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Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories

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... The answer to the question: "What are the determinants of economic growth?" may well depend on historical, social, political, and economic contexts. The most important factors in one context could be much less relevant or even unimportant under different framework conditions (Capello and Nijkamp, 2019;Welter and Baker, 2021). How different contexts impact the relevance of potential drivers of development is, however, largely unexplored. ...
... Hence, we also contribute to discussions about the impact of history (Spolaore and Wacziarg, 2013;Nunn, 2020) and informal institutions (Beugelsdijk, 2007;Kibler et al., 2014) on economic development. Our analysis also demonstrates the relevance of regional contexts for any empirical analysis of economic development (Capello and Nijkamp, 2019;Welter and Baker, 2021). ...
... In the context of a fundamental economic transformation from central planning principles to a system driven by a free market, assessing regional growth by using capital and labor as main inputs for a production function (Audretsch et al., 2006;Mueller, 2006;Capello and Nijkamp, 2019) may not be appropriate. A key issue is that the functional relationships between production input and output are anything but stable when there are fundamental changes to applied technologies, organizational procedures, the division of labor, and the number and composition of firms. 2 In an environment fraught with high levels of uncertainty and rapidly changing price structures, economic decisions may follow other criteria than in well-established market economies such as West Germany or the USA. ...
Article
We investigate how specific regional conditions found in East Germany at the end of the socialist regime impact development during the turbulent shock transition to a market economy. Both the self-employment rate (an indicator of a pre-socialist entrepreneurial tradition) and the share of the workforce with a university degree (as measure of the general qualification of the workforce) have a strong positive effect on regional development. Our results show that entrepreneurship and knowledge are key regional resources for mastering disruptive historical shocks.
... Local economic and regional development Local and regional development definition has been broadened into encouraging inclusive government and governance [7]. [1] Local and regional development is defined as a study related to productivity and with the implementation in the East and Southeast Asia region. Furthermore, differences in the quality of development carried out by government agencies greatly affect economic performance in that regions. ...
... Resources. [1] Noticed that the distribution of economic power and resources endowments (natural resources) so far is exclusive because they are not available simultaneously in an area. Therefore, nature conservation measures should not only be related to development. ...
... The more resources that a region possesses, furthermore, as a result the better it may perform. An area can still succeed even if they have few or relatively low resource endowments or only a few economic expansion opportunities [1]. ...
Article
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This paper has developed a model in assessing local economic development performance by utilizing primary data collected from 3 regions in Indonesia using a participatory approach of 304 respondents in Singkawang, Bau-bau, and Kupang. It is observed that to achieve the local performance model, and divided by two different models. First is the human resource, infrastructure, social capital, and financial capital that positively impact entrepreneurial strategy. While institutions, technology, local government, and central government have no impact on entrepreneurial strategy. Second is entrepreneurial strategy has a positive impact on local economic development (local performance). Findings also revealed that all impact is positive, aligning with the existing literature of local economic development in developing countries.
... Although typically a microeconomic theory (choice of location of firms and households), it intertwines with macroeconomics and trade theory and is strongly supported by mathematical tools. In addition to the scope (Capello & Nijkamp, 2009), it: "Involves analysis of disparities in the spatial distribution of activities -an inquiry which enables interpretation • Nada Denona Bogović • Saša Drezgić: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF REGIONAL ECONOMICS of territorial disequilibria and hierarchies." Within regional economics, location theory (Assink & Groenendijk, 2009) "has shifted its attention away from 'hard' (cost) factors, relating to the proximity of markets and suppliers, towards relatively ' soft' factors as the (perceived) quality of institutions, knowledge levels, and environmental quality." ...
... The second group of theories of regional economics seeks to explain why growth and economic development occur at certain local levels. "In this case, regional economic analyses the capacity of subnational systems -a region, a province, a city, an area with specific economic features -to develop economic activities, attract them, and generate the conditions for long-lasting development" (Capello & Nijkamp, 2009). According to its structure and characteristics, the regional growth theory is macroeconomic, but as (Capello, 2007) indicates: "It differs from the purely macroeconomic approaches of political economy in its concern with territorial features. ...
Conference Paper
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Communication in companies is essential to achieve the set goals of the company. If all team members are not equally committed to achieving organizational goals, they will not be achieved or will not be achieved to the extent planned. With the joint action and effort of all employees and managers, the synergy effect in companies will be more significant, and the involvement of all workers. Without communication, it would be impossible to achieve the set goals in companies, the desired planned profit and customer satisfaction, or customers. Managers are responsible for the communication process in companies, and all stakeholders in the communication process, all employees, are co- responsible. When there are “noises” in communication, then communication in the company is one-way, which reflects very quickly on the business process and ultimately on the company’s profits and customer or customer satisfaction. Communication between co-workers or co-workers and managers is not twoway but one-way, inefficient, even stressful, and harmful. The scientific contribution of this paper is to determine the reasons for unclear, one-way, or even harmful communication in the company between employees and their superiors, from the point of view of employees and find out and define possible ways to improve the communication process of employees with their managers. There is no statistically significant difference between the sexes of the respondents with the respondents’ attitudes about the importance of communication in their workplaces. A high percentage of respondents stated that communication in their workplaces is essential. The success of managers’ communication with employees is not related to a higher executive education level. As the leading reason for unsuccessful communication of managers with employees, respondents state the lack of time of managers. They also state that the first way to improve the communication process is for managers to find time to communicate more often with employees, individually, and more often by organizing meetings with employees and asking employees how they feel.
... The local dimension of business development is identified with an increase in Sustainability 2020, 12, 10272 4 of 25 welfare and living standards, and at the same time, it seems to be a mobile factor that is susceptible to stimulation. Capello and Nijkamp (2009) define this term and the methods in which it is measured in the following way: "Regional development is about the geography of welfare and its evolution. It has played a central role in such disciplines as economic geography, regional economics, regional science, and economic growth theory. ...
... Changing regional welfare positions are often hard to measure and in practice, we often use Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (or its growth) as a statistical approximation. Sometimes alternative or complementary measures are also used, such as per-capita consumption, poverty rates, unemployment rates, labour force participation rates, or access to public services" [34]. In papers on political economics, one can find the view that regional development should refer to countries, not regions (and focus on global factors and state policy). ...
Article
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The development of Industry 4.0 has a significant impact not only on production processes but also on the functioning and future of regions. It is crucial to understand the phenomena taking place in the social and economic space both from the cognitive and practical point of view. The article is based on research which investigates the prospect of communes in the context of Industry 4.0 development. The aim of the article is to show possible consequences of the development of Industry 4.0 from the local perspective. The basic assumption is a positive impact of entrepreneurship on ensuring sustainable regional development. The model adopted is built on a resource-based view and includes both invariable, external and independent resources such as location, as well as those which are variable in the longer term, such as human and social capital. To verify most of the hypotheses, a linear regression model has been created. The results of the research show that there is a strong correlation between human capital, social capital, proximity of an agglomeration and tourist attractiveness of a region, and regional development operationalised by the number of enterprises. The article presents possible directions of changes in the profiles of local units, as well as the conditions which have to be met in order to enable such a transformation.
... Endogenous theories (new growth theory) and theories based on innovation (innovative milieu, regional innovation systems, clusters) of growth of countries and regions, and the theory of Schumpeter pointed out in particular such development factors as innovation, R&D in companies, investing in knowledge, local resources, human resources, learning, pro-innovation infrastructure, innovation networks, social networks, the benefits of agglomeration, clustering, creativity, entrepreneurship, the diffusion of knowledge, and the availability of external finance for entrepreneurs (Capello and Nijkamp 2009;Lucas 1988;Marshall 1890;Porter 1990;Putnam, Leonardi, and Nanetti 1993;Romer 1990;Schumpeter 1939) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Growth pole strategies have been undertaken in the world since the 1960s with mixed results. In the article a complex approach to this phenomenon is proposed and tested for Poland. The territorial growth pole is considered to be based on a system of developmental factors forming natural, financial, physical, intellectual, socio-economic and administrative types of capital that create suitable conditions for location of innovative branches and the positive externalities connected with them. Areas affluent in developmental factors forming the above forms of capital have the best results both in terms of GDP dynamics and its level.
... We suggest that the redesign of established industrial players for sustainability transitions might be understood using a meta-organizational approach and more generally an evolutionary, regional pluridisciplinary approach of local systems dynamics. This means highlighting the very immaterial aspects of 'territorial capital' (cognitive, social, relational and identity capital) inherited from slow historical processes that are not necessarily oriented toward economic goals (Camagni et al., 2009). As such, we go beyond the Neo-Marshallian view focused on interpreting small firms systems rather than innovation processes. ...
... in other relevant areas such as income, investment, (un)employment, etc. (Capello, Nijkamp, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this paper is to present the methodology for assessing social effectiveness of institutions executing public policies and discuss its first results. This methodology developed within a research project1 supported by the Technological Agency of the Czech Republic extends the conventional paradigm of measuring efficiency by including social elements, opinions of different social groups, integrating different social preferences and by assessing performance against social goals. It reflects findings of empirical research conducted within selected public administration bodies (ministries and agencies), as well as Czech citizens. Both qualitative and quantitative research in the form of semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and a survey were used. After the presentation of the methodology, some first results in selected areas are discussed, and conclusions formulated. As the methodology is rather extensive, the paper will focus mainly on, ethics and integrity
... in other relevant areas such as income, investment, (un)employment, etc. (Capello, Nijkamp, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Social effectiveness is a complex concept which encompasses such components as coherent policy making addressing public needs, coordination of conflicting goals, empowerment, motivation and satisfaction of public servants, creation of public value and participation and satisfaction of citizens with the public service outcomes. For the purpose of our research we define social effectiveness of public institutions as an attainment of desirable societal goals, as effectiveness of public institutions through the eyes of citizens. The aim of the paper is to analyse the public assessment of quality of selected public administration authorities, what is the approach of officers and what people experience when visiting the Czech authorities in terms of the good-governance principle, special attention is paid to the corruptive behaviour of officers. Respondents (405) from the Czech Republic, participating in a unique research, indicated their satisfaction with public institutions. Obtained data are processed through descriptive statistics and independent t-test was used to evaluate results. The envisaged survey of citizens’ perceptions will address not only shortcomings but also positive features and recommendations from the general public. The following paper is a first study of a broader project mapping social effectiveness of public institutions.
... The base of concepts of the 1st level •aspect -this is the point of view adopted to identify the features of the region; it may be the theory of regional development; in this paper the classification of the theory of regional development was adopted from Nowak (2011): theories of the region as a place of export specialization -theory of economic base, new theory of trade, theory of exogenous development, theory of the production cycle -theories of the region as a "source of growing revenues" -new growth theory, growth poles theory, new economic geography, agglomeration economics -theories of the region as a "knowledge center": "learning" regions, regional innovation systems, cluster theory, new institutional economics In the literature, theories of regional development are defined in various combinations. The following theories are distinguished in Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories (Capello and Nijkamp 2009): ...
Article
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In the paper, the conceptual apparatus (the ontology OntoReg) is presented for designing the Knowledge Based System (KBS ). An original methodology of designing an applied ontology has been developed on the basis of the concept of Roman Ingarden’s individual object as well as the concept of Rudolf Carnap’s constructional systems (Aufbau). According to the procedure of creating an applied ontology, the original ontology of the region (OntoReg) has been developed, with particular emphasis on the characteristics of the region with the distinction of properties at three levels of the constructional system. At the first level, absolutely own properties, acquired properties and externally conditioned properties are distinguished. At the second level, positive states of objects (potentials of the region: geographical potential, social potential, innovative potential, institutional potential) and negative states of objects (risk of implementing the regional development strategy: project implementation risk, environmental risk, institutional risk, public health and safety risk) are defined. At the third level, the indicators of the respective types of potential and risk are considered. The relative characteristics of the comparative assessment between the indicator values for a given potential/risk and a reference value established in scientific research are determined. Determining the relative properties constitutes new knowledge generated due to the ontology constructed.
... Furthermore, convergence analysis using new spatial elements was developed and pioneered by Rey and Montouri (1999) and continues to develop until now. According to Capello and Nijkamp (2009), analysing economic inequality using spatial elements will be much more realistic than without spatial elements. Research in Indonesia that examines interregional convergence with spatial aspects in terms of spatial-econometrics is still few. ...
Article
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This research aims to prove the existence of a convergence process and analyse the effect of investment and energy infrastructure on the convergence process on Sumatra Island by including the element of space to understand spatial convergence better. The dataset used in panel data consists of 154 regions (district/municipality) from 2010 to 2020. The analytical tools used with a spatial econometric approach consist of Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) and Spatial Error Model (SEM). The results of the convergence test prove that there is convergence in both absolute and conditional convergence, and there is a difference in the speed of convergence for the two equations. Meanwhile, the results of the spatial approach state that there are spatial dependencies so that neighbouring regions influence the region. The estimation results of conditional β-convergence reveal that investment and government spending in infrastructure has a positive and significant effect, in contrast to energy infrastructure, which has a negative and significant relationship, and only human capital is not significant to the convergence process in Sumatra.
... We suggest that the redesign of established industrial players for sustainability transitions might be understood using a meta-organizational approach and more generally an evolutionary, regional pluridisciplinary approach of local systems dynamics. This means highlighting the very immaterial aspects of 'territorial capital' (cognitive, social, relational and identity capital) inherited from slow historical processes that are not necessarily oriented toward economic goals (Camagni et al., 2009). As such, we go beyond the Neo-Marshallian view focused on interpreting small firms systems rather than innovation processes. ...
Chapter
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How to organize clusters as local agents of transformative change, i.e. players that actively contribute to systemic sustainability transitions anchored in territories? We take a meta-organizational approach to the design of clusters for sustainability. We argue that achieving meta-organizational 'responsible actorhood' is a crucial condition for clusters to act as local agents of transformative change. Responsible actorhood allows to address the issues of lack of answerability, path dependency towards growth and labor resistance. Responsible actorhood involves 1) developing mechanisms to ensure 'meta-organizational accountability', 2) nurturing 'transformative mediated reflexivity' about technological ruptures and ecological performance in a public-centric approach and 3) enabling 'negotiated professional restructuring' to establish new knowledge processes at work. We contribute to the literature on clusters and STI policy, and to the meta-organization literature. Our work also has policy and practical implications for the design and steering of eco-industrial clusters.
... Endogenous theories (new growth theory) and theories based on innovation (innovative milieu, regional innovation systems, clusters) of growth of countries and regions, and the theory of Schumpeter pointed out in particular such development factors as innovation, R&D in companies, investing in knowledge, local resources, human resources, learning, pro-innovation infrastructure, innovation networks, social networks, the benefits of agglomeration, clustering, creativity, entrepreneurship, the diffusion of knowledge, and the availability of external finance for entrepreneurs (Capello and Nijkamp 2009;Lucas 1988;Marshall 1890;Porter 1990;Putnam, Leonardi, and Nanetti 1993;Romer 1990;Schumpeter 1939) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Growth pole strategies have been undertaken in the world since the 1960s with mixed results. In the article a complex approach to this phenomenon is proposed and tested for Poland. The territorial growth pole is considered to be based on a system of developmental factors forming natural, financial, physical , intellectual, socioeconomic and administrative types of capital that create suitable conditions for location of innovative branches and the positive externalities connected with them. Areas affluent in developmental factors forming the above forms of capital have the best results both in terms of GDP dynamics and its level.
... Empiriskt har resonemanget, om sambandet mellan ökad tillgänglighet och ökad tillväxt, dock varit svårare att leda i bevis. Det är dock inget specifikt problem för måluppföljningen utan är ett generellt problem som sysselsätter inte minst forskare i transport-och regionalekonomi (se exempelvis (Capello 2009, Mulley 2012). En vanlig förenkling är att börja med att analysera om det finns något samband mellan mer infrastruktur, exempelvis i termer av kilometer väg eller antal miljarder som satsats på infrastrukturutbyggnad, och ekonomisk tillväxt. ...
Technical Report
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I september 2016 fick Trafikanalys två regeringsuppdrag med syfte att göra en översyn av de transportpolitiska preciseringarna och uppföljningen av de transportpolitiska målen. Det ena uppdraget avsåg preciseringarna i sin helhet, och det är detta uppdrag som här slutredovisas. I projektrapporteringen ingår också tre underlags-PM. Den första presenterar uppdragets utgångspunkter, den andra indikatorer för uppföljning och den tredje slutsatser om styrning. På Trafikanalys webbplats redovisas också ett antal konsultrapporter som har tagits fram för att belysa olika frågeställningar med koppling till projektet. Det andra av de två uppdragen avser en översyn av preciseringar och etappmål inom trafiksäkerhetsområdet. Trafikanalys lämnar i denna rapport ett preliminärt förslag också för etappmål för trafiksäkerhet. Avsikten är att fortsätta analysen av lämplig målnivå för år 2030 till den 31 maj, då detta uppdrag slutredovisas.
... Questo nonostante molti autori in letteratura e molti analisti attribuiscano alla spesa infrastrutturale -tra i fondi europei -la maggiore capacità di attivazione economica, di crescita regionale e di convergenza (Farole et al., 2011;Cerqua, Pellegrini, 2014;Barone et al., 2019). Gli investimenti pubblici in infrastrutture sono, infatti, diffusamente riconosciuti come importanti driver della crescita regionale e della competitività territoriale (Rodriguez-Pose, Fratesi, 2004;Crescenzi, Rodriguez-Pose, 2012;Elburz et al., 2017;Capello, Nijkamp, 2019;Glass et al., 2019;Coppola et al., 2020;Cerniglia, Saraceno, 2020). Inoltre, sono componenti strategiche della dotazione di capitale territoriale, dagli importanti effetti economici di breve e lungo periodo (Camagni, Capello, 2013;Fratesi, Perucca, 2014). ...
Book
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Nella fase in cui vengono definiti i programmi operativi per il nuovo ciclo di programmazione regionale 2021-2027 è utile riflettere sulle lezioni apprese dal ciclo appena concluso al fine di migliorare la programmazione in avvio. Obiettivo del volume è fornire indicazioni, sia concettuali che pratiche, riguardo alle esperienze e alle lezioni, così da offrire utili indicazioni per la stesura e l’implementazione dei nuovi programmi. Il tema del volume è quindi quello delle politiche per lo sviluppo e la competitività regionale nelle regioni avanzate, con particolare ma non esclusivo riguardo alla S3. Intervengono, con contributi agili, due tipi di autori: da un lato ricercatori di università o centri di ricerca che si interessano al tema delle politiche regionali; dall'altro senior policymakers di regioni sviluppate italiane che condividono la loro esperienza, presentando le problematiche e le sfide da loro affrontate nel gestire le politiche negli ultimi anni, con particolare riguardo alle iniziative di successo. Il taglio del presente volume non è quindi quello classico del volume di analisi accademica, ma quello di un volume rivolto sia ai policy makers che a coloro che all'interno della comunità scientifica vivono la loro esperienza di ricercatori pensando anche a come essa si può concretamente ripercuotere nelle scelte, strategiche e quotidiane, di chi è impegnato nello sviluppo economico regionale.
... Questo nonostante molti autori in letteratura e molti analisti attribuiscano alla spesa infrastrutturale -tra i fondi europei -la maggiore capacità di attivazione economica, di crescita regionale e di convergenza (Farole et al., 2011;Cerqua, Pellegrini, 2014;Barone et al., 2019). Gli investimenti pubblici in infrastrutture sono, infatti, diffusamente riconosciuti come importanti driver della crescita regionale e della competitività territoriale (Rodriguez-Pose, Fratesi, 2004;Crescenzi, Rodriguez-Pose, 2012;Elburz et al., 2017;Capello, Nijkamp, 2019;Glass et al., 2019;Coppola et al., 2020;Cerniglia, Saraceno, 2020). Inoltre, sono componenti strategiche della dotazione di capitale territoriale, dagli importanti effetti economici di breve e lungo periodo (Camagni, Capello, 2013;Fratesi, Perucca, 2014). ...
Chapter
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Questo saggio propone alcune considerazioni sulla politica di Smart Specialisation (specializzazione intelligente) della Commissione Europea sviluppate sulla base delle analisi e dell’esperienza della Smart Specialisation Platform del Centro Comune di Ricerca della Commissione Europea. Il capitolo si articola in quattro parti: • breve sintesi dei concetti teorici che stanno alla base della Smart Specialisation intesa come approccio per attuare politiche di sostegno all’innovazione nei territori; • ricostruzione di come tali concetti siano stati tradotti all’interno del più ampio ambito della politica di Coesione dell’Unione Europea; • sintesi dell’evidenza empirica sull’effettiva attuazione della politica di specializzazione intelligente raccolta dagli autori nel contesto delle attività della Smart Specialisation Platform della Commissione Europea, sia assumendo il punto di vista degli amministratori, sia guardando a cosa avviene nella realtà attraverso l’analisi diretta delle strategie e delle misure attuate; • riflessioni conclusive sul futuro della Smart Specialisation, ovvero cosa sappiamo, o non sappiamo, di quel che avverrà nel ciclo finanziario 2021-2027 della politica di Coesione.
... For this extremely wide and complex issue, see for instance the basic overview inCapello and Nijkamp (2019),Stimson et al. (2006); for the transformation of settlement system and polycentricity, seeDavoudi (2003),Hall and Pain (2006),Rozenblat and Pumain (2018). See also Demeter (2020) for a historian's view related to the territory of Austria-Hungary.11 ...
Article
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Research on spatial history can be enriched by using approaches from quantitative geography. We analyse an historical regional system and highlight three basic assumptions, building upon Christaller’s central place theory: cities do not stand alone in space, they interact with their hinterlands, and they are hierarchically organised. We investigate the relative position of central places in space and define their hinterlands using a spatial interaction modelling approach. We present the example of functional regional taxonomy in past environments, which therefore has a higher degree of uncertainty in the results and in their interpretation. We use a variant of Reilly’s model to define the functional regions in Austria-Hungary at the beginning and at the end of the 20th century. We present a possible interpretation of the model results based on the identification of the major factors responsible for developments in the urban and regional systems of Austria-Hungary over 100 years. We conclude that the development of urban and regional systems in the territory of the former Austria-Hungary was not considerably affected by the role of political-economic systems, the administrative organisation of states, nor by the different stages in economic development of its formerly constituent territories.
... Đorđević and B. Tošić, 2013), and respected authorities in the field of economic geography (P. Krugman, 1991; P. Nijkamp, 2009;R. Capello, 2016) and economic planning, such as C. Dawkins (2003). ...
Book
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The main results of the research on the economic development of Europe, which is presented here, can be divided into three parts. The first is to clarify the evolutionary and successive economic development of Europe, which is the basis for understanding contemporary regional geographical analysis of Europe. This development began with laissez- faire in the 19th century, which was then (until the middle of the 20th century) replaced by the growth of a regulated market and economic dirigisme. After the Second World War, two economic systems developed in parallel, the central planning system in the East and the mixed economy in the West. The common denominator of both designs was the idea of the welfare state, which was replaced by neoliberalism in the West during the 1970s, and then by economies from the East, only two decades later. The second set of results focuses on the regional economy, a scientific field of economics that does not study the regional distribution of the economy but includes the dimension of space and location problems in the analysis of market functioning. Therefore, the permeation of geography and economics as the primary subject of research is best expressed through this area. That is the space that geography tries to understand and describe.
... Directly or indirectly, Regional Science and Economic Geography -being uniquely positioned to analyze the spatial dimensions of economic development -have greatly contributed to the understanding of those places which have been called -in Italy and increasingly often also beyond -«Inner Areas» from both an analytical and a policy perspective (Mulligan, 2014;Capello, Nijkamp, 2019). In regard to this latter aspect suffice it to mention the dense reflection of the regional studies academic community on the dilemma of «place prosperity versus people prosperity» and on the evaluation of the spatial effects of the EU Cohesion Policy. ...
Article
In past decades, much of the focus of the literature on economic growth and development was centered on urbanization. Cities were often cited as the engines of growth for regions and/or countries, with little to no attention being paid to more peripheral areas. However, in recent years, this lack of attention to urban areas has been criticized. The latest political developments around the world have highlighted mounting rural/urban tensions and the importance of peripheral areas, which were too often – and for too long – overlooked. Places which did not seem to «matter» in the past have made their voices heard. This has induced several scholars to question whether these areas really do not matter or whether they instead matter a great deal. Our paper builds on this recent debate by looking specifically at the Italian peripheral areas as defined by the National Strategy for Inner Areas (SNAI). Reviewing the literature produced so far on the issue within the domain of Regional Science, we describe these areas through the lens of three key aspects which we deem salient for their characterization: demography, employment trends, and industrial sectoral composition. The overall purpose is to provide a comprehensive framework to start a reflection on inner areas and uncover possible development potentials to inform their local development strategies and hence offer policy guidance.
... Since its inception, regional science has concentrated much attention on lagging or less privileged regions by tracing the determinants of lower levels of welfare of some regions, by seeking to explain why certain regions fail and others survive, and by exploring effective policy options to improve the socio-economic fate of depressed regions (Capello and Nijkamp, 2019). A glance at some structurally underperforming areas (e.g., the Mezzogiorno, the Apalachian region, the Sub-Sahara region, parts of India etc.) may give the impression that regional scienceas the science mainly concerned with severe problems of regional developmentis a 'dismal' science (in the negative sense expressed by the British social scientist Thomas Carlyle), where in a Malthusian spirit the resources on earth are never able to provide a decent quality of life for all people. ...
... In the literature on economic geography, business density and the location of business activities remain important. Several studies analyzed the interdependence between business activities and space (Porter, 1998;Capello & Nijkamp, 2009). The major focus of the new economic geography is on analyzing the geographical distribution of businesses activities while pinpointing the agglomeration and dispersion strengths (Krugman, 1991;Combes & Overman, 2004). ...
Preprint
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Drawing on the literature on business dynamics, entrepreneurship and the spatial determinants of firms’ creation, this study use Exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial panel data to test the spatial patterns and dynamics of co-operatives growth in Morocco. The results confirm the existence of spatial concentration of co-operatives, a global spatial autocorrelation and local spatial autocorrelation with different spatial typologies. The results also show that the main positive spatial determinants for co-operatives growth are the existence of co-operatives culture, the males’ unemployment rate, and the density of population. However, there are also negative spatial determinants on the growth and dynamics of co-operatives. These include co-ops density, firm’s density, male activity, Business turnover, population growth, Higher education, primary education, and urbanization.
... In the closing decades of the twentieth century economists and other social scientists began noticing that the US economy, like many others, was changing from one that was largely shaped by the costs of materials and physical capital to one that increasingly valued information, ideas, and innovation (Capello and Nijkamp, 2019). Here social distancing is recognized to be a key determinant of the scaling that typifies many urban processes, including patenting (West, 2017). ...
... While local and community level concerns have encouraged transfers of major estate holdings away from private ownership, the general moves have been within and consistent with overall regional development strategies. The recent essential model of economic development in Scotland follows the experiences and learning from decades of strategic interventions across Europe as a whole (Capello and Nijkamp, 2019) and is delivered through facilitating (and other supplyside interventions) investment in infrastructure and human capital. Typical approaches are intended to build resilience in local and regional economies overcoming the 'development of the underdevelopment' of community and nation (Danson, 1991(Danson, , 2015 as presented in the Scottish Regeneration Strategy (Scottish Government, 2011), Structural Fund Programmes (Danson et al., 1997), Economic Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2020c) and the National Economic Framework (Scottish Government, 2018). ...
Article
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Scotland has been addressing the highest European concentrations of land ownership through land reform legislation, encouraging communities to buy out the lairds. Collective efforts to take ownership of the commons are explored through application of theories on governance, regional development and institutions. Experiences of Inner and Outer Hebridean islanders under private and then community ownership, paying special attention to the case of the Isle of Eigg, are considered. Their collective tenacity, flexibility and confidence in securing a community future despite continuing challenges to remote small island living are offered as keystone examples from Scotland of small island enterprise, social development and collective community actions.
... Finally, location theory analyses the economic and spatial mechanisms that regulate the size of territorial agglomerations, functional specialisation, and territorial distribution (Christaller 1933, Lösch 1954). These models put forward a more complex and general theory of location and the structure of the underlying economic relations that account for the existence of diverse territorial agglomerations within a framework of general spatial equilibrium (Capello, Nijkamp 2009). ...
Article
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Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia, is currently experiencing a period of intensive suburbanisation, which in turn creates demand pressures and increases the price of urban land located in its hinterland. This paper investigates several locational factors, which likely signicantly inuence the demand for land plots and modulate`price-maker' conditions. Based on the population sample of 102 units, the results indicate that built-in infrastructure facilities on land under analysis, advanced transport connectivity in municipalities, and various amenities in the municipality cadastre tend to elevate land prices signicantly. Moreover, the factor of distance from the city of Bratislava plays a major role in household location, which was identied by the apparent decreasing rent gradient pattern. JEL classication: R11, R14, R31
... Finally, location theory analyses the economic and spatial mechanisms that regulate the size of territorial agglomerations, functional specialisation, and territorial distribution (Christaller 1933, Lösch 1954). These models put forward a more complex and general theory of location and the structure of the underlying economic relations that account for the existence of diverse territorial agglomerations within a framework of general spatial equilibrium (Capello, Nijkamp 2009). ...
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Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia, is currently experiencing a period of intensive suburbanisation, which in turn creates demand pressures and increases the price of urban land located in its hinterland. This paper investigates several locational factors, which likely significantly influence the demand for land plots and modulate `price-maker' conditions. Based on the population sample of 102 units, the results indicate that built-in infrastructure facilities on land under analysis, advanced transport connectivity in municipalities, and various amenities in the municipality cadastre tend to elevate land prices significantly. Moreover, the factor of distance from the city of Bratislava plays a major role in household location, which was identified by the apparent decreasing rent gradient pattern.
... However, most of the studies showed that the regional development policy models applied during the 1980s had rather modest results, mostly because of the slow convergence of the regions lagging behind (Barro & Sala-I-Martin, 1991, Boldrin & Canova, 2001. Regional policy has changed once again within the EU during the nineties (from a short-term grants model through central government authority to a long-term model through decentralized development policies, and also from dispersed interventions to more selective investments) (Capello, 2009). The idea was to support the development of internal growth factors, and not merely the redistribution of revenue to less developed areas of a country (Camagni 2009). ...
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The unbalanced regional development is one of the biggest socioeconomic challenges in Serbia. It is a multidimensional and multi-level regional imbalance that, according to almost all socioeconomic indicators, shows a growing trend in the first decades of the 21st century. This paper presents an analysis of the selected demographic, social, and economic indicators by using DEA methodology. The dynamic component of the studied imbalance was taken into account by calculating the Malmquist Productivity Index. The calculated index undoubtedly shows that there are differences between regions (not only between the northern and southern regions, but also within the regions themselves). The results also point out that the changes of the input usage efficiency have strongly influenced the ranks of the districts within the national territories.
... Niektorí autori (Camagni, 2009;Malecki, 2012) tvrdia, že koncept trojitá špirála sa nijako zásadne odlišuje od konceptu inštitucionálnej hustoty, ktorá je stmeľovaná akousi sociálnou klímou sociálneho kapitálu. Predstavuje viacvrstvový systém sietí poznatkov, formovaných sociálnym kapitálom do určitých, pozorovateľných, resp. ...
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Regionálny rozvoj označuje všeobecný termín zahrňujúci problémy politického, sociálneho, ekonomického alebo environmentálneho rozvoja regiónov. Rastúci záujem o problematiku regionálneho rozvoja, ktorý pozorujeme od druhej polovici 20. storočia, vyústil do formovania širokého spektra teoretických koncepcií. Zlom v zameraní teórií regionálneho rozvoja nastal v 80. rokoch 20. storočia, kedy neoliberálne politiky jednotlivých štátov vytvorili globálne previazanú ekonomiku. Regióny dnes čelia výzvam globalizácie rozvíjaním podmienok konkurencieschopnosti, štáty sa snažia presadzovať vyvážený regionálny rozvoj a pomáhať menej rozvinutým regiónom a inštitúcie vytvárajú podmienky ako zosúladiť lokálne potreby a verejný záujem s cieľmi nadnárodných spoločností v rámci globálnych produkčných sieti. Vo vysokoškolskej učebnici „Teórie regionálneho rozvoja a výskum regiónov“ tak rozlišujeme tri dimenzie regionálneho rozvoja. Prvú dimenziu predstavuje neviditeľná ruka trhu, ktorá tvorí nevyhnutný predpoklad regionálneho rozvoja. Mechanizmy a princípy trhovej ekonomiky majú spontánny charakter a môžu spôsobiť neočakávané udalosti. Preto je potrebná určitá miera regulácie, ktorú zastupuje druhá dimenzia, politika štátu. Štáty usmerňujú tok kapitálu, práce a poznatkov tak, že sa snažia zohľadňovať dve stratégie: národnú efektívnosť a medziregionálnu spravodlivosť. Nakoniec, stratégie rozvoja, ako aj plánovania regiónov, závisia od kvality inštitucionálnych vzťahov, čo predstavuje tretiu dimenziu regionálneho rozvoja. Jedným z kľúčových prvkov regionálneho rozvoja je zdieľanie spoločných hodnôt a vytváranie atmosféry dôvery medzi firmami, inštitúciami a obyvateľstvom regiónu. Vysokoškolská učebnica je určená študentom vysokých škôl, ktorých záujem sa orientuje na problematiku lokálneho a regionálneho rozvoja, územného plánovania, navrhovania strategických dokumentov a riešenia problémov regionálnych nerovností.
... Local development can call on various research agendas and theoretical streams [47,48]. As regional studies are highly context-specific, they vary in terms of their sustainability-definition, which has recently been shaped by questions around inclusive development [49], sustainable development [50,51], and the transition towards sustainability in regions [52]. ...
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The Belt and Road Initiative is the leading project in the regions along the ancient Silk Road. This aims to revive the New Silk Road (NSR) as a transnational space towards an era of new regional integration and globalization. Despite the potential economic effects on a global scale, local sustainability remains questionable. Building upon the central engagement in infrastructure improvements, this article aims to investigate the role of local sustainability in research along the New Silk Road. Starting with 597 scientific articles, this article conducts a systematic literature review on four levels of concretization to characterize the research field of the New Silk Road, and to develop in-depth insights systematically. The results reveal a research focus on economic growth, which is lacking in environmental considerations and especially the socio-cultural dimension of sustainability on a local scale. Future directions in local sustainability should therefore include local stakeholders to build a joint understanding of sustainability by recognizing the characteristics of regionalism upon which manifold local support of mega infrastructure can evolve. Given these findings, the New Silk Road emerges as a field of study that calls for interdisciplinary research on different spatial levels.
... Većina suvremenih pristupa regionalnom razvoju fokusira se na jedan ili nekolicinu potencijalni determinanti razvoja (e.g. Capello, Nijkamp, 2009.), ističući pri tom važnost specifičnost pojedine regije. ...
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Konvergencija je u svim svojim pojavnim oblicima relevantan fenomen s ekonomskog i socijalnog stajališta te je ovaj rad usmjeren na istraživanje procesa konvergencije regija u Europskoj uniji. U radu je nakon pregleda relevantne literature predstavljen metodološki okvir za potrebe istraživanja utjecaja specijalizacije regija na realnu konvergenciju regija unutar Europske unije. Empirijsko testiranje se vršilo na podacima za 247 NUTS II regija u četrnaest godišnjem razdoblju od 2000. do 2013. godine. Analizom je utvrđeno da regije specijalizirane tržišne usluge, odnosno regije specijalizirane u sektorima visoke dodane vrijednosti ostvaruju više stope rasta u odnosu na ostale regije. S druge strane, sektor poljoprivrede je pokazao je nižu produktivnost i sukladno tome negativan utjecaj na rast. Sintezom iznesenog zaključuje se da je kako je sektorska specijalizacija NUTS regija utječe na realnu konvergenciju regija u Europskoj uniji.
... 2020. № 3 28 Подход к оценке человеческого капитала ОЭСР построен на методе, разработанном Д. Джоргенсоном и Б. Фраумени, и включает в себя показатели: ...
... One of the important aspects of entrepreneurial universities and high-technology companies in economic development is the possibility of attracting foreign direct investment into the country. From the perspective of multinational companies, the location of high value-added R&D projects is influenced by human capital and regional R&D capability (Capello and Nijkamp, 2019). Economies with high-technology infrastructure and start-ups are better able to attract student investment from multinationals. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for the transformation from a second-generation university to an entrepreneurial university. The work is practical and innovative, which provides the foundation for further work in this field. Design/methodology/approach Based on a systematic review of relevant studies on entrepreneurial universities, this paper proposed an evaluation framework with clear logic and practicability. This paper also provided a basis for further research. The restrictions of each factor were defined by the readiness framework, and the consequences of entrepreneurial activities on local economic development were analyzed by using the proposed model. The proposed conceptual framework aided policymakers in completing a much-needed assessment of the impact of organizational policies, practices and structures on the entrepreneurial activities and transformation from second-generation universities to third-generation organizations. Findings The proposed readiness framework led to the development of organizational interventions that facilitated successful entrepreneurial activities. The quantitative indicators of different university types were demonstrated in this study. The quantitative validation of the integrated framework suggested that university heads and policymakers can encourage and develop academic entrepreneurship by using a comprehensive systems approach for the identification, protection and commercialization of university’s intellectual property. Originality/value This paper provides a framework for policymakers or decision makers to better understand whether a local university is ready for entrepreneurship. This framework also provides a direction for future quantitative research.
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O trabalho tem como objetivo principal comparar a política regional da União Europeia (UE) com a política regional no Brasil. Nesse contexto, intenta-se escrutinar as transformações que ocorreram nas últimas duas décadas nas políticas e nos instrumentos promotores do desenvolvimento econômico e social dos países que formam a UE. A experiência da política regional desse bloco pode, em muitos aspectos, emular os pesquisadores brasileiros e os governos nacional e subnacionais a desenhar e implementar boas políticas públicas para enfrentar as desigualdades regionais. A Política Nacional de Desenvolvimento Regional (PNDR), de responsabilidade do governo federal, apresentou avanços substanciais no período 2007-2020. Contudo, o Fundo Nacional de Desenvolvimento Regional (FNDR), principal vetor de transformações estruturais e que forneceria suporte financeiro à criação de políticas e programas no nível do território nacional, não foi criado. A ausência de tal instrumento representa grande restrição a maior efetividade da PNDR ao processo de minimização das desigualdades regionais no Brasil.
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This research documents multidimensional facets of public value provided by public sector employment in regional Australia. Evidence and estimates of the contribution and impact of public sector employment to regional labour markets and economic activity are documented for the Illawarra, South Coast and Capital regions of New South Wales, Australia. Using a mixed methods approach, results presented illustrate that public sector employment embodies a significantly larger proportion of total employment and economic activity in most regional labour markets compared to Greater Sydney or Australia in general. Other analyses reveal both counter-seasonal and countercyclical contributions of public sector income and spending to regional economic activity. The main finding of this research is that public sector employment provides a stable foundation to regional economies that are otherwise strongly influenced by seasonal patterns associated with tourism and agriculture. The importance of public sector employment to the regional economies has been amplified in recent crisis periods associated with large scale bushfires and COVID-19.
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Challenges faced by African countries in achieving the goals of sustainable development are similar and transboundary. Analysis of sustainable development goals (SDGs) has largely been non-spatial, reducing the ability to find spatial relationships between countries and SDGs to help cooperation and proffer country-specific interventions. This study adopted techniques of exploratory and inferential spatial statistics to assess the successes of African countries from 2016 to 2020 in achieving the goals of sustainable development. Also, the study sought to understand how the spatial synergies and trade-offs between SDG's vary per country and time. Analysis revealed that spatial hotspots of countries with high SDGs scores were mostly confined to northern African countries with significant cold spots within central and eastern Africa and few patches in western and southern Africa for 2016. In 2020, the number of countries forming hotspots reduced, with Central African countries as significant cold spots. Five main spatial relationship such as positive linear, negative linear, concave, convex and undefined complex were found among countries and SDGs. However, these spatial relationships were fluid as they changed over time and with different levels of influence from 2016 to 2020. The study concludes that generic solutions and policies by development agencies and governments will not be enough in achieving SDGs because of the spatial heterogeneity of the continent. Hence policies should be country-specific based on results of spatial statistics.
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This paper examines various aspects of recent employment vulnerability in US metropolitan areas. Based on the three decades preceding COVID-19, an estimate is made of the volatility (sensitivity) in each area's unemployment rate, relative to the national rate, and this reflects the area's overall employment vulnerability to external events. Using the Brechling-Thirlwall time-series approach, the monthly change in each area's unemployment rate is first compared to the monthly change in the nation's unemployment rate. Regression analysis is then used to tie the volatility seen in those metropolitan unemployment rates to various initial conditions: degree of specialization in primary (+), manufacturing (+), and government (−) activities; initial unemployment (+); human-created (−) and natural amenities (+); real wages (−); self-employment (−); and the presence of major colleges or universities (−). An alternative specification reassesses these estimates after including the volatility of unemployment rates across the nation's various states. A short discussion then addresses the issue of vulnerability in specific activities. Selecting four industries that were identified "at risk" during early COVID events, ranked employment specialization indices (LQs) are correlated with ranked volatility estimates of unemployment rates. In the more advanced economies, metropolitan areas typically specialize in, and trade across, different industries, but this specialization can create overall employment vulnerability. JEL Classification J21 · R12 · R23
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Dans cet article nous posons la question d’un développement territorial durable, i.e. un changement des modes deproduction et de coordination au niveau local tenant compte du caractère non renouvelable des ressources primaires et tentantd’y apporter remède par une approche plus frugale. Nous nous interrogeons sur la possible contribution de l’économie circulaire,qui propose la réutilisation des produits et la réinjection des flux énergétiques ou des déchets dans le processus de production,avec un ancrage local fort et des interventions souvent liées à la dimension territoriale. Dans un premier temps, nous abordons lanotion de développement territorial et sa définition, avant de discuter de ses deux moteurs, la production et la gouvernance. Nousnous posons ensuite la question de la possibilité d’un développement territorial durable, à partir de la recension des différentescatégories de ressources territoriales et de leurs possibilités d’utilisation par une économie circulaire. Dans un troisième temps,nous nous demandons comment territorialiser cette économie circulaire et sur quel type de territoires, en nous appuyant surl’exemple de la méthanisation.
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Critical review of Order without Design (A Bertaud; MIT Press, 2018); Cities, Economic Inequality and Justice (E Buitelaar, A Weterings, & R Ponds; Routledge, 2018 ); Cultural Heritage, Creativity and Economic Development (S Cerisola; Edward Elgar, 2019); Urban Empires (E Glaeser, K Kourtit, & P Nijkamp, eds.; Routledge, 2021); and The Wealth and Poverty of Cities (M Polese; Oxford University Press, 2020).
Chapter
In this chapter, on the grounds of the findings concerning the spatial conditions of spontaneous socioeconomic development, we present its contemporary theoretical basics, which determine the definition and systematization of the factors shaping this process at the regional and subregional level. We draw attention to the direction and nature of the dynamics of these factors, in which a significant role is played by main contemporary megatrends of socioeconomic development, such as transformation, integration, globalization, and postmodernization. On the other hand, we highlight the component of controlled development manifested in the assumptions and actions of the contemporary regional development policy. As regards this issue, we recall the genesis and transformations of European development policy, emphasizing particularly the dilemmas related to its paradigm and the challenges of its operationalization. We devote a special space in these reflections to the place-based policy approach, in which we see opportunities to improve the effectiveness of intervention activities undertaken within the development policy. Based on the assumptions of this approach, in the Chap. 4 of this book, we present our proposal for specifying it in more detail, which is necessary in our opinion, for proper identification, creation, and strengthening of regional development factors ensuring significant and sustainable economic development.
Preprint
In the context of carbon emissions peak, environmental issues highlight the importance of the green economy, how does economic agglomeration release growth potential and enable the coordinated development of the economy and environment? There are few works of literature to analyze it within the framework of spatial economy. This paper constructs a theoretical model to clarify the influence mechanism of economic agglomeration on green total factor productivity (GTFP), and then uses a dynamic SDM model to test the theoretical hypothesis. This contribution has three main findings. First, there is a "U-shaped" curve relationship between economic agglomeration and GTFP, and the formation mechanism is that economic agglomeration has a threshold effect on the agglomeration externalities such as infrastructure sharing, knowledge spillover, and labor market upgrading. Second, the mismatch of industrial structure is an important reason that the economic agglomeration in this region has not produced an obvious spatial spillover effect on other regions; Relaxing restrictions on the concentration of economic activity to regional centers would contribute to the improvement of GTFP. Third, GTFP has the classic "snowball effect" in the time dimension, but has the obvious "warning effect" in the space and time dimension. Based on this, this paper believes that at the present stage, it is necessary to adapt to the layout of economic geography, promote the rational allocation of human resources in the territorial space, promote the coordination between economic agglomeration and the development goal of green economy, and at the same time, it is necessary to cultivate the cooperative linkage mechanism of green economy development and transformation among cities.
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We present evidence on the long-term relationship between the breadth (the proportion of households) and depth (the amount per household) of public assistance and the prevalence of self-employment in US neighbourhoods. The analysis of decennial data of 71,437 census tracts over four decades (1970 to 2000) shows that the poverty ratio lowers self-employment, and that breadth (but not depth) of public assistance mitigates the negative relationship between the poverty ratio and self-employment. The results are robust to alternate model specifications and are informative about the distributional effects of welfare spendings.
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Cieľom učebnice je priblížiť študentom rozdiely medzi regionálnym rastom a regionálnym rozvojom, aby pochopili rôzne interpretácie ekonomického rastu a rozvoja v rôznych teoretických konceptoch a ako sa vyvíjali v priebehu času a ako boli tieto teoretické koncepty premietané do konkrétnych politických opatrení (a prečo niektoré z nich zlyhávajú). Obsahovo ju tvoria tri logické celky. Prvý celok je venovaný vysvetleniu základných pojmov ako je regionálny rast a rozvoj, konceptu regionálnej konkurencieschopnosti a faktorom, ktoré ju ovplyvňujú a príčinám a dôsledkom regionálnych disparít. Druhý najrozsiahlejší celok zase zahŕňa vybrané teoretické a koncepčné prístupy, ktoré vysvetľujú vzájomné pôsobenie faktorov rozvoja a ich súvislosť s regionálnym rozvojom a regionálnymi disparitami. Regionálny rast a rozvoj vysvetľuje z pohľadu neoklasického prístupu, ktorého nedostatky neskôr vyústili do dominancie keynesiánskeho a polarizačného prístupu k regionálnemu rastu a rozvoju. Riešenie nedostatkov týchto zase priniesli neoliberálne a inštitucionálne prístupy, ktoré majú dominantný vplyv na charakter regionálnej politiky aj v súčasnosti. Prečo práve teórie? Lebo svet sám o sebe (a tým aj ekonomický systém), bez toho, aby sme sa naň pozreli, je chaotický. Až naša schopnosť modelového zmýšľania, teda identifikácie opakujúcich sa vzorov, nám umožňuje orientovať sa v ňom. Tieto vzorce sú abstrakciou reality, ktorá nám pomáha zorientovať sa vo svete a ekonomickom systéme tak, aby sme pochopili príčinno-dôsledkové súvislosti prevládajúce v tomto systéme, čo nám umožní vyhnúť sa krokom (napr. politickým rozhodnutiam), ktoré by mohli viesť k nežiaducim dôsledkom a pomôže nastaviť také opatrenia, aby sme zabezpečili spoločensky prijateľný výsledok. Okrem toho, že vysvetľujú „ako funguje svet“, nám teórie rozvoja zároveň poskytujú „recepty“ na tvorbu politík a konkrétnych opatrení na jeho ovplyvňovanie s cieľom dosiahnuť spoločensky žiaduce efekty. Práve tretí celok prináša historický priebeh aplikácie týchto teoretických a koncepčných prístupov v praxi, konkrétne v regionálnej politike Európskej únie. Okrem pojmu teória v učebnici používame aj pojmy koncepcia a model s porovnateľným významom.
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In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, South Korea is moving to establish a national industry strategy to reduce regional inequalities within the country through the Green New Deal. Thus, it is important to closely integrate the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Green New Deal with that of reducing deepening regional inequality from the Regionally Balanced New Deal. To accomplish these dual aims, this study provides a collaborative trans-regional R&D strategy and a precise framework with three key dimensions: regional, technological, and organizational. We demonstrate that future mobility is the most important project of the Green New Deal, comprising 1963 nationally funded projects worth USD 1285.4 million. We also illustrate the level of government investment in nationally funded research projects related to future mobility for 17 different regions and seven different technology clusters related to future mobility, and determine which research organizations played an important role in each cluster for all 17 regions between 2015 and 2020. Our results indicate that the capital region and Daejeon have high innovation capability in many future mobility-related research fields, whereas some regions have capabilities in specific research fields such as hydrogen infrastructure, indicating their relative competitiveness.
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Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio la contabilità ambientale in Istat ha visto consolidarsi e espandersi la produzione di conti, avviata nei primi anni ‘90, in modo coerente con le metodologie definite in ambito europeo e con la sempre crescente domanda di informazione in questo campo. Le analisi dei dati dei singoli conti, gli approfondimenti che ne sfruttano le interconnessioni e gli esempi di uso ai fini di policy presentati in questo volume costituiscono, pertanto, il frutto di un lungo percorso. Il lavoro affronta l’insieme dei conti fisici e monetari che descrivono la relazione tra economia e ambiente incrociando le categorie concettuali e le classificazioni del Sistema dei conti nazionali con quelle della scienza ecologica. L’importanza di stabilire un dialogo tra le informazioni sui due ambiti si coglie considerando che l’interazione tra economia e natura costituisce lo snodo fondamentale della più grande sfida che l’umanità si sia mai trovata di fronte, ovvero la sostenibilità ecologica del processo socioeconomico.
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The paper's main objective concerns population and settlement changes in the spatial-temporal dimension in the 1996 – 2019 time span. As a main methods of the research concentration quantities and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation were used. Achieved results point to the emerging outer city migration circle and inner – rural migration circle in most Slovakia regions on district LAU 1 level. Some of these clustering patterns also became statistically significant. Furthermore, the results show an apparent difference in population redistribution in municipalities between the Bratislava region and the rest of Slovakia; and significant imbalances between municipalities classified by size. Lower and medium-size municipalities (1,000 to 10,000 citizens) become decisive stabilization elements in settlement network formation. However, the current prevailing settlement form is unsustainable, especially in the Eastern part of Slovakia. Conclusively, in current terms, Slovakia is missing decisive territorial-urban policy. The urgency of the large scale communal reform in Slovakia is inevitable
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The sustainable development is the main objective of region government to do the authority in each region. Within the region development, it needs the existence which is done well in order to smooth that development. In order to reach the development objective which is planned, so that, it needs the existence of synchronization from all sectors which is exist in that region. This research is used to determine the sector which becomes priority in development which is useful to give information and consideration matter in determining policy and development strategy. Analysis instrument which is used are shift share, LQ and MRP, to find out the change of economic structure, base sector and potential sector in Mojokerto regency, by using the data gross domestic regional product Mojokerto Regency and East Java Province in year 2015-2019. From the result of the shift share analysis, there is economic structure change from primary sector to tertiary with sector, which is the basis sector are agriculture sector and industry from LQ analysis. Afterward, from three analysis methods, the potential sector is agriculture sector.
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Regional growth models leave a large share of variation unexplained. While we should continuously aim to improve these models, the unique combination of conditions and human agency in each region will also invariably lead to region-specific growth trajectories. Theoretically, we should thus expect systematic deviations from growth predictions. We propose an approach to explore these unexplained deviations and to detect regions that perform unexpectedly well or badly in certain periods. We illustrate the approach using data for Sweden from 1990 to 2016. We find systematic patterns of unexplained periodic regional growth deviations outweighing the effect of generic structural factors.
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Innovation, which constitutes an important factor for growth, strongly diversifies regions’ level of development. To compare regional innovativeness of EU territories, we employ the data envelopment analysis (DEA) framework. We analyse the relative efficiency of regions using a standard DEA for the country-level, a spatial DEA for regional analysis and the Malmquist indexes to measure the innovation productivity change over time. In our research, the inputs are human capital and R&D expenditure, while the outputs include the number of patents and GDP. We combine the results of these methods with spatial statistics to pinpoint the spatio-temporal patterns of innovation efficiency across European regions. We confirm validity of the assumed complex spatial structure of innovation efficiency. Our study indicates that innovation efficiency at the country-level is dissimilar, or even partially contradictory, to NUTS 2 outcomes due to high regional dispersion within state borers and similarities among neighbouring regions from different countries.
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