Vol. 9(3), pp. 39-49, March, 2015
Article Number: 2A845A651545
ISSN 1996 - 0840
Copyright © 2015
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article
African Journal of Pure and Applied
Full Length Research Paper
Corrosion and corrosion inhibition of cast Iron in
hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution by cantaloupe
(Cucumis melo) as green inhibitor
Khadijah M. Emran1*, Arwa O. Al-Ahmadi2, Bayan A. Torjoman2, Najla M. Ahmed2 and
Sara N. Sheekh2
1Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia.
2Chemistry Department (Applied Chemistry), Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Saudi Arabia.
Received 10 January, 2015; Accepted 27 January, 2015
The effect of cantaloupe juice and seed extracts on corrosion of cast iron in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid
(HCl) solution using hydrogen evolution measurements (HEM) and mass loss measurements (MLM)
were investigated. Cantaloupe extracts inhibited the corrosion of cast iron in 1.0 M HCl solution. The
inhibition efficiency increased with concentration of the extracts. The adsorption of the inhibitor
molecules on cast iron surface was in accordance to Langmuir adsorption isotherms. In absence of
inhibitors, the corrosion rate of cast iron increases with HCl concentration. The fractional reaction order
observed in HCl solution indicates the formation of intermediates through the dissolution process or
multiple steps mechanism of cast iron dissolution in HCl solution.
Key words: Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), corrosion, cast iron, HCl concentrations, adsorption isotherm.
The use of inhibitors is one of the best options of
protecting metals against corrosion, especially green or
eco-friendly inhibitors. Now, this field has been promising
and effective, and it can be extracted by simple and
inexpensive procedures. Comparisons have been made
through the years between the toxic inorganic inhibitors
such as; chromates, pomegranate, and cyanide, or
synthetic organic compounds and the natural inhibitors, it
observed that the natural inhibitors could potentially serve
as an effective substitute for the corrosion inhibitors
without constituting risk for human health or the
environment in which people live in (Shanableh, 2011).
Many of these natural inhibitor substances can be
extracted from different parts of plants: seed, fruit and
leaves. Anyway, the plant extracts are considered as a
rich source of environmentally acceptable corrosion
inhibitors. For being that it can be extracted by simple
procedures, which can keep the environment healthier
with low cost and can be applied in various aggressive
environments that make it a major importance in research
*Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Author(s) agree that this article remain permanently open access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License 4.0 International License
40 Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem.
Figure 1. Cantaloupe (Cucumis Melo).
Acidic solutions are widely used in various industries
for pickling ferrous alloys and steel. They are also used in
oil and gas production to stimulate and increase the oil
and gas flow to disqualify encrustations in production
wells. Among various acids, the hydrochloric acid is
mostly used for this purpose. Due to the extremely
aggressive nature of acidic media, localized pitting
corrosion starts to occur on the metal surface, over time,
produces damage and destruction for products (Gadow
and Fouda, 2014). In contrast, the particles of inhibitor
are commonly used to reduce acid attack on the substrate
metal by blocking active sites against deterioration.
Various natural plants are now used in many industries
to protect steel in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution,
example, Garcinia Mangostana extract (Kumar et al.,
2010), Black pepper extract (Damani et al., 2010),
Fenugreek seed (Bouyanzer et al., 2010), Fennel
(Foeniculum Vulgare) (Lahhit et al., 2011) and Grap
Pomace (Rocha et al., 2012).
Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) figure 1, a kind of
muskmelon fruit belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae
table 1, which is native to India and Africa. The unique
aroma of cantaloupe is composed of many volatile
compounds, biosynthetically derived from; fatty acids,
carotenoids, amino acid and terpens (Nattaporn and
Pranee, 2011; Milind and Kulwant, 2011). This article
report the effect of cantaloupe juice and seed extracts as
corrosion inhibitors of cast iron in 1.0 M HCl solution,
using hydrogen evolution measurements (HEM) and mass
loss measurements (MLM). In our knowledge, this is the
first time that cantaloupe juice and seed extracts have been
used as inhibitor of cast iron in HCl solution. Reinforced by
the discussion of other study, common adsorption isotherms
determine a process and nature of inhibitors adsorption,
aim to choose the best adsorption isotherm curves that fit
with experimental data (Figure 1 and Table 1).
Table 1. Scientific classification of cantaloupe (Cucumis Melo).
C. Melo var. Cantalupensis
Materials and solutions
Test was performed on cast iron specimen with weight percentage
compositions in Table 2. The cast iron specimen was manufactured
as cylindrical and purchased from ATTAIH Company, KSA. Before
all measurements, the specimen was polished with a series of
paper finding a coarse to remove roughness and rust.
After that, the sample was washed by double-distillated water and
acetone, and finally dried for weighted. The HCl solution was
studied for Analar grade reagents. The solution was freshly
prepared by double-distilled water in range (0.5 to 2.0 M)
concentration by analytical dilution of stock solution (37%).
Cantaloupe extracts preparations
The juice extract of cantaloupe was obtained by putting fresh pulp
for five cantaloupes in the blender, then filtered to get homogenous
solution. While, the stock solution of seed extract was prepared by
boiled weight grams of dried seed in 600 ml from double-distilled
water for 90 min. The extract filtered and completed to 500 ml by
double-distilled water. Both extracts kept freshly in refrigerator.
Gravimetric and volumetric measurements
The measurements were carried out by tow method; hydrogen
evolution (HEM), and mass loss (MLM). Evolved H2 was collected in
a calibrated tube by downward displacement of water over time.
The temperature was adjusted at room temperature 27°C by
thermostat. The rates of HEM (R, ml/cm2.min) and MLM ( ,
g/cm2.min) were calculated as related in Equations (1) and (2),
respectively (Mathur and Vasudaven, 1982; El-Etre, 2003):
Where is the displacement of evolved gas, t is the time for
evolved gas in minute, W1 and W2 are the mass of cast iron
specimen before and after immersion in tested solution,
respectively, tf is the final time of experiment and A is the surface
area of cylindrical specimen in cm2.
The specimen was immersed in 1.0 M HCl solution in presence
inhibitors at 27°C. The inhibition efficiency (%IE) and degree of
Emran et al. 41
Table 2. Chemical compositions of cast iron specimen with weight percentage (%W).
3.45 - 3.65
2.40 - 2.70
0.60 – 0.70
0.17 – 0.26
0.04 – 0.06
Figure 2. Volume of evolved H2 per unit area versus exposure time for cast iron
corrosion in various concentrations of HCl solutions at 27°C.
surface coverage ( ) were calculated from both HEM and MLM by
Equations (3), (4), (5) and (6) respectively (Oguzie, 2007).
Where are the HEM and MLM in the absence inhibitor,
respectively. While and are HEM and MLM in presence
The corrosion rate for MLM (C.R, mmy) of the cast iron was also
calculated by using the following (Equation 7) (Quraishi et al.,
Where W is the weight loss of the metal (mg), A is the surface area
of the metal specimen (cm2), t is the exposure time (h) and D is the
density of the metal (g/cm3).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Behavior of cast iron (CI) corrosion in various
concentrations of HCl solutions at 27°C
The data plotted for volume of evolved H2 per unit area
against time in minutes for 0.5 to 2.0 M of HCl
concentrations at 27°C, is presented in Figure 2. The
slopes of such lines were estimated in Table 3, taken as
rates of cast iron corrosion reacted with HCl solution as
corrosive environment using HEM. It is clear after
inspection through duration experiment; the volume of
evolved H2 gas per unit area (V/A) increase upon
The rates of corrosion of cast iron in various
42 Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem.
Table 3. The corrosion rates of HEM & MLM for corrosion of cast iron in various concentrations of HCl solutions at 27°C.
Figure 3. Rate (a) HEM (b) MLM of cast iron corrosion against various concentrations of HCl solutions at 27°C.
concentrations of HCl solutions resulted from HEM,
constructed that by MLM after weight specimen; which
were characterized by rapid effervescence, this influence
is shown in Figure 3. The C.R. (mmy) of cast iron
increase with increasing acid concentration, this indicates
that cast iron corrosion in HCl is concentration
dependent. It can also be observed from the Table 3 and
Figure 3 a very good agreement between values of
corrosion rates obtained from the three methods.
This result was expected, because with increased
acidic concentration; both acidity and Cl- anions
concentration are increased too. This observation agrees
with the fact that the rate of chemical reaction, diffusion,
and ionization activates with increased concentration (Al-
Tturkustani et al., 2010).
The straight line shown in Figure 2 when a metal
reacted with aggressive solution caused rapid reaction
between acid, and air indicates a soluble passive layer
(oxide film) formed on the surface of cast iron. As well,
the presence of ''induction period'' at the beginning of the
interaction (this obvious at 0.5 M) means dissolution of
the formed oxide layer. It leads to none protection
occurring on the surface and prevented solution from
coming to the surface. This layer starts to fade rapidly
with increase concentration of aggressive solution
especially up to 2.0 M HCl solution. This concentration
gives very good identity in linearity, the attack on oxide
film by Cl- anions was instantaneous, forming local
thinning passive layer on metal surface, over time create
pitting localized corrosion (Al-Tturkustani et al., 2010).
Generally, the corrosion of iron in HCl solution revealed
that it (Popova et al., 2005) takes place with hydrogen
depolarization. The spontaneous dissolution of iron can
be described by anodic dissolution reaction (Equation 8),
accompanied by the corresponding cathodic reaction
The corrosion of metals in acidic solution is cathodically
controlled by the hydrogen evolution reaction which
occurs in two steps (Equations 10 and 11) according to
(Mathur and Vasudaven, 1982):
The rate determining step for the hydrogen evolution
Emran et al. 43
Table 4. Kinetics parameters of the Mathur and Vasudevan model and conventional model.
Mathur and Vasudevan model
reaction is the recombination of adsorbed hydrogen
evolution reaction which the recombination of adsorbed
hydrogen atoms form hydrogen molecules (Equation 11).
Corrosion rate data as a function of acid concentration
can be used to show the rate dependence of hydrochloric
acid concentration by Mathur and Vasudevan model
(Equation 12) and based on the kinetic equation
(Equation 13) (Mathur and Vasudaven, 1982):
Where R is the rate of metal dissolution, k is corrosion
rate constant, B and n is the reaction order and C molar
concentration of HCl solution.
The values of k, B and n obtained using HEM and MLM
data and listed in Table 4. The fractional order observed
in HCl solution may indicate the formation of
intermediates through the dissolution process (Zaafarany,
2012), or multiple steps mechanism of cast iron
dissolution in HCl solution.
Inhibition action of cantaloupe extracts as green
inhibitor in cast iron corrosion
The corrosion rates for cast iron in 1.0 M HCl in absence
and presence of cantaloupe extracts were determined by
using HEM and MLM. Figure 4 shows the variations of
evolved H2 with time during the corrosion of cast iron in
1.0M HCl for various concentrations of cantaloupe
extracts (a) juice and (b) seed at 27°C. The
corresponding values of corrosion rates were given in
Table 5 from slope of each line.
In comparison, blank solution (absence inhibitors) with
added various concentrations of inhibitors (%v/v) of juice
and seeds extracts; were noted with straight lines with
much lower decreased rather than blank solution. The
decline become even more with increased concentration
of juice or seeds extracts. This indicates to oppositely
occur when studied behavior of cast iron corrosion in HCl
solution and the passive layer (adsorption film) formed
presence inhibitor become insoluble, that inhibitors were
first adsorbed onto the surface after impede corrosion
The adsorption of an organic adsorbate between
metal/solution interface can be represented as a
substitutional adsorption process between the organic
molecules in the aqueous solution Org(soln) and the water
molecules on the metallic surface H2O(ads) (Equation 14)
(Bockris and Swinkels, 1964).
(soln)2(ads ) (ads)2
OH x + OrgOH x + Org l
where Org(ads) are the organic molecules adsorbed on the
metallic surface, H2O(sol) is the water molecules in the
aqueous solution and x is the size ratio representing the
number of water molecules replaced by one molecule of
organic adsorbate. According to (Bockris and Drazic,
1962) the inhibition mechanism could be explained by the
Fe(inh)ads reaction as intermediates:
Inh + en + Fe Fe(Inh) Inh + Fe
With further clarification, the Fe(Inh)ads did not have
enough covered metal surface at low concentration of
inhibitor, maybe because the added low concentration of
inhibitors, or the rate adsorption is slow. So, the metal
dissolution takes place on sites more than the formed
Fe(Inh)ads. Otherwise, at high concentration of inhibitor on
the cast iron surface forms compact and coherent
inhibitor over layer, then reducing chemical attack for
metal (Branzoi et al., 2000; Singh and Quraishi, 2012).
The inhibitor efficiency of cantaloupe juice and seed
extracts may be due to presence of many organic
substance that acts as a good corrosion inhibitors,
branched-chain and aromatic amino acid (Gonda et al.,
2010; Nattaporn and Pranee, 2011; Milind and Kulwant,
2011). These compounds usually contain polar functions
with heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur and
phosphorus, and have triple or double bonds or aromatic
rings. These groups are more a donor of electron and it
offers itself the possibility to be a center of adsorption.
The adsorption of these organic compounds by deferent
centers of adsorption on the electrode surface makes a
barrier for mass and charge transfers. This situation
leads to a reduction in the double layer and a protection
of the metal surface from the attack of the aggressive
anions of the aggressive solution (Barouni et al., 2008;
Emran et al., 2014).
The plot rates of corrosion HEM and MLM versus
concentrations of juice or seeds extracts by (%v/v) at
44 Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem.
Figure 4. Variations of evolved H2 for (a) juice (b)seed extracts of cantaloupe in 1.0 M
HCl solution at 27°C.
27°C were presented in Figure 5. It is obvious that the
added extracts into 1.0 M HCl solution caused noticeable
reduction in amount rates obtained on cast iron surface.
Seeds extract of cantaloupe has a great decrease in rate
of HEM followed by MLM at different concentrations than
juice extract. This is precisely what was interpreted in
Table 5. 2 ml (%v/v) of juice and seeds extracts,
significantly reduced the mass loss of cast iron with a
factor 2 and 2.6 times respectively, and arched to 5.87
and 8.71 times at 40 (%v/v) compared with blank
respectively. The values of inhibition efficiency of %
IEHEM, %IEMLM degree of surface coverage (THEM) and
TMLM were listed in Table 5. The surface coverage and
inhibition efficiency values increase with increasing
extract concentration (Figure 6). The maximum inhibition
efficiency %IE value of 91.11 and 91.16% for juice
extract at 50%(v/v), whilst in seeds extract were 91.30%
and 88.5% at 40%(v/v) by using MLM and HEM at 27°C,
respectively. This is due to the blocking active sites on
metal surface and decreasing the effective area of
corrosion attack by adsorption of effect compounds
present in cantaloupe, like; Vitamin, Phenolic
compounds, Terpenoids etc. (Nattaporn and Pranee,
2011; Milind and Kulwant, 2011).
Emran et al. 45
Table 5. Effect of inhibitors on the corrosion of cast iron in 1M HCl solution by using HEM and MLM at 27°C.
Blank (1.0 M HCl)
Figure 5. Plots (a) RHEM (b) RMLM via concentrations (%v/v) of cantaloupe extracts in 1.0 M HCl solution at 27°C.
Adsorption isotherm and adsorption parameters
Adsorption isotherms are usually used to describe the
adsorption process. The most frequently used isotherms
include: Langmuir, Temkin and Flory-Huggins. The
adsorption isotherm provides important clues regarding
the nature of the metal inhibitor interaction, and inhibitor
molecules adsorb on the metal surface if the interaction
between molecule and metal surface is higher than that
of the H2O molecule and the metal surface (Shukla and
Ebenso, 2011). Langmuir isotherm was tested for its fit to
the experimental data according to Equation (16)
(Langmuir, 1917; Christov and Popova, 2004).
Where C is the concentration of inhibitor, K is the
adsorptive equilibrium constant, T is the surface
Langmuir isotherm given band is represented in Figure
7, and listed in Table 6. Where plots of log C/T versus
logCinh, for juice and seed extracts were found straight
lines with a good square correlation coefficient (R2)
46 Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem.
Figure 6. Variations of the inhibition efficiency for (a) HEM (b) MLM with concentrations of inhibitors %(v/v) in 1.0 M HCl solution at 27°C.
Figure 7. Langmuir adsorption isotherm for cast iron in 1.0M HCl solution of cantaloupe extracts as inhibitors by using (a)
HEM (b) MLM at 27°C.
Table 6. Adsorption parameters for adsorption of cantaloupe extracts on cast iron surface under effect 1M HCl solution by
using HEM MLM at 27°C.
Isotherm and extracts
Emran et al. 47
Figure 8. Temkin adsorption isotherm for cast iron in 1.0 M HCl solution of cantaloupe extracts as inhibitors by using (a) HEM (b)
MLM at 27°C.
0.992, 0.999 for HEM, and 0.989, 0.999 for MLM,
respectively. The slopes lines for each method and
extracts are arched unity, it is assumed that the inhibition
of cast iron corrosion in 1.0 M HCl by cantaloupe extract
occurs by monolayer adsorption at appropriate sites on
the metal, the metal surface contains a fixed number of
adsorption sites and each site holds one adsorbate, and
no interaction between adsorbate molecules. From the
intercepts of the straight lines logC/T axis for juice and
seeds extracts, K value calculated were 0.41 and 0.58
Lmol-1 for HEM, and 0.40 &0.56 Lmol-1 for MLM,
respectively. For Temkin adsorption isotherm, the
degree of surface by using HEM and MLM is related to
logarithmic inhibitor concentration (C) according to (Equ.
17) (Christov and Popova, 2004):
where K is the adsorption equilibrium constant and (a) is
the attractive parameter. Plots of θ against log C, as
presented in Figure 8 gave linear relationship, which
shows that adsorption data fitted Temkin adsorption
isotherm at seed extract (R2= 0.961 and 0.976) for HEM
and MLM more than juice (R2= 0.845 and 0.816) for HEM
and MLM, respectively. Adsorption parameters obtained
were recorded in Table 6. The values of interaction
parameter (a) was negative in all cases, which indicate
that repulsion exists in the adsorption layer. Flory-
Huggins adsorption isotherm can be expressed according
to (Equation 18) (Christov and Popova, 2004):
Where x is the number of inhibitor molecules occupying
one site, or the number of water molecules replaced by
one molecule of the inhibitor. The value x substituted by a
given inhibitor molecule adsorbed surface by plots of
) against by using HEM and MLM,
were shown in Figure 9. The values of the size parameter
x are positive 1.18 and 2.17 of HEM, 0.90 and 1.85 of
MLM for juice and seed cantaloupe extracts, respectively
as shown in Table 6. The values of x
1 for juice
extract, implied that one inhibitor molecule replaces one
water molecule, while, the values of x
1 for seeds
extract, means that one inhibitor molecule replaces more
than one water molecule. The x obtained for the seeds
extract were higher than those obtained for the juice
extract, suggesting that the adsorption behavior of the
seeds extract is better than that of the juice extract in
Flory-Huggins isotherm. According to the fit experimental
data (R2), the better adsorption isotherm of juice and
seeds extracts of cantaloupes is Langmuir isotherm.
The results obtained from HEM and MLM of corrosion
and corrosion inhibition of cast iron in various
concentrations HCl solutions (0.5-2.0 M), under 27°C;
can be deduced:
(1). The corrosion rate of cast iron increase with increase
concentration of HCl solution.
(2). Juice and seed extracts of cantaloupe acts as good
natural inhibitor for corrosion of cast iron in 1.0 M HCl
48 Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem.
Figure 9. Flory-Huggins adsorption isotherm for cast iron in 1.0M HCl of cantaloupe extracts as inhibitors by using (a) HEM (b) MLM at
(3). The inhibition efficiency increase with increase
concentration of inhibitors %(v/v), with maximum value
obtained in juice extract 91.11 and 94.22 at 50%(v/v),
while in seed extract 88.50 and 91.39 at 40%(v/v) for
HEM and MLM, respectively.
(4). Seed extract good natural inhibitor than juice extract
(5). The square correlation coefficient (R2) was used to
choose the adsorption isotherm that fits experimental
data. The adsorption of cantaloupe juice and seed
extracts molecules on cast iron surface in 1.0M HCl
follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm.
Conflict of Interest
The authors have not declared any conflict of interest.
Al-Tturkustani A, Arab S, Al-Reheli A (2010). Corrosion and corrosion
inhibition of mild steel in H2SO4 solutions by zizyphus spina-christi as
green inhibitor. Int. J. Chem. 2(2):54-76.
Barouni K, Bazzi L, Salghi R, Mihit M, Hammouti B, Albourine A, El
Issami S (2008). Some amino acids as corrosion inhibitors for copper
in nitric acid solution. Mater. Lett. 62(19):3325–3327.
Bockris JO, Drazic D (1962). The kinetics of deposition and dissolution
of iron: Effect of alloying impurities. Electrochim. Acta. 7(3):293-313.
Bockris JO, Swinkels DA (1964). Adsorption of nǦDecylamine on Solid
Metal Electrodes. J. Electrochem. Soc. 111(6):736-743.
Bouyanzer A, Hammouti B, Majidi L, Haloui B (2010). Testing Natural
Fenugreek as an Ecofriendly Inhibitor for Steel Corrosion in 1 M HCl.
Port. Electrochim. Acta. 28(3):165-172.
Branzoi V, Branzoi F, Baibarac M (2000). The inhibition of the corrosion
of Armco iron in HCl solutions in the presence of surfactants of the
type of N-alkyl quaternary ammonium salts. Mater. Chem. Phys.
Christov M, Popova A (2004). Adsorption characteristics of corrosion
inhibition from corrosion rate measurments. Corros. Sci. 46:1613-
Damani M, Et-Touhami A, Al-Deyab SS, Hammouti B, Bouyanzer A
(2010). Corrosion inhibition of C38 Steel in 1 M HCl: A comparative
study of black pepper extract and its isolated piperine. Int. J.
Electrochem. Sci. 5(8):1060-1069.
El-Etre AY (2003). Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia
extract. Corr. Sci. 45():2485–2495.
Emran K, Ahmed NM, Torjoman BA, Al-Ahmadi AO, Sheekh SN (2014).
Cantaloupe extracts as eco friendly corrosion inhibitors for aluminum
in acidic and alkaline solutions. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 5(6):1940-
Gadow HS, Fouda AS (2014). Black tea as green corrosion inhibitor for
carbon steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solutions. Int. J. Adv. Res.
Gonda I, Bar E, Portnoy V, Lev Sh, Burger J, Schaffer AA, Tadmor Y,
Gepstein Sh, Giovannoni JJ, Katzir N, Lewinsohn E (2010).
Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma
volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit. J. Exp. Bot. 61(4):1111–1123.
Kumar KP, Pillai MS, Thusnavis G (2010). Pericarp of the fruit of
Garcinia Mangostana as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in
hydrochloric acid medium. Port. Electrochim. Acta. 28(6):373-383.
Lahhit N, Bouyanzer A, Desjobert JM, Hammouti B, Salghi R, Costa J,
Jama B, Majidi L (2011). Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) essential oil as
green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solution.
Port. Electrochim. Acta. 29(2):127-138.
Langmuir I (1917).The Constitution and fundamental properties of solids
and liquids/liquids. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 39(9):1848–1906.
Mathur PB, Vasudaven T (1982). Reaction Rate studies for the
corrosion of metals in Acids-I, Iron in Mineral Acids. Corrosion.
Milind P, Kulwant S (2011). Musk Melon is Eat-Must Melon. IRJP.
Nattaporn W, Pranee A (2011). Effect of pectinase on volatile and
functional bioactive compounds in the flesh and placenta of ‘Sunlady’
cantaloupe. Int. Food Res. J. 18:819-827.
Oguzie EE (2007). Corrosion inhibition of aluminum in acidic and
alkaline media by Sansevieria trifasciata extract. Corr. Sci.
Popova A, Veleva S, Raicheva S (2005). Kinetic approach to mild
steel corrosion. React. Kinet. Catal. L. 85(1):99-105.
Quraishi MA, Yadav DK, Ahamad I (2009). Green approach to
corrosion inhibition by black pepper extract in hydrochloric acid
solution. The open Corr. J. 2:56-60.
Shanableh A (2011). Studies on natural extracts as inhibitors of mild
steel corrosion in 1M HCl solution. Master thesis, American
University of Sharjah, Sharjah, UAE.
Shukla SK, Ebenso E (2011). Corrosion inhibition, adsorption behavior
and thermodynamic properties of streptomycin on mild steel in
hydrochloric acid medium. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 6(8):3277-3291.
Singh AK, Quraishi MA (2012). Study of some Bidentate Schiff Bases
of Isatin as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in hydrochloric acid
solution. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci.7:3222–3241.
Emran et al. 49
Rocha JC, Gomes JA, Elia ED, Cruz AP, Cabral LM, Torres AG,
Monteiro MV (2012). Grape Pomace extracts as green corrosion
inhibitors for carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solutions. Int. J.
Electrochem. Sci. 7(12):11941-11956.
Zaafarany I (2012). Corrosion inhibition of aluminum in aqueous alkaline
solutions by alginate and pectate water-soluble natural polymer
anionic polyelectrolytes. Port. Electrochim. Acta. 30(6):419-426.