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PEMSDAS—Portable Expandable Modular Seismic Data Acquisition System

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  • The Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences
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Multiparameter geophysical observatory was established in North Caucasus, near Elbrus Volcano, in 2001 by the scientists of Otto Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth (IPE) of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) with support of Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) RAS and Berbekov Kabardino-Balkar State University (KBSU) to study possible reawakening of volcanism in the region. This paper describes the instrumental equipment of monitoring investigations and data acquisition system forced into application by mid-2007, provides technical characteristics of some devices and their principles. Capacities of the observatory are shown by numerous examples. The most valuable results of instrumental measurements are presented. Based on these data, we studied the tidal deformations, which reflect the structural features of geologic environment of Elbrus volcanic center caused by magmatic bodies. Variations of the earth surface tilt and magnetic field related to the catastrophic Sumatra earthquake December 26, 2004 were recorded, and the spectrum and wavelet analyses were performed. For the first time the wave processes in various geophysical fields that reflect main dynamic features of generation and motion of a catastrophic snow avalanche directly on the observation point were observed and studied. These data underlie the mathematical model of non-linear dynamics of slope flows. Further perspectives of development of the North Caucasus Geophysical Observatory are outlined.
Article
Статья посвящена деталям разработки новой малогабаритной модульной малопотребляющей системы сбора информации, построенной на базе 24-разрядного аналого-цифрового преобразователя. Современные геофизические наблюдения сейчас невозможно себе представить без использования разнообразных электронных систем сбора информации. Какой параметр или явление мы не пытались бы зарегистрировать или измерить, везде будет присутствовать обязательный элемент - аналого-цифровой преобразователь. Но, к сожалению, зачастую невозможно найти идеальную систему сбора информации для каждой решаемой задачи. В геофизических исследованиях многие задачи оказываются "штучным товаром", для которого необходимо иметь свою систему сбора, обладающую специфическими характеристиками. Это является одной из причин разработок все новых вариантов систем сбора вплоть до настоящего времени. В статье описывается разработка такой специализированной малогабаритной модульной системы сбора информации. Дано описание ее основных функциональных блоков, уделено внимание наиболее важным параметрам, влияющим как на качество всей системы в целом, так и на улучшение эффективной разрядности за счет максимального уменьшения уровня собственных шумов.
Article
Effective number of bits (ENOB) describe an ADC's performance and is a figure of merit that is calculated from the signal-to-noise plus distortion (SINAD). It attempts to describe the converter's performance in terms of an ideal converter. An ideal 16-bit converter's performance digitizing a sine wave shows that the ratio of signal power to that of noise is the signal-to-noise (SNR). SINAD is used instead of SNR because it includes the nonlinearities that cause distortion and an ideal converter has no nonlinearities. Depending upon the type of converter, the measurement and specification of ENOB applies well for comparing dynamic performance for many different converter architectures. The manufacturers of delta-sigma converters for use in dc measurement applications have defined their own equation for ENOB, which is a noise measurement.
Article
The true or full ground motion information is frequently necessary in seismology to deal with a wide range of urgent scientific and applied problems; this information includes knowledge not only of ground motion along three axes at the recording site, but also the values of tilt or rotations of the surface at the site. This problem is usually attacked using a special type of seismic instrument-tiltmeters. Gyrotiltmeter is one of the many types of tiltmeters in which the gyroscope is used as the active sensor. The main obstacle in the way of developing effective long period seismic instruments, including gyrotiltmeters, consists in various sorts of noise, frequently not of seismic origin, which influence on the instrument increases as its frequency characteristic is extended toward longer periods. The present paper is concerned with problems arising in the use of optimal filters to detect seismic signals in records of a gyrotiltmeter where also noise may be present, e.g., that due to air pressure fluctuations. Examples are provided of tests of the algorithms, which clearly demonstrate that the application of the optimal filters to records of long period gyrotiltmeter channels can significantly enhance the signal/noise ratio to detect seismic signals disguised by induced noise. Key wordsgyrotiltmeter-optimal filter-baric noise
Application of DAC and ADC in control systems of higher accuracy
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ElectronicDesign page: ENOB isn’t always the best figure of merit
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