Potential of Soybean Straw in Ukraine and Solid Biofuel Production

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... Wykorzystywane są również pestki owoców, skorupki oraz inne resztki, np. odpadowy olej jadalny [8]- [13]. Ostatnio popularna stała się również tzw. ...
Conference Paper
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Streszczenie Biomasa otrzymywana z roślin energetycznych bardzo często wymaga przetworzenia przed jej ostatecznym wykorzystaniem. W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań związanych z przetwarzaniem miskantusa. Przeprowadzono badania w skali laboratoryjnej nad procesem toryfikacji tego typu biomasy. Analizy laboratoryjne zostały skupione na procesie toryfikacji, początkowo z wykorzystaniem technik TGA i DSC (do oceny energii aktywacji (EA), a następnie reaktora przepływowego, pracującego na pięciu poziomach temperatury (225, 250, 275, 300 i 525℃). Przeprowadzono analizę SEM-EDS miskantusa po procesach toryfikacji w trzech różnych temperaturach. Analiza procesu toryfikacyjnego pokazuje wyraźnie, że optymalna temperatura procesu z punktu widzenia współczynnika strat masy oraz perspektywy ekonomicznej wynosiłaby około 300-340℃. Praca ta wyraźnie pokazuje, że miskantus jest bardzo ciekawym materiałem zarówno w produkcji peletów, jak i w dalszej przeróbce, wykorzystywanym nie tylko jako nośnik energii, ale także jako nowy rodzaj źródła węgla w mieszankach nawozowych, gdzie przedstawiono go jako nośnik dla nawozów organicznych.
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The monograph covers current research in the field of energy potential of biomass. The issues of world scientific and research trends in the field of biomass energy and the current state of bioenergy in the EU and Ukraine in the context of opportunities to increase the volume and improve the properties of raw materials for renewable energy based on biomass. The presented materials are intended for masters, graduate students, engineers and scientists involved in the design, testing and operation of agricultural machinery.
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Miscanthus is resistant to dry, frosty winters in Poland and most European Union countries. Miscanthus gives higher yields compared to native species. Farmers can produce Miscanthus pellets after drying it for their own heating purposes. From the third year, the most efficient plant development begins, resulting in a yield of 25-30 tons of dry matter from an area of 1 hectare. Laboratory scale tests were carried out on the processes of drying, compacting, and torrefaction of this biomass type. The analysis of the drying process was conducted at three temperature levels of the drying agent (60, 100, and 140 °C). Compaction on a hydraulic press was carried out in the pressure range characteristic of a pressure agglomeration (130.8-457.8 MPa) at different moisture contents of the raw material (0.5% and 10%). The main interest in this part was to assess the influence of drying temperature, moisture content, and compaction pressure on the specific densities (DE) and the mechanical durability of the pellets (DU). In the next step, laboratory analyses of the torrefaction process were carried out, initially using the Thermogravimetric Analysis TGA and Differential Scaning Calorimeter DSC techniques (to assess activation energy (EA)), followed by a flow reactor operating at five temperature levels (225, 250, 275, 300, and 525 °C). A SEM analysis of Miscanthus after tor-refaction processes at three different temperatures was performed. Both the parameters of biochar (proximate and ultimate analysis) and the quality of the torgas (volatile organic content (VOC)) were analyzed. The results show that both drying temperature and moisture level will affect the quality of the pellets. Analysis of the torrefaction process shows clearly that the optimum process temperature would be around 300-340 °C from a mass loss ratio and economical perspective.
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The use of inoculants revolutionized the soybean production system, increasing grain production, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, and costs. The inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and the co-inoculation with more than one type of microorganisms are recommended directly in the seed or in the planting furrow, with high efficiency, bringing beneficial results related to the increase in the number of nodules and improvements in the physiology of the soybean plants. In order to increase productivity bringing new methods of using these microorganisms, this study aimed to evaluate the development of soybean culture under co-inoculation by spraying with Azospirilum brasilense and B. japonicum was carried out, in the vegetative stage. One field experiment was conducted from September to January, harvest of 2018/2019, in the commercial area under no-tillage. The evaluated treatments were: Control (C) without microorganisms; T1 (6x108 mL-1 of A. brasilense and 0 of B. japonicum); T2 (6x108 mL-1 of A. brasilense and 6x109 mL-1 of B. japonicum); T3 (12x108 mL-1 of A. brasilense and 0 of B. japonicum); and T4 (12x108 mL-1 of A. brasilense and 12x109 mL-1 of B. japonicum). The results showed that there was an increase in the number and matter of nodules, plant height, number of pods and grains in the T4 treatment, showing a significant difference mainly in relation to the control. It was concluded that co-inoculation with B. japonicum and A. brasilense by spraying in the vegetative stage proved to be efficient, demonstrating the potential use of this technique.
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The thesis focuses mainly on primary logistic strategies as well as the place and structure of logistic costs in the accounting system of an enterprise. The final element was an analysis of logistic costs on the example of 50 enterprises specialising in agricultural production. The obtained results of empirical studies prove that costs of logistic infrastructure form a significant part of general costs, which can be reduced through proper management. Consequently, as far as the creation of the competitive edge is concerned, it is important to identify and control these costs precisely and continuously in the structure of enterprise operation costs.
The paper presents research aimed to determine the potential of waste biomass from the processing of mustard. Raw material for research came from the central part of Ukraine. Studies have shown that mustard residues are a valuable raw material for the production of solid biofuels in the form of briquettes or pellets. Values of quality parameters (such as calorific value, durability, density) are comparable to those found in commercial solid biofuels. Analysis of ash content showed an increased content of mineral fractions, which were the source of plant surface impurities applied by atmospheric agents (rain, wind).
The paper presents the results of research work aimed at determining process parameters for production of quality briquettes from Miscanthus raw material. Raw material was obtained from southern Ukraine from the autumn harvest. The obtained results clearly indicate that adequate grinding, humidity reduction of less than 15% and application of agglomeration pressures above 37 MPa, results in obtaining satisfactory quality briquettes. Compliance with the developed technological assumptions should not in practice lead to technical problems that will have a significant impact on the dissemination of this activity in rural Ukraine.
Soloma yak dzherelo enerhii dlia silskoho hospodarstva
  • O Orlov
Alternatyvni palyvno-enerhetychni resursy v ahrobiznesi, Ekonomika APK
  • V I Havrysh
Prospects of the use of agricultural waste for energy production in Ukraine
  • G G Geletukha
  • T A Zheleznaya
  • A V Triboy