital force, according to biomedical episteme 76,77 . In this context, the telomere length could be used as an important biomarker of the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment in maintaining vitality, physiological balance, and health. ...
Full-text available
Homeopathy is often attacked in several countries by groups of individuals who call themselves "sceptics", who autocratically and systematically disparage and deny any scientific evidence which underlies the homeopathic model. In fact, this posture defines them as "pseudosceptics", because the true sceptic doubts, investigates and accepts the existing evidence with an agnostic and neutral posture, with an open mind and free from prejudice. In unmasking these impostors, Marcelo Truzzi and Marcoen Cabbolet describe several "tell-tale signs" through which the conduct of these pseudosceptics disguised as pseudoscientists can be notably recognized. After the publication of the Special Dossier "Scientific Evidence for Homeopathy" in Brazil (2017), pseudosceptics made unfounded and fallacious criticisms of it in the media and social networks, in which the use of these pseudosceptical and pseudoscientific strategies to undermine the vast body of evidence presented is clearly demonstrating. Knowledge of the "tell-tale signs of pseudoscepticism" can be of great use in the differentiation between the true and the false scepticism.
... According to vitalist medical rationalities 75 , such as homeopathy and acupuncture, cellular activity, physiological homeostasis, and the health-disease process would be related to vital force or chi (tsri), respectively; cellular senescence, physiological imbalance, and the disease manifestation would occur due to the disturbance of the body vitality. In order to approximate different rationalities, recent studies correlate the characteristics and properties of the homeopathic vital principle with those of the genome (exome plus epigenome), suggesting that the genome would be the biological representation or substrate of the organic vital force, according to biomedical episteme 76,77 . In this context, the telomere length could be used as an important biomarker of the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment in maintaining vitality, physiological balance, and health. ...
Full-text available
The aging process occurs due to the decline of vital physiological functions and adaptability of the body, being influenced by genetics and lifestyle. With advances in genetics, biological aging can be calculated by telomere length. Telomeres are regions at the ends of chromosomes that play a role in the maintenance and integrity of DNA. With biological aging, telomere shortening occurs, causing cellular senescence. Several studies show that shorter telomeres are associated with acute and chronic diseases, stress, addictions, and intoxications. Even in the current COVID-19 pandemic, telomere shortening is proposed as a marker of severity in individuals infected by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On the other hand, healthy lifestyle habits increase telomere length and balance of various cellular functions, preventing diseases.
... The pathology at different levels like tissue, cellular, hormonal, gene may play a role in developing resistance or hyper susceptibility to some diseases. Some examples of genetic diseases and resistance to infectious diseases--e.g.Haemoglobinopathies and Malaria, Cystic fibrosis and Cholera,Tay-Sachs disease and Tuberculosis [25,26], Mycotic Abortions and phenylketonuria [27]; disorders of glycosylation and infection by enveloped viruses [28,29];Neimann-Pick C1 Disease and infection by filoviruses [30,31].Approximately 3-5% of the population affecting ~ 80 different autoimmune diseases . A disease can be classified as autoimmune, if the immune response to a self-antigen causing the disease pathology [32].Also exist some auto-immune disorders and metabolic disorders with altered susceptibility--Myasthenia gravisand Rabies, Hemosiderosis and Typhoid fever, etc. [2] ...
Full-text available
Homoeopathy, an alternate system of medicine, based mainly on similar principle of 'SimiliaSimilibusCurentur' means that cure must be taken by the drugs that produce similar effects on living being. The similar concept made a viable therapeutic method and consequent cures. The query of Homoeopathic physician of yore led to three possibilities when two dissimilar diseases meet together, either repulsion of the new disease or suppression of existing ailment or formation of a new complex of diseases. This concept of dissimilar diseases needed an explorative study on modern victims. This investigation resulted with many research papers related to genetic chromosomal diseases and other diseases. Many studies are being conducted in recent times on the increased resistance or hereditary susceptibility in people of certain genotype to some Infectious diseases. This suggests that mutations that takes place in a chromosome and resulting change in enzymatic activities in patients with genetic disorders can prevent certain infectious diseases. Though, there are numerous studies in this field, they need further clarification. It is interesting to note that the explanations given by modern medicine in relation to genetic and infectious diseases was anticipated by the pioneer of Homoeopathy Samuel Hahnemann a century ago.
Full-text available
Since homeopathy is based on the vitalist medical model, concepts such as vital force, mind, soul, spirit, etc., referring to the immaterial human nature, are frequently cited, making their understanding indispensable. Based on the works of Samuel Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy, including his minor writings and letters, this work seeks to clarify these conceptions, in order to dissolve doctrinal confusions. In this study, the concept of ‘instinctive and irrational vital force’, analogous to the Hippocratic ‘vis medicatrix naturae’, becomes clear, forming a substantial compound with the physical body and a nature distinct from the intelligent spirit. As another entity distinct from the previous ones, Hahnemann also mentions the mind, seat of the soul, as ‘physical organs almost non-material, of higher hierarchy’, attributing to the human psyche the greatest influence in the binomial health-disease, referring to the moral and ethics as preventive and curative factors for diseases that affect humanity. He criticizes scholasticism and the excess of metaphysical speculations, moving away from any philosophical or religious current, offering us universal spiritualist concepts within moral and ethical principles, further enhancing his work and demonstrating that he is a prejudice-free observer. For Hahnemann, the physical body forms a substantial unity with the vital principle, and not with the soul, being commanded by the intelligent spirit that in him dwells. The mind, as a psychic organ, assumes an important role in the relationship between these entities that make up the human being.
Full-text available
Introduction: In addition to the four pillars of homeopathy, vitalism and the miasmatic theory are often used to explain the health–disease process. According to Hahnemann's concepts, homeopathic miasms are the main obstacle to the cure of chronic diseases, with psora being the fundamental cause of all forms of diseases. According to modern genetics, the disease-promoting epigenetic alterations are the fundamental cause of the manifestation of chronic diseases. Objective: This article develops a philosophical–scientific correlation between chronic miasms and disease-promoting epigenetic modifications, aiming to justify the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of an individual's DNA as homeopathic medicine. Results: Based on the study of homeopathic doctrine and epigenetics, a conceptual and functional correlation is observed between homeopathic chronic miasms and disease-promoting epigenetic modifications. Additionally, several experimental studies suggest that homeopathy's mechanism of action may be by modulating gene expression. Conclusions: By the philosophical–scientific correlations described, it is inferred that disease-promoting epigenetic alterations are the biological representation of the chronic miasms, suggesting the isopathic use of auto-sarcode of DNA as homeopathic therapeutic modulator of gene expression for the management of chronic diseases.
Full-text available
The present paper is aimed to ascertain the proper identity of Muladhara Chakra by a meticulous search. Proceeding in that direction, a review of the Muladhara Chakra was carried out in the texts of tantric literature, modern literature, journals and online publications. After going through various literatures, it is found that hindrance in normal body physiology may occur due to deactivation of Shat Chakra. Anatomically, each Chakra represents various plexus and sub-plexuses which are concerned with certain organs and its supply. Hence, there is a need to find each and every anatomical structure related to Chakras. Acharya Gananath Sen in his commentary Pratyaksha Shariram concluded that all the pelvic organs closely resemble with Muladhara Chakra. A cadaveric dissection has been carried out to correlate and establish that the anatomical structures which closely resemble the Muladhara Chakra can be thought of as inferior hypogastric plexus and its sub plexuses.
Full-text available
Antropologia é a ciência que tem como objetivo estudar o homem em sua pluralidade de modos de vida e de pensamento, incorporando os diversos aspectos da individualidade às suas modalidades de estudo (biológica, social, cultural e filosófica). Por sua vez, a Antropologia Médica estuda os fatores que influenciam o processo saúde-doença, incluindo os aspectos biossocioculturais e os variados sistemas de saúde. Seguindo o objetivo intrínseco de estudar o homem em sua pluralidade, a Antropologia Médica Vitalista fornece subsídios filosóficos para uma ampliação do entendimento do processo de adoecimento, analisando o mecanismo saúde-doença em conformidade com a estrutura ontológica humana. Fundamentando o diagnóstico e o tratamento das doenças em diversas racionalidades médicas não convencionais (Medicina Tradicional Chinesa, Medicina Tradicional Indiana, Medicina Homeopática e Medicina Antroposófica), a concepção vitalista é uma doutrina filosófica que considera a existência de uma força (princípio) vital responsável pela manutenção da saúde e da vida, unida substancialmente ao corpo físico. Além disso, valorizando a interação de outras instâncias superiores da individualidade humana (mente, alma e espírito) no equilíbrio fisiológico-vital, a concepção vitalista inclui a influência dos pensamentos, sentimentos e emoções na etiopatogenia e na evolução das doenças, aspectos difundidos pela dinâmica psicossomática moderna e pelo recente campo de pesquisas que relaciona a saúde à espiritualidade.
Full-text available
Helicity, a topological measure of the intertwining of vortices in a fluid flow, is a conserved quantity in inviscid fluids but can be dissipated by viscosity in real flows. Despite its relevance across a range of flows, helicity in real fluids remains poorly understood because the entire quantity is challenging to measure. We measured the total helicity of thin-core vortex tubes in water. For helical vortices that are stretched or compressed by a second vortex, we found conservation of total helicity. For an isolated helical vortex, we observed evolution toward and maintenance of a constant helicity state after the dissipation of twist helicity by viscosity. Our results show that helicity can remain constant even in a viscous fluid and provide an improved basis for understanding and manipulating helicity in real flows.
Full-text available
Cell-free studies have demonstrated how collective action of actin-associated proteins can organize actin filaments into dynamic patterns, such as vortices, asters and stars. Using complementary microscopic techniques, we here show evidence of such self-organization of the actin cortex in living HeLa cells. During cell adhesion, an active multistage process naturally leads to pattern transitions from actin vortices over stars into asters. This process is primarily driven by Arp2/3 complex nucleation, but not by myosin motors, which is in contrast to what has been theoretically predicted and observed in vitro. Concomitant measurements of mechanics and plasma membrane fluidity demonstrate that changes in actin patterning alter membrane architecture but occur functionally independent of macroscopic cortex elasticity. Consequently, tuning the activity of the Arp2/3 complex to alter filament assembly may thus be a mechanism allowing cells to adjust their membrane architecture without affecting their macroscopic mechanical properties.
Full-text available
Tangles of string typically become knotted, from macroscopic twine down to long-chain macromolecules such as DNA. Here we demonstrate that knotting also occurs in quantum wavefunctions, where the tangled filaments are vortices (nodal lines/phase singularities). The probability that a vortex loop is knotted is found to increase with its length, and a wide gamut of knots from standard tabulations occur. The results follow from computer simulations of random superpositions of degenerate eigenstates of three simple quantum systems: a cube with periodic boundaries, the isotropic 3-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the 3-sphere. In the latter two cases, vortex knots occur frequently, even in random eigenfunctions at relatively low energy, and are constrained by the spatial symmetries of the modes. The results suggest that knotted vortex structures are generic in complex 3-dimensional wave systems, establishing a topological commonality between wave chaos, polymers and turbulent Bose-Einstein condensates.
Full-text available
Além da materialidade grosseira do corpo físico, sempre se acreditou na existência de uma natureza imaterial do homem, assumindo várias conotações ao longo das diversas civilizações humanas. Em todas as filosofias e religiões, termos como alma, espírito, mente, força vital, etc. são citados, representando uma entidade energética-espiritual com ascendência sobre a entidade orgânica-material. Além disso, atribui-se ao espírito (alma) uma natureza eterna, imortal, ao contrário da existência limitada e passageira do corpo material. Até o século XIX, existia na medicina a noção de uma força vital responsável pela manutenção do equilíbrio das funções orgânicas e da saúde, sendo substituída, no século XX, pelos princípios cartesianos que localizaram a causa das doenças nos órgãos, nos tecidos e nas células. Dentre as especialidades médicas atuais, a homeopatia apresenta em seu corpo doutrinário a noção de que o binômio saúde-doença se fundamenta num substrato material-energético (força vital, princípio vital). Apesar de utilizar esse conceito filosófico para explicar a gênese profunda das enfermidades, apresenta um modelo terapêutico fundamentado pelos conhecimentos experimentais e científicos da medicina moderna. Nessa obra, buscamos estudar comparativamente as diversas escolas médicas e filosóficas que valorizam os veículos sutis de manifestação da individualidade humana, evidenciando, através das semelhanças conceituais encontradas, que este conhecimento espiritualista provém de uma fonte primordial comum, que remonta ao início da humanidade terrena. Através das inúmeras citações e referências bibliográficas, o leitor poderá se aprofundar no estudo desta natureza imaterial humana, não alimentando esse trabalho qualquer pretensão de esgotar um assunto de tamanha complexidade e importância para o entendimento do homem e de seu papel no atual ciclo de evolução terrena. Principais tópicos: A natureza imaterial do homem ao longo da história da medicina. A natureza imaterial do homem segundo a homeopatia: concepção vitalista de Samuel Hahnemann. O princípio vital homeopático perante a fisiologia humana. A natureza imaterial do homem segundo a medicina tradicional chinesa (acupuntura). A natureza imaterial do homem segundo a medicina âyurveda e a filosofia hindu-tibetana. A natureza imaterial do homem segundo a concepção rosacruz. A natureza imaterial do homem segundo a medicina antroposófica. A natureza imaterial do homem segundo a cabala hebraica. A natureza imaterial do homem segundo a doutrina espírita. Available at: http://www.homeozulian.med.br/homeozulian_visualizarlivroautor.asp?id=4
Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function as well as likely abnormalities in glial cells. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of most mental disorders, the relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins, particularly for depression and other stress-related syndromes, clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Exposure to such environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental versus adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and the aberrant epigenetic regulation that underlies this dysregulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Here, we provide a progress report of epigenetic studies of the three major psychiatric syndromes, depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. We review the literature derived from animal models of these disorders as well as from studies of postmortem brain tissue from human patients. While epigenetic studies of mental illness remain at early stages, understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery within specific brain regions to cause lasting changes in disease susceptibility and pathophysiology is revealing new insight into the etiology and treatment of these conditions.