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Quantifying Tensile Properties of Bamboo Silicone Biocomposite using Yeoh Model


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The utilisation of bamboo has the potential of improving the properties of silicone. However, a thorough investigation has yet to be reported on the mechanical properties of bamboo silicone biocomposite. This study was carried out with the aim to quantify the tensile properties and assess the tensile behaviour of bamboo silicone biocomposite using Yeoh hyperelastic constitutive function. The specimens were prepared from the mix of bamboo particulate and pure silicone at various fibre composition ratio (0wt%, 1wt%, 3wt% and 5wt%) cured overnight at room temperature. A uniaxial tensile test was carried out by adopting the ASTM D412 testing standard. The Coefficient of Variation, CV, and the Coefficient of Determination, r2, were determined to assess the reliability of the experimental data and fitting model. The results of the determined Yeoh material constants for 5wt% specimen is found to be C1 = 12.0603×10-3 MPa, C2 = 8.7353×10-5 MPa and C3 = -11.6165×10-8 MPa, compared to pure silicone (0wt%) C1 = 5.6087×10-3 MPa, C2 = 8.6639×10-5 MPa and C3 = -7.6510×10-8 MPa. The results indicate that the bamboo fibre improves the stiffness of the silicone rubber by 115 percent. A low variance was exhibited by the experimental data with a CV value of less than 8 percent. The Yeoh Model demonstrated an excellent prediction of the elastic behaviour of bamboo silicone biocomposite with a fitting accuracy of more than 99.93 percent.
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International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7 (4.26) (2018) 245-250
International Journal of Engineering & Technology
Research paper
Quantifying Tensile Properties of Bamboo Silicone Biocomposite
using Yeoh Model
Kamarul Nizam Hassan1, Jamaluddin Mahmud2*, Anwar P.P. Abdul Majeed3, Mohd Azman Yahaya4
1Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
2Innovative Manufacturing, Mechatronics and Sports Laboratory, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang,
26600 Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia
*Corresponding author E-mail:
The utilisation of bamboo has the potential of improving the properties of silicone. However, a thorough investigation has yet to be re-
ported on the mechanical properties of bamboo silicone biocomposite. This study was carried out with the aim to quantify the tensile
properties and assess the tensile behaviour of bamboo silicone biocomposite using Yeoh hyperelastic constitutive function. The speci-
mens were prepared from the mix of bamboo particulate and pure silicone at various fibre composition ratio (0wt%, 1wt%, 3wt% and
5wt%) cured overnight at room temperature. A uniaxial tensile test was carried out by adopting the ASTM D412 testing standard. The
Coefficient of Variation, CV, and the Coefficient of Determination, r2, were determined to assess the reliability of the experimental data
and fitting model. The results of the determined Yeoh material constants for 5wt% specimen is found to be C1 = 12.0603×10-3 MPa, C2 =
8.7353×10-5 MPa and C3 = -11.6165×10-8 MPa, compared to pure silicone (0wt%) C1 = 5.6087×10-3 MPa, C2 = 8.6639×10-5 MPa and C3
= -7.6510×10-8 MPa. The results indicate that the bamboo fibre improves the stiffness of the silicone rubber by 115 percent. A low vari-
ance was exhibited by the experimental data with a CV value of less than 8 percent. The Yeoh Model demonstrated an excellent predic-
tion of the elastic behaviour of bamboo silicone biocomposite with a fitting accuracy of more than 99.93 percent.
Keywords: Bamboo fibres; Hyperelastic; Tensile properties; Yeoh Model; Coefficient of Variation
1. Introduction
The exploitation of natural fibers as reinforcement material has led
to a massive development of biocomposite for various applica-
tions. The transition towards sustainable products is in tandem
with one of the seventeen United Nation’s Sustainable
Development Goals that contribute towards a sustainable future.
Lignocellulosic fibres possess an advantage over other natural
fibres due to its massive annual production which reflected from
substantial agriculture activities across the tropical continents
especially in China, India and South East Asia [1-3]. These mate-
rials are favoured for their notable strengthtodensity ratio and
have been extensively utilised in the production of highelastic
resistance and weightreduced components for automobiles,
aircraft, marines and buildings [4-11]. The integration can also be
seen in the exploratory works of rubberlike composites, although
the employment greatly accentuated on highstrength fibres such
as jute and hemp [12-14]. The limitation, however, resulted in the
diversity towards the exploration of alternative resources with
comparable properties and yet, provide facile accessibility and less
costly [15].
In Malaysia, bamboo offers considerable potential, primarily due
to its large cultivation area and relatively cost-effective [16, 17]. It
is worth to note that bamboo has identical performance to major
timber species [18] and have been exploited in numerous form to
cater for different industrial applications [19, 20]. Bamboo fibres
are mostly incorporated into polymeric composites i.e. polyvinyl
chloride (PVC) and highdensity polyethylene (HDPE) where the
addition enhances the stiffness and flexural strength of the ma-
trixes [21, 22]. The integration was also found to improve the
tensile modulus of natural rubber in [23, 24]. It is worth noting
that the amount of fibre used was between 2.5 to 45 weight
percent of the matrix. Though, the effect from the embedded fibre
on elastomeric response has yet to be thoroughly reported in the
previous work of rubber composites.
The characteristics of rubber, in contrary to bamboo fibre, are
induced by the elastic behaviour of the material [25], hence, the
need for nonlinear elastic models to quantify their properties is
essential. Hyperelastic polynomial relations such as NeoHookean
and MooneyRivlin are among the commonly used quantification
models [26-30] owing to their lower degree of intricacy to be as-
sessed as compared to exponential prediction models [31, 32].
However, the precision of the invariantbased models is limited
by the presence of insufficient terms thus brought to the estab-
lishment of the extended polynomial hyperelastic models such as
Yeoh and third order deformation approximation [33]. Yeoh
model has been employed in many studies to quantify tensile [34],
compressive [35] and shear [36] properties of rubberlike materials.
The model was found to provide a reasonably accurate prediction
of the experimental values with a relatively low error [37].
Therefore, this work attempts to quantify and assess the tensile
properties of a novel bamboo silicone biocomposite using Yeoh
hyperelastic constitutive equation. Low fibre loading was used to
prevent the tendency for large size agglomerates to develop in the
mixture [38]. The study also employed two different statistical
indicators, namely, Coefficient of Variation, CV, and Coefficient
of Determination, r2 to assess the reliability of the attained ex-
perimental results and the prediction model respectively. More-
over, since silicone rubber is favoured in many applications, i.e.
International Journal of Engineering & Technology
biomedical and automotive, amongst others for its excellent mate-
rial properties [30, 39, 40], thus interpreting its elastic response is
of critical importance for design optimization.
2. Methodology
2.1. Specimen Formulation and Compounding
Bamboo acquired is of Dendrocalamus pendulus species with an
initial moisture content of 36.5 percent. The culm was cut into
sections before peeled and dried in an oven at 80C for 24 h.
Dried mid culm was then crushed using ball mill at a speed of 300
rpm for 2 h. The produced powder was ground using a 100 μm
screen. Next, bamboo particulate and pure silicone (Ecoflex 0030)
were mixed at a fibre composition ratio of 0, 1, 3 and 5 weight
percentage to the matrix and left to cure overnight at room tem-
perature. Specimens were labelled as BS00, BS01, BS03 and
BS05 where the number represents the respective fibre composi-
tion. Composed specimens were considered to be homogeneous
throughout the structure.
2.2. Tensile Test
The uniaxial tensile test was carried out using Shimadzu Auto-
graph AG-X 5kN (Fig. 1), by employing the ASTM D412 testing
standard [41]. A total of 20 specimens was tested; 5 specimens for
every composition of bamboo particulate. Attained results were
presented in the form of mean engineering stressstretch relation.
Fig. 1: Tensile test in progress
2.3. Determining the Yeoh Material Constants
Mechanical properties of the composed material were determined
numerically through the manipulation of Yeoh hyperelastic consti-
tutive model to the experimental data. The general form of strain
energy function is given by [33]:
W = C10(I1 3) + C20(I1 3)2 + C30(I1 3)3 (1)
where C10, C20 and C30 are the material constants of the tested
specimen. For the case of incompressible material, the Green de-
formation tensor relation, I1, reduces to:
I1 = λ2 + 2λ-1 (2)
where λ is the principle extension ratio. Considering Piola
Kirchhoff stress theory, engineering stressstretch relation can be
derived from Eq. (1):
σe = 2(λ – λ-2)(C10 + 2C202 + 2λ-1 3) + 3C302 +-1 3)2) (3)
Material constants were computed using the derivative of the
polynomial regression method, which is represented by the fol-
lowing relation [42]:
Sr = Σ(σ(λ)i, exp σ(λ)i, model)2 (4)
This method has been employed in various studies due to its effec-
tiveness in solving multipleconstant polynomial equation [43,
2.4. Statistical Analysis
The precision of the experimental results was measured by the
evaluation of data extendibility using Coefficient of Variation
relation [45]:
CV = [Σi λmean)2 / (n 1)]1/2 /mean| (5)
where n is the number of specimens. In general, the value of CV
represents the ratio of sample standard deviation relative to its
absolute mean, λmean at predetermined stress magnitude. A dataset
of high precision scattered at low variance, contributed to the
small CV value vice versa [46, 47].
Moreover, the accuracy of the fitted curves was determined using
the Coefficient of Determination (COD) relation [42]:
r2 = 1 Σ(σ(λ)i, exp σ(λ)i, model)2 / Σ(σ(λ)i, exp σ(λ)mean)2 (6)
Mainly, the higher coefficient value indicates higher accuracy is
achieved by the prediction model to the original uncertainties of
experimental data [48, 49].
3. Results and Discussion
Fig. 2 shows the uniaxial elastic behaviour of bamboo silicone
biocomposite at various fibretomatrix ratio. All curves display
nonlinear characteristic in which similar to the profile of silicone
rubber composites reported in [30, 50].
Fig. 2: Mean stressstretch behaviour of specimens BS00 (); BS01 ();
BS03 (); and BS05 (●).
It is interesting to note the transition of the curvilinear trend across
the axes. It could be observed that the addition of bamboo filler
into the silicone rubber matrix affects the elasticity properties of
the developed biocomposite. This is apparent with the decrease in
the elongation of 6 percent. A similar trend was also portrayed in
[50] where the relative strain reduces with the increase of fibre
content. The poor elasticity behaviour is resulted from the pro-
gression of strain energy, which leads to a higher degree of resis-
tance of the structure towards large deformation state.
Furthermore, it could also be observed that along the deformation
range 2 ≤ λ 7, gradual increment transpired to the slope of the
curves which suggested that stiffening effect is highly intensified
at lower stress range (20 kPa ≤ σ 300 kPa). The presence of
more fillers provides a larger surface area, allowing higher load
transfer to take place due to the significant interaction occurs be-
tween matrix and fibres [39, 51]. The increase in stiffness is re-
flected by the upsurge trend of constant C1 in Table 1. The
stiffness of the silicone rubber was found to enhance by 115
percent with the incorporation of 5 wt% bamboo fibres. The elon-
gation profile also tends to be less nonlinear in which conveyed by
the decreasing value of constant C3. However, no changes tran-
spired to the behaviour of the stressstretch curve beyond the
aforesaid range, probably due to the greater matrix crosslinking
effect as compared to the fibre reinforcing [24]. Such occurrence
can be related to the unvarying trend of the constant C2 in the
presented table.
Table 1: Yeoh material constants determined at various composition
Material Constants (MPa)
COD, r2
C1 (10-3)
C2 (10-5)
C3 (10-8)
Fig. 3 shows the CV value of the experimental data at various
mean stretch. High CV value was found to appear in the range of 2
≤ λ ≤ 7 which concentred at 200 percent stretch for all specimens.
The emergence of the peak value is brought by the abrupt data
distribution exhibited by the specimens within the stress value of
0.02 to 0.03 MPa (refer Fig. 4). However, as the exerted load in-
creases, the transpired elongation becomes closer to the sample
mean, that in turn resulted in the less deviation of the error bar.
Despite the broad data distribution exhibited in Fig. 4(c) and 4(d),
low variance data appeared in the stressstretch diagram of speci-
mens BS00 and BS01 with a CV value of less than 3 percent (Fig.
4(a) and 4(b)).
In terms of reinforcing mechanism, such development might be
associated to the disproportionate tensile strength exhibited by the
distinctive specimens as a result from the presence of the large and
poor dispersion of agglomerates throughout the matrix [52-54].
The development of the filler network during low deformation is
highly related to the higher surface interaction between fibre and
matrix [55]. However, as the concentration of filler increases, the
matrixfiller interaction tends to become weaker due to the reduc-
tion of specific surface area transpired from the agglomeration of
fibres [56]. Large agglomerates act as a stress concentrator in a
matrix [56] and it is unfavoured for its low transverse stiffness
[48]. Agglomerates with a size larger than the flaw size of matrix
contribute to poor dispersion [57, 58] and deteriorate the mechani-
cal properties [54].
Fig. 3: Coefficient of variation of dataset attribute to specimens BS00 ();
BS01 (); BS03 (); and BS05 (●) at various mean stretch
Though, less variation was found to appear to the data set beyond
700 percent stretch range with a CV value of less than 2 percent.
At large strain, filler network tends to be weak due to amplifica-
tion of local strain which causes rubber chains between crosslinks
to greatly extend [55]. The development of rubber crosslinking
reduces the inconsistency of reinforcing effect thus resulted in the
homogeneous deformation of the specimens. All the data attained
from the experiment are distributed within 95 percent of the
normal distribution.
Fig. 4: Mean stressstretch behaviour of specimens (a) BS00; (b) BS01; (c)
BS03; and (d) and BS05 focusing specifically on deformation region of 1
≤ λ ≤ 7 with 2 standard deviation error bar.
The stressstretch curve for each variation is separated into Fig.
5(a), Fig. 5(b), Fig 5(c) and Fig 5(d) to explicitly highlight the
behaviour of the prediction curve (Yeoh Model) with respect to
the experimental value. Predicted hyperelastic profiles are de-
picted by the dashed curve lines. The fitted curves are almost con-
sistent with the experimental data value (denoted by markers) with
International Journal of Engineering & Technology
a standard error of less than 1 percent. The high value of r2 ob-
tained indicates the adequacy of the Yeoh Model on representing
the experimental results. The outcome shows that there is a real
relation between stretch, λ, and stress, σ, [43] for all tested speci-
mens in present work.
Nevertheless, at lower stretch range (1 ≤ λ ≤ 3.25), a high discrep-
ancy occurs to the projections (Fig. 6(a) to 6(d)) due to the inher-
ent limitation of the model on depicting small strain behaviour of
large deformation material [33]. Disassociation of invariant tensor
I2 has brought to such drawback [33]. A relative error within the
range was found to be 31.38, 30.27, 34.09 and 56.42 percent
which attribute to the prediction model of specimen BS00, BS01,
BS03 and BS05 respectively. An inverse relation can be seen be-
tween relative error and coefficient of determination value the
higher the error transpired, the lower the value of the coefficient
attained. At higher stretch range (3.25 < λ 14), transpired rela-
tive error is below 5 percent for all predicted value.
Fig. 5: Mean stressstretch behaviour of specimens (a) BS00; (b) BS01; (c)
BS03; and (d) BS05 and respective Yeoh Model prediction curves.
Fig. 6: Mean stressstretch behaviour of specimens (a) BS00; (b) BS01; (c)
BS03; and (d) BS05 in deformation region of 1 ≤ λ 3. The dashed line
represents the Yeoh Model prediction curve.
4. Conclusion
This paper reports the work related to the quantification of the
tensile properties of bamboo silicone biocomposite. The variation
of experimental data was found to be acceptable with the
distribution of less than 8 percent. It was observed that the stiff-
ness of bamboo silicone biocomposite is improved by 115 percent
through the reinforcement of 5 weight percent ratio of bamboo
fibres into silicone rubber. Moreover, an excellent prediction of
the elastic behaviour of tested specimens was demonstrated by the
Yeoh Model, suggesting its efficacy in predicting the behaviour of
the proposed biocomposite. Future works will involve the investi-
gation and the quantification of the compressive behaviour of
bamboo reinforced silicone biocomposite to provide further
insight on its potentiality and practical implications.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the
Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia (MOHE) and Universiti
Teknologi MARA (UiTM). (Grant no: 600RMI/FRGS 5/3
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The friction behavior of cylinder seal greatly affects the dynamic position accuracy of the cylinder execution terminal under hydrothermal aging. So, the hydrothermal aging test, friction test, tensile and compression test, topography analysis and infrared spectroscopy analysis, and multiscale simulation were carried out for studying the effect of the hydrothermal aging on the friction performance of cylinder seal. It was found that when the aging temperature increases from 40 to 80°C, the dynamic friction forces of the cylinder seals increase by more than 15%; the friction force increases with the increasement of the initial mechanical stress. Aging makes rubber to be brittle and more cavities on the fracture surface and reduces the fractured activation energy of the nitrile rubber molecular chain.
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Optimizing DIA 2/42 Abbreviations: CV, Coefficient of variation; DDA, Data-dependent acquisition; DIA, Data-independent acquisition; FDR, false discovery rate; MS1, Peptide precursor survey scan; MS2, Fragment ion scan; S1BF, Somatosensory cortex 1 barrel field Optimizing DIA 3/42 Summary Comprehensive, reproducible and precise analysis of large sample cohorts is one of the key objectives of quantitative proteomics. Here, we present an implementation of data-independent acquisition using its parallel acquisition nature that surpasses the limitation of serial MS2 acquisition of data-dependent acquisition on a quadrupole ultra-high field Orbitrap mass spectrometer. In deep single shot data-independent acquisition, we identified and quantified 6,383 proteins in human cell lines using 2-or-more peptides/protein and over 7,100 proteins when including the 717 proteins that were identified on the basis of a single peptide sequence. 7,739 proteins were identified in mouse tissues using 2-or-more peptides/protein and 8,121 when including the 382 proteins that were identified on the basis of a single peptide sequence. Missing values for proteins were within 0.3 to 2.1% and median coefficients of variation of 4.7 to 6.2% among technical triplicates. In very complex mixtures, we could quantify 10,780 proteins and 12,192 proteins when including the 1,412 proteins that were identified on the basis of a single peptide sequence. Using this optimized DIA, we investigated large-protein networks before and after the critical period for whisker experience-induced synaptic strength in the murine somatosensory cortex 1 barrel field. This work shows that parallel mass spectrometry enables proteome profiling for discovery with high coverage, reproducibility, precision and scalability. Optimizing DIA 4/42
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Nanocalcium carbonate (CaCO3) was successfully adhered to the surface of bamboo fiber (BF) via both impregnation and blending modification. The BF-, BMBF (bamboo fiber treated by blending modification)- and IMBF (bamboo fiber treated by impregnation modification)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were all manufactured by means of extrusion molding. The flexural and impact properties of the composites (the addition of BF, BMBF and IMBF were all 30 wt%) were analyzed. CaCO3 with a loading of 15 wt% had an effect on the performance of the composites. The flexural strength (FS) of the BMBF and IMBF composites increased by 1.09 and 9.36%, respectively, while the differences of the impact strength were insignificant among these, compared to the BF/HDPE composites. The flexural properties of the IMBF/HDPE composites were investigated with different mass fractions of IMBF (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, 60 and 70 wt%). The results showed that the FS of the IMBF/HDPE composites reached a maximum value (58.99 MPa) when the mass fraction of the IMBF was 30 wt% and increased by 50.95% compared to when the mass fraction was 5 wt%. These results were supported by ESEM and fractal dimension analysis in terms of proper distribution of nano-CaCO3 and interfacial adhesion between the IMBF and HDPE matrix. The results revealed that the fractal dimension D of IMBF/HDPE composite with a mass fraction of 30 wt% reached a maximum value (2.2036), which was similar to the FS results. There was a linear correlation between lg (FS) and fractal dimension D, indicating that the fractal dimension was practicable for the IMBF-reinforced HDPE composites. The fractal features could reflect the macro-mechanical properties, and the percentage error of the fitting function was within 10%.
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Long glass fiber reinforced poly(butylene terephthalate) (LGF/PBT) composites with different original glass fiber lengths were prepared using a impregnation device designed by the authors. The influence of fiber length and fiber distribution on the properties of the LGF/PBT composites were studied. The results showed that the length of the residual glass fibers increased with the original glass fiber length increase of LGF/PBT composites. Scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the glass fibers of LGF/PBT composites (16 nm and 20 mm) were unevenly dispersed and this is a phenomenon of their reunion in the resin matrix. Various rheological plots including viscosity curve, storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss angle, were used to characterization the rheological properties of the pristine matrix and the LGF/PBT composites. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis results indicated that the storage and loss modulus of the LGF/PBT composites firstly increase and then decrease with original glass fiber length. The storage and loss modulus, glass transition temperatures of the pristine matrix and LGF/PBT composites increase with test frequencies increase. The activation energies of glass transition relaxation for the activation energies for loss tangent (tanδ) and loss modulus (E′′) peaks were calculated. Furthermore, the glass transition relaxation determined from the tanδ peaks were more reliable than using the E′′ criterion. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that the crystallization temperature (Tc), percentage crystallinity (Xc) and melting point of the LGF/PBT composites firstly increased and then slightly decreased with the increase of the original glass fiber length. Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal gravimetric analysis curves of the LGF/thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/PBT/polyethylene-butylacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate (PTW) composites were shifted to higher temperatures with the increase of the LGF content. Thermogravimetric analysis results showed that the TG curves of the LGF/TPU/PBT/PTW composites firstly shifted to higher temperatures and then shifted to lower temperatures as the original glass fiber length increased. The limiting oxygen values of the pristine matrix and LGF/PBT composites showed little change, which indicated that the effect of the original glass fiber length on the combustion behavior of LGF/PBT composites was not obvious. The tensile strength, notched Izod impact strength, flexural strength and modulus of the LGF/PBT composites firstly increase and then decrease with the original glass fiber length. When the original glass fiber length was 12 mm, the mechanical properties of LGF/PBT composites were optimal.
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Pressure variability in injection pipes (pw) supplying fuel to a diesel engine cylinder was analyzed. Pressure levels were recorded at the injector nozzle. To define the variability of pressure, coefficients of variation for the injection pressure (COVpw) recorded during the operation of the engine were evaluated. The results demonstrated that coefficients of variation COVpw can be used to find the start of injection. Uncertainties of the results were analyzed. The test results included the data for the mineral or bio-fuel powered engine operating at full load condition within the speed range from 1000 to 2000rpm.
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An experimental investigation was undertaken on the physical characterization of a flax fiber-reinforced concrete (FFRC) in both fresh and hardened state. The objective of this study is to provide guidance for the mix-design of these FFRC. The study was conducted from two points of views: improving the workability of the concrete in a fresh state and improving the flexural strength in the hardened state. Several parameters have been studied independently as fiber length, fiber content, or the paste content. The characterization of flax fibers highlighted a high water absorption capacity which must be taken into account for the concrete mix-design. In addition, the flax fibers significantly impact the compactness of granular skeleton. For the characterization of concrete, testing in the fresh state showed a significant decrease of the workability of concrete with the addition of flax fibers. However, the use of shorter fibers, allows to reduce this damaging influence on the fresh concrete workability. Moreover, increasing the paste content allows compensating this fluidity loss. In the hardened state, the increase of the fiber content enhances the flexural strength, but a decrease of the compressive strength is observed. A greater porosity of the concrete was also observed with the incorporation of flax fibers. An increase in porosity was also observed when increasing the paste content.
With this unique and comprehensive text, readers will gain the quantitative tools needed to engineer the particulate processes and products that are ubiquitous in modern life. Covering a series of particle and particulate delivery form design processes, with emphasis on design and operation to control particle attributes, and supported by many worked examples, it is essential reading for students and practitioners. Topics covered include a range of particle design processes such as crystallization and precipitation, granulation, grinding, aerosol processes and spray drying, as well as forms of delivery such as granules, tablets, dry powders, and aerosols. Readers will learn from real-world examples how the primary particle properties and the structure and properties of the delivery form can lead to high performance products, ranging from pharmaceuticals, consumer goods and foods, to specialty chemicals, paints, agricultural chemicals and minerals. Unique in its broad coverage of particle formation and delivery form manufacturing processes. Includes a range of real-world case studies, end-of-chapter problems and worked examples. Develops the quantitative models and tools needed for analysing real processes and formulations.
This book brings together a diverse compilation of inter-disciplinary chapters on fundamental aspects of carbon fiber composite materials and multi-functional composite structures: including synthesis, characterization, and evaluation from the nano-structure to structure meters in length. The content and focus of contributions under the umbrella of structural integrity of composite materials embraces topics at the forefront of composite materials science and technology, the disciplines of mechanics, and development of a new predictive design methodology of the safe operation of engineering structures from cradle to grave. Multi-authored papers on multi-scale modelling of problems in material design and predicting the safe performance of engineering structure illustrate the inter-disciplinary nature of the subject. The book examines topics such as Stochastic micro-mechanics theory and application for advanced composite systems Construction of the evaluation process for structural integrity of material and structure Nano- and meso-mechanics modelling of structure evolution during the accumulation of damage Statistical meso-mechanics of composite materials Hierarchical analysis including “age-aware," high-fidelity simulation and virtual mechanical testing of composite structures right up to the point of failure. The volume is ideal for scientists, engineers, and students interested in carbon fiber composite materials, and other composite material systems.
For the investigation of adhesive point-fixings a computationally demanding finite element model is required. The accuracy of the numerical results depends highly on the validity of the used material models, which describe the deformation behaviour of the adhesive. The material models are derived from curve-fitting the mathematical expressions to experimental data mostly derived from uniaxial and equibiaxial experiments. In literature the suitability of the used material models is determined by comparing the numerical results from the same uniaxial and equibiaxial experiments to the experimental results. In contrast, in this contribution, the material models are validated by two additional validation experiments, i.e. an adhesive point-fixing loaded in uniaxial tension and an adhesive point-fixing loaded in a combination of tension and shear.
This paper provides results from a comprehensive experimental characterization on five silicone-based elastomers used as substrates for mechanobiological studies or in soft biomedical implants. A previous paper was recently published which focused on the large strain deformation behavior of these materials. This second part analyzes their reliability for biomedical applications in terms of changes of deformation behavior with the history of loading (long term cyclic behavior), ability to resist loads in the presence of defects (fracture properties), and cytotoxicity. For the latter, all materials are confirmed to be non-toxic which is a prerequisite for their use in mechanobiological studies or as part of implants and biomedical devices. The response in long term uniaxial tests over 220′000 cycles was characterized and the results indicate general stability of the mechanical response with, for some conditions, softening mechanisms active mainly in the initial phase of the test (50′000 cycles). A critical aspect of elastomer performance and their suitability for application in biomedical devices concerns their fracture properties. The tearing energy varies in a range from brittle (with approximately 80 J/m² for PDMS Sylgard 184) to tough (with approximately 900 J/m² for SMI G/G 0.020).