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Passively browsing social networking sites (SNSs) correlates with poorer well-being (Verduyn, Ybarra, Résibois, Jonides, & Kross, 2017). However, less research has been conducted that fully examines what factors may mediate this association. In particular, both online social comparison and the fear of missing out (FoMO) may play roles in how passive SNS browsing relates to depressive symptoms and self-perceptions. The current study adds to the literature by investigating how passive use relates to these outcomes through social comparison and FoMO. For an ethnically diverse sample of college students (N = 717, Mage = 21.47, SDage = 4.64, 69% female), passively using SNSs positively predicted social comparison, which was positively related to FoMO, which in turn positively predicted depressive symptoms, and negatively predicted global self-worth, self-perceived physical appearance, and self-perceived social acceptance. These findings suggest that social comparison and FoMO play a role in the link between passive SNS use, depressive symptoms, and self-perceptions, and that FoMO could result from online social comparison.
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Burnell, K., George, M. J., Vollet, J. W., Ehrenreich, S. E., & Underwood, M. K. (2019). Passive social networking
site use and well-being: The mediating roles of social comparison and the fear of missing out. Cyberpsychology:
Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 13(3), article 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.5817/CP2019-3-5
Passive Social Networking Site Use and Well-Being: The Mediating
Roles of Social Comparison and the Fear of Missing Out
Kaitlyn Burnell1, Madeleine J. George2, Justin W. Vollet1, Samuel E. Ehrenreich3, & Marion K. Underwood2
1 School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, United States
2 Department of Psychological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States
3 College of Education, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, United States
Abstract
Passively browsing social networking sites (SNSs) correlates with poorer well-being (Verduyn, Ybarra, Résibois,
Jonides, & Kross, 2017). However, less research has been conducted that fully examines what factors may mediate
this association. In particular, both online social comparison and the fear of missing out (FoMO) may play roles in
how passive SNS browsing relates to depressive symptoms and self-perceptions. The current study adds to the
literature by investigating how passive use relates to these outcomes through social comparison and FoMO. For
an ethnically diverse sample of college students (N = 717, Mage = 21.47, SDage = 4.64, 69% female), passively using
SNSs positively predicted social comparison, which was positively related to FoMO, which in turn positively
predicted depressive symptoms, and negatively predicted global self-worth, self-perceived physical appearance,
and self-perceived social acceptance. These findings suggest that social comparison and FoMO play a role in the
link between passive SNS use, depressive symptoms, and self-perceptions, and that FoMO could result from online
social comparison.
Keywords: Social networking sites; passive use; online social comparison; fear of missing out; well-being
Introduction
Social networking sites (SNSs) are widely used by U.S. adults, with 69% using Facebook, 37% using Instagram, 24%
using Snapchat, and 22% using Twitter (Perrin & Anderson, 2019). SNSs can have differential effects upon well-
being depending on how they are used. For instance, active SNS use (i.e., uploading content) is suspected to be
associated with improved subjective well-being, whereas passive SNS browsing (i.e., browsing without direct social
interaction) is suspected to be particularly harmful for subjective well-being (Verduyn, Ybarra, Résibois, Jonides, &
Kross, 2017). Moreover, studies suggest that young people generally spend most of their time on SNS platforms
passively browsing (Pempek, Yermolayeva, & Calvert, 2009), with one study finding that participants typically
passively browsed Facebook 50% more than they use it actively (Verduyn et al., 2015). This further bolsters the
need to understand associations with this activity.
People tend to engage in highly positive self-presentation online (Vogel & Rose, 2016), which may be problematic
for passive browsers in two primary ways. First, others’ posts on SNSs may depict positive social events (Hu,
Manikonda, & Kambhampati, 2014; Underwood & Ehrenreich, 2017). Thus, browsing this content may exacerbate
the tendency to perceive that others have better social lives than oneself (Whillans, Christie, Cheung, Jordan, &
Chen, 2017) and reduce feelings of belonging (Whillans & Chen, 2018). Second, the physical appearance of
individuals depicted on SNSs may be enhanced, which could have implications for passive browsers’ self-
perceptions, namely in terms of self-perceived physical attractiveness (Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016). Exposure to
these types of content may be harmful through two mechanisms: a) by evoking harmful social comparisons, and
b) by activating feelings of missing out. The goal of the current research was to explore links between passive SNS
use, social comparison, and the fear of missing out (FoMO), with depressive symptoms and different domains of
self-perceptions. We examined one broad index of self-perceptions (i.e., global self-worth) and two domains of
self-perceptions that are particularly relevant to SNSs (i.e., self-perceived social acceptance and physical
appearance).
Social Comparison
Social comparison theory suggests that in the absence of objective information, people have an innate drive to
compare the self to others, often in an attempt to obtain an accurate self-evaluation (Festinger, 1954). SNS
platforms provide a wealth of easily accessible information about others, and can therefore serve as a new avenue
for people to engage in social comparison processes. As aforementioned, SNS content tends to be highly curated
and focused on promoting a positive self-image (Vogel & Rose, 2016), and therefore might elicit social comparisons
that are predominantly upward in nature. Upward social comparisons, or the comparison of one’s self to those
perceived to be better off, may impair individuals’ subjective well-being if these comparisons elicit negative feelings
such as feelings of depression, envy, or resentment (Smith, 2000).
Few studies have directly tested the pathway between passive SNS browsing, upward social comparison, and lower
well-being. One study investigated this path by examining feelings of envy, a prominent upward social comparison
emotion (Smith, 2000), and found that passive Facebook use was indirectly related to depressive symptoms
through envy (Tandoc, Ferrucci, & Duffy, 2015). In addition, numerous studies have revealed links between specific
components of this pathway. Passively browsing Facebook is associated with a greater tendency to engage in
social comparisons on Facebook (Rousseau, Eggermont, & Frison, 2017). In turn, making upward social
comparisons on Facebook is linked with lower life satisfaction (de Vries & Kühne, 2015; Gerson, Plagnol, & Corr,
2016) and self-esteem (Lee, 2014; Vogel, Rose, Roberts, & Eckles, 2014), as well as greater anxiety symptoms (Lee,
2014) and depressive symptoms (Chow & Wan, 2017; Lee, 2014). Importantly, a study with an experience sampling
design found that passively browsing Facebook was associated with lower affective well-being, which was
mediated by feelings of envy (Verduyn et al., 2015). Thus, this study provides direct support for a pathway between
passive SNS browsing, increased upward social comparison, and reduced well-being. Moreover, the tendency to
engage in social comparisons on SNSs, regardless of the direction of the comparison (e.g., upward), is associated
with poorer well-being. Specifically, engaging in social comparison on SNSs in general (Hanna et al., 2017) and on
Facebook (Lee, 2014) is linked with poorer self-esteem and greater depressive and anxiety symptoms. Social
comparison on Instagram is linked with poorer self-esteem (Stapleton, Luiz, & Chatwin, 2017).
Experimental work has also provided evidence for links in this pathway. Browsing Facebook has been found to
increase negative mood (Fardouly, Diedrichs, Vartanian, & Halliwell, 2015), decrease affective well-being at the end
of the day (although not immediately after browsing; Verduyn et al., 2015), and, for those high in their tendency
to engage in social comparisons, reduce self-perceptions and self-esteem, and increase negative affect balance
(Vogel, Rose, Okdie, Eckles, & Franz, 2015).
SNS browsing and social comparison may differentially influence various domains of self-perceptions, which has
received considerably less attention. This gap is notable, as self-perceptions are important for understanding
effects of social comparison, and social comparisons can guide self-evaluations (Festinger, 1954). In particular, SNS
browsing and SNS social comparisons may be relevant to self-perceived social acceptance and physical
appearance. Social acceptance is relevant as SNS users may upload content depicting social events (Hu et al., 2014;
Underwood & Ehrenreich, 2017), including events that may exclude others (Lenhart, 2015), potentially hurting self-
perceived social acceptance for browsers who were excluded from these events. Physical appearance is relevant
as ample research has demonstrated links between SNS use and body image concerns as a result of the attractive
images others post online (for a review, see Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016). Moreover, both self-perceived social
acceptance and physical appearance may be hurt by quantifiable indices of approval that are rampant on SNSs.
For example, a filtered, appearance-enhancing post depicting a positive social event that receives many “likes”
may be especially likely to evoke social comparisons and consequently hurt self-perceived social acceptance
and/or physical appearance (e.g., Nesi, Choukas-Bradley, & Prinstein, 2018). To our knowledge, only one study has
examined the links between these self-perceptions and SNS social comparisons, which found that Facebook
upward social comparisons is associated with poorer self-perceived physical appearance and social acceptance
(de Vries & Kühne, 2015).
In addition to these specific domains of self-perceptions, we examined global self-worth, which assesses one’s
perceptions of the self as a whole. Making SNS social comparisons may be relevant to global self-worth as upward
social comparisons could lead to the perception that others are better off than the self (e.g., Chou & Edge, 2012),
and therefore trigger negative self-evaluations. Finally, we included depressive symptoms. As discussed above,
depressive symptoms is a well-established correlate with SNS social comparison, and so we included it to examine
the role these symptoms may have in our full model.
Fear of Missing Out
The fear of missing out (FoMO) may also play an important role in the associations between passive SNS use, social
comparison, and depressive symptoms and self-perceptions. FoMO is the “pervasive apprehension that others
might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent” (Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan, & Gladwell,
2013, p. 1841). Given that FoMO requires perceiving that others are having more rewarding experiences than the
self, and therefore that others are better off than the self, it can be considered a type of upward social comparison.
Indeed, FoMO is strongly linked to one’s general tendency to engage in social comparison (Reer, Tang, & Quandt,
2019).
FoMO is intrinsically linked to SNS use, with Przybylski and colleagues (2013) suggesting that FoMO is characterized
by low need satisfaction that compels people to continuously check SNSs to feel connected to others. FoMO has
consistently been found to be related to greater levels of SNS use (Baker, Krieger, & LeRoy, 2016; Blackwell,
Leaman, Tramposch, Osborne, & Liss, 2017; Przybylski et al., 2013). Although it is yet to be tested how FoMO
relates to specifically passive SNS use, there is reason to suspect that FoMO may be particularly related to this
type of SNS use, as passive use can fulfill the need to monitor peers’ activities.
There is also reason to suspect that FoMO is linked to greater depressive symptoms and poorer self-perceptions.
A key conceptual component of FoMO is a high degree of negative affect, as FoMO requires some anxiety by
definition (Przybylski et al., 2013). Cross-sectionally, FoMO has small-to-moderate correlations with numerous
facets of poorer well-being, including lower life satisfaction and mood (Przybylski et al., 2013), depressive
symptoms (Baker et al., 2016; Elhai, Levine, Dvorak, & Hall, 2016; Elhai et al., 2018), anxiety symptoms (Elhai et al.,
2016; Elhai et al., 2018), and stress, rumination, and proneness to boredom (Elhai et al., 2018). Importantly, the
size of these correlations suggests that although negative affect is an important characteristic of FoMO, the
association is not so strong as to suggest that they are indistinct. Although little research has examined how FoMO
may fit in a pathway between SNS use and well-being, one study tested the notion that SNS use may trigger feelings
of FoMO, which in turn may reduce well-being. This longitudinal study provided evidence that greater SNS use was
related to increased FoMO six months later, which in turn was related to decreased self-esteem (Buglass, Binder,
Betts, & Underwood, 2017). Given that much previous research has focused on how existing feelings of FoMO may
drive SNS use (Przybylski et al., 2013), this study is important as it provides support for the notion that SNS use
may trigger feelings of FoMO which in turn may have negative repercussions for subjective well-being.
As noted in the literature reviewed above, the link between FoMO and depressive symptoms is well established.
However, investigations have yet to expand investigations of FoMO to self-perceptions. Because SNSs may be used
to depict positive social events (Hu et al., 2014; Underwood & Ehrenreich, 2017), FoMO may have a particularly
strong connection with self-perceived social acceptance. The perception that others are having more rewarding
experiences than the self may be especially intertwined with others’ social experiences, and thus hurt self-
perceived social acceptance if these social experiences are perceived to be superior than one’s own. Likewise,
those high in FoMO may report lower levels of global self-worth, as they may believe that they, as a person, pale
in comparison to those who seemingly have more rewarding experiences. Links between FoMO and self-perceived
physical appearance are not immediately clear, and therefore these associations will be examined as exploratory.
Considering Different SNS Platforms
The vast majority of studies reviewed above focus on Facebook. Although highly informative, these studies should
be expanded for two reasons. First, researchers have previously suggested that certain social processes may occur
differently depending on which SNS platform is being used (Reich, 2017), and therefore generalizing findings from
one SNS to all SNSs may be inappropriate (Valenzuela, Park, & Kee, 2009; Wilson, Gosling, & Graham, 2012). Thus,
social processes such as social comparison and FoMO, and associations that these constructs have with other
variables may be different depending on which SNS platform is being examined. For example, social comparison
may be particularly relevant to image-centric platforms such as Instagram, especially in the context of body image
concerns (e.g., Marengo, Longobardi, Fabris, & Settanni, 2018). Moreover, given that uploading pictures of friends
is common on Instagram (Hu et al., 2014), social comparison may also be particularly potent in the context of
social acceptance. Similarly, Facebook may also be used to detail social occasions, particularly in terms of tagging
others in content and using the platform to plan social events. In contrast, Snapchat is often used to convey
humorous content (Piwek & Joinson, 2016), and Twitter has a micro-blog format, and therefore social comparison
and FoMO processes on these two platforms may be qualitatively different from Facebook and Instagram. Second,
nationally representative data suggest that Facebook is no longer the most dominant SNS platform among
younger people, who tend to show preference for other sites, such as Instagram and Snapchat (Anderson & Jiang,
2018; Perrin & Anderson, 2019). Taken together, SNS investigations should be extended to examine multiple
platforms, in order to a) distinguish whether associations may differ across platforms, and b) to keep up with
constantly evolving trends in SNS use. To address this, we examined differences in our hypothesized path across
four major SNS platforms (Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat) as an exploratory aim in our investigation.
The Present Study
This study investigated how passive SNS use relates to social comparison, FoMO, and depressive symptoms and
self-perceptions. This study expands existing research in several ways. First, this is one of the few studies that tests
a complete path between passive SNS use, social comparison processes, and depressive symptoms and self-
perceptions. Although this pathway has been suggested by other researchers (Verduyn et al., 2017), few studies
have explicitly tested it (see Tandoc et al., 2015, Verduyn et al., 2015, for exceptions). Second, to the best of our
knowledge, this is the first study that considers the role of FoMO in this path. Considering our speculation of how
FoMO could be a particular type of social comparison, it is important to understand how FoMO may fit in this path.
Third, passive SNS use was examined across four platforms. Most previous research has focused on Facebook,
despite platforms such as Snapchat and Instagram growing in popularity among young adults (Perrin & Anderson,
2019). Fourth, we consider different types of self-perceptions, namely self-perceived physical appearance and self-
perceived social acceptance. These self-perceptions, as noted above, may have special relevance for SNSs.
There are various possibilities for the sequential ordering of passive SNS use, social comparison, FoMO, and
depressive symptoms and self-perceptions. Our primary hypothesis revolves around the notion that SNSs may
fuel feelings of FoMO, as passively browsing the positive content that others post online may then trigger the fear
that others are having more rewarding experiences than the self (Buglass et al., 2017). Thus, FoMO would follow
passive SNS use. Moreover, if FoMO can be considered a type of upward social comparison, FoMO would follow
social comparison. In particular, it is expected that after one begins the process of passive browsing, he or she
must first engage in comparative processes, in general, before making explicit upward-type comparisons.
Detrimental effects upon depressive symptoms and self-perceptions would then occur after these upward
comparisons are made.
Alternatively, people with higher levels of FoMO may turn to SNSs to fulfill their need for connection (Przybylski et
al., 2013). Thus, FoMO would precede passive SNS use, which in turn may lead to greater social comparison, and
subsequently increased depressive symptoms and lower self-perceptions. The current research therefore tests
two opposing possibilities:
H1A: Passively using SNSs positively predicts social comparison, which in turn predicts higher levels of FoMO,
which subsequently predicts greater depressive symptoms and poorer self-perceptions.
H1B: FoMO positively predicts passively using SNSs, which in turn predicts increased social comparison, which
subsequently predicts greater depressive symptoms and poorer self-perceptions.
In addition, researchers have previously suggested that poorer well-being may trigger people to use SNSs as a
method of mood management (Frison & Eggermont, 2017). Thus, the current research tests this pathway as an
exploratory analysis.
H1C: Greater depressive symptoms and poorer self-perceptions predicts greater passive SNS use, which in turn
predicts increased social comparison, which subsequently positively predicts FoMO.
Method
Participants
A convenience sample of 744 undergraduate students was recruited from a southwestern public university during
the 2016 2017 academic year (Mage = 21.47, SDage = 4.64, Rangeage = 1859; 69% female; 39% Asian, 36% White,
16% Hispanic/Latinx, 6% Black, 2% Other). A final sample of 717 students completed all key survey items.
Participants were recruited via online advertisements for class research credit and completed the surveys online
via Qualtrics. Participants were provided a battery of assessments that examined digital technology use and
behaviors. Only measures relevant to the current research are reported. All study procedures were approved by
The University of Texas at Dallas Institutional Review Board (IRB #17-15).
Measures
Passive social networking site use. For Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and Snapchat, participants answered an
open-ended question that asked: “How many minutes per day do you spend viewing others’ profiles?”. Participants
were also given the option to write-in other platforms they passively browse, and how often they browse each
one; however, these write-ins were uncommon. On average, students spent 14 minutes per day browsing
Facebook, 17 minutes on Instagram, 12 minutes on Twitter, and 19 minutes on Snapchat. Passive SNS use was
summed across platforms, averaging about one hour. Given that most time on SNSs is spent browsing (Pempek
et al., 2009; Verduyn et al., 2015), this estimate is similar to previous research suggesting that young adults typically
spend one hour per day using SNSs as a whole (Shensa, Sidani, Lin, Bowman, & Primack, 2016).
Social comparison. The ten-item Comparison and Feedback-Seeking scale (Nesi, 2014; Nesi & Prinstein, 2015)
was used to measure participants’ engagement of technology-based social comparisons and feedback-seeking
behaviors. We chose this scale as we were interested in evaluating general comparison tendencies as they occur
on digital platforms. Participants answered items using a 5-point Likert-type scale (1: “Not at all true”, 5: “Extremely
true”). The original scale was developed for adolescents, and captures both social comparison and feedback-
seeking behaviors, as these constructs are key self-evaluative processes for adolescents (Nesi, 2014). Although the
original study considered social comparison and feedback-seeking together, a confirmatory factor model in our
sample suggested two distinct social comparison and feedback-seeking factors, χ2(26) = 212.300, p < .001, CFI =
0.932, RMSEA = .099, 90% CI [.088, .113], SRMR = .0491. As theory suggests that social comparison may be
particularly relevant for understanding links between passive SNS use, depressive symptoms, and self-worth, and
because FoMO can be reasoned to be a type of social comparison, we opted to focus on the four social comparison
items of the measure. A confirmatory factor analysis for the social comparison items demonstrated acceptable fit,
χ2(2) = 11.283, p = .004, CFI = 0.989, RMSEA = .080, 90% CI [.039, .129], SRMR = .017. A sample item is “I use electronic
interaction to compare my life with other people’s lives” (α = .86).
Fear of missing out. FoMO was measured using Przybylski et al.’s (2013) ten-item Fear of Missing Out scale (e.g.,
“I fear others have more rewarding experiences than me”; α = .90). Participants answered items using a 5-point
Likert-type scale (1: “Not at all true of me”, 5: “Extremely true of me”). This scale has shown content validity
(Przybylski et al., 2013) and is currently the main assessment of FoMO in the field.
Depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured with the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire
(PHQ-9; Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001). Participants indicated how often, in the last two weeks, they had been
bothered by a list of problems (e.g., “Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless”; α = .91), utilizing a 4-point Likert-type
scale (1: “Not at all”, 4: “Nearly every day”). The PHQ-9 is high in criterion, construct, and external validity, as well
as test-retest reliability (Kroenke et al., 2001).
Self-perceptions. Participants completed three subscales of the Self-Perception Profile for College Students
(Neemann & Harter, 2012) assessing Global Self-Worth (e.g., “Some students like the kind of person they are BUT
Other students wish that they were different”; α = .89; six items), Social Acceptance (e.g., “Some students are not
satisfied with their social skills BUT Other students think their social skills are just fine”; α = .84; four items), and
Physical Appearance (e.g., “Some students wish their body was different BUT Other students like their body the way
it is”; α = .85; four items). Participants were presented two statements, one exemplifying poorer self-perceptions
and the other assessing positive self-perceptions. Participants picked which statement they were most like, and
indicated if the statement was “Really true for me” or “Sort of true for me”. Statements were combined into one 4-
point item, with lower values indicating poorer self-perceptions. The Self-Perception Profile for College Students
is content valid and has demonstrated convergent validity (Neemann & Harter, 2012).
Due to the inherent negative affect component to FoMO, a confirmatory factor analysis was run to distinguish
FoMO from depressive symptoms and self-perceptions. It should be noted that because each measure has been
previously tested and validated, the aim was not to validate the measurement model but to ensure that items load
onto their assigned factor with little cross-loading onto other factors/constructs. A five factor confirmatory factor
model with separate FoMO, depressive symptoms, social acceptance, self-worth, and physical appearance factors
showed adequate fit, χ2(515) = 1424.451, p < .001, CFI = 0.918, RMSEA = .050, 90% CI [.047, .053], SRMR = .054.
Analytical Approach
A set of path models was specified in Mplus (version 8; Muthén & Muthén, 2017) to investigate a pathway between
composites of passive SNS use, social comparison, FoMO, and depressive symptoms and self-perceptions.
Students were included in the models if they had completed the SNS estimates, social comparison items, FoMO
items, and at least one outcome scale of depressive symptoms or self-perceptions (N = 717). Models were specified
using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping methods.
Results
Hypothesized Models
Descriptive statistics are reported in Table 1. To examine hypothesis 1A, a mediation path model was tested with
passive SNS use predicting social comparison, social comparison predicting FoMO, and FoMO predicting
depressive symptoms and self-perceptions (Figure 1). Model fit was good, χ2(8) = 27.570, p = .001, CFI = 0.984,
RMSEA = .058, 90% CI [.036, .083], SRMR = .031. Social comparison and FoMO fully mediated the associations
between passive SNS use and depressive symptoms (indirect effect via social comparison and FoMO, β = .04, p <
.001), global self-worth (indirect effect, β = -.04, p < .001), and social acceptance (indirect effect, β = -.03, p < .001).
As mediators, both social comparison and FoMO were directly associated with students’ self-perceived physical
appearance (β = -.18, p < .001 and β = -.16, p < .001, respectively); however, the effect of social comparison on
students’ perception of their physical appearance was partially mediated by FoMO (indirect effect via social
comparison and FoMo β = -.02, p = .005). Thus, hypothesis 1A was supported.
To test hypothesis 1B, a mediation path model was tested with FoMO predicting passive SNS use, passive SNS use
predicting social comparison, and social comparison predicting depressive symptoms and self-perceptions. Model
fit was poor, χ2(9) = 382.110, p < .001, CFI = 0.697, RMSEA = .240, 90% CI [.220, .261], SRMR = .143. Thus, hypothesis
1B was rejected. To examine hypothesis 1C, a mediation path model was tested with depressive symptoms and
self-perceptions predicting passive SNS use, which in turn predicted social comparison, which subsequently
predicted FoMO. This model yielded poor fit, χ2(9) = 170.902, p < .001, CFI = 0.687, RMSEA = .160, 90% CI [.139, .181],
SRMR = .141, and therefore hypothesis 1C was rejected.
Table 1. Descriptive Statistics and Correlations.
Figure 1. Mediation path model testing hypothesis 1A.
Note. *p < .01
Exploratory Models
Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the robustness of the model depicted in hypothesis 1A. First, the model
held when controlling for age, gender, and a measure of general SNS use (i.e., how often participants checked
their SNS accounts daily), χ2(8) = 24.073, p = .002, CFI = 0.988, RMSEA = .053, 90% CI [.029, .078], SRMR = .016.
Second, a series of multi-group equality constrained and unconstrained models by age, gender, and SNS checking
were examined to check for model differences between groups. Model fit was acceptable when model paths were
set to be equal by age (i.e., comparing 18-19 year olds versus 20+ year olds, to compare students earlier in their
college education to those later), χ2(23) = 39.299, p = .018, CFI = 0.987, RMSEA = .045, 90% CI [.018, .068], SRMR =
.042, by gender, χ2(23) = 54.347, p < .001, CFI = 0.973, RMSEA = .065, 90% CI [.043, .087], SRMR = .056, and for SNS
users with high versus low checking, χ2(23) = 47.099, p = .002, CFI = 0.980, RMSEA = .054, 90% CI [.032, .076], SRMR
= .048. In the unconstrained model, there was a weaker path from SNS passive browsing to social comparison for
participants aged 18-19 (β = .13, p = .05) and compared to the same path for participant aged 20+ (β = .19, p = .01).
When comparing men and women in the unconstrained model, the paths from social comparison and FoMO to
perceptions of physical appearance were significant for women (β = -.19, p < .001; β = -.18, p < .001) but not men
(β = -.10, p = .33; β = -.13, p = .21). Similarly, there was a significant path from FoMO to perceptions of physical
appearance for participants with high SNS checking (β = -.21, p = .001), but not for participants with low SNS
Mean (SD)
2
3
5
6
7
1. SNS Passive Browsing (minutes)
57.93 (93.66)
2. Social Comparison (1-5)
2.68 (1.07)
-
3. Fear of Missing Out (1-5)
2.41 (0.91)
.61**
-
4. Depressive Symptoms (1-4)
1.86 (0.69)
.29**
.34**
5. Global Self-Worth (1-4)
2.72 (0.66)
-.31**
-.36**
-
6. Social Acceptance (1-4)
2.54 (0.68)
-.22**
-.26**
.56**
-
7. Physical Appearance (1-4)
2.45 (0.72)
-.32**
-.27**
.50**
.34**
-
Note: N = 717. *p < .01, **p < .001
checking (β = -.10, p = .10). Together, these results suggests only minor differences in associations between the
tested variables based on age, gender, and SNS checking.
Finally, separate analyses were conducted for passive SNS use on the four most popular individual platforms
(Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and Twitter), rather than aggregating use. Each of these models demonstrated
acceptable fit (Table 2). In terms of path coefficients, passively browsing Instagram was the strongest predictor of
social comparison (β = .17, p < .001), followed by Facebook (β = .14, p = .001), Twitter (β = .12, p < .001), and Snapchat
(β = .11, p = .002). All other path coefficients in the models did not differ greatly (Betas were all within .02 of each
other and the model shown Figure 1).
Table 2. Fit Statistics for the Path Models Separated by SNS Platform.
N
Chi-Square
CFI
RMSEA
SRMR
1. Facebook
689
χ2(8) = 35.616 p < .001
0.977
.071[.048, .095]
.035
2. Instagram
674
χ2(8) = 24.722 p < .001
0.985
.056[.032, .081]
.031
3. Twitter
675
χ2(8) = 16.966 p = .031
0.992
.041[.012, .068]
.027
4. Snapchat
651
χ2(8) = 22.454 p = .004
0.987
.053[.028, .079]
.031
Note: All models used the same path model as shown in Figure 1.
Discussion
Results indicated that passively browsing SNSs positively predicts social comparison, which in turn is associated
with higher levels of FoMO, which subsequently predicts lower levels of global self-worth, lower levels of self-
perceived social acceptance and physical appearance, and higher levels of depressive symptoms. This study
extends previous research (de Vries & Kühne, 2015) by replicating links with self-perceptions in a large, ethnically
diverse sample, by considering passive SNS use across platforms, and by including FoMO.
Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) suggests that people have an innate drive to compare the self to others
in the absence of objective information. Researchers have previously suggested that social comparison,
particularly upward social comparison, plays an important role on SNSs (Verduyn et al., 2017). In particular,
passively browsing others’ content on SNSs may elicit upward social comparisons, which may negatively impact
well-being. Our findings provide support for this path. However, we also examined the role of FoMO, which can
be considered a type of upward social comparison. The positioning of FoMO in the model suggests an important
consideration for future work examining this construct. Researchers have suggested that FoMO motivates use of
SNSs (Przybylski et al., 2013). The current research found that FoMO fit better following social comparison, rather
than as a predictor of passive SNS use. FoMO may result in part from engaging in social comparison. Perhaps
engaging in social comparison online fuels the perception that others are having more rewarding experiences, as
one is attempting to gather social information in the context of the highly positive content others post online
(Vogel & Rose, 2016). This may further the belief that others have richer social lives than the self (e.g., Whillans et
al., 2017), thus triggering feelings of FoMO. However, these conjectures are speculative due to the cross-sectional
nature of the data, which does not permit drawing causal inferences regarding the ordering of the constructs in
our model. Future longitudinal and experimental research is needed to determine temporality and causality.
Additionally, FoMO predicted greater levels of depressive symptoms, lower global self-worth, and lower self-
perceived social acceptance and physical appearance, in line with previous research suggesting the FoMO is linked
to poorer well-being (e.g., Przybylski et al., 2013). The reverse pathway examining depressive symptoms and self-
perceptions predicting passive SNS use demonstrated poor fit, potentially suggesting that those lower in well-
being may not be more likely to browse (e.g., Frison & Eggermont, 2017); however, once again, longitudinal and
experimental research is needed to more definitively determine the ordering of these constructs.
Regarding social acceptance, fearing that others are having more rewarding experiences may hurt an individual’s
own self-perceived social competence. As content on SNSs may detail social events from which an individual is
excluded (Lenhart, 2015), those high in FoMO may be especially attuned to potential exclusion, and may feel less
socially accepted. Additionally, both FoMO and social comparison directly predicted lower levels of self-perceived
physical appearance. Given that SNS use can stoke appearance social comparisons (Fardouly & Vartanian, 2016),
individuals who are high on social comparison and thus frequently compare themselves to others may feel worse
about their physical appearance after viewing highly positive SNS content. This relation may also be due to how
several social comparison scale items were relevant to physical appearance (e.g., “I use electronic interaction to
compare my body/shape with other people’s bodies/shapes”). FoMO was also related to reduced self-perceived
physical appearance. Perhaps FoMO may lead individuals to wonder why they are missing out, triggering a
heightened sense of self-awareness. This may manifest as an appraisal of their physical appearance, due to the
interpersonal benefits that might accompany being highly attractive. However, this is speculative and future
research should examine this link further.
Our model was generally consistent across individuals, regardless of age, gender, and frequency of using SNSs.
There were a few notable exceptions. First, the path between SNS browsing and social comparison was weaker
for participants aged 18-19 compared to those who were at least 20-years-old. This is surprising, as social
comparisons occur more frequently among younger individuals (Callan, Kim, & Matthews, 2015). Future research
should examine the mechanisms that may influence this path further. Second, the paths between social
comparison and FoMO to self-perceived physical appearance were significant for women but not men. This is in
line with previous research that suggests that social comparison is more strongly linked to body dissatisfaction for
women compared to men (Myers & Crowther, 2009). Last, FoMO was linked to increased self-perceived physical
appearance for those who checked their SNS accounts more frequently, but not for those who checked their
accounts less frequently. It could be that those who check SNSs more often may be more concerned and aware
about their SNS presence. With this greater self-awareness, our speculated link between FoMO and self-perceived
physical appearance may be strengthened: these individuals may wonder why they are missing out, leading to an
appraisal of their physical appearance.
Our model was generally consistent across SNS platforms. Perhaps these platforms share key affordances, such
as being able to see what others are doing and what types of feedback others receive, that might drive the relations
with social comparison and FoMO. Interestingly, one difference did emerge among platforms, passive browsing
was linked most strongly to social comparison on Instagram, followed by Facebook, Twitter, and then Snapchat.
Researchers have previously suggested that image-centric platforms may be more conducive to eliciting social
comparisons (namely, appearance-oriented comparisons; Marengo et al., 2018), and therefore this finding is
unsurprising given that Instagram is entirely image-oriented. Facebook is also image-centric, although not to the
same degree, and so it follows that the strength of the relation between passive browsing and social comparison
would also be relatively strong. This is in contrast with Twitter, which encompasses more written content. One
may expect that Snapchat would be more strongly related to social comparison than it was found to be given that
it is also entirely image-oriented. However, Snapchat users report using the platform mainly to send humorous
content (Piwek & Joinson, 2016), and therefore the manifestations of social comparison Snapchat may be different
compared to other platforms, especially Instagram, which mainly consists of highly curated content (Underwood
& Ehrenreich, 2017).
A number of limitations should be noted. First, this study is cross-sectional; longitudinal and experimental
research are needed to determine the causal sequence of the examined constructs. Second, a convenience sample
of college students was utilized, which may limit generalizability. Third, we did not counterbalance the
presentation of the measures, and therefore results may have been influenced by survey ordering; however, the
observed pathway was not in the same order as the measures were presented. Fourth, our assessment of passive
SNS use consisted of single open-ended, self-reported items about viewing others’ profiles on each platform.
Future research should expand this assessment by asking about passive use in general (e.g., browsing newsfeeds)
and by employing objective assessments of SNS use (e.g., device-recorded screen time). Fifth, social comparison
and FoMO were statistically tested as state-like variables that follow engaging in passive SNS use. These variables
could also be considered personality traits that drive an individual to use SNSs, although model fit when testing
this with FoMO was poor. Future research should attempt to distinguish state and trait social comparison and
FoMO, to understand this pathway further.
Ultimately, these findings suggest that social comparison and FoMO play important roles in understanding the
link between passively browsing SNSs, depressive symptoms, and self-perceptions. The results also highlight how
FoMO may be a type of upward social comparison. Being apprehensive that others are having more rewarding
experiences may inherently require some degree of social comparison, as one is perceiving that others are, at
least in the moment, better off than oneself. Additionally, these results provide new evidence regarding how FoMO
relates to self-perceptions. Altogether, this study advances our understanding of how SNSs may be affecting users
by highlighting how online social comparison and FoMO may adversely impact passive browsers.
Notes
1. The indices reported are after removing one poor feedback-seeking item (“I use electronic interaction to see
what the “popular” kids think about me”). This item was likely poor in our sample as we recruited college students,
for whom the meaning of popularity may differ from adolescents.
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Correspondence to:
Kaitlyn Burnell
School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, GR41
The University of Texas at Dallas
800 W Campbell Road
Richardson, TX 75080
Email: Kaitlyn.Burnell(at)utdallas.edu
Editorial record: First submission received on May 10, 2018. Revisions received on December 19, 2018, and May 30,
2019. Accepted for publication on June 26, 2019.
Editor in charge: Michel Walrave
© 2007-2019 Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace | ISSN: 1802-7962
Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University | Contact | Editor: David Smahel
About Authors
Kaitlyn Burnell, M.S., is a doctoral student in the Psychological Sciences program at the University of Texas at
Dallas. She is interested in the effects of social media use upon well-being, especially in the context of classic social
and developmental psychological theories.
Madeleine J. George, Ph.D., is a post-doctoral research associate at Purdue University. Her research focuses on
how adolescents’ and young adults’ usage of digital technologies may influence their well-being, especially with
regards to the development of relationships and feelings of social support.
Justin W. Vollet, Ph.D., is a post-doctoral research associate at the University of Texas at Dallas. Broadly, his
research interests center on understanding how psychological and social development during childhood and
adolescence take shape through ongoing social interactions with others (i.e., peers, teachers, and parents), with
specific focus on how emerging digital media and communications technologies may affect these social processes.
Samuel E. Ehrenreich, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Human Development and Family Studies program
at the University of Nevada, Reno. His research interests focus on how digital communication shapes adolescents’
development and relationships.
Marion K. Underwood, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology and Dean of Health and Human Services at Purdue
University. Her research focuses on the development and outcomes of social aggression, and how digital
communication affects peer relationships and adjustment.
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Evidence on how different types of social media use contribute to digital stress in early adolescence is lacking. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 13–14-year-olds. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded and thematically analysed. Themes were generated based on digital stressors specific to passive social media use (time-wasting and digital guilt, and exposure to harmful content); private social media communication (expectations of availability and unsolicited contact by strangers); and social media broadcasting (expectations of perfection and sexualisation, fear of negative evaluation and risks to privacy). Several digital stressors appeared pervasive in everyday social media use. Bolstering social and emotional resources offline and encouraging effective implementation of privacy settings may improve resilience against several sources of digital stress.
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This study tested whether age moderates the longitudinal relationships between upward and downward comparisons on Instagram and three identity processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment). Two hundred and eleven British emerging adults completed two self-report surveys, two months apart, in early 2020. A cross-lagged panel model with interaction terms found that age moderated the relationships between both upward and downward comparisons on Instagram and commitment. Contingent moderations were found: the relationship between upward comparisons and commitment was negative for older participants, whilst the relationship between downward comparisons and commitment was negative for younger participants. Significant age differences were not found in the paths between the comparison behaviours and the two exploratory processes. Findings therefore provide evidence to suggest that developmental factors may inform the identity implications of social comparisons on Instagram during emerging adulthood, and thus, developmental sensitivity is required when supporting emerging adults to navigate the platform.
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As social media use becomes increasingly widespread among adolescents, research in this area has accumulated rapidly. Researchers have shown a growing interest in the impact of social media on adolescents’ peer experiences, including the ways that the social media context shapes a variety of peer relations constructs. This paper represents Part 2 of a two-part theoretical review. In this review, we offer a new model for understanding the transformative role of social media in adolescents’ peer experiences, with the goal of stimulating future empirical work that is grounded in theory. The transformation framework suggests that the features of the social media context transform adolescents’ peer experiences by changing their frequency or immediacy, amplifying demands, altering their qualitative nature, and/or offering new opportunities for compensatory or novel behaviors. In the current paper, we consider the ways that social media may transform peer relations constructs that often occur at the group level. Our review focuses on three key constructs: peer victimization, peer status, and peer influence. We selectively review and highlight existing evidence for the transformation of these domains through social media. In addition, we discuss methodological considerations and key conceptual principles for future work. The current framework offers a new theoretical perspective through which peer relations researchers may consider adolescent social media use.
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Two studies document the existence and correlates of a widespread social belief, wherein individuals who have recently moved to a new social environment see their peers as more socially connected than they themselves are. In Study 1, the prevalence of this belief was documented in a large sample of first-year students (N = 1,099). In Study 2, the prevalence of this social belief was replicated in a targeted sample of university students (N = 389). Study 2 also documented both positive and negative implications of this belief. Specifically, at any given time, students who believed that their peers were more socially connected than they themselves were reported lower well-being and belonging. Over time, however, the belief that one’s peers are moderately more socially connected than oneself was associated with more friendship formation.
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Facebook has been found to provide a fertile ground for social comparison. Emerging evidence indicates that social comparison may mediate the relationship between Facebook use and young people's body dissatisfaction. Yet, little work has been done on how these relationships evolve over time in adolescence and no study has examined the reciprocal relationships between passive Facebook use, social comparison, and adolescents' body dissatisfaction. To examine these reciprocal relationships, two-wave panel data (NTime1 = 1840) gathered among adolescents (ages 12–19) were analyzed. Cross-lagged structural equation models indicated that passive Facebook use at Time 1 predicted increases in boys' comparison on Facebook at Time 2. Comparison on Facebook at Time 2, in turn, was associated with more body dissatisfaction at Time 2. In addition, body dissatisfaction at Time 1 predicted increases in comparison on Facebook at Time 2. Comparison on Facebook at Time 2, in turn, was related to more passive Facebook use at Time 2, but less passive Facebook use over time. No gender differences were found for these opposite pathways. The discussion focuses on the explanation and understanding of these findings.
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Based on a large representative sample of German Internet users aged 14–39 years, the current survey study investigates how three indicators of decreases in well-being (loneliness, anxiety, and depression) are connected to social media engagement (SME). To provide a deeper understanding of this relationship, not only direct links are inspected, but fear of missing out (FoMO) and social comparison orientation (SCO) are considered as possible mediators. The results show that loneliness, depression, and anxiety are positively related to increases in SME. FoMO and SCO jointly mediate the connection between well-being and SME, that is, decreases in well-being are connected with increases in FoMO and SCO, which in turn positively predict SME. Furthermore, SCO and FoMO are found to be positively related to each other, suggesting that those with a high SCO might form a particular at-risk group for the development of FoMO.
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with psychopathology-related and technology use measures. We carried out an internet-based survey with 296 undergraduate participants and administered self-report questionnaires of FOMO, frequency and type of smartphone use, problematic smartphone use (PSU), and scales of negative affectivity including depression, anxiety, stress, proneness to boredom, and rumination. The results demonstrated that FOMO was related to demographic characteristics (age, sex, race, and relationship status) but with small effect sizes. FOMO was related to all measures of negative affectivity, social use of a smartphone, as well as the severity of PSU. Tests of mediation indicated that each negative affectivity construct mediated the relationship between FOMO and PSU severity, and only rumination mediated relations between FOMO and smartphone use frequency. When reversing the predictor and mediating variables, FOMO mediated relations between negative affectivity and PSU severity. Finally, results demonstrated some support for a single-factor latent construct for FOMO, but male and female participants had a different pattern of factor loadings. Negative affectivity may be a key mechanism by which FOMO may drive PSU, but future research should clarify the directionality among these variables. Genderrelated social connectedness differences characterize FOMO.
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Highly-visual social media (HVSM), such as Instagram and Snapchat, have experienced a significant increase in popularity among adolescents in recent years. Findings indicate use of social media is related to body image concerns and poorer mental health in adolescence. However, previous research on HVSM is scant and mainly focus on female samples. In this view, the present study investigated the association between time spent on HVSM, body image concerns and internalizing symptoms, in sample of adolescents attending grades 6-11 in Northern Italy. Data for this study were based on 523 students, 54.2 % female; Mean age (SD) = 14.82 (1.52). Multiple linear regression was used to examine the associations between time spent using social media, body image concerns, and internalizing symptoms. Overall, students reporting using Facebook and HVSM for more than 2 hours were 7.1% and 28.9% of the sample. Students reporting frequent use of HVSM (> 2 hours/day) reported significantly higher body image concerns and internalizing symptoms than peers reporting no use of HVSM. Further, we found the positive link between use of HVSM and internalizing symptoms to be mediated by participants’ body image concerns problems. These findings suggest that adolescents reporting high use of HVSM might be at risk for increased body image concerns, which in turn might lead to poorer psychological adjustment.
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Although studies have shown that Instagram use and young adults' mental health are cross-sectionally associated, longitudinal evidence is lacking. In addition, no study thus far examined this association, or the reverse, among adolescents. To address these gaps, we set up a longitudinal panel study among 12- to 19-year-old Flemish adolescents to investigate the reciprocal relationships between different types of Instagram use and depressed mood. Self-report data from 671 adolescent Instagram users (61% girls; MAge = 14.96; SD = 1.29) were used to examine our research question and test our hypotheses. Structural equation modeling showed that Instagram browsing at Time 1 was related to increases in adolescents' depressed mood at Time 2. In addition, adolescents' depressed mood at Time 1 was related to increases in Instagram posting at Time 2. These relationships were similar among boys and girls. Potential explanations for the study findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Mixed results have been found regarding the relationship between social media use and depressive symptoms. This study aims to explore the moderating roles of neuroticism, envy and Facebook social comparison in the relationship between Facebook usage and depressive symptoms. A sample of 282 participants were recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk. They completed a battery of online questionnaires including measures of neuroticism, Facebook use, Facebook social comparison, envy and depressive symptoms. In the present study, the correlation between Facebook use and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant. Nevertheless, we found a significant interactive effect between time spent on Facebook and neuroticism. The positive association between time spent on Facebook and depressive symptoms was only found among those high in neuroticism but not among those low in neuroticism. Facebook social comparison and envy did not significantly moderate the effect of time spent on Facebook on depressive symptoms. Potential explanations and implications of the results were discussed.
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Social media use is prevalent in today's society and has contributed to problems with social media addiction. The goal of the study was to investigate whether extraversion, neuroticism, attachment style, and fear of missing out (FOMO) were predictors of social media use and addiction. Participants in the study (N = 207) volunteered to complete a brief survey measuring levels of extraversion, neuroticism, attachment styles, and FOMO. In the final model of a hierarchical regression, younger age, neuroticism, and fear of missing out predicted social media use. Only fear of missing out predicted social media addiction. Attachment anxiety and avoidance predicted social media addiction, but this relationship was no longer significant after the addition of FOMO.
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We examined whether an online social networking technology (Facebook) influenced students' perceptions of their peers' social connections as well as their own feelings of belonging. In this experiment (N = 601), students were assigned to view Facebook profiles with high or low social content. Students then estimated the number of friends their peers had and self-reported their own feelings of belonging and intentions to socialize with other students. Overall, there were no between-condition differences on these measures. However, first-year students responded differently than other students: they expressed reduced feelings of belonging after viewing the Facebook profile with high (vs. low) social content, whereas students from other years expressed marginally higher feelings of belonging after viewing the Facebook profile with high (vs. low) social content. These findings suggest that people who are new to a social network may be particularly susceptible to negative impacts of Facebook.