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Higher testosterone levels are associated with unfaithful behavior in men

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Abstract

Background: Infidelity in romantic relationships is a common, but severe issue often causing breakup and severe psychological impairment. Higher levels of testosterone are related to mating-behavior, sexual desire, and infidelity in men with sexual dysfunctions. Previous studies, have insufficiently addressed the potential role of testosterone in infidelity in healthy men. Methods: A sample of 224 middle-aged self-reporting healthy men being currently in a relationship completed questionnaires on relationship characteristics, infidelity, and provided overnight-fasting saliva samples for testosterone quantification. Results: In the sample, 37.5% men answered having been unfaithful in the current relationship, while 29% were identified as fulfilling criteria for a sexual dysfunction. Adjusting for covariates, a significant positive association for the frequency of unfaithful behavior and testosterone levels emerged. Subsample analysis indicates a positive association between testosterone and infidelity only to be present in men without sexual dysfunction. Conclusion: Unfaithful behavior in males is associated with higher testosterone levels.

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... Males which are di erentially moderated by sex steroids (Del Giudice et al., 2015). For example, extradyadic sexual desire has been linked to various levels of progesterone and estradiol in women (Grebe et al., 2016;Roney & Simmons, 2016) and in delity has been linked to increased concentrations of testosterone in men (Klimas et al., 2019). In this chapter, we provide an overview of such hormonal modulation and reactivity to sexual behavior within the overarching framework of life history theory, and outline how unfaithful behavior, as well as relevant behavioral and psychological proxies (e.g., relationship commitment, interest in extrapair sex) in men and women can be understood within this context. ...
... Similarly, Fisher and colleagues (2009) found that among a large sample of men with sexual dysfunction, those with higher androgenization-as indexed by higher testosterone levels and testis volume-reported more extramarital a airs than their low-androgenization counterparts. Recent work from a sample of middle-aged men is also consistent with this in nding that among healthy men, testosterone levels were positively predictive of the frequency of unfaithful behavior reported (Klimas et al., 2019). Although these studies are few in number, they provide evidence to suggest that testosterone, at least among men, may play an important role in in delity. ...
... First, there exist a limited number of studies that have directly examined the link between hormones and in delity, rather than related proxies like extrapair or sociosexual desire. While several studies indicate that hormones, such as testosterone in men (Klimas et al., 2019) and estradiol in women (Durante & Li, 2009) may be directly associated with unfaithful and irtatious behavior, more research that incorporates in delity speci cally will improve our understanding of these relationships. Furthermore, existing research on hormone-in delity relationships has focused almost exclusively on sexual in delity, perhaps because sexual in delity has the most direct consequences for reproductive tness. ...
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Life-history theory provides a framework for understanding the resource trade-offs that are inherent in the struggle to maximize reproductive fitness. Hormones, and testosterone in particular, play important roles in mediating some of the morphological, behavioral, and physiological traits that are implicated in these trade-offs—one of the most widely studied of which is mating versus parenting. In this chapter, we use a life history perspective to review literature examining hormones and infidelity or related proxies (e.g., interest in extrapair sex), and how these links may be understood as a function of the mating vs. parenting trade-off. This chapter focuses the review primarily on testosterone, but also reviews other hormones and hormone systems that have been implicated in infidelity or relevant behavioral and psychological proxies. Further, it touches on contextual considerations for understanding the link between hormones and infidelity and mating, such as the type of mating system (e.g., monogamy vs. polygamy) and the menstrual cycle. The chapter concludes with a discussion of some of the limitations of current, and potential avenues for future, research on hormones and infidelity.
... Of these, 49 pairs used specific birthday months with P ranging between 0.08 (1/12 months) and 0.25 (3/12 months). In five cases Nakhaee et al., 2013;Khosravi et al., 2015;Nasirian et al., 2018;Safiri et al., 2019), season (e.g., spring) was used which is open for interpretation Substance use and misuse Nakhaee et al., 2013;Shamsipour et al., 2014;Höglinger et al., 2016;Mirzazadeh et al., 2018;Banayejeddi et al., 2019;Safiri et al., 2019;Özgül, 2020;Canan et al., 2021Shamsipour et al., 2014Mirzazadeh et al., 2018;Safiri et al., 2019 Academic misconduct Coutts et al., 2011;Jann et al., 2012;Höglinger et al., 2016;Hopp and Speil, 2019;Jerke et al., 2021Coutts et al., 2011Jann et al., 2012;Jerke et al., 2021 Corruption, tax evasion, and theft Korndörfer et al., 2014;Kundt, 2014;Gingerich et al., 2015;Höglinger and Jann, 2018;Hopp and Speil, 2019;Oliveros and Gingerich, 2020 Health and STDs Mirzazadeh et al., 2018;Nasirian et al., 2018 Sexual behavior and infidelity Mirzazadeh et al., 2018;Klimas et al., 2019;Lacker et al., 2020 Dishonesty and cheating in games/non-academic tasks Excluded from analysis/table for absence of estimates: Academic misconduct Jerke et al., 2019), and health (Schnapp, 2019). ...
... Online questionnaires (k = 21) Korndörfer et al., 2014;Kundt, 2014;Hoffmann et al., 2015Hoffmann et al., , 2017Höglinger et al., 2016;Höglinger and Diekmann, 2017;Waubert de Puiseau et al., 2017;Höglinger and Jann, 2018;Hopp and Speil, 2019;Klimas et al., 2019;Lehrer et al., 2019;Schnapp, 2019;Walzenbach and Hinz, 2019;Atsusaka and Stevenson, 2020;Jensen, 2020;Lacker et al., 2020;Meisters et al., 2020a;Canan et al., 2021;Jerke et al., 2021;Mieth et al., 2021 Paper questionnaires (k = 18) Coutts et al., 2011;Jann et al., 2012;Nakhaee et al., 2013;Shamsipour et al., 2014;Vakilian et al., 2014Vakilian et al., , 2016Vakilian et al., , 2019Khosravi et al., 2015;Kazemzadeh et al., 2016;Heck et al., 2018;Mirzazadeh et al., 2018;Nasirian et al., 2018;Banayejeddi et al., 2019;Safiri et al., 2019;Hoffmann et al., 2020;Meisters et al., 2020b;Özgül, 2020 Interviews (k = 4) Gingerich et al., 2015;Kundt et al., 2017;Oliveros and Gingerich, 2020 Interviews and questionnaires (k = 2) Eslami et al., 2013;Jerke et al., 2019 Unspecified questionnaire (k = 1) Hopp and Speil, 2019 ...
... We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis as well as quality assessment of empirical applications of CM Eslami et al., 2013;Shamsipour et al., 2014;Vakilian et al., 2014Vakilian et al., , 2016Vakilian et al., , 2019Kazemzadeh et al., 2016;Waubert de Puiseau et al., 2017;Banayejeddi et al., 2019;Klimas et al., 2019;Jensen, 2020;Lacker et al., 2020;Mieth et al., 2021k = 4 Gingerich et al., 2015Khosravi et al., 2015;Oliveros and Gingerich, 2020;Canan et al., 2021 Excluded from analysis/ ...
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Tools for reliable assessment of socially sensitive or transgressive behavior warrant constant development. Among them, the Crosswise Model (CM) has gained considerable attention. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed empirical applications of CM and addressed a gap for quality assessment of indirect estimation models. Guided by the PRISMA protocol, we identified 45 empirical studies from electronic database and reference searches. Thirty of these were comparative validation studies (CVS) comparing CM and direct question (DQ) estimates. Six prevalence studies exclusively used CM. One was a qualitative study. Behavior investigated were substance use and misuse (k = 13), academic misconduct (k = 8), and corruption, tax evasion, and theft (k = 7) among others. Majority of studies (k = 39) applied the “more is better” hypothesis. Thirty-five studies relied on birthday distribution and 22 of these used P = 0.25 for the non-sensitive item. Overall, 11 studies were assessed as high-, 31 as moderate-, and two as low quality (excluding the qualitative study). The effect of non-compliance was assessed in eight studies. From mixed CVS results, the meta-analysis indicates that CM outperforms DQ on the “more is better” validation criterion, and increasingly so with higher behavior sensitivity. However, little difference was observed between DQ and CM estimates for items with DQ prevalence estimate around 50%. Based on empirical evidence available to date, our study provides support for the superiority of CM to DQ in assessing sensitive/transgressive behavior. Despite some limitations, CM is a valuable and promising tool for population level investigation.
... 3 Four publications with 27 items include results that have already been published elsewhere, at least partially. 4 Six publications, including 10 items, did not report the necessary information to calculate D of the CM and DQ estimate and its standard error (Klimas et al. 2019;Nakhaee, Pakravan, and Nakhaee 2013;Schnapp 2019;Vakilian et al. 2014Vakilian et al. , 2016Vakilian et al. , 2019. 5 We drop these 27 items from the meta-analysis and only keep the items included in the initial publications. For all other items, the relevant estimates were either accurately reported or sufficient information was accessible in supplementary materials or provided by email, so that we were able to compute the necessary statistics. ...
... ;Hopp and Speil 2018;Jann et al. 2012), substance abuse(Banayejeddi et al. 2019;Höglinger and Diekmann 2017;Höglinger et al. 2016;Nakhaee et al. 2013;Shamsipour et al. 2014), risky sexual behavior(Klimas et al. 2019;Nasirian et al. 2018;Safiri et al. 2018;Vakilian et al. 2019;Vakilian et al. 2014Vakilian et al. , 2016, carrying rare diseases(Höglinger and Diekmann 2017;Schnapp 2019), tax/fee evasion and corruptionGingerich et al. 2016;Höglinger and Jann 2018;Hopp and Speil 2018;Korndörfer et al. 2014;Kundt 2014;Kundt, Misch, and Nerré 2016;Oliveros and Gingerich 2019), nonvoting(Höglinger and Jann ...
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This article provides a meta-analysis of studies using the crosswise model (CM) in estimating the prevalence of sensitive characteristics in different samples and populations. On a data set of 141 items published in 33 either articles or books, we compare the difference (Δ) between estimates based on the CM and a direct question (DQ). The overall effect size of Δ is 4.88; 95% CI [4.56, 5.21]. The results of a meta-regression indicate that Δ is smaller when general populations and nonprobability samples are considered. The population effect suggests an education effect: Differences between the CM and DQ estimates are more likely to occur when highly educated populations, such as students, are studied. Our findings raise concerns to what extent the CM is able to improve estimates of sensitive behavior in general population samples.
... For example, men with lower pitched voices and women with higher pitched voices are judged as more likely to be sexually unfaithful (O'Connor et al., 2011;O'Connor & Barclay, 2017). Moreover, in mating-related relationships, unfaithful men usually showed lower relationship satisfaction, and present less intimacy and less commitment to long-term partners (Klimas et al., 2019). Similarly, women usually perceived a lower pitched voice as indicative of men who are less likely to invest time and effort, and be financially generous with their romantic partners . ...
... Therefore, both F0 and F0sd may also be a sensitive indicator of relationship commitment. In contrast, unfaithful men report lower relationship satisfaction, which is often accompanied by less intimacy and less commitment to long-term partners (Klimas et al., 2019). If men with a lower voice pay more attention to extra-pair sex or infidelity, they certainly have less time for their long-term relationships. ...
Article
In mating relationships, judgments about a speaker's infidelity intention and relationship investment vary depending on the speaker's voice pitch. However, no study so far has investigated whether voice pitch predicts infidelity intention and relationship commitment. In this study, three vocal parameters were analyzed: fundamental frequency (F0), the within-utterance standard deviation in F0 (F0-sd), and formant position (Pf). We examined the -relationship between vocal parameters and infidelity intention as well as relationship commitment based on self-report questionnaires. Results showed that, in men, F0 and F0-sd were significantly negatively correlated with infidelity intention, positively correlated with relationship commitment, and there were no significant correlations between Pf and infidelity intention or relationship commitment. In women, vocal parameters did not predict infidelity intention or relationship commitment. Taken together, this study suggests that vocal characteristics predict infidelity intention and relationship commitment in men but not in women. The current findings have important implications for research on voice in the mating-related domain.
... These high percentages are at odds with the people's usually negative attitudes toward the phenomenon (van Hooff, 2017), which are consonant with the negative psychological and social phenomena associated with infidelity, such as decline in psychological health (Shrout & Weigel, 2018) or couple dissolution (Apostolou, Constantinou, & Anagnostopoulos, 2019;DeMaris, 2013). These results indicate that infidelity causes harm to another person − partner or spouse − or even to the whole family (DeMaris, 2013; Thorson, 2013), some authors labeling it as a social problem (Klimas, Ehlert, Lacker, Waldvogel, & Walther, 2019). ...
Article
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Marital infidelity is both socially perceived as immoral and very frequent. This contradiction might be explained through the process of moral disengagement, specifically by the use of certain socially shared moral justifications of infidelity, which consequently foster unfaithful behavior. This research developed and examined the Infidelity Moral Disengagement Scale (IMDS), aiming to capture the strategies of morally legitimizing infidelity used among people engaged in marital relationships. Across two studies (total N= 609 married participants) we investigated the dimensions and psychometric properties of the IMDS. Results showed that the dominant strategies of legitimizing marital infidelity are the diffusion of responsibility, the attribution of blame on the cheated partner, advantageous comparisons with other immoral acts, justifying infidelity through certain benefits, and minimizing its negative consequences. The IMDS emerged as negatively related to moral identity and strongly associated to people’s past infidelity and to their tendency to engage in unfaithful behaviors.
... Una de las principales hormonas asociadas a la conducta sexual es la testosterona, ya que se ha reportado que a mayores concentraciones de esta hormona se presenta una mayor respuesta sexual. Por ejemplo, Klimas, et al. (2019) relacionaron la concentración de testosterona con la fidelidad en hombres adultos. Encontraron que los hombres que presentaban mayores concentraciones de esta hormona también presentaban mayores índices subjetivos de infidelidad. ...
... These high percentages are at odds with the people's usually negative attitudes toward the phenomenon (van Hooff, 2017), which are consonant with the negative psychological and social phenomena associated with infidelity, such as decline in psychological health (Shrout & Weigel, 2018) or couple dissolution (Apostolou, Constantinou, & Anagnostopoulos, 2019;DeMaris, 2013). These results indicate that infidelity causes harm to another person − partner or spouse − or even to the whole family (DeMaris, 2013; Thorson, 2013), some authors labeling it as a social problem (Klimas, Ehlert, Lacker, Waldvogel, & Walther, 2019). ...
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Marital infidelity is both socially perceived as immoral and very frequent. This contradiction might be explained through the process of moral disengagement, specifically by the use of certain socially shared moral justifications of infidelity, which consequently foster unfaithful behavior. This research developed and examined the Infidelity Moral Disengagement Scale (IMDS), aiming to capture the strategies of morally legitimizing infidelity used among people engaged in marital relationships. Across two studies (total N = 609 married participants) we investigated the dimensions and psychometric properties of the IMDS. Results showed that the dominant strategies of legitimizing marital infidelity are the diffusion of responsibility, the attribution of blame on the cheated partner, advantageous comparisons with other immoral acts, justifying infidelity through certain benefits, and minimizing its negative consequences. The IMDS emerged as negatively related to moral identity and strongly associated to people’s past infidelity and to their tendency to engage in unfaithful behaviors.
... Selain itu, level hormon testosteron juga berperan dalam perilaku berselingkuh ini. Seseorang yang berselingkuh dari pasangannya cenderung memiliki kadar testosteron yang lebih tinggi daripada mereka yang tetap monogami atau setia pada satu pasangan (Klimas et al., 2019;van Anders et al., 2007). Namun, ini bukan berarti bahwa semua orang yang memiliki kadar testosteron yang tinggi sudah pasti berselingkuh karena ini bersifat korelasional bukan kausal. ...
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Perselingkuhan telah menjadi salah satu faktor penyebab adanya keretakan dalam sebuah hubungan hingga tak sedikit yang berujung pada perceraian. Perselingkuhan merupakan sebuah pelanggaran yang dilakukan oleh seseorang yang sudah memiliki pasangan terhadap norma yang mengatur tingkat keintiman emosional atau fisik dengan orang-orang di luar hubungannya dengan pasangan. Perilaku ini bisa dilakukan oleh siapa saja termasuk wanita, meskipun prevalensinya menunjukkan bahwa pria lebih banyak menjadi pelaku perselingkuhan. Beberapa penelitian yang ada meninjau topik ini baik dari aspek sosial maupun psikologis. Dampak negatifnya bervariasi terhadap kesehatan mental individu diantaranya seperti depresi, kecemasan, penurunan kepercayaan diri serta penurunan self-esteem. Penelitian terkini mencoba untuk mengaitkan antara perselingkuhan dengan aspek-aspek biologis agar mendapatkan gambaran keterkaitan antara genetika, hormonal, dan proses otak dalam memengaruhi predisposisi seseorang untuk melakukan perselingkuhan.
... the further feminization of human faces as evidenced by a reduction in brow ridge projections and a shortening of the upper facial region most likely due to reduction in androgen activity on craniofacial structures[63, 67,68]. Given that testosterone is linked to dominance, egoistic choices, aggressive and unfaithful behavior in men, the feminization of male faces may indicate preferential selection for increased social tolerance that allowed humans to work more productively[66,69,70].Thus, declining androgen effects most likely "domesticated" and shrunk the human face and body size.To the best of our knowledge, we provide for the first time empirical support for the inverse relationship between serum TT in men and attractiveness of their natural faces as scored on images by young women on their most fertile day of the menstrual cycle. Our results are in disparity with results of a study by Roney et al. who found that women prefer natural faces of men with high saliva testosterone during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle [71]. ...
Article
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The attractiveness of the human face plays an essential role in mating as it may signal the genetic suitability of a mate. The controversial 'ovulatory shift hypothesis' postulates that women in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle would prefer faces of masculine men with high testosterone that signals 'good genes', whereas in the non-fertile phase they prefer traits signaling the willingness to provide parental care. To examine relationships between men's testosterone and women's preferences for men's faces on day 13 of the menstrual cycle, 19 young women rated the attractiveness of images of the natural faces of 77 young men. Using advanced Bayesian multilevel modeling we showed that the attractiveness of men's faces is significantly lower in men with a high concentration of serum total testosterone, even taking into account the concentration of serum estrogen in the raters. The average men's face composited from images of 39 faces rated above pool median attractiveness rate, was slightly narrower than the average face composited from 38 less attractive faces. Our results challenge the 'ovulatory shift hypothesis' as faces of males with high circulating testosterone were rated as less attractive than faces of males with lower testosterone by women on the fertile phase of the cycle.
... Una de las principales hormonas asociadas a la conducta sexual es la testosterona, ya que se ha reportado que a mayores concentraciones de esta hormona se presenta una mayor respuesta sexual. Por ejemplo, Klimas, et al. (2019) relacionaron la concentración de testosterona con la fidelidad en hombres adultos. Encontraron que los hombres que presentaban mayores concentraciones de esta hormona también presentaban mayores índices subjetivos de infidelidad. ...
... Similarly, T levels showed an overall decline, but while the steepest decrease was observed for men interacting with their long-term romantic partner, those interacting with a strange female showed no attenuation. This is consistent with studies that showed a decrease in T levels in men within a committed relationship compared to single men in the context of available females 36,43 . These findings highlight the complex effects of dialogue on biomarkers of stress and competition in men and their dependence on the interactive context and the attachment relationship between the man and his female partner. ...
Article
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Social contact is known to impact the partners' physiology and behavior but the mechanisms underpinning such inter-partner influences are far from clear. Guided by the biobehavioral synchrony conceptual frame, we examined how social dialogue shapes the partners' multi-system endocrine response as mediated by behavioral synchrony. To address sex-specific, hormone-specific, attachment-specific mechanisms, we recruited 82 man–woman pairs (N = 164 participants) in three attachment groups; long-term couples (n = 29), best friends (n = 26), and ingroup strangers (n = 27). We used salivary measures of oxytocin (OT), cortisol (CT), testosterone (T), and secretory immuglobolinA (s-IgA), biomarker of the immune system, before and after a 30-min social dialogue. Dialogue increased oxytocin and reduced cortisol and testosterone. Cross-person cross-hormone influences indicated that dialogue carries distinct effects on women and men as mediated by social behavior and attachment status. Men's baseline stress-related biomarkers showed both direct hormone-to-hormone associations and, via attachment status and behavioral synchrony, impacted women's post-dialogue biomarkers of stress, affiliation, and immunity. In contrast, women's baseline stress biomarkers linked with men's stress response only through the mediating role of behavioral synchrony. As to affiliation biomarkers, men's initial OT impacted women's OT response only through behavioral synchrony, whereas women's baseline OT was directly related to men's post-dialogue OT levels. Findings pinpoint the neuroendocrine advantage of social dialogue, suggest that women are more sensitive to signs of men's initial stress and social status, and describe behavior-based mechanisms by which human attachments create a coupled biology toward greater well-being and resilience.
... This is especially relevant when discussing infidelity-driven theories such as the partner switching hypothesis [19] or the investment model [15,16]. Importantly, in a previous examination conducted by our group, higher testosterone levels were identified to be associated with increased infidelity in healthy men, while relationship satisfaction, depressive and sexual symptoms, as well as alcohol consumption differed significantly between faithful and unfaithful men [52]. ...
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Background: Relationship satisfaction has been identified as an important factor in terms of extradyadic sexual involvement. However, in men, fatherhood might be associated with infidelity by leading to changes in relationship satisfaction and the social life of parents. To date, no study has focused on the association of fatherhood and infidelity, nor the influence of fatherhood on the association between relationship satisfaction and infidelity. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, 137 fathers and 116 non-fathers were assessed regarding relationship satisfaction, infidelity, and potential confounds. Results: Significantly more fathers reported having been unfaithful in the current relationship than non-fathers (30.7% vs. 17.2%). Fathers also reported longer relationship duration, higher relationship satisfaction, and lower neuroticism than non-fathers. Furthermore, fatherhood moderated the association between relationship satisfaction and infidelity insofar that only in non-fathers reduced relationship satisfaction was associated with infidelity. Conclusions: The results suggest that fatherhood increases the risk of engaging in extradyadic sexual activities and moderates the link between relationship satisfaction and infidelity. However, results need to be interpreted with caution due to the cross-sectional study design and the lack of information about the specific time point of the infidelity incident(s).
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Vocal characteristics are important cues to form social impressions. Previous studies indicated that men with masculine voices are perceived as engaging in higher rates of infidelity and being less committed to their relationship. In the current study, we examined how women in China perceive information regarding infidelity and relationship investment conveyed by the voices (voice pitch and vocal tract length) of males, and whether different vocal characteristics play a similar role in driving these impressions. In addition, we examined whether these perceptions are consistent in Chinese and English language contexts. The results indicated that women perceived men with more masculine voices (lower voice pitch and longer vocal tract length) as showing a lower likelihood of infidelity and higher relationship investment; further, women who preferred more masculine voices in long-term relationships, but not in short-term relationships, were more likely to perceive men with masculine voices as less likely to engage in infidelity and more likely to invest in their relationship. Moreover, the participants formed very similar impressions irrespective of whether the voices spoke native (Chinese) or foreign (English) languages. These results provide new evidence for the role of the voice in women's choices in selecting long-term partners.
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Humans are sexually dimorphic: men and women differ in body build and composition, craniofacial structure, and voice pitch, likely mediated in part by developmental testosterone. Sexual selection hypotheses posit that, ancestrally, more 'masculine' men may have acquired more mates and/or sired more viable offspring. Thus far, however, evidence for either association is unclear. Here, we meta-analyze the relationships between six masculine traits and mating/reproductive outcomes (96 studies, 474 effects, N = 177,044). Voice pitch, height, and testosterone all predicted mating; however, strength/muscularity was the strongest and only consistent predictor of both mating and reproduction. Facial masculinity and digit ratios did not significantly predict either. There was no clear evidence for any effects of masculinity on offspring viability. Our findings support arguments that strength/muscularity may be sexually selected in humans, but cast doubt regarding selection for other forms of masculinity and highlight the need to increase tests of evolutionary hypotheses outside of industrialized populations.
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The attractiveness of the human face may signal the genetic suitability of a mate. The ‘ovulatory shift hypothesis’ postulates that women in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle prefer faces of masculine men that signal ‘good genes’, whereas in the non-fertile phase they prefer good parental providers. We studied relationships between serum total testosterone and face attractiveness of 77 healthy men (20-29 years, mean±SD 22.44±1.79) as rated by 19 healthy women (20-27 years, mean±SD 22.84±1.96) on day 13 of their menstrual cycle. Using advanced Bayesian multilevel modeling we showed that the attractiveness of faces is negatively associated with the concentration of serum testosterone in the men, even taking into account the concentration of serum estrogen in the raters. The average face composited from images of 39 faces rated above pool median attractiveness rate, was slightly narrower than the average face composited from 38 less attractive faces. Our results challenge the ‘ovulatory shift hypothesis’ as faces of males with higher circulating testosterone were rated as less attractive than faces of males with lower testosterone by women on the fertile phase of the cycle.
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Humans are sexually dimorphic: on average men significantly differ from women in body build and composition, craniofacial structure, and voice pitch, likely mediated in part by developmental testosterone exposure. Hypotheses which attempt to explain the evolution of dimorphism in humans, such as the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis and the male-male competition hypothesis, assume that more dimorphic (i.e. masculine) men have historically achieved greater mating success, resulting in greater reproductive success. This is either because women select more masculine men due to their greater immune function, because more masculine men expend more energy on mating effort, or because more masculine men out-compete their rivals for other routes to mating success. Thus far, however, evidence for an association between masculinity and reproductive success is unclear. We conducted the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date, on the relationship between masculinity in six domains (faces, bodies, voices, height, digit ratios, and testosterone levels) and mating/reproductive success, comprising 434 effect sizes from 91 studies (total N = 155,348). Body masculinity, i.e. muscularity and strength, predicted both mating and reproductive success. Voice pitch, height, digit ratios and testosterone levels all predicted mating but not reproductive outcomes. Facial masculinity did not significantly predict either. Our findings support arguments that muscularity/strength can be considered sexually selected in humans, but raise concerns over other forms of masculinity, most especially facial masculinity. We are also constrained by lack of reproductive data, particularly from naturally fertile populations. Our data thus highlight the need to increase tests of evolutionary hypotheses outside of industrialised populations.
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Importance: Countering depressive disorders is a public health priority. Currently, antidepressants are the first-line treatment, although they show modest effects. In men, testosterone treatment is a controversial alternative or adjunct treatment option. Objectives: To examine the association of testosterone treatment with alleviation of depressive symptoms in men and to clarify moderating effects of testosterone status, depression status, age, treatment duration, and dosage. Data Sources: English-language studies published in peer-reviewed journals identified from PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register from database inception to March 5, 2018, using the search terms testosterone, mood, administration, dosage, adverse effects, deficiency, standards, therapeutic use, therapy, treatment, and supplementation. Study Selection: Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of testosterone treatment that together cover a broad age range and hypogonadal or eugonadal men reporting depressive symptoms on psychometrically validated depression scales. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Of 7690 identified records, 469 were evaluated against full study inclusion criteria after removing duplicates, reviews, and studies that did not examine male patients or testosterone. Quality assessment and data extraction from the remaining 27 RCTs were performed. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were testosterone treatment effectiveness (standardized score difference after treatment), efficacy (proportion of patients who responded to testosterone treatment with a score reduction of 50% or greater), and acceptability (proportion of patients who withdrew for any reason). Results: Random-effects meta-analysis of 27 RCTs including 1890 men suggested that testosterone treatment is associated with a significant reduction in depressive symptoms compared with placebo (Hedges g, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.10-0.32), showing an efficacy of odds ratio (OR), 2.30 (95% CI, 1.30-4.06). There was no significant difference between acceptability of testosterone treatment and placebo (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.61-1.01). Meta-regression models suggested significant interactions for testosterone treatment with dosage and symptom variability at baseline. In the most conservative bias scenario, testosterone treatment remained significant whenever dosages greater than 0.5 g/wk were administered and symptom variability was kept low. Conclusions and Relevance: Testosterone treatment appears to be effective and efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms in men, particularly when higher-dosage regimens were applied in carefully selected samples. However, given the heterogeneity of the included RCTs, more preregistered trials are needed that explicitly examine depression as the primary end point and consider relevant moderators.
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Paternal care is facilitated by a decline in testosterone levels following the transition to fatherhood. This process is considered to mediate a trade-off between mating and parenting, which may allow fathers to focus future resources on childcare activities. Previous studies revealed associations between testosterone levels and direct paternal care, but its relation to fathers’ subjective appraisal of the paternal role is still unknown. This cross-sectional study investigates associations between salivary testosterone concentrations and satisfaction with the father role measured by perceived constraint and enrichment due to fatherhood during child development until adolescence. A sample of 182 healthy fathers of various ages (M = 38.93, range: 25–62) with at least one child under the age of 18 was considered for this analysis. All subjects had biological children with their current partner/spouse only and lived in the same household with their partner/spouse and offspring. The presented data demonstrate that testosterone levels are positively associated with perceived constraint due to fatherhood, but only in fathers with young children. These findings suggest that high testosterone levels could temporarily be contradictory to paternal role satisfaction, due to potential role conflicts, while low testosterone may buffer some of the constraining aspects of caring for young children. Alternatively, these findings could indicate that less convinced fathers might maintain higher T levels across the whole period of fatherhood as a consequence of lower psychological role commitment.
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Sexual health severely decreases with age. For males older than 40 years, erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common sexual disorder. Although physical and psychological risk factors for ED have been identified, protective factors are yet to be determined. To date, no study has examined endocrine and psychosocial factors in parallel with regard to their modifying effect on the age-related increase in ED. Two hundred and seventy-one self-reporting healthy men aged between 40 and 75 years provided both psychometric data on sexual function and a set of potential psychosocial protective factors, and saliva samples for the analysis of steroid hormones and proinflammatory cytokines. Around 35% of the participants reported at least a mild form of ED. Direct associations with ED were identified for perceived general health, emotional support, relationship quality, intimacy motivation but not for steroid hormones or proinflammatory markers. Moderation analyses for the association between age and ED revealed positive effects for testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), perceived general health, emotional support, intimacy motivation, and a negative effect for interleukin-6 (all p < .05; f² > .17). Group differences between older men with and without ED emerged for T, DHEA, and psychometric measures such as perceived general health, emotional support, satisfaction with life, and intimacy motivation (all p < .05; d > .3). Both psychosocial and endocrine parameters moderated the association between age and sexual health. Perceived general health, emotional support, intimacy motivation, and relationship quality emerged as psychosocial protective factors against ED. Higher T and DHEA and lower interleukin-6 levels also buffered against an age-related increase in ED.
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Context: Salivary testosterone (Sal-T) measurement by LC-MS/MS resents the opportunity to examine health correlates of Sal-T in a large-scale population survey. Objective: To examine associations between Sal-T and health-related factors in men and women aged 18-74 years. Design & setting: Morning saliva samples were obtained from participants in a cross-sectional probability-sample survey of the general British population ('Natsal-3'). Self-reported health and lifestyle questions were administered as part of a wider sexual health interview. Participants: 1,599 men; 2,123 women. Methods: Sal-T was measured using LC-MS/MS; linear regression was used to examine associations between health factors and mean Sal-T. Results: In men, mean Sal-T was associated with a range of health factors after age-adjustment, showing a strong independent negative association with BMI. Men reporting cardiovascular disease or currently taking medication for depression had lower age-adjusted Sal-T, although there was no association with cardiovascular disease after adjustment for BMI. The decline in Sal-T with increasing age remained after adjustment for health-related factors. In women, Sal-T declined with increasing age, however there were no age-independent associations with health-related factors or specific heath conditions, with the exception of higher Sal-T in smokers. Conclusions: Sal-T levels were associated, independently of age, with a range of self-reported health markers, particularly BMI, in men but not women. The findings support the view that there is an age-related decline in Sal-T in men and women, which cannot be explained by an increase in ill-health. Our results demonstrate the potential of Sal-T as a convenient measure of tissue androgen exposure for population research.
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This study used population-representative longitudinal data from the 2005–2006 and 2010–2011 waves of the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project—a probability sample of US adults aged 57–85 at baseline (N = 650 women and 620 men)—to examine the causal direction in linkages of endogenous testosterone (T) with sexual activity and relationship quality. For both genders, our autoregressive effects indicated a large amount of temporal stability, not just in individual-level attributes (T, masturbation) but also dyadic ones (partnered sex, relationship quality)—indicating that a need for more nuanced theories of relational processes. Cross-lagged results suggested gender-specific effects—generally more consistent with sexual or relational modulation of T than with hormonal causation. Specifically, men’s findings indicated their T might be elevated by their sexual (masturbatory) activity but not vice versa, although androgen levels did lower men’s subsequent relationship quality. Women’s T, in contrast, was negatively influenced not just by their higher relationship quality but also by their more frequent partnered sex—perhaps reflecting a changing function of sexual activity in late life.
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Introduction: Several hormones and neurotransmitters orchestrate men's sexual response, including the appetitive (sexual desire) and consummative (arousal and penile erection) phases. Aim: To provide an overview and recommendations regarding endocrinologic control of sexual desire and arousal and erection and their disturbances. Methods: Medical literature was reviewed by the subcommittee of the International Consultation of Sexual Medicine, followed by extensive internal discussion, and then public presentation and discussion with other experts. The role of pituitary (prolactin, oxytocin, growth hormone, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone), thyroid, and testicular hormones was scrutinized and discussed. Main Outcome Measures: Recommendations were based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, followed by interactive discussion. Results: Testosterone has a primary role in controlling and synchronizing male sexual desire and arousal, acting at multiple levels. Accordingly, meta-analysis indicates that testosterone therapy for hypogonadal individuals can improve low desire and erectile dysfunction. Hyperprolactinemia is associated with low desire that can be successfully corrected by appropriate treatments. Oxytocin and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone are important in eliciting sexual arousal; however, use of these peptides, or their analogs, for stimulating sexual arousal is still under investigation. Evaluation and treatment of other endocrine disorders are suggested only in selected cases. Conclusion: Endocrine abnormalities are common in patients with sexual dysfunction. Their identification and treatment is strongly encouraged in disturbances of sexual desire and arousal.
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The study presents findings from interviews of 52 divorced individuals who received the Prevention and Relationship Enhancement Program (PREP) while engaged to be married. Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the study sought to understand participant reasons for divorce (including identification of the "final straw") in order to understand if the program covered these topics effectively. Participants also provided suggestions based on their premarital education experiences so as to improve future relationship education efforts. The most commonly reported major contributors to divorce were lack of commitment, infidelity, and conflict/arguing. The most common "final straw" reasons were infidelity, domestic violence, and substance use. More participants blamed their partners than blamed themselves for the divorce. Recommendations from participants for the improvement of premarital education included receiving relationship education before making a commitment to marry (when it would be easier to break-up), having support for implementing skills outside of the educational setting, and increasing content about the stages of typical marital development. These results provide new insights into the timing and content of premarital and relationship education.
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In the current study, data from a nationally representative sample of 884 men and 1,288 women (1994 General Social Survey, Davis & Smith, 1994) who have ever been married were analyzed with regard to incidence, prevalence, and correlates of extramarital sex (EMS). Men were more likely than women to report ever engaging in EMS (22.7% vs. 11.6%, p < .00001), yet, after correcting the probability value for multiple tests, the apparent gender difference regarding the proportion of respondents who had EMS during the past year was not statistically significant (4.1% vs. 1.7%, p < .008). Interestingly, there was no gender difference in lifetime incidence among respondents younger than 40 years of age. Except for the oldest cohort, lifetime incidence of EMS increased with age for men, whereas for women there was an apparently curvilinear relationship such that lifetime incidence of EMS was greatest among those 30–50 years of age. Those who have ever been divorced, and those with greater attitudinal acceptance of EMS, had higher incidence of EMS compared to those who have not been divorced and those reporting greater disapproval of EMS. With regard to possible gender differences, men and women who denied ever engaging in EMS did not differ in their attitudes about EMS, just as men and women who reported having experienced EMS did not differ in their attitudes. The results are discussed in relation to previous research and unanswered questions left for further investigation.
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We examined sex differences in the prevalence, incidence, reasons for, and consequences of infidelity. Participants (Study 1, 543 undergraduates in the Northwestern US; Study 2, 313 undergraduates and 233 community members in the Mid-Atlantic US), reported on infidelity by questionnaire. Using a broad definition of cheating, women reported being as unfaithful or more unfaithful than men. Men were more suspicious about cheating and more likely to discover the cheating than women. Women were more likely to break up with their partners, to begin new relationships after cheating, and to report reasons for cheating that may indicate a desire to switch long-term mates, such as being unhappy in the current relationship. Results are discussed in the context of evolutionary theory.
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Erectile dysfunction (ED) has long been correlated with psychological well-being. More recently, an understanding has developed of ED being, in some cases, a vascular condition of the penile artery. Given the narrowness of the penile artery, a small amount of atherosclerosis may result in ED before any other manifestations are evident, making ED a useful marker for other vascular conditions with potentially greater clinical implications. In light of this, possible underreporting of ED takes on added significance. A questionnaire regarding ED prevalence and management was distributed for self-administration to men in the waiting room of primary care clinics; the data were analyzed with a focus on the relationship between ED and age. The study had a remarkable response rate of >95%. The prevalence of ED in the ≥70-year age-group was 77%, compared with 61% in the 40- to 69-year age-group (p = .0001). ED correlated linearly with age (R(2) = .80, p < .0001). Among those who had ED, more than half had not discussed it with any provider; the likelihood of discussing ED did increase with the reported severity of symptoms (p < .0001). Older men had more severe ED than younger men (p < .0001). Furthermore, 72% of men with a history of ED were never treated. Younger men were more likely to be treated than older men (p = .004). Given the potential implications of underreporting ED, and the willingness of the men in this study to complete the questionnaire, further work may be merited on new models for ED assessment and follow-up.
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In species in which males care for young, testosterone (T) is often high during mating periods but then declines to allow for caregiving of resulting offspring. This model may apply to human males, but past human studies of T and fatherhood have been cross-sectional, making it unclear whether fatherhood suppresses T or if men with lower T are more likely to become fathers. Here, we use a large representative study in the Philippines (n = 624) to show that among single nonfathers at baseline (2005) (21.5 ± 0.3 y), men with high waking T were more likely to become partnered fathers by the time of follow-up 4.5 y later (P < 0.05). Men who became partnered fathers then experienced large declines in waking (median: -26%) and evening (median: -34%) T, which were significantly greater than declines in single nonfathers (P < 0.001). Consistent with the hypothesis that child interaction suppresses T, fathers reporting 3 h or more of daily childcare had lower T at follow-up compared with fathers not involved in care (P < 0.05). Using longitudinal data, these findings show that T and reproductive strategy have bidirectional relationships in human males, with high T predicting subsequent mating success but then declining rapidly after men become fathers. Our findings suggest that T mediates tradeoffs between mating and parenting in humans, as seen in other species in which fathers care for young. They also highlight one likely explanation for previously observed health disparities between partnered fathers and single men.
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Limited data are available exploring the associations between sex hormones, multiple domains of sexual functioning, and sexual function-related distress in nonpatient samples in Europe. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sexual function in a multicenter population-based study of aging in men. Using stratified random sampling, 2838 men aged 40-79 yr completed the European Male Ageing Study-Sexual Function Questionnaire and provided a blood sample for hormone measurements. T, E2, and DHT were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We conducted a community-based population survey in eight European centers. Self-reported sexual function (overall sexual function, sexual function-related distress, erectile dysfunction, masturbation) was measured. Total and free T, but not E2 or DHT, was associated with overall sexual function in middle-aged and older men. E2 was the only hormone associated with sexual function-related distress such that higher levels were related to greater distress. Free T levels were associated with masturbation frequency and erectile dysfunction in the fully adjusted models, such that higher T was associated with less dysfunction and greater frequency. Moreover, there was a T threshold for the relationship between total T, sexual function, and erectile dysfunction. At T concentrations of 8 nmol/liter or less, T was associated with worse sexual functioning, whereas at T levels over 8 nmol/liter, the relationship came to a plateau. These findings suggest that different hormonal mechanisms may regulate sexual functioning (T) vs. the psychological aspects (E2) of male sexual behavior. Moreover, there was a T threshold for overall sexual function such that at levels greater than 8 nmol/liter the relationship between T and sexual function did not become stronger.
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Data from a large survey of 1,561 professionals were used to examine the relationship between power and infidelity and the process underlying this relationship. Results showed that elevated power is positively associated with infidelity because power increases confidence in the ability to attract partners. This association was found for both actual infidelity and intentions to engage in infidelity in the future. Gender did not moderate these results: The relationship between power and infidelity was the same for women as for men, and for the same reason. These findings suggest that the common assumption (and often-found effect) that women are less likely than men to engage in infidelity is, at least partially, a reflection of traditional gender-based differences in power that exist in society.
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This study aimed to assess the relative importance of demographic, interpersonal, and personality factors in predicting sexual infidelity in heterosexual couples. A total of 506 men (M age = 32.86 years, SD = 10.60) and 412 women (M age = 27.66 years, SD = 8.93), who indicated they were in a monogamous sexual relationship, completed a series of questionnaires, including the Sexual Excitation/Inhibition (SES/SIS) scales and the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire, and answered questions about, among others, religiosity, education, income, relationship and sexual satisfaction, and sexual compatibility. Almost one-quarter of men (23.2%) and 19.2% of women indicated that they had "cheated" during their current relationship (i.e., engaged in sexual interactions with someone other than their partner that could jeopardize, or hurt, their relationship). Among men, a logistic regression analysis, explaining 17% of the variance, revealed that a higher propensity of sexual excitation (SES) and sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance concerns" (SIS1), a lower propensity for sexual inhibition due to "the threat of performance consequences" (SIS2), and an increased tendency to engage in regretful sexual behavior during negative affective states were all significant predictors of infidelity. In women, a similar regression analysis explained 21% of the variance in engaging in infidelity. In addition to SIS1 and SIS2, for which the same patterns were found as for men, low relationship happiness and low compatibility in terms of sexual attitudes and values were predictive of infidelity. The findings of this study suggest that, for both men and women, sexual personality characteristics and, for women, relationship factors are more relevant to the prediction of sexual infidelity than demographic variables such as marital status and religiosity.
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The association between aging-related testosterone deficiency and late-onset hypogonadism in men remains a controversial concept. We sought evidence-based criteria for identifying late-onset hypogonadism in the general population on the basis of an association between symptoms and a low testosterone level. We surveyed a random population sample of 3369 men between the ages of 40 and 79 years at eight European centers. Using questionnaires, we collected data with regard to the subjects' general, sexual, physical, and psychological health. Levels of total testosterone were measured in morning blood samples by mass spectrometry, and free testosterone levels were calculated with the use of Vermeulen's formula. Data were randomly split into separate training and validation sets for confirmatory analyses. In the training set, symptoms of poor morning erection, low sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, inability to perform vigorous activity, depression, and fatigue were significantly related to the testosterone level. Increased probabilities of the three sexual symptoms and limited physical vigor were discernible with decreased testosterone levels (ranges, 8.0 to 13.0 nmol per liter [2.3 to 3.7 ng per milliliter] for total testosterone and 160 to 280 pmol per liter [46 to 81 pg per milliliter] for free testosterone). However, only the three sexual symptoms had a syndromic association with decreased testosterone levels. An inverse relationship between an increasing number of sexual symptoms and a decreasing testosterone level was observed. These relationships were independently confirmed in the validation set, in which the strengths of the association between symptoms and low testosterone levels determined the minimum criteria necessary to identify late-onset hypogonadism. Late-onset hypogonadism can be defined by the presence of at least three sexual symptoms associated with a total testosterone level of less than 11 nmol per liter (3.2 ng per milliliter) and a free testosterone level of less than 220 pmol per liter (64 pg per milliliter).
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Testosterone (T) is lower among fathers and men in committed relationships, suggesting that the hormone mediates the trade-off between mating and parenting effort. The function of T in women and responses of the hormone to relationships or motherhood are less well understood. Here we report relationships between T and pairbonding and motherhood in a random sample of 67 women (20.9 to 22.4 years old) participating in a population-based birth cohort study in the Philippines. Testosterone was measured in saliva collected at bedtime and at waking the following morning to capture circadian dynamics. Compared to non-mothers and non-pairbonded women, mothers and pairbonded women had 32% (p<0.0001) and 23% (p<0.004) lower waking T, respectively, but similar evening T. The lower waking T in mothers largely reflected reduced T in mothers of young offspring (<2 years), with mothers of older offspring (2+ years) having intermediate T. These differences were independent of measures of breastfeeding, contraceptive pill use, menstrual cycle, sleep quality, education, employment, and socioeconomic status. Our findings highlight a similar relationship between parenting and committed relationships and T in women as documented in men and suggest that caregiving of dependent young may modulate female T. Future research should clarify whether this cross-sectional association reflects a suppressive effect of motherhood on T, whether these relationships vary across cultures, and the role of T within the endocrine architecture regulating female reproductive and caregiving strategies.
Article
The relation between cigarette smoking and serum sex hormone concentrations was examined in two samples of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) population. One sample consisted of 121 men at the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MRFIT center who were followed longitudinally for four years. The other sample was drawn from the entire MRFIT cohort and consisted of 163 MRFIT participants who subsequently developed coronary heart disease and 163 matched controls. The results indicated a positive correlation between cigarette smoking and serum total androstenedlone concentration. The association was independent of age, relative weight, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, and high density ilpoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Serum total and free testosterone concentrations were positively correlated with cigarette smoking among the longitudinal sample and the controls, but not for the baseline sara from the coronary heart disease cases. This positive correlation was also independent of age, relative weight, alcohol drinking, blood pressure, and HDL cholesterol. There was no association between either serum estradiol or estrone concentrations and cigarette smoking in this population. These observations may have important implications for epidemiologic studies of diseases with significant smoking relations.
Article
Research on healthy aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. Testosterone (T) decline is primarily investigated, while age-related changes in other sex steroids (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], estradiol [E2], progesterone [P]) are mostly neglected. An integrated hormone parameter reflecting aging processes in men has yet to be identified. 271 self-reporting healthy men between 40 and 75 provided both psychometric data and saliva samples for hormone analysis. Correlation analysis between age and sex steroids revealed negative associations for the four sex steroids (T, DHEA, E2, and P). Principal component analysis including ten salivary analytes identified a principal component mainly unifying the variance of the four sex steroid hormones. Subsequent principal component analysis including the four sex steroids extracted the principal component of declining steroid hormones (DSH). Moderation analysis of the association between age and DSH revealed significant moderation effects for psychosocial factors such as depression, chronic stress and perceived general health. In conclusion, these results provide further evidence that sex steroids decline in aging men and that the integrated hormone parameter DSH and its rate of change can be used as biomarkers for healthy aging in men. Furthermore, the negative association of age and DSH is moderated by psychosocial factors.
Article
This study assessed sexual orientation and psychobiological stress indices in relation to salivary sex hormones as part of a well-validated laboratory-based stress paradigm. Participants included 87 healthy adults that were on average 25 years old who self-identified as lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Two saliva samples were collected fifteen minutes before and fifteen minutes after exposure to a modified Trier Social Stress Test to determine testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone concentrations via enzyme-immune assaying. Mean sex hormones were further tested in association to stress indices related to cortisol systemic output (area under the curve with respect to ground) based on ten measures throughout the two-hour visit, allostatic load indexed using 21 biomarkers, and perceived stress assessed using a well-validated questionnaire. Results revealed that lesbian/bisexual women had higher overall testosterone and progesterone concentrations than heterosexual women, while no differences were found among gay/bisexual men in comparison to heterosexual men. Lesbian/bisexual women and heterosexual men showed positive associations between mean estradiol concentrations and allostatic load, while gay/bisexual men and heterosexual women showed positive associations between mean testosterone and cortisol systemic output. In summary, sex hormone variations appear to vary according to sexual orientation among women, but also as a function of cortisol systemic output, allostatic load, and perceived stress for both sexes.
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This article summarizes the current state of research on the prediction of infidelity and provides a foundation for advancing knowledge on this topic by offering specific recommendations for future research. The prevalence, terminological diversity, and impact of infidelity on numerous indicators of wellness is first discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the individual, relationship, and contextual factors that have received systematic attention in attempting to predict infidelity. Highlights include various demographics, the closing gender gap, cohabitation, religion, and the role of the internet in facilitating infidelity. The article concludes with 8 recommendations for more informative research to advance understanding of sexual infidelity.
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This research investigates endocrinological associations of the Dark Triad by relating narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy to endogenous testosterone and cortisol. Building on the notion that narcissists (in contrast to individuals with a proneness to Machiavellianism or psychopathy) possess a preference for being superior and a propensity to dominate other individuals, it is assumed that the dominance-related hormone testosterone is positively associated with narcissism. It is additionally assumed that narcissism specifically is positively related to basal cortisol levels given narcissists' vigilance and sensitivity regarding their social esteem and status which is linked to cortisol activity. In a study including 129 men from the subclinical population (Mage = 21.97, range = 18 to 34 years), a positive correlation of narcissism with basal testosterone levels was found. Narcissism was also positively correlated with basal cortisol levels. No significant relations emerged for Machiavellianism or psychopathy. In sum, the present contribution suggests that dark personality traits, in this case narcissism, are expressed in the endocrinology of individuals.
Chapter
Current demographic statistics show that modern societies are rapidly aging. Aging in general is accompanied by an increased susceptibility to physical and mental disease as well as an increased risk of mortality. Health care costs are expected to rise enormously. Therefore, successful aging with less disease burden and dependency is emerging as one of the most crucial health care goals of the upcoming decades. Over the last 20 years, research on successful aging in men has increasingly focused on age-related hormonal changes. A gradual reduction in testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone beginning around the age of 40 has been well documented. At the same age, other steroid hormones including estradiol and cortisol also show an age-dependent progressive change. These changing patterns of steroid hormone secretion play an essential role for general health and psychological well-being in males over 40. In the following chapter, we will discuss the underlying biological mechanisms of age-related hormonal alterations and elucidate their influence in the context of psychological, sexual, cognitive and physical areas of life in aging men. Considering these widespread consequences due to age-related hormonal changes, we will also discuss the clinical implications for men facing these conditions. Apparent good health or specific lifestyle factors were shown to slow down age-related hormonal changes. Since clinical conditions cannot be prevented for every male by maintaining good health or establishing a healthier lifestyle, hormone replacement represents a reasonable opportunity to overcome certain psychological, sexual, cognitive and physical impairments caused by age-related steroid alterations. Besides individual psychological support for the successful management of severe symptoms of age-related hormonal changes, targeted psychoeducation at a population-based level would, in the long term, be one possibility to inform men about their options and to support them in countering these largely neglected disorders.
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Extradyadic sex is prevalent in adult romantic relationships and it can have numerous negative consequences. It can negatively affect relationship functioning and makes both members of a romantic dyad more susceptible to particular health risks. The present research provides evidence for an association between problem drinking and extradyadic sex. In two studies, participants completed measures of problem drinking, extradyadic sex, relationship satisfaction, and social desirability. In Study 1 (N = 353), problem drinking predicted higher rates of extradyadic sex controlling for sex, age, relationship satisfaction, and social desirability. In Study 2, this finding replicated both cross-sectionally (N = 500) and prospectively (N = 384), controlling for Time 1 extradyadic sex. Moreover, a majority of participants who engaged in extradyadic sex did not disclose this information to partners and a significant minority did not use a condom during the extradyadic incident.
Article
Yu, Tian, and Tang (2008) proposed two new techniques for asking questions on sensitive topics in population surveys: the triangular model (TM) and the crosswise model (CM). The two models can be used as alternatives to the well-known randomized response technique (RRT) and are meant to overcome some of the drawbacks of the RRT. Although Yu, Tian, and Tang provide a promising theoretical analysis of the proposed models, they did not test them. We therefore provide results from an experimental survey in which the crosswise model was implemented and compared to direct questioning. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of the crosswise model. We focused on the crosswise model because it seems better suited than the triangular model to overcome the self-protective "no" bias observed for the RRT. This paper-and-pencil survey on plagiarism was administered to Swiss and German students in university classrooms. Results suggest that the CM is a promising data-collection instrument eliciting more socially undesirable answers than direct questioning.
Article
Purpose: To determine the effect of testosterone solution 2% on total testosterone level, and 2 symptoms of hypogonadism, sex drive and energy level. Materials and methods: This was a randomized, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 16-week study to compare the effect of testosterone and placebo on the proportion of men having a testosterone level within the normal range (300-1050 ng/dL) upon treatment completion, and to assess the impact of testosterone on sex drive and energy level, measured using the Sexual Arousal, Interest, and Drive scale (SAID) and the Hypogonadism Energy Diary (HED), respectively. Males ≥18 years (N=715), with total testosterone <300 ng/dL and at least one symptom of testosterone deficiency (decreased energy, decreased sexual drive) were randomized to 60mg topical testosterone solution 2% or placebo once daily. Results: For study completers, 73% in the testosterone versus 15% in the placebo group had a testosterone level within the normal range at endpoint (p<0.001). Participants assigned testosterone showed greater baseline-to-endpoint improvement in SAID scores (low sex drive subset; p<0.001 versus placebo) and HED scores (low energy subset; p=0.02 versus placebo [not significant at pre-specified p<0.01]). No major adverse cardiovascular or venous thrombotic events were reported in the testosterone group; the incidence of increased hematocrit was higher with testosterone (p=0.04 versus placebo). Conclusions: Once-daily testosterone solution 2% for 12 weeks was efficacious in restoring normal testosterone levels and improving sexual drive in hypogonadal men. Improvement was also seen in energy levels on the HED though not at the pre-specified p<0.01. No new safety signals were identified.
Article
Are hormone levels associated with the attainment of social status? Although endogenous testosterone predicts status-seeking social behaviors, research suggests that the stress hormone cortisol may inhibit testosterone's effects. Thus, individuals with both high testosterone and low cortisol may be especially likely to occupy high-status positions in social hierarchies while individuals with high testosterone and high cortisol may not. We tested this hypothesis by recruiting a sample of real executives and examining testosterone, cortisol, and a concrete indicator of attained status: the number of subordinates over which the executive has authority. Despite the myriad nonhormonal factors that determine organizational promotion, the executives' endogenous testosterone and cortisol interacted to significantly predict hierarchical position: Testosterone positively predicted executives' number of subordinates, but only among low-cortisol executives. The results imply that reducing cortisol levels via stress reduction may be a critical goal not only because doing so will improve health but also because doing so may enhance leadership potential. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Extramarital involvement (EMI) occurs with high prevalence among couples in clinical and community settings, frequently resulting in considerable distress both to participants and their spouses. The field lacks a synthesized review of this literature. Without such a synthesis, it has been difficult for researchers and clinicians to have an understanding of what is and is not known about EMI. This article reviews the large and scattered EMI literature using a framework that encompasses multiple source domains across the temporal process of engaging in and responding to EMI. In addition, this review delineates conceptual and methodological limitations to previous work in this area and articulates directions for further research.
Article
Infidelity appears to be a common phenomenon. Although there are initially positive consequences for the unfaithful partner, it has negative impacts on individuals, the relationship and health in the long-term. How often are extradyadic sexual contacts indicated within a German sample? Which factors predict infidelity? Via Internet (n=1 899) socio-demographic, individual (attitudes towards infidelity, religiosity), relationship (global and emotional relationship satisfaction, length of primary relationship, sexual agreements), and contextual factors (opportunities) were surveyed. The results of the regression analysis on an 80% subsample (n=1 533) were cross-validated with the remaining 20% of the data (n=366). The analysis showed that 4% of lesbian women, 34% of gay men, 29% of heterosexual women and 49% of heterosexual men reported extra-dyadic sexual contacts. Sexual orientation and restrictive attitudes towards monogamy and infidelity were found to be significant predictors. Low global relationship satisfaction, longer duration of primary relationship, non-monogamous relationships, availability of alternative sexual partners and ways to conceal infidelity increased the likelihood of extradyadic involvement. Cross-validation with 20% of the data (n=366) confirmed the stability of the regression model. Future research should examine identified predictors using representative population-based data. Predictors should be considered in therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Book
In Reply. —Drs Haverkos and Drotman assert in their second paragraph that our conclusion regarding the negligible likelihood of an epidemic spread of HIV in the heterosexual population rests on a simple network model that relies exclusively on our survey findings that 80% of adults reported no or one sexual partner in the past year and the very low percentages of men and women reporting homosexual or bisexual activity during the same period. This is a gross simplification of the argument and its empirical support in chapters 6 and 7 devoted to the characterization of sexual networks in the United States and its implications for the epidemic, and chapter 11's extended discussion of the correlations of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) with numbers of sexual partners and sexual practices.1
Article
Women typically rate lower-pitched men's voices as more attractive than they rate higher-pitched men's voices, yet women also perceive men with lower-pitched voices as relatively less likely to be sexually faithful. This disparity between women's preferences for voice pitch and perceptions of fidelity may be due to the differences in the characteristics women desire in long-term versus short-term mates. Male fidelity is likely an important characteristic within long-term relationships, but may be less important if women are seeking short-term relationships. Here we tested for associations between women's preferences for male voice pitch in short-term versus long-term relationships and their perceptions of infidelity risk. We found that the more often women rated men with lower-pitched voices as likely to commit infidelity, the greater their preference for lower-pitched men's voices in a short-term relative to a long-term relationship context. Therefore, the extent to which women select masculine men as short-term partners appears to be tied to the increased risk of infidelity associated with male masculinity.
Article
Testosterone (T) is thought to help facilitate trade-offs between mating and parenting in humans. Across diverse cultural settings married men and fathers have lower T than other men and couples' sexual activity often declines during the first years of marriage and after having children. It is unknown whether these behavioral and hormonal changes are related. Here we use longitudinal data from a large study in the Philippines (n=433) to test this model. We show that among unmarried non-fathers at baseline (n=153; age: 21.5±0.3 y) who became newly married new fathers by follow-up (4.5 y later), those who experienced less pronounced longitudinal declines in T reported more frequent intercourse with their partners at follow-up (p<0.01) compared to men with larger declines in T. Controlling for duration of marriage, findings were similar for men transitioning from unmarried to married (without children) (p<0.05). Men who remained unmarried and childless throughout the study period did not show similar T-sexual activity outcomes. Among newly married new fathers, subjects who had frequent intercourse both before and after the transition to married fatherhood had more modest declines in T compared to peers who had less frequent sex (p<0.001). Our findings are generally consistent with theoretical expectations and cross-species empirical observations regarding the role of T in male life history trade-offs, particularly in species with bi-parental care, and add to evidence that T and sexual activity have bidirectional relationships in human males.
Article
We used national panel data collected between 1980 and 1997 to classify 208 people's open-ended responses to a question on why their marriages ended in divorce. Infidelity was the most commonly reported cause, followed by incompatibility, drinking or drug use, and growing apart. People's specific reasons for divorcing varied with gender, social class, and life course variables. Former husbands and wives were more likely to blame their ex-spouses than themselves for the problems that led to the divorce. Former husbands and wives claimed, however, that women were more likely to have initiated the divorce. People who attributed the cause of the divorce to the relationship itself, rather than to internal (self) or external factors, tended to have the best postdivorce adjustment.
Article
Testosterone has been hypothesized to modulate the trade-off between mating and parenting effort in males. Indeed, evidence from humans and other pair-bonded species suggests that fathers and men in committed relationships have lower testosterone levels than single men and men with no children. To date, only one published study has examined testosterone in relation to motherhood, finding that mothers of young children have lower testosterone than non-mothers. Here, we examine this question in 195 reproductive-age Norwegian women. Testosterone was measured in morning serum samples taken during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and marital and maternal status were assessed by questionnaire. Mothers of young children (age≤3) had 14% lower testosterone than childless women and 19% lower testosterone than women who only had children over age 3. Among mothers, age of the youngest child strongly predicted testosterone levels. There was a trend towards lower testosterone among married women compared to unmarried women. All analyses controlled for body mass index (BMI), age, type of testosterone assay, and time of serum sample collection. This is the first study to look at testosterone concentrations in relation to marriage and motherhood in Western women, and it suggests that testosterone may differ with marital and maternal status in women, providing further corroboration of previous findings in both sexes.
Article
Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Studien aus den USA zeigen, dass das Erleben von Untreue ein bedeutendes Problem für viele Paare darstellt und zu Depressivität, Belastungsreaktionen und Trennung bzw. Scheidung führen kann. Fragestellung: Ist die individuelle und partnerschaftliche Belastung bei Paaren, die zu Beginn einer Paarberatung Konflikte im Zusammenhang mit Außenbeziehungen berichten höher, als bei Paaren, die keine Konflikte durch Außenbeziehungen angeben? Methode: Re-analytische Überprüfung der Daten von N = 464 Paaren, die um Paarberatung nachgesucht hatten ( Kröger, Hahlweg & Klann, 2007 ). Erfasst wurden die individuelle Belastung (Depression, Psychosomatische Beschwerden) und Partnerschaftsvariablen (Zufriedenheit, Problembereiche). Ergebnisse: Paare, die Konflikte im Zusammenhang mit Außenbeziehungen angaben, waren im Vergleich zu Paaren ohne diese Konflikte insgesamt depressiver, unzufriedener mit ihrer Partnerschaft und gaben mehr partnerschaftliche Probleme an. Schlussfolgerung: Es konnten Zusammenhänge zwischen dem Erleben von Untreue und einer hohen individuellen und partnerschaftlichen Belastung gezeigt werden. Spezifische Implikationen für zukünftige Fragestellungen werden diskutiert.
Article
Virtually all American couples, married or cohabiting, expect sexual exclusivity of one another. This article asks why some people are sexually exclusive while others have sex with someone besides their mate. Previous research has linked personal values, sexual opportunities, and quality of the marital relationship to extramartial sex. This paper integrates these findings in a multivariate model that incorporates factors informing sexual decision making as well as demographic “risk factors.” Nationally representative survey data show higher likelihood of sexual infidelity among those with stronger sexual interests, more permissive sexual values, lower subjective satisfaction with their union, weaker network ties to partner, and greater sexual opportunities. With these factors controlled, gender differences are substantially reduced or eliminated, although racial effects persist.
Article
Introduction: For many years, erectile dysfunction (ED) has been considered as a complication of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or regarded as a late consequence of generalized arterial disease. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that ED is an early manifestation of atherosclerosis and a precursor to systemic vascular disease. Aim: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between ED and the risk of CVD events. Methods: Relevant studies published between January 1966 and September 2009 were identified by searching Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Studies were selected using a prior defined criteria. The strength of the relationship between ED and CVD events was assessed by adjusted relative risks (RRs). Main outcome measures: The adjusted RRs of CVD events. Results: A total of 45,558 participants from seven cohort studies (eight full-text articles) were identified in this meta-analysis. The studies provided adjusted RRs estimates for ED subjects comparing with health subjects, leading to a pooled adjusted RR of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29-1.66, P < 0.001; P for heterogeneity = 0.152; I(2) = 36.2%) for CVD events. The risks of CVD, all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction were 1.41 (95% CI, 1.22-1.64 P < 0.001), 1.23 (95% CI, 1.02-1.48; P = 0.034), and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.10-1.85 P = 0.007), respectively. The overall adjusted RR decreased significant from 1.63 (<7 years) to 1.37 (≥ 7 years) along with the elongation of follow-up. Conclusions: There is evidence of an increased risk of CVD events for patients with ED. Patients who are discovered to have ED are supposed to be thoroughly assessed for cardiovascular risk and occult systemic vascular disease.
Article
Paternal care is associated with a reduced likelihood of engaging in competitive or mating behavior and an increased likelihood of providing protection when necessary. Over recent years, there has been increasing evidence to assume that the steroid testosterone (T) in men might reflect the degree of mating effort. In line with this, decreased T levels were shown in fathers compared to non-fathers and it was suggested that paternal care, and most behavior positively associated with T, might be incompatible with each other. Independently, the personality trait sensation seeking (SS) has been related to mating behavior and also to elevated T in men. Aiming to integrate these different lines of research in a longitudinal approach, we explored the impact of SS on T levels in the context of the transition to fatherhood. Thirty-seven fathers and 38 men without children but in committed, romantic relationships (controls) were recruited. At two time points (for fathers: four weeks prior to (t1) and eight weeks after birth (t2)), all subjects repeatedly collected saliva samples for T measurement, filled in a protocol of activities during the course of these days and completed an online questionnaire. In line with our hypotheses, the results show significantly lower aggregated (AUC-T) T levels in fathers compared with non-fathers. Furthermore, moderation analyses revealed a significant interaction between group and SS at t2, with the lowest T levels in low SS fathers. These data suggest that adaptation processes of the transition to fatherhood are influenced by individual differences in personality traits.
Article
In primate species exhibiting seasonal reproduction, patterns of testosterone excretion in adult males are variable: in some species, peaks correlate with female receptivity periods and heightened male-male aggression over access to estrous females, in others, neither heightened aggression nor marked elevations in testosterone have been noted. In this study, we examined mean fecal testosterone ( f T) levels and intermale aggression in wild adult male ring-tailed lemurs residing in three groups at Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar. Results obtained from mating and post-mating season 2003 were compared to test Wingfield et al. [1990. Am Nat 136:829-846] "challenge hypothesis", which predicts a strong positive relationship between male testosterone levels and male-male competition for access to receptive females during breeding season. f T levels and rates of intermale aggression were significantly higher during mating season compared to the post-mating period. Mean f T levels and aggression rates were also higher in the first half of the mating season compared with the second half. Number of males in a group affected rates of intermale agonism, but not mean f T levels. The highest-ranking males in two of the groups exhibited higher mean f T levels than did lower-ranking males, and young males exhibited lower f T levels compared to prime-aged and old males. In the post-mating period, mean male f T levels did not differ between groups, nor were there rank or age effects. Thus, although male testosterone levels rose in relation to mating and heightened male-male aggression, f T levels fell to baseline breeding levels shortly after the early mating period, and to baseline non-breeding levels immediately after mating season had ended, offsetting the high cost of maintaining both high testosterone and high levels of male-male aggression in the early breeding period.
Article
Single individuals typically have higher testosterone compared to those who are partnered, suggesting that individual differences in testosterone are associated with mating effort, or people's motivation to find a sexual partner. However, there is less consistent evidence for links between testosterone and sociosexuality, or people's orientation toward uncommitted sexual activity. Based on Penke and Asendorpf's (2008) conceptualization, we propose that a more nuanced measure of sociosexuality may reveal more robust associations with testosterone. In the current study, we assessed relations between three components of sociosexuality--desire, behavior, and attitudes--and endogenous testosterone levels in men and women. We found that partnered status was indeed associated with lower testosterone in both men and women, but only among those who reported more restricted sociosexuality. Partnered men who reported greater desire for uncommitted sexual activity had testosterone levels that were comparable to those of single men; partnered women who reported more frequent uncommitted sexual behavior had testosterone levels that were comparable to those of single women. These findings provide new evidence that people's orientations toward sexual relationships, in combination with their relationship status, are associated with individual differences in testosterone. The current results are also among the first to demonstrate sociosexuality-testosterone associations in both men and women, and they reveal that the nature of these associations varies by gender. Together, these findings highlight the utility of a multifaceted conceptualization of sociosexuality and the implications of this conceptualization for neuroendocrine processes.
Article
The current study extends previous research on testosterone (T) and mating effort by examining whether relationship commitment and satisfaction explain variance in T beyond relationship status alone. Salivary testosterone and self-reported assessments of relationship commitment and satisfaction were assessed among 90 heterosexual men and women (age M = 23.57) in a cross-sectional community sample. Relationship commitment was significantly related to T among men (P < 0.01), with increasing levels of commitment predicting lower T, even among paired men (P < 0.05). In contrast, relationship commitment was not related to women's T (P > 0.05). Controlling for relationship commitment, satisfaction did not predict T levels in men or women (P's > 0.18). The association of increasing relationship commitment with reduced T levels in men confirms and extends prior research linking T with mating effort. Together with previous research, this study suggests that T does not vary with relationship commitment or quality in monogamous, heterosexual women.
Article
In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We analyzed gender differences in 30 reported sexual behaviors and attitudes for 834 individual samples uncovered in literature searches and 7 large national data sets. In support of evolutionary psychology, results from both the individual studies and the large data sets indicated that men reported slightly more sexual experience and more permissive attitudes than women for most of the variables. However, as predicted by the gender similarities hypothesis, most gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors were small. Exceptions were masturbation incidence, pornography use, casual sex, and attitudes toward casual sex, which all yielded medium effect sizes in which male participants reported more sexual behavior or permissive attitudes than female participants. Most effect sizes reported in the current study were comparable to those reported in Oliver and Hyde's study. In support of cognitive social learning theory, year of publication moderated the magnitude of effect sizes, with gender differences for some aspects of sexuality increasing over time and others decreasing. As predicted by social structural theory, nations and ethnic groups with greater gender equity had smaller gender differences for some reported sexual behaviors than nations and ethnic groups with less gender equity. Gender differences decreased with age of the sample for some sexual behaviors and attitudes.
Article
Recent evidence suggests that, in humans, variations in testosterone (T) levels between men reflect their differential allocation in mating versus parenting efforts. However, most studies have been conducted in urbanized, monogamous populations, making generalizations from them questionable. This study addresses the question of whether indicators of male reproductive effort are associated with variations in salivary T levels in a polygynous population of agriculturists in rural Senegal. We first show that pair-bonding and/or transition to fatherhood is associated with T profiles: married fathers (N=53) have lower morning and afternoon T levels than unmarried non-fathers (N=28). Second, among fathers, individual differences in parenting effort, as well as variations in mating effort, predict morning T levels. Indeed, men highly investing in parental care show lower morning T levels. Moreover, among men under 50, polygynous men show higher morning T levels than monogamous men. Taken together with previous results in monogamous settings, these findings suggest that the endocrine regulation of reproductive effort is probably a general feature of human populations.
Article
The relationship between testosterone (T) and psychopathology in subjects with sexual dysfunction has not been completely clarified. To evaluate the association between T levels and different psychopathological symptoms and traits in men seeking treatment for sexual dysfunction. A consecutive series of 2,042 heterosexual male patients (mean age 51.8 +/- 13) consulting an outpatient clinic for sexual dysfunction was retrospectively studied. Several hormonal, biochemical, and instrumental parameters were investigated, including testis volume (Prader orchidometr) and penile blood flow (penile Doppler ultrasound). Patients were interviewed, prior to the beginning of any treatment, with the previously validated Structured Interview on Erectile Dysfunction (SIEDY), and ANDROTEST (a structured interview for the screening of hypogonadism in patients with sexual dysfunction). They also completed the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ) a brief self-reported questionnaire for the screening of the symptoms of mental disorders in nonpsychiatric setting. T levels showed a negative correlation with depressive and anxiety (somatized and phobic) symptoms. Conversely, histrionic/hysterical traits were strongly and positively associated with elevated T. Men with histrionic/hysterical traits had higher androgenization, as suggested by both higher total and free T, higher testis volume and a lower ANDROTEST score. They were also characterized by better self-reported sexual functioning and penile blood flow. Accordingly, when SIEDY scales were considered, SIEDY scale 2 (relational domain) was significantly lower in subjects with histrionic/hysterical traits further indicating a more satisfying sexual relationship. In men consulting for sexual dysfunction, histrionic/hysterical personality is associated with higher androgenization and better sexual functioning. Hysteria, previously considered as a typically feminine psychopathological trait (the uterine theory), should now be considered as an index of better masculine sexual well-being.
Article
Sensitive topics or highly personal questions are often being asked in medical, psychological and sociological surveys. This paper proposes two new models (namely, the triangular and crosswise models) for survey sampling with the sensitive characteristics. We derive the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) and large-sample confidence intervals for the proportion of persons with sensitive characteristic. The modified MLEs and their asymptotic properties are developed. Under certain optimality criteria, the designs for the cooperative parameter are provided and the sample size formulas are given. We compare the efficiency of the two models based on the variance criterion. The proposed models have four advantages: neither model requires randomizing device, the models are easy to be implemented for both interviewer and interviewee, the interviewee does not face any sensitive questions, and both models can be applied to both face-to-face personal interviews and mail questionnaires.