ArticlePDF Available

Assessment on Feed Resource, Feed Production Constraints and Opportunities in Salamago Woreda in South Omo Zone, in South Western Ethiopia

Authors:
  • Farm Africa

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
Academic Journal of Nutrition 6 (3): 34-42, 2017
ISSN 2309-8902
© IDOSI Publications, 2017
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.ajn.2017.34.42
Corresponding Author: Denbela Hidosa, Departments of Livestock Research Process,
Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Jinka, Ethiopia. E-mail: denbelahidosa@gmail.com.
34
Assessment on Feed Resource, Feed Production Constraints and Opportunities
in Salamago Woreda in South Omo Zone, in South Western Ethiopia
Denbela Hidosa, Yidinachachew Tesfaye and Ayele Feleke
12 3
Departments of Livestock Research Process,
1
Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Jinka, Ethiopia
Department of Socio economic Research Process,
2
Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Jinka, Ethiopia
Farm Africa, BRACED Project, Jinka, Branch Coordinator, Jinka, Ethiopia
3
Abstract: The study was carried out in Salamago Woreda aimed to assess feed resource, feed production
constraints and opportunities. Six kebeles per Woreda were selected and one focus group discussion which
comprised 12 pastoralists per kebele was organized and interviewed. For the key informants’ interview, two
livestock production experts and six livestock developmental agents were interviewed. The focus group
discussion and key informants interview was used to collect primary data on feed resource, feed resource
availability, feed conservation practices and feed resources utilization, major feed constraints and opportunities
for feed productions. The study results shown that grass from the open grazing land, indigenous browse
species and crop residues were major feed resources for the livestock in to study area. The open grazing land
had poorly managed and the biomass productivity generated from open grazing land has retreated. The major
livestock feeding system was free grazing and pastoral communities had no trends of conserved feed and
provided concentrate supplements to the livestock. The 380,540.51 tons of dry matter was produced with deficit
of 58, 859.41 tons of dry matter per year. The climate change, bush encroachment, expansion of cropping land,
increments in human and livestock populations, lack of inputs and training were identified as livestock feed
production constraints in to study area. The migration, supplementations, purchasing available feed and storing
the crop residues were used as coping strategies during feed shortage in to study area. Generally, the results
from this study revealed that the number of livestock and the available feed resources do not match to support
profitable from livestock production, which suggest that the primary focus needs to be improving the existing
feed resources through rehabilitation of degraded grazing areas, introduction adaptable fodder production,
improving feed utilization practices, introduce feed improvement technologies and promotions the feeding
effects of sugar industry by-products such as molasses and sugar cane tops in the form of urea molasses block.
Key words: Feed Resource Feed Availability Feed Constraints And Pastoralists
INTRODUCTION exchange earnings of the country with agricultural share
Ethiopia is home, excluding some non-sedentary area serve as sources of food, traction, manure, raw materials,
of country such as pastoral areas of Afar and Somali investment, cash income and social and cultural identity.
regions, to approximately 56.71 million of cattle, 29.33 Despite of these roles, the productivity been generated is
million of sheep, 29.11 million of goats, 1.16 million of in generally low [3] due to socio-economic and technical
camels, 56.87 million of chickens, and 2.03 million of limitations [4]. Among the technical limitations, feed
horses 7.43 million of donkey and 0.40 million of mules [1]. shortage is the major one that has contributed the
In Ethiopia, livestock sector has contributed 19% to the productivity performances to be low in Ethiopia [5]. In to
total Gross Domestic Product and 16-19 % to the foreign the study districts, in general, South Omo, the livestock
of the GDP ranging 35 - 49% [2]. Moreover, livestock
Acad. J. Nutr., 6 (3): 34-42, 2017
35
production system entirely has been depended on the data on livestock population, feed resource and feed
feed from range forages [6]. However, the productivity resource availability was collected from Woreda Livestock
generated from these feed resource is under extensive and Fisher Resource Office. Secondary data on annual
deterioration along with the ever-increasing deforestation and perennial crops and the amount of crop residues in
for agriculture, fuel wood gathering and recurrent drought the selected area was also collected, from which the
[6, 7]. However, currently, the information’s are lacking amount of crop residues that are used as a source of
mainly on livestock feed resource availability, feed animal feed were estimated using established conversion
production, feed utilization and feed production factors developed by [13]. The quantity of feed dry matter
constraints. The understanding the existing situation on obtained annually from different land use type was
feed resources in the study area is one of the appealing determined by multiplying the hectare under each land
strategies in order to call policy makers, pastoralists and use type according to the recommendation of [14] by
other relevant stake holders in order to diagnose the using the conversion factor of 2.0, 3.0, 1.8 and 0.7 t
problems and suggests interventional measures to DM/ha/year were used for communal grazing land, private
alleviate the problem and improve feed production status grazing land, fallow land and indigenous browse
and hence, improve livestock production and pastoral respectively. The livestock population per household was
livelihoods. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess converted to tropical livestock unit (TLU) as
feed resource, feed resource availability, the major feed recommended by [15] for local breed livestock. The DM
production constraints and opportunities for livestock requirement was calculated based on daily DM
production feed production in to the Salamago Woreda. requirement of 250 kg (an equivalent of one TLU) for
MATERIAL AND METHODS tropical cattle.
Location and Area Coverage of Studyarea: Salamago Focus Group Discussion: Six kebeles from Salamago
Woreda found in the Southern Nations and Nationalities Woreda such as Omo Hana, Cherimisi, Hayiloha, Woyide,
Regional State in South Omo Zone, in South Western Ginchire and Dakuba were selected in consultation with
Ethiopia. The Salamago Wereda comprised 37% midland Woredas’ Livestock and Fisher Resource Office and
altitude and 67% of the area is low land with annual BRACED project, Farm Africa of Jinka Coordination
temperature which ranges from 20 to 37.5°C. The average Office. One focus group discussions which consisted of
altitude of the Wereda is 971 m and receives bimodal twelve pastoralists (8 Men and 4 Women) was held at
rainfall, in which the long rainy season is in the months of each study kebele and totally 72 pastoralists who have
March to June, while the short rainy season occurs in the better experience in livestock and feed production were
months of August to October. The vegetation cover of selected and interviewed. The livestock feed resource,
the Woreda is a mixture of different Acacia species, feed resource availability, feed conservation practice, feed
scattered woodland, savanna grass and large grassland conservation methods, livestock feed resources
plains dominate the vegetation type of the study area utilization, major livestock feed constraints and
[8-10]. The Salamago Woreda has reared different opportunities for livestock feed production existed in to
livestock populations which comprises 267,678 cattle, 31, the area and feed shortage mitigation strategies were an
329 goats and 20, 951 sheep [11, 12]. important issues discussed during the focus group
Study Design and Data Collection Methods: The focus
group discussion (FGD), key informants interview and Key Informant Interviews: Pertaining to key informant’s
field observations were used to collect primary data on interview, 8 key informants (Two livestock production
feed resource, feed resource availability, feed production experts from Woreda and six livestock developmental
constraints and opportunities. Pastoralists, agro- agents from interviewed kebeles were selected and
pastoralists, local leaders, administrators, livestock interviewed. The livestock feed resource, livestock feed
production experts and livestock extension workers were resource availability, major livestock feed constraints,
used as source for primary data collection in this study. opportunities for livestock feed production existed in to
Moreover, the researchers also had observed the the area, feed shortage mitigation strategies, new
conditions of communal grazing land in to the study area livestock feed technologies, adoption and dissemination
during their field data collection periods. The secondary rate of new feed technologies by pastoral communities,
maintenances according to [16] recommendations for
discussions with pastoralists.
Acad. J. Nutr., 6 (3): 34-42, 2017
36
alternative livestock feed and extension services on estimations by using the proportional pilling methods
livestock feed production to pastoral communities were revealed that open communal grazing land shares 78%
also an important issues that had discussed during the and whereas, indigenous browse and shrubs shared 22 %.
discussions with key informants. However, the agro pastoral communities such as Dume
Field Observations: The field observation was made by 4% of feed resource comes from open communal grazing
the researchers to enrich the data about livestock feed land, crop residues, indigenous browse and shrubs and
available and communal grazing land conditions and Cheka attela respectively.
management of communal grazing land were monitored
and observed during field data collection.
Methods of Data Analysis: The qualitative information
gathered from focus group discussions on livestock feed
were triangulated and analyzed. Furthermore, during focus
group discussions, proportional pilling method was used
by using piles of local materials such as stones and seeds
in order to represents the percentage shares of major
livestock feed shortage and Bar graphs used to presented
the proportional shares.
RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS SalamagoWoreda based on production system
Major Livestock Feed Resources in Salamago Woreda:
The major livestock feed resources in to study area are Availability of Livestock Feed Resource: The Pastoral
open grazing land, indigenous browse species and crop and Agro Pastoral communities reported that during wet
residues. During the focus group discussions the seasons, there is surplus feed production from the open
pastoralists and agro pastoralists were reported that the grazing land. However, there are frequent reductions in
major dry matter for livestock feed comes from communal feed production from the open grazing land during the dry
grazing land. The study made in pastoral areas of Bena- seasons. According to pastoralists, the low availability of
Tsemay, Hamer and Dassench indicated that 80-90% pasture to livestock from open grazing land in dry
major dry matter for livestock feeding was comes from seasons is due to fluctuation in rainfall in aggravated with
open communal grazing land which is corresponds to climate variability. In supports to findings from the current
results from the present study [5, 7, 1 7]. However, during study, the studies made from Ethiopian by [6, 20]
the dry seasons, indigenous browse and shrubs used as indicated that the quality and quantity of the available
feed resources in addition to the pasture from the open feed resources had declined drastically during dry
communal grazing areas. Conversely, [18] had stated that seasons. Moreover, also, [21, 22] reports illustrated that
natural pasture is the most common feed resource the East African pastoralist, the dry matter availability
available to cattle in the wet seasons beside to the tree from grazing area had declined during dry seasons due to
leaves and shrubs are have used as cattle feed during the frequent drought occurrences. During focus group
dry seasons in Salamago Woreda which is supports the discussion which held at Omo Hana, elders had put some
findings from the current study. assumption which is astonishing idea, in the past before
Conversely, the agro pastoralist and key informants 30 year back, “Pastoral communities had lived harmony
reported that crop residues used as the second most with natural resource and no issue of fluctuation in rainfall
important cattle feed resource comes from Teff, sorghum amount and distribution and as consequence no thinking
and pulses crops next to the open grazing land. In support for the livestock feed however, know a day human being
to results from this study [19] report demonstrated has stands as enemies of natural resource which made as
that crop residue to be the major feed resources for always worrier of livestock feed”. Generally the estimated
highlands of Ethiopia next to communal grazing areas. data on tons of dry matter produced from study areas
The contribution of the major feed resource in Bodie shown that, there is imbalance between tons of dry matter
and Mursi pastoral communities according to the elders produced per year in study Woreda and actual dry matter
and Konso communities reported that 48%, 28%, 20% and
Fig. 1: Major Livestock Feed Resource in
according to proportional pilling methods
Acad. J. Nutr., 6 (3): 34-42, 2017
37
requirements of livestock. Results from this study communities do not supplemented their cattle at any
indicated that the feed shortage in to study area is more production status and age groups. Conversely, the
serious and it is further recalls any interventions in feed research facts made by [7, 17] indicated that Hamer and
improvements. Dassench Pastoralists in do not supply concentrate
Management of Open Grazing Land: The pastoral findings. However, Dumi and konso tribes’ have
communities of Bodi and Mursi reported that the open supplemented livestock with Cheka atella in traditional
communal grazing land managed in traditional regulations mode after grazing due to their availability and its low
which are weak to govern the communal grazing land at cost. According to [25], non-conventional feeds partially
the local level. This situation allowed over grazing in open fill the gap in the feed supply, decrease competition for
grazing which induced retreating the pasture productivity food between humans and animals, reduce feed cost, and
by advocating bush encroachments with different contribute to self-sufficiency in nutrients from locally
invasive species such as acacia tree and bushes. available feed sources. Moreover, Agro Pastoralists from
Increasing invasive species has been let increasing less Dumi and konso communities had reported that,
palatable and decrease highly palatable forages species. communities have practiced the traditional fattening of
The [6] report demonstrated that pastoral communities of livestock with locally available feed resources. For
Bana-Tsemay and Hamer have the culture of sharing example, Dumi tribe supplemented their oxen with browse
resources at any circumstances however, it is not well species locally called “Gerawa” and tree root “Gedi” in
designed which is corresponds to ideas reported by addition to free grazing on open pasture land. Likewise,
pastoralists from the current study. Meanwhile, [23] report Konso tribe has supplemented their grazing cattle, goats
shown that the Borana pastoralist have well deigned and sheep with browse tree like “Woybeta”, different
traditional rule and regulation which helps to govern over acacia leaf and pods by the tethering around home during
resource available on communally grazing areas which is dry seasons to crop residues which used as basal diets.
contradicted to pastoralists found in our areas.
Furthermore, [24] reported that unplanned grazing system Feed Quality Improvement Practices: Pastoralists
had induced overgrazing and soil trampling effects reported that there is no any feed quality improvement
contributed to reduce biomass production and lead to techniques such as chopping, water soaking and urea
degradation of rangeland forages which similar to the idea treatment. The livestock production has relied on poor
reported by pastoralist from the current study. quality feed which made fewer benefits from productions.
Conversely, Agro Pastoral Communities from Dumi tribes This is due to lack of knowledge, absence of awareness;
indicated that encroachment of open grazing land by experience share and lack of inputs are important factors
cropping land has been increasing at alarm rate and this that allowed livestock to rely on poor quality feeds. As
is leads to shrinkages in open grazing area. results of this study [26- 28] reports had indicated that
Feed Conservation and Feeding Practices: During the commonly utilized by the small holder farmers in Ethiopia
focus group discussions pastoralists replied that there are due to lack of awareness, skill gap and lack of inputs.
no feed conservation practices and technologies in study
area when surplus feed production during wet seasons. Improved Forage Production in Salamago Woreda: The
This is aggravated due to lack of knowledge, practices pastoralists from Bodi and Mursi communities reported
and absence of extension services on feed conservation that pastoralist do not have trend of growing improved
practices. The [18] reported that feed shortage is forage species. According to pastoralists, this is
aggravated in Salamago Woreda due to absence of feed aggravated due to lack of awareness, training and lack of
conservation practices which is in line with findings from inputs like forage seed. Moreover, pastoralists also had
the current study. The livestock feeding is free grazing in mentioned that less attention was given to improved
study area and communities are not in positions to forage species production is due to its’ impracticality with
provide commercial supplements. However, some pastoral attachment of producing sufficient amount to dry matter
communities have trends of supplements their calves and to huge livestock numbers. However, the Dumi and
sick animals with leaf and pods from browse species Konso communities had received training on improved
during dry seasons. Moreover, [18] report had forage production technologies and have been starting
demonstrated that the Mursi and Bodi pastoral growing improved forage species like elephant grass on
supplements to livestock which is in line to present
generally low quality feed improvement practices are not
Acad. J. Nutr., 6 (3): 34-42, 2017
38
Table 1: Total grazing land (ha) and estimated tons of dry matter Table 2: Total cropped land and estimated crop residues tons of DM from
production from grazing area in Salamago Woreda in 2016
Productivity Total DM
Grazing Land Area(ha) t/ha production (tone)
Private grazing land 9, 509.80 3 28, 529.40
Communal grazing land 76, 078.40 2 152,156.80
Road side grazing 38, 039.20 2 76, 078.40
Fallow land 66, 568.60 1.8 119, 823.48
Total and covered 190, 195.80 - 376, 588.08
Adapted from Livestock and Fisher Office of Salamago Woreda
back yard, around their compound, swampy area and
boarder of farming land. [29] reported that there was no
improved forages cultivation for cattle at small holder
communities’ level in Southern Ethiopia due to
insufficient land, capacity gap, lack of access for
information, poor extension service and lack of inputs
such as forage seeds which is in line with results from
present study. [30, 31] reports demonstrated that
improved forage species are not well developed under the
present Ethiopian conditions which are agreed with
present study. Moreover, also [1] indicated that currently,
the contribution of improved forage crops in Ethiopia less
than one percent which calls for further efforts from
governments, research institutes and non-governmental
organization in promotions of developing improved forage
species through filling awareness gap and input
provisions.
Dry Mater Production in Salamago Woreda from
Open Grazing Land: According to the Livestock
and Fisher Resource Office report of the Salamago
Woreda around 190, 195.8ha of the area land was by
covered by grazing land. From this area of land, the
152,156.80 tons of dry matter produced from
communal grazing land and whereas, the 28, 529.40
tons of dry matter also produced from private grazing
lands.
Dry Matter Production from Crop Residues: According
to the Crop and Natural Resource Office of Salamago
Woreda, 2324.64ha of land have covered by the crop land.
Similarly to the other area of country, Agro Pastoral
Communities in Salamago Woreda currently have
produced crop residues from maize, teff, haricot bean,
finger millet and sorghum. The crop residues are the one
of the major feed resource identified into agro pastoral
production systems in Salamago Woreda and about 3,
952.43 tons of dry matter of livestock feed is comes from
crop residues.
major crops in Salamago Woreda
Crop Species Area( ha) Total DM (Tone)
Maize 1, 041.33 1, 770.80
Sorghum 563.68 958.30
Teff 615.30 1, 045.30
Haricot Bean 58.88 100.08
Finger Millet 13.82 23.48
Banana 31.69 53.86
Total 2, 324.64 3, 952.43
Adapted from Crop and Natural Resource Office of Salamago Woreda
1.1.
Table 3: Total Livestock Feed Supply in Salamago Woreda
Productivity Total DM
Grazing Land Area (ha) (t/ha) production (tons)
Private grazing land 9, 509.80 3 28, 529.40
Communal grazing land 76, 078.40 2 152,156.80
Road side grazing 38, 039.20 2 76, 078.40
Fallow land 66, 568.60 1.8 119, 823.48
Crop Residues 2, 324.64 - 3, 952.43
Total land covered 192,520.44 - 380, 540.51
Adapted from Livestock and Fisher Office of Salamago Woreda
Table 4: Annual dry matter requirement (tons) per livestock species in
Salamago Woreda
Livestock Population DM requirement/ Total DM
Species in TLU head/year (ton/year)
Cattle 187,374.60 2.28 427, 214.08
Sheep 2, 095.10 2.28 4,777.83
Goat 3,132.90 2.28 7,143.01
Total 192,602.60 - 439,134.92
Feed Balance in Salamago Woreda: Feed resources used
to calculate dry matter supply for livestock in Salamago
Woreda are communal grazing land, private grazing land,
indigenous browse and crop residues (Table 3). The total
of 380,540.51 tons of dry matter (DM) per year was
produced from such feed resource in the Woreda is
presented in Table 3.
The 2016, Salamago Woreda livestock and fisher
resource office, the livestock population data illustrated
that Woreda had on average 192,602.60 Tropical
Livestock Unit (TLU) which had comprised (187,374.60
cattle, 2, 095.10 sheep and 3, 132.90 goats) presented in
Table 4. Assuming that DM requirement for maintenance
of one TLU is 6.25 kg/day (2.28 ton/year/TLU) and the
total annual requirement by the livestock species (cattle,
sheep and goats) is about 439,134.92 tons of DM per year
per Woreda presented in Table 4. As it had calculated that
the total DM produced in the Woreda from different feed
resource is 380, 540.51 tons (Table3) which had been
showing that a deficit of 58, 859.41 tons of dry matter per
year.
Acad. J. Nutr., 6 (3): 34-42, 2017
39
Livestock Feed Production Constraints: Pastoralist and Coping Mechanism to ward Feed Shortage
Agro Pastoralists generalized that constraints to livestock Migrations: The Pastoralist in to study area revealed that
feed production in to study area to be either technical or during critical feed shortage, communities have been
non-technical. employed seasonal movements of herds to areas such as
Climate Variability: According to the pastoralists, agro more available during those periods. Conversely, similar
pastoralists and experts, the climate change is one of the trends were practiced in Agro Pastoral area such as Dumi
non-technical livestock feed production constraints in to communities which moved cattle to ward Bize valley,
the study area that affects livestock production through Hindo valley, Omo River and Mersiy River to save their
induce decline biomass production and prevents the cattle during the critical livestock feed shortages and back
successful establishment of forages. The [32] reported to home when feed availability was secured. The study
that the biomass production of grazing land is expected to made by [6] indicated the Hamer and Bena pastoralist
decrease which accompanied due to greater variability in have mobilized their cattle toward the Mago Park during
rainfall distributions and frequent droughts due to climate the recurrent drought, deterioration of grazing lands as
change. coping strategies to save their livestock. Conversely, the
Bush Encroachments: According to pastoralists, grazing mobilized their livestock toward the Island (Desset).
area invaded by different invasive aliens such as different
acacia and shrubs species which tends to reduce the Supplementation with Locally Available Feeds: Agro
quantity of forage that available for livestock and leads to pastoral communities reported that communities practiced
shrinkage in grazing areas. The [6] report demonstrated supplementation cattle and goats with locally available
that in Hamer rangeland, the grazing lands are more feeds during dry seasons. Cattle such as
covered by invasive alien such as different acacia species, Oxen, milking cows and calves supplemented with
bushes and shrubs which was responsible for a decline in locally available materials such different leaf of
rangeland condition due to drought, overgrazing and the indigenous browse, Banana leaf and stem, and tree roots
absence of burning which corresponds to findings from from indigenous by cut and carrying system. However, for
the current study. Moreover, also studies made by [33] in the Pastoral communities, the reverse is true and pastoral
Southern Ethiopia indicated that bush encroachments has communities are not in position to provide any
induced reduction in the production of the herbaceous supplemental feeds during the critical feed shortage for
layer, restriction of livestock movement and damage to the cattle that are able to graze on natural pasture and
body of the animals. however, a few pastoral communities reported that they
Lack of Training and Awareness: The provision of unable to move long distances by the cut and carry
training and awareness creation are important tools to system.
address agricultural technologies to end users. During the
focus group discussion pastoralists reported that Storage of Crop Residues: Agro Pastoral communities of
communities are not received either theoretical or practical Dumi and Konso have trends of collecting crop residues
training on livestock feed production. However, agro from maize stover, teff straw, sorghum straw, haricot bean
pastoralists from konso and Dumi communities were haulms and finger millet stover and stored for the further
reported that communities had received theoretical used to mitigate critical feed shortage.
training on feed technologies like hay making, silage
making and quality improvements of low quality feed but Opportunities for Livestock Feed Production:
did not put it in to practice what communities trained. Availability of land: Lands are important assets in order to
Conversely, discussions with livestock experts, experts produce feed. Pastoralists, Agro pastoralists and experts
reported that training on forage production provided once were reported that issue of land is not problems due to
per year by Regional Livestock and Fisher Resource have excess lands. Which is an opportunity to produce
Bureau and it is also difficult to deliver what experts surplus livestock feed their area.
trained in to the practice due to insufficient in government
services such as inadequate staff transport, fuel, repairs, Availability of Sustainable River: On the other hand,
maintenance, accommodation and lack of inputs. elders reported that a yearly available sustainable river
Omo River and Sherma River where grass is thought to be
[7] indicated that pastoralists from Dassench communities
have provided grass to calves and sick cattle, which are
Acad. J. Nutr., 6 (3): 34-42, 2017
40
like Omo River is also other important opportunities for with locally adaptable legume forages and fertilization
produce livestock feed to area. with livestock dungs and droppings.
Omo Kurazi Sugar Factories: On the other hand, production from grazing areas, however, the pastoral
pastoralists reported that currently the government of communities have no trends to conserve these feed
Ethiopia has been planted a large Sugar Factories under for the further uses. In this regards, it is important to
the governance of the Ethiopian Sugar Corporation, which advice pastoral communities to conserve during
will be cultivated 175,000 hectares of sugarcane and surpluses productions in the form of silage and hay
supply five sugar factories. The availability of sugarcane making.
factories plantation and irritable condition in to the study Currently the Ethiopia government has planted large
area which presents an opportunity to livestock feed sugar factories which will be cultivated175, 000
productions. Moreover, also pastoralists reported that at hectares of sugarcane and from this it will be expected
the end of sugar productions byproducts of sugar Molasses and sugar cane tops which will be used
factories such as molasses and bagasse will be used as as an alternative livestock feed resources in to
supplementary livestock feed resource is also present an South Omo Zone. Therefore, it is advisable to
another opportunities. Government of Ethiopia is promote the feeding effects of these by-products
currently has organized sedentarzation program around in the form of urea molasses block (UMB),
the Omo Kurazi sugar factories which assists pastoral molasses + sugar cane tops and bagasse + urea in
communities live in together in order to share experiences wider scale through either cooperative
which will be made better opportunities for feed establishments or privatization
production. In this study it was indicated that there is no
Conclusions and Recommendations: The open communal study areas. Therefore, in to the study areas,
grazing land, indigenous browse species and crop adaptable cultivated fodder species is one
residues are major feed resources with frequent variations appealing strategies.
in quantity. The biomass productivity generated from this To improve livestock feed supply by using
open communal grazing area has been retreated due to different interventions; it is also imperative in
over grazing, bush encroachments and climate change. upgrading pastoralists’ skill through the
The free grazing on communal grazing area was the major provisions of training on proper feed resource
livestock feeding system and pastoral communities are management, feed conservation techniques and
not in positions to conserve feed and provide concentrate feed quality improvements techniques.
supplements. There were lack of low quality feed
improvement practice and trends of growing the ACCKNOLOGMENTS
cultivated forage species. The total dry matter produced
from different feed sources was not enough to satisfy the We are extremely thankful to the Farm Africa, Building
dry matter requirement of livestock during dry seasons. Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Extremes and
The climate change, bush encroachment, expansion of Disasters Project in South Omo Zone, South Omo
cropping land, in livestock populations, lack of inputs and Coordination Office for Financial, Research material and
training were identified as livestock feed production Vehicle supports. Finally, we are grateful acknowledged
constraints in to study areas and whereas, migration, the Salamago Woreda Livestock and Fisher Office Experts
supplementations and stored the crop residues were and developmental agents for their supporting and
important coping strategies toward feed shortage. Based providing secondary information.
on the findings from the current study the following
recommendations were made: REFERENCES
The study described that the productivity grazing
area is retreating from time to time due to poor 1. Central Statistical Agency (CSA) 2015. Agricultural
management. Therefore, it is imperative to improve sample survey Report on livestock and livestock
the productivity of retreating grazing areas through characteristics. Statistical Bulletin 532.Addis Ababa,
introducing rehabilitations program by the Ethiopia: CSA. Livestock and livestock characteristics
introduction and promoting area closures, over sown (private peasant holdings), Ethiopia.
During wet seasons there is surpluses dry matter
trends of growing cultivated fodder species in to
Acad. J. Nutr., 6 (3): 34-42, 2017
41
2. Intergovernmental Authority on Development 15. Gryseels, G., 1988. Role of livestock on a mixed
(IGAD).2010. The contribution of livestock to the
economies of IGAD member states. IGAD LPI
working paper No. 02-11.
3. Duguma Belete, Azage Tegegne and B. Hegde, 2012.
Smallholder livestock production system in Dandi
district, Oromia Regional State, Central Ethiopia.
Global Veterinarian, 8(5): 472–479.
4. Mengistu Alemayehu. 2003. Country pastures /
forage resource profiles, Ethiopia. FAO, 1: 36.
5. Adugna Tolera. 2008. Feed resources and feeding
management: A manual for feedlot operators and
development workers. SPM-LMM program. Addis
Ababa, Ethiopia.
6. Admasu Teferi, Abule Erbo and Tessema Zewudu.
2010. Livestock-rangeland management practices and
community perceptions towards rangeland
degradation in South Omo zone of Southern Ethiopia.
7. WorkuBedeke and L. Nigatu, 2015. Assessment of
Vegetation Composition and Productivity of
Rangeland as Affected by Altitude and Grazing
Pressure in Kuraz District of South Omo Zone, South
Western Ethiopia, Journal of Biology, Agriculture and
Healthcare Vol.5, No.23, 2015, www.iiste.org.
8. Salamogo Woreda Vegetation Survey reports. 2014.
Salamago, Ethiopia.
9. Tesfaye Desaelew. 2008. Assessment of feed
resources and rangeland condition in metema district
of north gondar zone, Ethiopia. MSc thesis, Presented
to the School of Graduate Studies of Alemaya
University, Dirdewa Ehiopia, pp: 135.
10. Alemayehu Mulugeta and Tezera Getahun. 2002.
Socio-Economy of pastoral Community in Bena-
Tsemay and Hamer Woredas of South Omo Zone,
Southern Nations and Nationalities peoples Regional
State. September, 2002, Addis Abeba, Ethiopia.
11. South Omo Zone Livestock and Fisher Resource
Department Livestock population Census, 2016. Jinka,
Ethiopia.
12. Salamago Woreda, Livestock and Fisher Office. 2016.
livestock population Census salamago, Ethipia
13. De Leeuw, A. Omore, Staal S. and W. Thorpe, 1990.
Dairy production systems in the tropics. In: L. Falvey
and C. Chantalakkhana, Editors, Smallholder Dairying
in the Tropics, ILRI, Nairobi (1999), pp: 19-44.
14. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO) .1987. Land use, production regions,
and farming systems inventory. Technical Report, 3
vol. 1. FAO Project ETH/78/003, Addis Abeba,
Ethiopia.
smallholder farmers in DebreBerhan. PhD
Dissertation. Agricultural University of Wageningen,
The Netherlands. P. 149.http:// www.fao.org/ ag/ agp/
agpc/ doc/counprof/ethiopia/ethiopia.htm.
16. Kearl, L.C., 1982. Nutrient requirement of ruminants in
developing countries. International Feedstuff
Institute, Utah Agricultural Experiment Station. Utah
State University, London, USA, pp: 381.
17. BuzayehuAyele and Denbela Hidosa. 2015.
Assessment on Dairy Production, Post-Harvest
Handling and Marketing Systems in Hamer Woreda
of South Omo Zone. Journal of Biology, Agriculture
and Healthcare Vol.5, No.23, 2015, www.iiste.org
18. Terefe Endashaw, Tadelle Dessie, Aynalem Haile,
Wudyalew Mulatu and Okeyo Mwai, 2015. On-farm
phenotypic characterization of Mursi cattle in its
production environment in South Omo Zone,
Southwest Ethiopia, Animal Genetic Resources,
pp. 1-10.
19. Adugna Tolera, A. Yami and D. Alemu, 2012.
Livestock feed resources in Ethiopia: Challenges,
Opportunities and the need for transformation.
Ethiopia Animal Feed Industry Association, Addis
Ababa, Ethiopia.
20. Solomon Bogale, Solomon Melaku and AlemuYami.
2008. Influence of rainfall pattern on grass/legume
composition and nutritive value of natural pasture in
Bale Highlands of Ethiopia. Livestock Research for
Rural Development. Volume 20, Article #38.(Accessed
20 November, 2015, http:// www.lrrd.org/
lrrd20/3/boga20038.htm
21. Huho, J.M., J.K. Ngaira and H.O. Ogindo, 2011. Living
with drought: the case of the Maasai pastoralists of
northern Kenya. Educational Research, 2(1): 779-789.
22. Campbell, D.J., 2013. Coping with drought in Kenya
Maasailand: pastoralists and farmers of the Loitokitok
area, Kajiado District.
23. Oba, G., 1998. Assessment of Indigenous Range
Management Knowledge of the Borana Pastoralists
of Southern Ethiopia. Borana Lowland Pastoral
Development Program/GTZ Consultancy paper.
Negelle/Borana, May 1998.
24. Branson, F.A., G.F. Gifford, K.G. Renard and
R.F. Hadley, 1981. Rangeland Hydrology. 2nd ed. E.H.
Reid (ed). Soc. Range Manage. Kendull/Hund Publ.
Com. Iowa.
25. Fikru, S., 2015. Assessment of Cattle Fattening and
Marketing Practice in Harshin District of Somali
Regional State, Ethiopia. Journal of Advances Dairy
Research, 3 (2):137.
Acad. J. Nutr., 6 (3): 34-42, 2017
42
26. Fikru, S., 2015. Assessment of Cattle Fattening and 30. Alemayehu Mengistu. 2005. Feed resources base of
Marketing Practice in Harshin District of Somali Ethiopia: Status, limitations and opportunities for
Regional State, Ethiopia. Journal of Advances Dairy integrated development. Proceedings of the 12th
Research, 3(2): 137. Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Society of
27. Guyo Demisse, 2016. Assessment of fattening and Animal Production (ESAP) held in Addis Ababa,
marketing system, and effect of concentrate Ethiopia, August 12-14, 2004, Addis Ababa, pp: 410.
supplementation with locally available feeds on 31. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).
fattening performance of indigenous cattle in 2007. Climate Change 2007: impacts, adaptation and
bonkeworeda of gamogofazone Msc. Thesis, vulnerability. Summary for policy makers.
Hawassa, Ethiopia. 32. Ayana Angassa, 1999. Range condition and
28. Gezu, T., K. Haftu and S. Sefa, 2014. Feed Resources traditional grazing management in Borana Ethiopia.
and Constraints for Cattle Fattening in Lemo and MSc.Thesis, Presented to the School of Graduate
SoroWoredas, Hadya Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Studies of Alemaya University, Alemaya, Ethiopia,
Global Journal of Animal Science, Livestock pp: 73.
Production and Animal Breeding, 2(4): 119-125. 33. Demeke Selamawit, Yeshambe Mekuriaw and Bimrew
29. Alemayehu Menigistu. 2002. Rangeland: Biodiversity Asmare. 2017. Assessment of livestock production
Concepts, Approaches and the way forward. Addis system and feed balance in watersheds of North
Ababa University, Faculty of Science, Addis Ababa, Achefer District, Ethiopia Journal of Agriculture and
Ethiopia, pp: 80. Environment for International Development - JAEID
2017, 111(1): 175-190 DOI: 10.12895/jaeid.20171.574.
... The south Omo has large livestock population in SNNRP by possessing about 2,733,147 cattle, 1,415, 361 sheep and 3, 110, 966 goats [1]. However, the outputs (meat, milk and growth rate) obtained from cattle; sheep and goat are generally very low due to the poor feed quality and insufficient year round feed supply [2,3]. Moreover, in the study area, cattle, sheep and goat husbandry practice is completely natural-pasture-based [2][3][4]. ...
... However, the outputs (meat, milk and growth rate) obtained from cattle; sheep and goat are generally very low due to the poor feed quality and insufficient year round feed supply [2,3]. Moreover, in the study area, cattle, sheep and goat husbandry practice is completely natural-pasture-based [2][3][4]. It is evidenced that the natural-pasture-based feeding practice is greatly affected by dynamics of pasture-forages, which is influenced by climate change impacts [2][3][4]. ...
... Moreover, in the study area, cattle, sheep and goat husbandry practice is completely natural-pasture-based [2][3][4]. It is evidenced that the natural-pasture-based feeding practice is greatly affected by dynamics of pasture-forages, which is influenced by climate change impacts [2][3][4]. Thus, the evaluating and introducing the adaptable and nutrient-enrich forages species to complement the pasture-based-feeding practice is among the recommended options for South Omo to mitigate the feed shortage and climate change impacts [2][3][4]. Amongst the promising forage species promoted to mitigate feed and nutrient shortfalls and climate change impacts in Ethiopia is Elephant (pennistum perperum) grass species. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Elephant grass species is among the tropical-grass and have provided high amount biomass to the livestock. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the agro-nomic parameters and biomass yields of four Elephant grass varieties under rain fed condition in South Omo Zone. The four Elephant grass varieties such as ILRI-16840, Wer-er-1333, Areka-local and Werer-local were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. The data on agronomic parameters, leaf to stem ratio, biomass yields were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS, and Least Significant Difference (LSD) was used for mean separation. The higher(p<0.05) fresh (38.16ton/ha) and dry biomass yield (18.27ton/ha) were obtained from the ILRI-16840 variety, while the lower fresh biomass yield (18.6ton/ha) and dry biomass yield (8.7ton/ha) were obtained from the Werer-local variety, respectively. Based result from this study, we concluded that the ILRI-16840 variety was best candidate to improve feed availability for enhanced livestock production.
... On the other hand, the demand for livestock products by consumers in country projected at accelerate rate and it is difficult to satisfy the demand of consumer under such conditions unless urgent measure will be taken. Likewise, in study region the livestock feeding system is completely natural pasture based [3,4]. It is obvious that the natural pasture-based feeding system is greatly influenced by feed supply and nutritional dynamics of pasture forages [2,5]. ...
... Furthermore, these feed resources are characterized by high fiber (>55%) and low crude protein (CP) (<7%) contents [6,7] and their feed intake level is limited and they barely satisfy even the maintenance requirements. This is triggering to increase high mortality, longer calving intervals and substantial weight loss [3,6,8,9] and will be made the communities minimum benefits from livestock production. Therefore, in this respect, it is not imagined the surplus production from the livestock unless the immediate action is undertaken in improving dry matter supply and feed quality issues into study area [5]. ...
... Therefore, in this respect, it is not imagined the surplus production from the livestock unless the immediate action is undertaken in improving dry matter supply and feed quality issues into study area [5]. Therefore, testing locally adaptable and producing adequate quality forages to supplement pasture roughage-based feeding system is only way to overwhelm feed shortage into study area [3,10]. Among the locally adaptable forage species, Desho grass is indigenous grass to Ethiopia and belonging to the family of Poaceae [11] and it is a perennial grass which has an extensive root system that anchors well with the soil and has high biomass production potential. ...
Article
Full-text available
Desho grass is indigenous grass to Ethiopia and belonging to the family of Poaceae and has high biomass production potential. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four desho (Pennisetum pedicellatum)grass varieties in 2017 and 2018 cropping years at on- station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center under rain fed condition in randomized complete block design with three replications per tested variety. The data on dry matter yield, plant height, tillers per plant, leaf to stem ratio and chemical composition were analyzed using the General Linear Model procedures of SAS. The Areka-DZF#590 gave highest (P>0.001) dry matter yield (27.99t/ha) and whereas the, Kindo kisha-DZF#589 variety gave the lower dry matter yield (14.15t/ha). Likewise, higher (P>0.05) Crude protein (140.12g/Kg, DM) recorded for Areka-DZF#590 and whereas, significantly lowest (P<0.05) Crude protein (90.57g/Kg, DM) obtained for Kindo kasha-DZF#589 variety. Based on this finding, we concluded that farmers who live in comparable agro- ecologies to areas where this stu
... However, within the Ethiopian context, shortfalls in both quality and quantity of feed represent major limitations for goat productivity [3]. These constraints are reflected within in the focal regions of the present study, where previous research has demonstrated that goat production is limited by constraints in both nutritional quality as well as supply, with pronounced fluctuations in the seasonal availability of range forage [4][5][6]. Nutritional stress contributes to slow growth rates, loss of body condition and increased susceptibility to diseases and parasites [6]. Within the study regions it is also apparent that pastoral communities do not always possess a full appreciation and understanding of the quality and availability of major goat feed resources [6]. ...
... These constraints are reflected within in the focal regions of the present study, where previous research has demonstrated that goat production is limited by constraints in both nutritional quality as well as supply, with pronounced fluctuations in the seasonal availability of range forage [4][5][6]. Nutritional stress contributes to slow growth rates, loss of body condition and increased susceptibility to diseases and parasites [6]. Within the study regions it is also apparent that pastoral communities do not always possess a full appreciation and understanding of the quality and availability of major goat feed resources [6]. ...
... Nutritional stress contributes to slow growth rates, loss of body condition and increased susceptibility to diseases and parasites [6]. Within the study regions it is also apparent that pastoral communities do not always possess a full appreciation and understanding of the quality and availability of major goat feed resources [6]. Issues such as these validate the need for research activities focused on the appraisal and quantification of goat feed resources and the seasonal fluctuations that influence their supply within the study districts. ...
Article
Full-text available
Goat feed inventory and feed balance studies were conducted in Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas with the aim of assessing the current status of major goat feed resources, dry matter availability and goat feed balance. Five kebeles from Bena-Tsemay and three kebeles from Hamer were selected. In each Woreda, between eight and twelve herders were selected to participate in focus group discussions (FGD). Herders were interviewed about major feed resource for goats, their availability, seasonal dynamics and the plant parts utilised by goats. In addition to the FGDs, in each of the study kebeles, subsets of the experienced herders were asked to collect samples of forage species mentioned in the FGDs. These samples were catalogued in code corresponding to local names for each species and botanical names subsequently assigned, following identification by trained botanists. The findings from this study revealed that there were 22 and 20, 51 and 40 herbaceous and browse forage species identified as goat feeds from Hamer and Bena- Tsemay Woredas respectively. The herders also reported that goat feed was generally plentiful from April to August and became scarce during January and February. The estimated total annual maintenance dry matter requirement for goats across districts is likely to be in the order of 470,000 and 170,000 tons which exceeds the estimated dry matter of 370,000 and 40,000 tons produced for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively and equates to estimated deficits of roughly 94,000 and 129,000 tons of dry matter. It was therefore, recommended that the primarily focus on improving the existing feed resources through area enclosure, improving poor quality feeds, forage banking during surplus production, introduction and demonstration of adaptable cultivated fodder species and enhancing the utilisation of native browse species as a local protein supplements.
... However, in study Regions, particularly South Ethiopia, the contribution of goats to Ethiopia economy Omo, the goat feeding is predominantly on pasture-based and goat producers' livelihoods is very limited [5]. In feeding system and hence, the growth performance of South Omo Zone, almost all the goats are indigenous goat is very low as compared to intensive feeding system breeds and physically described as Woyto-Guji or Konso [9]. This is contributing to rise in low growth and goats [6] and genetically identified as one of the eight reproductive performances in goats and made less benefit indigenous goat breeds in Ethiopia [7]. ...
... This is contributing to rise in low growth and goats [6] and genetically identified as one of the eight reproductive performances in goats and made less benefit indigenous goat breeds in Ethiopia [7]. So far, the of pastoral and agro pastoral communities from goat Southern Agricultural Research Institute in collaboration production [3,9]. It is apparent that nutrient supplied from goats from South Africa in order to improve meat and milk extensive pasture based feeding system is unable to meet Preparation of UMB: Urea molasses block was prepared the nutrient requirements of goats beyond maintenance requirements [9]. ...
... So far, the of pastoral and agro pastoral communities from goat Southern Agricultural Research Institute in collaboration production [3,9]. It is apparent that nutrient supplied from goats from South Africa in order to improve meat and milk extensive pasture based feeding system is unable to meet Preparation of UMB: Urea molasses block was prepared the nutrient requirements of goats beyond maintenance requirements [9]. Therefore, to mitigate nutrient supply and quality shortfall, feeding goats with agro-industrial by-products could be improved the nutrient intake, digestibility and weight gain performance of goats [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The experiment was conducted at Key Afer Goat Research Substation of Jinka Agricultural Research Center to identify supplementation effect of different urea levels in urea molasses block (UMB) on weight gain performance of Boer x Woyto-Guji crossbred female goats. Total of 16 female goats with average initial body weight of 16.75±0.5 kg were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Four goats were grouped into four blocks and one goat from each block was randomly assigned to one of the four experimental diets. The experimental treatments used in this study were; grazing + UMB (45% molasses +3% urea+ 30% wheat bran + 2% salt+ 15% noug cake+ 3% cement+ 2% limestone; T1), grazing + UMB (45% molasses+ 5% urea+30% wheat bran+ 2% salt+ 15% noug cake+ 2% cement + 1% limestone; T2), grazing + UMB (42% molasses+ 8% urea+ 30% wheat bran+ 2% salt+ 15% noug cake+ 2% cement + 1% limestone; T3) and grazing only served as control (T4). The results showed that goats fed T1 higher (P<0.05) UMB intake than goats fed T3 but similar (P>0.05) to diet T2. Goats fed diet T2 shown highest (P <0.05) average daily gain than T1 and T3. It was concluded that goats fed on T2 diet showed better weight gain of 67g/day over goats fed T1 (33.88g) and T3 (22.55g/day) was advisable to use as an alternative protein supplements in to pastoral and agro pastoral areas to improve the goat production.
... However, in study Regions, particularly South Ethiopia, the contribution of goats to Ethiopia economy Omo, the goat feeding is predominantly on pasture-based and goat producers' livelihoods is very limited [5]. In feeding system and hence, the growth performance of South Omo Zone, almost all the goats are indigenous goat is very low as compared to intensive feeding system breeds and physically described as Woyto-Guji or Konso [9]. This is contributing to rise in low growth and goats [6] and genetically identified as one of the eight reproductive performances in goats and made less benefit indigenous goat breeds in Ethiopia [7]. ...
... This is contributing to rise in low growth and goats [6] and genetically identified as one of the eight reproductive performances in goats and made less benefit indigenous goat breeds in Ethiopia [7]. So far, the of pastoral and agro pastoral communities from goat Southern Agricultural Research Institute in collaboration production [3,9]. It is apparent that nutrient supplied from goats from South Africa in order to improve meat and milk extensive pasture based feeding system is unable to meet Preparation of UMB: Urea molasses block was prepared the nutrient requirements of goats beyond maintenance requirements [9]. ...
... So far, the of pastoral and agro pastoral communities from goat Southern Agricultural Research Institute in collaboration production [3,9]. It is apparent that nutrient supplied from goats from South Africa in order to improve meat and milk extensive pasture based feeding system is unable to meet Preparation of UMB: Urea molasses block was prepared the nutrient requirements of goats beyond maintenance requirements [9]. Therefore, to mitigate nutrient supply and quality shortfall, feeding goats with agro-industrial by-products could be improved the nutrient intake, digestibility and weight gain performance of goats [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The experiment was conducted at Key Afer Goat Research Substation of Jinka Agricultural Research Center to identify supplementation effect of different urea levels in urea molasses block (UMB) on weight gain performance of Boer x Woyto-Guji crossbred female goats. Total of 16 female goats with average initial body weight of 16.75±0.5 kg were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Four goats were grouped into four blocks and one goat from each block was randomly assigned to one of the four experimental diets. The experimental treatments used in this study were; grazing + UMB (45% molasses +3% urea+ 30% wheat bran + 2% salt+ 15% noug cake+ 3% cement+ 2% limestone; T1), grazing + UMB (45% molasses+ 5% urea+30% wheat bran+ 2% salt+ 15% noug cake+ 2% cement + 1% limestone; T2), grazing + UMB (42% molasses+ 8% urea+ 30% wheat bran+ 2% salt+ 15% noug cake+ 2% cement + 1% limestone; T3) and grazing only served as control (T4). The results showed that goats fed T1 higher (P<0.05) UMB intake than goats fed T3 but similar (P>0.05) to diet T2. Goats fed diet T2 shown highest (P <0.05) average daily gain than T1 and T3. It was concluded that goats fed on T2 diet showed better weight gain of 67g/day over goats fed T1 (33.88g) and T3 (22.55g/day) was advisable to use as an alternative protein supplements in to pastoral and agro pastoral areas to improve the goat production.
... In Ethiopia, the livestock production has been contributing substantially to the livelihoods of the rural households, but the overall productivity from the sector is very low due to poor livestock feed supply in quantity and quality [1,2]. Similarly, in the study area livestock husbandry system is extensively based on natural-pasture, which is greatly influenced by biomass supply and nutritional dynamics of pasture-forages [3][4][5][6][7]. The animal fed on poor-quality diets could not realize the dietary nutrient requirement. ...
... This is making livestock take too long to attain optimum production and reproduction performances [1,5,[8][9][10]. Thus, the identifying the adaptability potential of improved fodder species and demonstrating newly adaptable fodder species to the pastoral and agro-pastoral production niches is only the strategies to beat the existing feed shortage problem [4,5,11]. Among the improved fodder species, Sesbania sesban is a legume fodder species, which grown up to 8m above cutting height and supplied high-quality protein for livestock [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to quantify biomass yield and quality parameters of five Sesbania sesban varieties in irrigated lowland of Dassench district. The Sermemiret Kebele from Dassench district was selected for on-farm trial. The five Sesbania sesban varieties such as DZ-2002, DZ-0040, DZ-0079, DZ-0073 and DZ-32 were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. The biomass yield, plant height, branches per plant and quality parameters were analyzed by using GLM procedure of SAS and Least Significant Difference (LSD) was used for mean separation. Result from present study showed that higher biomass yield (17.66ton/ha) was obtained from DZ-32 variety, while the lower biomass yield (8.95ton/ha) recorded from DZ-0073 variety. However, DZ-0079 variety had higher (p<0.05) crude protein (268.10g/kg, DM), while DZ-32 variety had lower crude protein (186.70g/kg, DM). Based result from this study, it was concluded that DZ-32 variety was best candidate to improve biomass supply for enhanced production from livestock.
... Among the livestock production and productivity impediments in to Ethiopia, the feed supply and quality is the most limiting determinants [1,2]. Likewise, in study region the livestock feeding system is completely natural pasture based feeding system [3,4]. It is obvious that the natural pasture based feeding system is greatly influenced by feed supply and nutritional dynamics of pasture forages [2,5]. ...
... In this regard, it is not imagined the surplus production from the livestock unless the immediate action undertaken to improving dry matter supply and feed quality issues in to study areas [5]. Therefore, testing locally adaptable and producing adequate quality forages to supplement pasture based feeding system is only way to overwhelm feed shortage in to study area [3,7]. Among the promising improved forage species, Oat (Avena sativa) is one of the potential annual forage crops commonly cultivated in the highland agro-ecologies and well adapted to wide range of soils and relatively tolerant to moisture stress, water logging and frost [8,9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The five oat varieties were evaluated for their dry matter yield, crude protein, Neutral detergent fiber, Acid detergent fiber and Ash at Geza kebele of South Ari Woreda in South Omo Zone during 2018 cropping season. The study was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. Data on forage dry matter yield, plant height, Leaf to stem ratio and nutritional qualities were analyzed using the General Linear Model procedures of SAS and least significance difference was used for mean comparison. From the study the highest (P<0.001) dry matter yield (23.49 t ha-1) was recorded for Jassary variety and whereas, lowest dry matter yield (16.67 t/ha-1) was for CI-2806 variety. Conversely, significantly higher (P<0.01) Crude protein (103.7g/Kg, DM) recorded for CI-2291 and whereas, significantly lowest (P<0.01) Crude protein (72g/Kg, DM) for CI-8237 variety. Therefore, based on findings from this study we concluded that farmers who living in high land areas of South Omo Zone and other areas having comparable agro-ecology could plant Jassary oat variety followed by CI-8237 for higher dry matter yield and whereas, for crude protein content it was recommended that farmers could plant CI-2291 variety followed by CI-8251 and CI-2806 oat varieties respectively.
... Several previously reported studies supports findings from our study on feed supply and feed balance. Accordingly, study reported by Denbela et al.(2017) for Salamago Woreda; Hidosa and Tesfaye(2018) for Maale Woreda which indicated that estimated feed supply and feed balance for livestock were generally negative and it is difficult to imagine much benefits obtained from the livestock in to study area if any further mitigation solutions is not undertaken. Likewise, also, the study reported by FOA (2018) demonstrated that availability of feeds as dry matter (DM), ME and CP and the requirements of all animal species showed the feed deficiency in Ethiopia by 9 % as DM, while, ME and CP deficiencies were 45 and 42 % respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
A goat feed inventory and feed balance studies were conducted inthe Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woredas in South Omo Zone with the aim of assessing the current status of major goat feed resources, their dry matter availability and the overall goat feed balance within the regions. Five kebeles from Bena-Tsemay and three kebeles from Hamer were selected for the purposes of conducting the studies. In each of these woredas, between eight and twelve herders were recruited for focus group discussions (FGDs) aimed at compiling local feed inventories. These verbal reports collected from the pastoralists and agro pastotalists were additionally confirmed by field observations and monitoring, and compared with similar previous studies and other secondary information from the study districts. Pastoralists and agro pastoralist were interviewed about the major feed resource for goats, their availability, seasonal dynamics and the morphological plant parts utilized by goats. They were also asked to make comment on goat feeding practices, including the role of special feeding and the use of planted fodder species and crop residues. In addition to the FGDs, in each kebele engaged, a subset of the most experienced participating pastoralists were asked to collect samples of each of the rangeland goat forage species nominated during the interviews. These samples were photographed and catalogued in code corresponding to the local names for each species. Botanical identification was later made by Adami Tulu of the Agriculture Research Centre Laboratory. The findings from this study revealed that there were 22 and 20, 51 and 40 different herbaceous and browse forage species were identified as major goat feeds from Hamer and Bena-Tsemay Woreda respectively. Pertaining to goat feed resource availability and seasonal dynamics, herders reported that the majority of nominated feed resources for goat were in surplus supply during wet seasons (particularly from April to August) and that these reserves then declined declined during the dry seasons, with many of the species becoming unavailable to goats from January to February. The overwhelming proportion of dry matter available to goats in Hamer Woreda comes from naturally grown rangeland plants while small contributions was comes from crop residues. The opposite is true for Bena-Temay Woreda, where agro-pastoralists depend heavily on crop residues for animal survival during dry seasons. There are an estimated 205,300 and 75,573 goats (Tropical Livestock Unit) kept in the districts of Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively.The working on an average body weight and an assumed dry matter intake of 2.5% and the estimated total annual maintenance dry matter requirement for all goats across these districts are likely to be in the order of 470,000 and 170,000 tons respectively. This figure far exceeds the estimated dry matter produced in the study areas (370,000 and 40,000 for Hamer and Bena-Tsemay respectively) and equates to estimated deficits of roughly 94,000 and 129,000 tons of dry matter for each respective Woreda. These figures are inherently unreliable and can only serve as approximations due to the desktop nature of the calculations, the number of plant species comprising total yield and their spacious-temporal variance in frequency, density, growth and yield. Frequent droughts as a result of climate change, the conversion of rangeland browsing area in to cropping land, lack of skill and knowledge in goat feeding and husbandry in combination with increasing goat populations represent as major challenges to goat production in the study areas. The general conclusions of this study are that presently, in both of the Woredas investigated, aggregate goat stocking numbers cannot be supported by the estimated dry matter available to goats and do not match to support profitable from the goat production in the study areas. This is likely to represent an on-going problem for goats’ survival, productivity and household incomes, while also threatening to further degrade the naturally occurring browse resource species. These is suggest that the primary focus of development efforts to support pastoralists and agro-pastoral goat production need to be improving the existing feed resources through area enclosure, treating poor quality feeds for goats, forage banking from range land during surplus production, introduction and demonstration of adaptable cultivated fodder species and enhancing the utilization of native browse species as a local protein supplements. Key Words: Goats, Feed Resources, Feed Resource Availability, Feed Resources dynamics and Feed Balance
Article
Full-text available
The deficit in quantity and quality of feed in one of the major nutritional impairments that are affecting livestock production in South Omo. Pigeon pea species is among the legume fodder species, which has been playing a pivotal role in providing a high quality protein to the livestock. This study was initiated to evaluate biomass yield and quality parameters of five feed-type pigeon pea varieties. The five feed-type pigeon pea varieties such as DZ-16555, DZ-00420, DZBS, Tsegabe and local pigeon pea were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. The agronomic parameters, biomass yield and quality parameters were analyzed by using Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS and Least Significance Difference (LSD) was used for mean comparison among tested varieties. The DZ-16555 variety gave higher (p<0.05) biomass yield (21.27tha-1), while local variety gave the lowest (12.54tha-1) biomass yield. Correspondingly, DZ-16555 variety had higher (p<0.05) crude protein (270.18gkg-1 , DM) over the local variety (190.91gkg-1 , DM). Based result from this study, it was concluded that DZ-16555 pigeon pea variety was best candidate to improve feed and nutritional supply for enhanced production from livestock.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Productivity and reproductive performances of livestock in Ethiopia is low mainly due to scarcity and quality of feed. The Desho grass is indigenous to Ethiopia and belongs to the family Poaceae and has high biomass production potential that could be used to tackle the problem of scarcity and quality of feed. Objectives: This study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four Desho grass varieties grown in irrigated lowland of Dassench and Hamer districts of South Omo Zone in southwestern Ethiopia. Material and Methods: The Sermemiret Kebele from Dassench District and Eribore Kebele from Hamer district were selected for a participatory on-farm experimental trial with active involvements of district pastoral office experts and Kebele development agents. Four Desho grass varieties, namely, Areka-DZF#590, Kulumisa-DZF#590, Kindokisha-DZF#591 and Areka local were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications per variety. Data on dry matter yield (DMY), cutting height, number of tillers per plant (NTPP) and leaf to stem ratio (LTSR) were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. Results: The highest (P < 0.05) dry matter yield (35.09 t ha-1) and Crude protein (CP) (129.50g kg-1 , DM) were recorded for Areka-DZF#590 whereas the lowest dry matter yield (16.96 t ha-1) and CP (90.60g kg-1 , DM) were obtained from Areka local check. Conclusion and Implication: We conclude that Areka-DZF#590 Desho grass variety was found to be the highest in dry matter and crude protein production. Pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and farmers in the area could enhance feed availability for increased livestock production.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The study was carried out in Harshin woreda, Fafan zone on the cattle fattening practice and marketing system to assess cattle fattening practice and marketing system in three kabeles of the study area. 84.4% and 15.6% respondents were male and female, respectively. The average age of the respondents was found to be 39.5 out of which 55.6%, 33.3% and 11.1% were illiterate, able to read and write and primary school, respectively. The overall mean for family size house hold was 5.73 persons per household and average holding of cattle, sheep, goat, and poultry were found to be 9.08, 3.51, 1.20 and 6.17, respectively. The majority (52%) of the farmers prefer to fatten steer than bulls. the major feeds given for the fattening cattle, is natural pasture (62%), grain by product (16%) and crop residues (22%) and water sources identified in woreda were wells (73%), ponds (20%), and lakes (7%). The housing system of cattle in the woreda were 30%, 50%, 20% in living room with the family, home stead shed and barn, respectively. The cattle fatteners obtain fattening cattle from farm-gate (62.2%), primary market (33.3%) and secondary market (4.5%). The current study indicated that selling of fattened cattle was undertaken at saylada local market (86.7%), Hartasheika town (13.3%). According to the result of the household survey, overall in the study area the mean price of cattle before and after fattening were about 5,000 birr and 9,500 birr, respectively, and resulting with gross profit of about 4,500 birr per fattening cattle which comes from price margin and feed margin. Major constraints that hindered the performance of cattle fattening activity in the study area were mentioned as feed shortage, lack of capital, shortage of labor, low level of awareness towards fattening cattle and animal health problem.
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to characterize the morphological peculiarities and performance characteristics of Mursi cattle in its production environment managed by Bodi and Mursi pastoral communities in Southern Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire survey, group discussion, cattle morphological measurements and morphological descriptions were used to collect data. One hundred and two household heads were selected to administer the questionnaire and 201 adult cattle were selected for morphological description and body measurements. The Mursi cattle population was found to have variable coat colour type (85.9 percent) and coat colour pattern (51.3 percent). Body length, chest girth, withers height, rump width and rump length of Mursi cattle were 122.1 ± 0.9, 144.5 ± 0.9, 113 ± 0.1.1, 36.9 ± 0.3 and 20.4 ± 0.3 cm, respectively. Morphological measurements of most linear traits show no difference in the two locations but all measurements vary (P < 0.001) between males and females. Estimated age at first calving was 4.6 years and was significantly (P < 0.0001) higher in the Mursi area, while the calving interval (14.5 months) and cow reproductive life (14.2 years) were the same in both locations. Average daily milk yield (2.1 litres) and lactation length (7.8 months) of Mursi cattle in the two locations were similar. Cattle production was constrained by high disease prevalence, seasonal feed availability, and water shortage, with frequent drought. Trypanosomosis, black leg, anthrax and skin diseases are major cattle diseases reported in the two study areas. Because of its peculiar morphological characteristics, including large body frame, higher production performance, and survivability in the harsh environment, the Mursi cattle can be used as an alternative genetic resource for production improvement programs.
Article
Full-text available
A survey was conducted in Ginchi watershed area in Dandi district of Oromia Regional State, central Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to assess livestock production system, productive and reproductive performance of animals and to identify constraints to livestock production. Cross-sectional stratified random sampling technique was used to select and administer pre-tested, structured questionnaire to 78 randomly selected households. Data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed that mixed crop-livestock production system was found to be the dominant farming system in the study area. The average landholding/household was 2.5 ha. The average livestock holding per household was 4.53±0.4 cattle, 1.08±0.2 sheep, 0.54±0.2 goats, 0.1±0.04 horses, 0.1±0.04 mules, 0.6±0.09 donkeys and 3.04 poultry, respectively. In the study area, cattle are kept mainly for draught purposes. Small ruminants are used to generate income and meat production for household consumption. The major feed resources were natural pasture, hay, crop residues and crop-aftermath and tree/shrub fodders. Average milk production per cow/day was 1.76 liters. Average age at first calving, calving interval and lactation length (months) were reported to be 50.59 ± 6.93, 22.19±7.73 and 8.96±4.6, respectively. Respondents ranked feed shortage, diseases prevalence, labour scarcity and lack of capital as the major constraints limiting livestock production in that order of importance. Technical and institutional intervention would be very crucial to alleviate the prevailing constraints to livestock production in the study area.
Article
Full-text available
Pastoralism, which is the main source of livelihood to about 120 million pastoralists worldwide, is practiced in the drylands that are characterized by low rainfall and frequent droughts. In the semi arid and arid lands of Kenya (88% of the Kenya landmass), pastoralism accounts for 90% of the employment and 95% of the family incomes and livelihood security. It contributes to about 10% of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) and 50% of the agricultural GDP. However, frequent droughts have threatened this important sector which offers a viable production system in the vast drylands of the country. This paper highlights on the effects of droughts on pastoralism and the coping and adaptive strategies employed by the Maasai pastoralists of northern Kenya with special reference to Mukogodo Division of the semi arid Laikipia District.
Article
The study was conducted in Sinana Dinsho district of Bale highlands, Ethiopia. The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of moisture availability or pattern of rainfall on grass/legume composition and nutritive value of natural pasture in the district. Grass species dominated the natural pasture of the study area. Peak proportion of legume species was observed in September and October in both Sinana and Dinsho sub- districts. The proportion of grasses increased (P<0.05) with maturity of pasture on the grazing lands and a decline in rainfall from the wet to the dry season, whereas the proportion of legumes were higher (P<0.05) in the natural pasture early in the rainy season. The CP and ash contents of natural pasture were higher (P<0.05) in Dinsho sub- district than in Sinana, while IVDMD and fiber contents were similar (P>0.05) for the natural pasture in the two sub-districts. Annual metabolizable energy (ME) (P<0.001) and digestible crude protein (DCP) (P<0.001) supplied by forage from grazing lands was higher in Dinsho sub- district compared to Sinana sub- district. In vitro DM digestibility, CP, and ash contents decreased with advance in the rainy season, while the contrary was true for the contents of cell wall fibre and lignin. Therefore, it was concluded that delayed harvesting of natural pasture for hay making results in reduced nutritive value.
Article
A survey was conducted in Hamer and Benna-Tsemay districts of the South Omo zone of Ethiopia, with the objectives of assessing the range-livestock management practices and perceptions of the different pastoral groups (Hamer, Benna, and Tsemay) towards rangeland degradation. This information is considered to be vital to future pastoral development planning and interventions. The information was gathered through group discussions, personal observations, and using a structured questionnaire where each household was taken as a unit of analysis. The average family size per household was for Hamer = 7.05 for Benna = 7.93 and for Tsemay = 7 with nearly 98.1% of the respondents without any kind of education. All pastoral groups derived their main income from the sale of animals, which was followed by the sale of honey as in the case of Hamer and Tsemay pastoralists. The average livestock per household was 25.7, 10 and 2.8 tropical livestock unit (TLU) cattle, goat and sheep, respectively. The major livestock production constraints were drought, feed and water shortage and animal health problems. The different pastoral groups have the opinion that the condition of their rangeland is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, drought and increase in human population. Furthermore, there was also a problem of bush encroachment which is an indicator of rangeland degradation. There are no range improvement practices undertaken to improve the condition of the rangelands. Mobility is the first measure taken to solve shortage of livestock feed and water but many of the pastoralists replied that they face many problems during migrations. Because of the unfavorable climatic condition for cultivation, most of the respondents of Hamer and Tsemay pastoralists and about 35% from Benna still prefer communal land tenure, where resources are shared. In conclusion, the indigenous knowledge of the pastoralists about range-livestock management and their environment should be incorporated while planning range-livestock development projects for the study districts.
Role of livestock on a mixed (IGAD).2010. The contribution of livestock to the economies of IGAD member states
  • G Gryseels
Gryseels, G., 1988. Role of livestock on a mixed (IGAD).2010. The contribution of livestock to the economies of IGAD member states. IGAD LPI working paper No. 02-11.
Country pastures / forage resource profiles
  • Mengistu Alemayehu
Mengistu Alemayehu. 2003. Country pastures / forage resource profiles, Ethiopia. FAO, 1: 36.
Feed resources and feeding management: A manual for feedlot operators and development workers. SPM-LMM program
  • Adugna Tolera
Adugna Tolera. 2008. Feed resources and feeding management: A manual for feedlot operators and development workers. SPM-LMM program. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.