The Impact of Using Facebook
on the Academic Performance of University
, Hui He
, Ghulam Ali Mallah
, Asif Ali Laghari
, and Raja Sohail Ahmed Larik
School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology,
Shah Abdul Latif University of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan
Shaanxi Normal University, Xian, China
Abstract. The Advancement of technology has changed the social and aca-
demic lives. It provides a facility for people to communicate anywhere at any
time diversely such as electronic mail, instant messages and social networks.
A use of social network is common among the students’and also builds a
distraction for students. It is crucial for researchers to get an attention to inves-
tigate the role of social network (Facebook) in academic areas where its inﬂu-
ences on students’live with various activities and involves them in a different
process of channels. To determine the multitasking inversely affect health and
academic performance while using Facebook with different activities i.e. sharing,
posting, chatting and playing games with access of internet and use of different
devices during class time and study time. This study investigates the impact of
using Facebook on the academic performance of university students. We con-
ducted Correlation analysis, and Regression analysis extracted using Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to examine the correlation between
students using Facebook in the higher academic career. The results show Face-
book with academic performance has a negative relationship and medium cor-
relation with Multitasking has positive that Facebook is not the only factor to
enhance multitasking but also enhance other activities of Facebook that can effect
on students which mean there is relationship between multitasking and using
Facebook where Health factor has low correlation and negative relationship
might get the cause to indirectly affect the students’academic performance.
Keywords: Social network Students Academic performance
Education has adopted electronic technologies with different aspects of usage to
refurnish with innovative environments and integrate with effective learning processes
such in library, faculty, and administration where students have been socializing and
©Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
X. Sun et al. (Eds.): ICAIS 2019, LNCS 11634, pp. 405–418, 2019.
interacting with each other especially in the ﬁeld of education where people of all ages
and genders are available to communicate and create relationships with others. Aca-
demic performance is one of the essential functions of student that widely researched
over the years where passive students indicates the lack of understanding in their
learning, writing and lack of gain in other activity; it will deﬁcit the adult’s academic
Nowadays, the use of social network site makes robust connectivity of the internet
to transform learning processes where Technology is an essential need of students
where student immersed in technology day by day with different ﬂavors of activities.
Social media is not only used for entertainment purposes but it is also used for edu-
cational and documentation purposes . As Facebook is one of the latest current tools
of social networks all over the world and a great source to learn new information and
share among the students. Social networks are a recognizable source of channels to
inform and educate the learners as well as teachers where each and every time the
unlimited number of students takes a part on social networks [3,5]. The logical
hierarchy of social network with users’activities is well deﬁned with interaction
between students’and academic performances are showed in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The Hierarchy of social network site with users
406 S. Karim et al.
No doubt, the current use of the social network has been inﬂuenced in the academic
areas with the advancement of technology to facilitate the users. The use of Facebook
in today’s world vision is positive because it has made gaining of knowledge much
easier with the access of internet over the worldwide area. It seems to have good results
on educationalist especially students’academic performance. Many Researchers indi-
cate Facebook as a cause of bad results in academic performance. Is it myth or not?
Still, it’s invisible fact and remains largely unanswered .
To the research of fact in reality, nowadays academic performance is more
important in education but students show great interest in using Facebook because it is
easy to use, very popular social network site and it can be logged into through different
devices like mobiles, tablets, laptops and desktops for performing of independent
activities of students. We conduct the research based on unanswered facts that tech-
nology as social media may cause of students’failure in academic ﬁeld as a part of our
The contribution of this paper is presented into three folds.
•This study investigates the impact of using Facebook on the academic performance
of university students.
•Statistically, Hypothesis Analysis a signiﬁcant point from the present research is
acquired by comprehensive analysis results extracted using SPSS.
•This study examines the correlation between students using Facebook performed
different activities and higher health risks.
This paper is organized into V sections. In the next Sect. 2, we will describe the
literature review. Section 3based on the Survey methodology and In Sect. 4provides
to results and discussion. Finally, the paper is concluded in Sect. 5.
2 Literature Review
This section presents the literature review and furthermore is divided into two sections.
Background of social network (Facebook) and existing Facebook relationship with
2.1 Background of Social Network (Facebook)
Social networks began to grow popularity as more users become connected to cellular
networks and the internet and were widespread as well as ever modiﬁed dynamically
[7,8]. The number of social networks had perceptibly enlarged over the last ﬁfteen
years. Social network sites like Friendster, Myspace and Facebook were ultimately the
most social network sites to grow the analysis background to rise perceive backgrounds
. In the year of 2004 and month of February, Mark Zuckerberg created Facebook in
a dorm at Harvard University. Facebook allowed users from the college. Facebook
found in manners to allowed work and anyone to join Facebook in the year of 2006.
People joined SNS to share info concerning them and learn additional information
regarding those they think about “friends”. Facebook as a social network permits the
users to determine new connections, maintain relationships and present information
The Impact of Using Facebook on the Academic Performance 407
regarding them. Facebook users use the positioning to contact with their current
friends, explore for old friends and meet new individuals. Facebook users produce a
web proﬁle to share information: post comments regarding themselves, post comments
on alternative friends, pages, share photos and videos, play games, and update others
on their life occurrences .
Facebook friends are able to conﬁne bit and share what they’re presently doing in
their lives? In the year of 2005, Facebook expanded outside of the U.S to include high
schools and schools. In the year of 2006, Facebook found its manner into the work and
allowed anyone to join Facebook and users share intimate, mundane and interesting
moments with their online friends. Facebook users actively stay online for a long time,
therefore, disbursement to time with friends in a virtual community sense [9,11].
Facebook was attained status as the world’s largest and most proﬁtable social network
till up to now. It encourages people to begin communication and eventually form
relationships with people of similar backgrounds and interests. However, the visibility
of users’proﬁles can be set at their own discretion. Proﬁles display user’s information
to connect with other friends using messages or instant chatting features, share pho-
tographs and videos, and interest groups within the social network site to connect with
those of similar goals and opinions .
Once users engaged in Facebook and became an active member, they have the
ability to receive information that may not be available to them in any other form.
Facebook features also give the chance to participate and perform multitasking into
other activities and come across the opportunities either they may not have the
advantage of gaining access .
2.2 Existing Facebook Relationship with Students
Students grew up in a world of technology that makes the Internet as “a central key
element”in their daily lives. Recent research has focused on the relationship between
Facebook and Academic performance. The ﬁndings identiﬁed the effect of internet on
the academic performance of the students under the age of teen group more addicted
and getting wrong use of it. Considered 47% of Facebook addicted users reﬂected the
academic performance. It is very essential part of an individual’s life for every level of
Tariq et al. and A’lamElhuda et al. [14,15] investigated the Facebook usage among
undergraduate students performance that examined the different style of Facebook
usage research was aimed to identify a style of Facebook usage. The Find out effects of
gender on Facebook that how a Facebook affected by students. Many online tools are
available on the Internet for communication channels where Facebook is one of them.
It can be dangerous to increase the students’addiction and its effects on their academic
performance as well as student future.
Ahn et al. and Singh et al. [16,17] determined technology and health unexpected
truth that a decade of research showed media as a tool that had not any effects on
students’learning’s and very difﬁcult and complex to analyze the statement that Media
effects on health. Findings identiﬁed the effect of internet addiction on mental health
(stress) of the students that are more addict and getting wrong use of it.
408 S. Karim et al.
Krin et al.  explored the fact on Rehearsals of task accumulate the recall the
data as human consciously engaged in a repetitive task to do multitasking the effec-
tiveness of worth become slows and tiredness made to lose the control of rehearsal and
forget easily. However, a cause of stress associated with tiredness came through
multitasking activities. Different Researchers found that Facebook affects the human
Bijari et al.  investigate on the effects of social networking site impact on the
academic achievements of those students who used social network site at night time
rather than on a day-time. Larik et al.  research on effects on human body, those
used excess use of technology they cannot fully concentrate on their tasks that point
immediately negative impact on their academic performance due to sleepless cause
disturbance and impacts on mental health of the user.
Junco et al.  whenever user engaged to complete more than one task at the same
time. Those amount of multi-tasked decrease their cognitive abilities and decreased
their potential of productive work. The fact of studies covered the coat of arrangement
and to make multitasking besides hiding the impact of self-features that many
researchers demonstrate the impact of multitasking on human information.
Bieler et al.  and Ellison et al.  found complex survey data on negative
connection between multitasking under the study of different activities like Facebook
usage and text messaging, chit chat on a mobile phone, Emailing & internet surﬁng,
while the focus on their academic performance, Using of Facebook was the least
content informing. surveyed that 34.54% of male spent three to four hours daily on
using Facebook and 27.27% of female spent one to two hours daily, pointed that
Features of Facebook involve through the multitasking and direct the effect on stu-
dents’outcomes due to impairment of cognitive learning becomes overloaded and
energy waste in different activities of task and not focus on one-task of academic
According to  found the students, almost have a Facebook account and more
used to do varieties of activities on Facebook. Thus, the impact of Facebook decreases
the level of focus and timeframe by multitasking. Rehearsals of task accumulate the
recall the data as human consciously engaged in a repetitive task and do multitasking
the effectiveness of worth become slower and tiredness made to lose the control of
rehearsal and forget easily, however, cause of stress associated with tiredness came
The literature review discovered the necessary knowledge concerning social net-
works such as Facebook, academic performance, and still not work done on Facebook
connection with human factors on students. Facebook is also one of the tools of media
that most adults attract to use in their daily life routine. It provides a platform for adults
to develop personal and social identities. This feature and adoption of cultural norms
and social capital of social network communities may cause an effect on human
behaviors. However, the literature with reference to show social networks and Face-
book continues to be raised the students’lives as a result of it should be a relatively
new theme in studious research.
The Impact of Using Facebook on the Academic Performance 409
3 Methodology and Design
The sample is represented by a convenient random sample technique. The sample
consists of 375 participants of students enrolled in an undergraduate program at Shah
Abdul Latif University (SALU). The research questionnaire is primarily developed on
the basis of literature, existing survey and previous studies. A pilot study was con-
ducted before distribution of instrument. Pearson Correlation method is used to test the
reliability of the question items. This Study examines (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.860)
reliable. Self-administrated structure method is used to collect the data from partici-
pants. SPSS tool is used to perform data analysis of the survey. All the data are keyed
in an Excel spreadsheet before using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
(SPSS) software. This Study employed the Pearson Moment Correlation test and
Regression to examine the relationships between dependent and independent variables
presentation model given below in Fig. 2.
4 Results and Discussions
This section describes the results in two parts (a) Descriptive statistics and (b) infer-
ential statistics and furthermore is discussion related to study.
4.1 Descriptive Statistics
A total of 375 respondents are surveyed about the impact of using Facebook on the
academic performance of students. The result shows (69.6%) of the respondents were
Male and (30.4%) Female, with different age group (42.4%) of the respondents are 17–
18 years, (47.2%) are 19–21 years, and (9.6%) are 22–24 years and (.8%) are 25 years
or above and their undergraduate level with previous CGPA information details are
given in Table 1.
The main development of Facebook was to use for academic purposes, It was
important to collect data about Facebook is a dependent variable and it is used for
academic as well or not where (92%) of respondents have a Facebook account and
(8%) were against Whenever, Facebook is measured in an hour per day. students
Fig. 2. Variables presentation model.
410 S. Karim et al.
responses that (35%) of respondents use Facebook less than one hour per day, (16%) of
respondents are using Facebook 1–5 h per day, (10%) of respondents are using
Facebook 6–10 h per day, (7%) are using Facebook 11–16 h per day, (69%) of
respondents are using Facebook 16–18 h per day.
Academic performance is an independent variable of this study. To measure the
study timings as the use of Facebook is being affected by study timings resultant (68%)
of the respondents indicates the positive response that Facebook affects their study
timings and (32%) of respondents represents negative response that has no any impact
of using Facebook on study timings. When the compare the Facebook activity on
during class times the respondents the majority (71%) of the respondents indicated that
they use Facebook during class time of study and (29%) of the respondents were
against of statements. Many students are like to do work with multiple activities, (57%)
of the respondents’activity performed use of Facebook on multitasking, it decrease
their focus level and concentration in Demographic characteristics Sample. Deﬁne the
purpose and different activities of Facebook: (66%) prefer Chat with Friends/family,
(15%) of Discussion on Group board, (50%) of Group chatting, (9%) of Play games,
(11%) of Share personal views, (87%) of shared photos, (53%) of share post on
Groups, (27%) of use Facebook apps and (70%) of Watch friends status/news.
Multitasking is one of the variable of that support their lives students like to do task
many tasks at same time, when measuring the item, strongly Disagree (3%), Disagree
Table 1. The demographic characteristics of Facebook users.
Demographic characteristics Sample size
N = 375
•Male 261 69.6
•Female 114 30.4
•Less or equal to 18 years old 159 42.4
•19–21 years 177 47.2
•22–24 years 36 9.6
•25 years or above 3 0.8
•First year 64 17.1
•Second year 93 28.8
•Third year 122 32.5
•Fourth year 96 25.6
•1.5–2.0 CGPA 25 6.7
•2.1–2.5 CGPA 78 20.8
•2.6–3.0 CGPA 163 43.5
•3.1–3.5 CGPA 85 22.7
•3.6–4.0 CGPA 28 6.4
The Impact of Using Facebook on the Academic Performance 411
(20%), Uncertain (8%), Agree (43%) and Strongly agree (26%). Health is independent
variable of Facebook that 71% of respondents’response that Facebook can effects on
health, 29% were against that were not affected on health. Hence,
Health has been effecting by Facebook, students faced some of health issues while
using of Facebook, respondents response that (47%) were Eyesight issue, (13%) were
Headache issue, (10%) of Stress, (2%) of Depression and (28%) of response Sleeping
4.2 Inferential Statistics
This section presents the inferential statistics and further is divided into two parts,
(a) correlation Analysis and (b) Regression Analysis.
Correlation analysis is a part of testing the linear relationship between dependent
variable to independent variables. This study used method of Bivariate Pearson cor-
relation and technique was used to test the hypothesis between the relationships.
Furthermore, it was used to test hypothesis. The correlation shows Pearson correlation
(p) value level 0.01 and correlation Pearson two tailed test method used by using SPSS
to ﬁnd out the relationships between two variables and r values are the coefﬁcients of
This research shows the relationships between variables of value (r, p) and r values
identiﬁes the sign of positive or negative range from (+1 to −1) and even if r value 0.5
to 0.1 or −0.5 to −0.1 that examined the strong relationship between two variables
exits, if r value is 0.3 to 0.5 or −0.3 to −0.5 that shows the medium relationship even if
the r value 0.1 to 0.3 or −0.1 to −0.3 that to considered low and weak relationship .
However main function is to provide and decide the case of positive or negative
correlation coefﬁcient relationship (if signiﬁcant level less than 0.05 is rejected and
equal to Null hypothesis).
Facebook correlations with Academic performance Hypothesis
- There is no relationship between students using Facebook and Academic
- There is a relationship between students using Facebook and Academic
When we compute the relationship between Facebook and Academic performance
variables examined the result (−0.417**) of negative relationships are indirectly pro-
portional exists when the independent variable increase indirectly another side
dependent variable should be decreased. Increase and decrease of variables should be
based on the nature of students’. Computing the relationship between Facebook and
academic performance variables examined the result r = (−0.417**) of negative
Signiﬁcant level is (p = 0.000 < 0.05) that means there is a relationship between
students’academic performance and using Facebook that rejects the null hypothesis
). The results showed in Table 2to deﬁned the Correlation is medium that also
412 S. Karim et al.
showed that Facebook is one of the factor that impact on academic performance of the
university students (H
Facebook correlation with Multitasking
- There is no relationship between students using Facebook and Multitasking.
- There is a relationship between students using Facebook and Multitasking.
Second computation of result is to measure the relationship between Facebook and
multitasking see that research to measure the activities of users on Facebook. It shows
the (0.393**) positive correlation between Facebook and Multitasking, independent
variable increase also dependent variable increase, it is directly correlation of variables.
The results showed in Table 3, medium correlation signiﬁes that Facebook is not only
factor to enhance multitasking but also enhance other activities of Facebook that can
effect on students. In this correlation, when university of students increase the using of
Facebook that also increase user activities as multitasking on Facebook however
relationship is moderate to reject the (H0) null hypothesis and accept the H1 hypothesis
because of the signiﬁcance level is p = 0.000 < 0.05 which means there is relationship
between multitasking and using Facebook.
Table 2. Correlation between Facebook and Academic performance.
Facebook Academic performance
Facebook Pearson correlation 1 −.417
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 375 375
Academic performance Pearson correlation −.417
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 375 375
**. Correlation is signiﬁcant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 3. Correlations between Facebook and multitasking.
Facebook Pearson correlation 1 .393
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 375 375
Multitasking Pearson correlation .393
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 375 375
**. Correlation is signiﬁcant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The Impact of Using Facebook on the Academic Performance 413
Facebook correlation with Health
- There is no relationship between students using Facebook and health
- There is a relationship between students using Facebook and health
Health factor might get the cause of indirectly affect the students’academic per-
formance measuring the Health factor in relationship between Facebook results are
working out on the relationship between dependent variable, and independent variable
outcomes (r = −0.200**) that signiﬁes negative correlation between these two vari-
ables results and it shows there is low correlation that pointed out the dependent
variable increase, and independent variable decrease, which means the usage of
Facebook may effect on health and may cause to bad health, students may addict to use
Facebook. However, the Facebook is not the only factor that has negative impact on the
health. In addition, the ﬁnal results of correlation shows (r = 0.200, p = 0.000 < 0.05)
that signiﬁes there is negative correlation exist and reject Null hypothesis therefore
accept alternative H1. The results are shown in Table 4.
Measuring the Health factor in relationship between Facebook results are working
out on the relationship between dependent variable and independent variable outcomes
(r = −0.200**) and signiﬁes negative correlation between these two variables results
shows there is low correlation that pointed out the dependent variable increase the
independent variable decrease which means the using of Facebook may effect on health
and may cause to bad health, students may addict to use Facebook however the
Facebook is not only factor that has negative impact on the health. In addition, the ﬁnal
results of correlation shows (r = −0.200, p = 0.000 < 0.05) that signiﬁes there is
negative correlation exist and reject H
hypothesis therefore accept alternative H
Regression analysis is a method to use for many independents variables that are cor-
related with dependent variables and linear regression technique [26,27]. It is used to
interpret the regression coefﬁcients as the above correlation analysis outcomes in this
research showed all the null hypothesis rejected but not make sure the accepted
hypothesis support and not on concerned research. Furthermore, in this study simple
Table 4. Correlations between Facebook and Health.
Facebook Pearson correlation 1 −.200
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 375 375
Health Pearson correlation −.200
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 375 375
**. Correlation is signiﬁcant at the 0.01 level (2-
414 S. Karim et al.
and Linear regression model created in SPSS which Standard multiple linear regression
and the enter method are used to analyze the all independent variables at the same time
into the model. Related to this survey, Regression analysis is interpreted the stan-
dardized coefﬁcient beta (b) and R Square (R2) to provide the vivid transparency of
independent variable and dependent variable are correlated in a relationship or not in
relationships. Regression coefﬁcients determined the analysis of variables in relation.
The ﬁnding results and analysis showed the all of variables rejected the null hypothesis
which is 0.000 signiﬁcant level is less than 0.05. Furthermore, this study conducted
Linear multiple regression analysis to predict the variables of values of the dependent
variable (Facebook) known through independent variables (Academic performance,
Multitasking, and Health issues).
In Table 5, presented the Model summary Results which extract from SPSS soft-
ware, Model summary represent the Predicator in columns deﬁned the relationship of
R-Pearson correlation, RSquare coefﬁcient determinations value, Adjusted R Square
and Std. the error of the Estimate values.
The result of Anova-F-test showed in Table 6is (72.398) positive and signiﬁcant
showed the all of variables rejected the null hypothesis which is 0.000 signiﬁcant level
is less than 0.05 which also support of model ﬁtness.
Table 5. Model summary of study.
Model R R Square Adjusted
Std. error of
.174 .172 .247
.185 .180 .246
.369 .364 .217
a. Predictors: (Constant), Academic performance
b. Predictors: (Constant), Academic performance,
c. Predictors: (Constant), Academic performance,
Table 6. ANOVA results take out from SPSS.
Model Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
1 Regression 10.191 3 3.397 72.398 .000
Residual 17.409 371 .047
Total 27.600 374
a. Predictors: (Constant), Multitasking, Academic performance,
b. Dependent Variable: Facebook
The Impact of Using Facebook on the Academic Performance 415
In each table of results extracted form SPSS that indicates the Coefﬁcients of
determination explains the power of formulas that determine the strength of values
changes in the dependent variable with the relation of independent variables. Table 5
Results of Model summary presented the linear regression analysis and Model testing
exposes the value of R-Square so Model is 0.369 and the correlation of Coefﬁcient
0.369. It indicates a low and weak positive linear correlation that means the R-Square
explains 36.9% of the variance in the dependent variables which is Facebook while the
remaining 63.1% did not clarify the variance in the dependent variable and might be
other factors used to determine the negative impact of using Facebook on university
In Table 7Regression coefﬁcients determined the analysis of variables in relation
however, the ﬁnding results and analysis showed the all of variables rejected the null
hypothesis which is 0.000 signiﬁcant level is less than 0.05. All independent variables
has a relationship with using dependent variable (Facebook) form table of Model
summary R2 = 0.369 or 36.9% results shown by the contribution of regression coef-
ﬁcients values the academic performance (b=−0.352), Multitasking (b= 0.447),
After the interpretation of results, the highest contribution of results saying multi-
tasking is a signiﬁcant positive relationship that means the usage of Facebook
increases, the amount of multitasking also increases. The academic performance and
health have a negative signiﬁcant relationship this means the usage of Facebook
increase, Health and academic performance of the students will be decreased. In this
study when Facebook is frequently used by students that may cause to decrease in
academic performance and academic performance depends on students’usage that how
much Facebook is being used by students in a day.
5 Conclusion and Future Work
This research has examined and evaluated the underlying impact of using Facebook on
student’s academic performance. Facebook has been increased day by day like a
mushroom growth i.e. Facebook is becoming a need of social culture to stay live in the
society. This study investigates the impact of using Facebook on the academic per-
formance of University students. Facebook provides a signiﬁcant role in academic
areas and constructs a distraction for students at many universities but many of students
Table 7. Regression coefﬁcients results take out from SPSS.
Variables Beta Std. error t-stat Sig.
Constant 1.185 0.058 20.431 0.000
Academic performance −0.352 0.025 −8.251 0.000
Health −0.235 0.026 −5.321 0.000
Multitasking 0.447 0.035 10.415 0.000
416 S. Karim et al.
don’t know about the adverse impact on academic performance as these type of social
networks badly damaged the system of education as well as the career of students.
The main idea of the current study was to create the awareness and make sug-
gestions that what will be a better way to manage use of Facebook at university or
during study times. It was focused on the dependent variable (Facebook) showed the
results with independent variables (academic performance and multitasking). Directly
or indirectly, Communication tools such as Facebook plays an important role in
developing relationships either it impacts positive or negative on student’s lives.
This study examines the relationship between Facebook and academic performance
although it investigates that Facebook would impact on academic performance of the
university students’. Findings of Result that indicates (69%) of students are engaged to
use Facebook more than 16–18 h in a day when the students will divert to use Face-
book on different activities obviously it will be affected on academic performance
negatively. This research shows that Facebook has a positive relationship with multi-
tasking (44.7%). However, when the multitasking is increased other side academic
performance (35.2%) and health (−23.5%) will be decreased vice versa although the
disadvantages are outweighed of advantages especially when it is done by without
management and control. Finally, Misuse of Facebook damages the structure of edu-
cation that directly effects on the students’academic performance with heavily used by
students. Limitations of the present study are designed to examine the correlations
between students and using Facebook. Statistically, Findings of the present study
presents with (p < 0.5) signiﬁcant level.
Future research will be added with a qualitative element to present study of mixed
methods. This study was conducted an Undergraduate level of students that would be
expanded for a higher level of students and other stakeholders. Future research will be a
comparison between students GPA/percentage of before and after of using Facebook.
This study was limited in selected areas of the institute, therefore, Future research and
similar study should be conducted at schools, colleges, other universities of Sindh and
the entire country.
Acknowledgment. The work is supported by the National Key Research & Development Plan
under grant No. 2017YFB0801801, the National Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under
grant No. 61472108 and 61672186.
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