Journal of Multidisciplinary Sciences
J. Multidiscip. Sci. 2019, 1(2), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.33888/jms.2019.121 www.multidisciplines.com
Electronic payment system: A complete guide
Awais Ahmed1*, Abdul Aziz1, Muhammad Muneeb2
1Department of Computer Science, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Karachi Pakistan
2Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University Lyari, Karachi Pakistan
*Corresponding author email address: email@example.com
Received: 01 April 2019; Accepted: 10 May 2019; Published online: 01 July 2019
Abstract. With contrast to the previous century when the concept of electronic transfer was proposed, nowadays electronic
payments are drastically increased due to the rapid increase in online shopping or Internet-based banking. Now in twenty-first-
century electronic payments became the first option for the transfer of money to/from payer/payee. Visa card, master-card, smart
card, debit card, credit card, e-check, and e-wallet, etc. are the options for e-payments. Behind the acceptance of the new
payment system depend upon the three factors- cost, time and security per transaction take place of each other. This paper will
highlight the background study, types of electronic payment systems available and which payment method users should choose
considering the cost, time and security factors. This research will also identify the issues and challenges of e-payments and
suggest some solutions to improve performance and quality in developing countries. The motive of this review paper is to
introduce the reader to electronic payment and keep update the reader with the current state of the art in the electronic payment
system and to provide an overview of past efforts and future trends of electronic payment transfer.
Keywords: e-payments, e-transaction, e-transfer, types-of-e-payments, future trends in e-payments
Cite this as: Ahmed, A., Aziz, A., Muneeb, M. (2019). Electronic payment system: A complete guide. J. Multidiscip. Sci.1 (2), 1-17.
The transfer of payment via electronically is an alternate mode of paying payments to the payee, in such cases electronic
payment system arises as the third party to serve the payee and payer. In other words, we can say that e-payment is a type of
service that serves the customer who buys the goods over the internet via online shopping portals available at their local
countries or globally and it adds value to the online shopping provider and increases the ratio of sell.
With reference to previous research work, the current amount of research work in this field is increasing day by day but
there is a lack of systematic literature review which is not been yet addressed, therefore this research work will contribute the
systematic literature review part as this study will be helpful for the upcoming research work within the field.
Research work was motivated from the gap of previous studies, the primary motive of this systematic literature review over
the ‘e-payment system’ is to introduce the electronic payments. Secondary objective of this study is to (I) systematically collect,
analyze and synthesize all previously available studies within the domain for certain keywords that satisfies the study area in a
fairly manner in order to summarize the previous work, (II) Provide a list of payments systems available globally, (II) provide a
compare and contrast table for the different factors named cost, time and security per transaction for globally available payments
system, and (III) Highlight the issues and suggest some solution for improvement of performance and quality.
Research questions (RQ) of this experiment were: RQ-1: Creating a background of different payment (including traditional
and e-payment) methods and comparisons of currently available electronic payment methods. RQ-2: Table of Differentiating
between traditional payments and e-payments in terms of security. RQ-3: Discussing the proposed models/algorithms for
implementing the e-payments method from the literature. RQ-4: Defining Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce), its categories
and size of the business in each category.
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2. Materials and methods
In this study/review paper, we give an overview of an electronic payment system, discuss the background history, highlight
current available payments system against e-commerce, individual features of each payment system in a tabular form, highlight
the security flaws and finally identify issues, and suggest a solution based on study and understanding.
2.1. Defining the e-payment system
The developments taking place in information and communication technology are increasing competition in financial
institutions worldwide. Thus, the deployment of advanced technologies is essential to achieve a competitive advantage. In the
world of banking, the development of E-Banking has an enormous effect on the development of more flexible payment methods
and more user- friendly banking services [1,2,3,25]. Payment is the transfer of monetary value. A payment system consists of a
set of transfer systems that ensure the instruments, banking procedures and, typically, interbank funds circulation of money
[1,2,22,30]. Furthermore, for extending the payment system in detail– payments system is basically a third-party which helps
payer and payee to transfer and receive money respectively or in other words, we can say that payment system is a backbone
for creating a connection between payer and payee [2,31].
2.2 Characteristics of e-payment systems
Electronic payment systems are required to bring the necessary infrastructure to facilitate payment over the Internet. They
are becoming an essential part of, and are greatly necessary for, further development of electronic commerce and electronic
business and off a curse, payment must have the following characteristics to become accepted around the world [4,5]. Atomicity
must be ensuring that during the transaction no loss of existing money and the new transaction can be made [5,37].
Confidentiality/Information kept secure: The record of transaction kept in the organization as safe as can be and it should only
be available to the confidential level if there is any need for traceback at some stage.
Security: The system must ensure the possibility of fraud within the system.
Availability: The system must be available during the said working hours.
Cost effective: The transaction cost must obey the rules as per authority.
The ability of integration: The system must ensure that it can work with all other existing payment systems that resemble the
properties and they must be integrated with the new payment system within the same environment [5,37].
3. Review method
This section provides details about how we begin with our systematic literature review process, the following subsection is
detailed about the review method.
3.1. Review protocol
This systematic search begins with a comprehensive review protocol based on the guiding principles and procedures of the
systematic literature. This part contains the background history of research, search strategy, research questions, inclusion and
exclusion criteria, the background is already described in the previous section and the rest of all are an up-coming subsection.
Table 1. Inclusion and exclusion criteria
The acceptance was only English-Language
All other excluded
It must be published in between Jan-1999 to Aug-2016
Same as above
If available full text
Same as above
Related to the topic, (All keyword searches included)
Same as above
3.2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria
In this study, we consider research papers from (Journals, conferences, and workshops), which were published in English-
us language, published from January-1999 to August-2016. We excluded poster sessions, presentations, articles and any
material that found duplicated. Before including any paper, we had ensured that paper must satisfy our inclusion criteria and be
related to the main theme if not we excluded. Table 1 shows further details of the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
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3.3 Search Strategy
The search strategy consists of two basic methods (automatic keyword-based search and manual reference-based
search), as described in Figure 1. The automatic keyword-based search begins with the identification of keywords related to the
electronic-payment-system with all possible methods of adding punctuations, while the manual search was beginning after
completion of automatic. Automatic search provides us material based on keywords while manual based search provides us
results based on the results of automatic, we manually pick references and search for that if found related material we added it
and we manually search for all other versions of research work and added it if found related. Hence, we named these two
searches as primary (PS) and secondary search (SS).
Figure 1. Search Strategy
3.4. Study selection process
The study selection process was based on the toll-gate approach as described in [6,7,8]. First, we noted down the number
of keywords to search than we began our search strategy in all of the above-mentioned search engines by using the selected
keywords we found 470 counts as a primary search (automatic keyword-based search). We added all the founded searches in
Mendeley (a tool for managing bibliography of publications). Out of these 470 searches, 94 were found duplicate and merged
together. Further by applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria mentioned in Table 1, we finally come up with 174 studies. Now
we began our steps towards the secondary search mentioned in the previous section, we identified another 55-paper related to
the keywords. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria we remained with 55 paper and the total count is only 55. Here, 55
studies identified as a source for moving forward to the literature review and all the papers are listed in the reference section.
Table 2. Studies distribution of different publications before and after applying quality assurance criteria
Source of study
Count before QA
Count after QA
Google scholar used only (for secondary search)
Science Direct (Elsevier)
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QA SCORE/Number of studies
High Medium Low Total
The distribution of search strategy before and after the selection is mentioned in tabular form in Table 2, here we can see
that before selection process majority (390) of papers were found in Springer link followed by Elsevier (73), followed by research
gate and IEEE explore (1 and 1). On the other hand, after applying quality assurance criteria we were left with count 27 searches
of Elsevier followed by count 17 as an unknown source of publication our reference manager could not recognize these
seventeen paper/studies, followed by 6, 1, 1 springer link, research gate, and IEEE-explore, respectively.
3.5. Quality assessment (QA)
The objective of the quality assessment criteria based on quality questions (QQ) is to make a decision about the selection
of study paper. In order to find the quality paper, the following question was applied to each selected paper.
QQ-1: Are the topics and finding addressed in the paper related to our literature review?
QQ-2: Is the research context clearly defined in the study?
QQ-3: Is the research methodology mentioned clearly in the study?
QQ-4: Is the data collection method clearly defined in the study?
QQ-5: Is the data analysis accurate and properly referenced?
These five QA criteria are taken under the inspiration of , this design divided into three levels (high, medium, and low) for
differentiating these studies. These three level criteria were based on some scaling measures as we awarded a score as 2 for to
support a high level, followed by 1 awarded to support medium level and 0 for low. We awarded score individually each and
every study based on quality questions- collectively if a study scored more than 5 we categorized as high, and if a study cored
greater than 3 and less than or equal to 5 we categorized as medium, and finally we categorized as low if a study earns not more
than 3. Even, this quality assurance assessment is a highly subjective one, in counterpart we also read almost all the research
studies and now we can comment about QA assessment, as this study will be a complete guide towards the electronic world of
payments. See Figure 2, it shows the percentage and count for the studies after applying quality assessment.
Figure 2. Quality assessment score sheet
3.6. Data extraction and synthesis
The process of data extraction and synthesis was beginning by reading carefully and extracting valuable data related to the
topic from the selected study papers count as 50 listed below in the bibliography section. The purpose of this step was to
maintaining an MS excel sheet for creating statistics (tables) and figures to present in human-readable. The following list of
columns was considered in this study: Paper ID (P1, P2, … and so on) to identify study id, study title, the authors, date of
publication, database provider, publication source, research context, document type, a topic addressed, and citation count.
These lists of columns used to synthesize data and provide a human-readable form and it was also easy to maintain a
record of each study against these attributes, after this step we have Excel Sheet which is maintaining all this information for us.
Table 3 listing those columns and describing more about these columns.
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NO OF ARTICLES
Book Chapter Conference Proceding Journal Articles Other
Table 3. Data extraction criteria for each study
Name of the attribute used to extract data
Uniquely identification of paper
Title of the study paper
Author of study
Date of publication of the paper
Availability of paper with free access
Who is the publisher of the selected study paper?
Is this study addressing the topic of study?
Count of the citation of the selected study paper.
4. Results of SLR
The objective of this section is to provide details about the work done prior, to beginning with a systematic literature review.
Here, in this section we provide results from spreadsheets- in detail, this section highlights the publication resource, publication
type, citations count, research methodologies and methods of study. In the end, in this section, we present the context of
research which has been conducted. The following subsequent sub-section describes the study further in detail.
4.1. Publication source overview
Most of the studies were published in high Impact Factor journals article and leading conferences which can be noted from
the citation count of each paper one of them is considering highest cited in our case. Thus, the selection of such papers will
result in the quality of systematic review and overall assessment of findings. The distribution of studies/papers is sown in the
following Figure 3. In Figure 3, as we can see, majority of studies were published as journal articles 48 studies from 56 that is
86% of whole after that conference proceeding, followed by book chapter and the last one unknown data publication (might be
available somewhere but our reference manager fails to found it), but due to topic relevancy and citation count we have to kept
these studies as these studies passed from our inclusion/exclusion criteria.
Figure 3. Publication source
4.2. Citation status
Generally, talking about all selected studies citation count is good enough this leads to the quality of papers that were
included in this systematic literature review and of course it is an indicator of the studies good impact factor. Figure 4 shows the
citation count of included studies. The statistics of citation count were obtained from Google Scholar. The information provided
here is not meant for claiming about statistics of citation count by comparing with another data provider it may differ in results.
The data provided here is just a rough idea of citation count.
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More than 40 Zero Citation
Citation Count Chart
As shown in Figure 4, our statistics are relatively equal in all categories which we have decided to measure. Among 56
studies 5-studies were founded highly cited that fall in category of more than 40 citations, followed by 17 studies which fall under
the category of citation between 10-40, on the other hand, 23 studies were found in the category of 1-10 citation count and finally
11 studies were found zero citation this does not mean these papers are not valuable but these papers are published in recent 2-
3 years so it is not expected to get high citation count in short term period.
Figure 4. Citation count chart (x: Citation count, y: Paper count)
4.3. Temporal view
The distribution of studies against year wise is presented in Figure 5. Figure 5 shows that the gradual increase in a number
of publications in the era of electronic payment since 2000 since we noticed as the years passed the work has been conducted
more and more and it is obvious because of e-commerce/e-business. Thus, it is noticed that a gradual increase increased since
2006 and it is observed that suddenly increase in since 2015.
From the picture only one study was found in the year 2000, followed by 6 studies were found in the year 2001, continuing
2, 2, 2 studies were found in 2002, 2003 and 2004 respectively, in continuation 1-study found in 2005, after that 6 studies were
found in the year 2006 and so on, Figure 5 clearly shows year wise count of publication.
Figure 5. Publication per year
4.4. Research methodologies
The distribution of the included studies is shown in Figure 6 with respect to the research methodologies that were found in
studies. It can be seen that both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were found in most papers. As well as it is noticed
that mix methodology was used also in 5% of the papers. Figure 6 shows 56-studies from them 34% were mixed methodology
research studies and 31% of studies were qualitative and 14% were quantitate followed by the last 5% studies were unknown
(their research methodology strategy was not present in the paper) and 16% were conceptual papers.
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES DISTRIBUTION
OF PRIMARY STUDIES
Qualitative Quantitative Unclear Conceptual Mixed
Research Methods Count Statistics
Experiment Case Study Survey Mixed Review Design Science
Figure 6. Research methodology
4.5. Research Methods
For classifying the research method against their research methodology, we applied the classification technique suggested by 
as shown in the table below named Table 4. Figure 7 shows the distribution of research methods.
Figure 7. Research method distribution
Table 4. Research methods
Studies that have applied several techniques, i.e. workshop, interviews, and document studies. One
or a few contexts are located in this category.
Those studies were included in this category which are either field or laboratory experiments.
Studies that develop systems or tools fall in this category.
Those studies fell in this category those who have use interviews or questionnaires to survey
practices, opinions and so on from a large population.
The mixed methodology is a combination of two studies i.e. qualitative and quantitative.
Studies that report the opinions of experts on the field of study, including participation in meetings
and other workplace activities.
Those studies fell into this category which analysis the existing studies, typically with the aim of
exploring the domain and understating the concepts.
Studies that do not mention any methods, either implicitly or explicitly are counted as not mentioned.
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5. Research questions results
After applying all the procedure that one researcher must follow to begin systematic literature review, it is now possible to
answer the questions for completing this study from selected no of studies that were analyzed. Creating a background of
different payment (including traditional and e-payment) methods and comparisons of currently available electronic payment
5.1. History of payment
From literature, the authors wrote about the history of payments as in the very beginning of the world people used to
exchange goods and services in return of goods and services [9,10]. Then after, the author discussed the second form of
payment. People used to exchange money in return for goods and services. The earliest form of money was called commodity
money, it was formed physical money because physical commodities were exchanged to pay for services and goods. The next
step of the progression of payment was the use of tokens like paper notes, which were backed by a deposit of gold and silver
held by the note of issuer. This technique is referred to as adopting a commodity standard.
One line description
It is the most commonly used form of payment– it is simple– it is
easy, and no time is taken along with hand to hand transfer of
money so the expectation of high risk of robbery rises and the
problem of cash saving [11,35,36].
in the world.
It is an easy and safe method for both parties but must have a
bank account with one side effect know as time-consuming. This
paper does not cover check bounce and other false condition that
happens with check transfer [35,36].
Person to person.
Person to merchant or
Credit transfer or Grio
The giro payment system is a type of payment that simply means
“Circulation of Money”. It is somehow resembling with check
payment but depends upon certain conditions [11,35,36].
Person to person.
Person to merchant or
company. Merchant to
Automated clearing house
A well knows the form of transaction for low value .
Person to person.
Wire transfer services
It handles payment transactions between businesses and banks
and to and from Government.
Business to Business
Business to Govt.
Payment using cards:
Type-1: Electronic purse
(pay before purchase)
Type-2: Pay now
Type-3: Pay later
The electronic purse also is known as Pay before the purchase. In
this system, the buyer will pay before to the service provider and
receive goods/services after that [11,13,15,53].
This system also is known as Debit Cards system, in this, we
purchase the goods/service that we must pay for purchases at the
time of purchase [11,12,14,53].
This system also is known as Credit Cards system, in this we
purchase the goods/service than pay dues on our own or it
depends upon the service provider [11,12,15,53].
Person to Business.
Person to Business.
As we have already discussed different types of payments in the above paragraphs. Before listing the e-payments methods
which are in practice now the reader must clear some of the terminologies–
Payment gateway/Payment system/Payment method is the three interchanging words; however, payments gateway differs
from the two in terms of definition.
A payment gateway creates a connection between Payer and Payee over the internet.
Payer knew as payment sender while Payee knew as payment receiver, in other words, the payee is the merchant however
payer is the consumer.
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Before discussing e-payment system for further, the reader must know about the e-commerce, because e-commerce is a
basic method for conducting commercial business over the internet, e-commerce is primarily divided in to five stages although
there are some more levels which is none of the local business concern– local business means a normal consumer/registered
company and a merchant/e-commerce service provider [13,39].
Types/Levels/Models of E-Commerce
High Level of E-Commerce
B2B - Business to Business E-Commerce
B2G – Business to Government
B2C - Business to consumer E-Commerce
C2C - Consumer to consumer E-Commerce
B2E - Business to employees E-Commerce
C2B - Consumer to business E-Commerce
How e-payment works: Following Figure 8 depicts the working of basic e-payment system and there is many more version of
this model which is not our concern, so the author is not including other models.
Figure 8. How e-payments works
5.2. Comparison of electronic payment systems
The electronic payment system is the ability to send cash/money electronically for products and goods purchased via the
internet. E-payments are totally dependent upon e-commerce or in other terms, we can say e-payments are an integral part of
the e-commerce business. One of the significant reasons for becoming famous in e-commerce transactions is perhaps the rapid
development of e-payments systems. It is noticed that in developed countries credit card has been used most of the time even
before the advent of the internet. E-payments can be grouped or classified mainly into three categories 1) e-cash systems, 2)
credit card payment system, and 3) e-cheque system. E-payments system has a various number of requirements to fulfill to
become famous around the globe some of them are listed below which have been commonly seen in the literature. These are
security, acceptability, convenience, cost, anonymity, control, and traceability. Therefore, instead of focusing on the technical
specifications of various electronic payment systems, scholars have distinguished electronic payment systems based on general
features. Table 5  presents a comparison of various electronic payment systems.
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Table 5. Comparison of electronic payment systems, Source: 
Online credit card
Actual payment time
The store and bank check
the status of credit card
Fee transfer. No need to
leave the name of
Electronic checks or
payment indication must
The smart card of both
parties makes the
Online and offline
Bank A/C involvement
Credit card account
Smart card account
Any legitimate credit card
Anyone with the bank
Anyone with bank or
credit card a/c
Party to which
payment is made
Mostly born by distributing
The consumer at risk of
stolen or misused
The consumer bears risk
but can stop check
stolen, lost or misused
The current degree of
Credit card org. checks for
certification and total
purchases. Thus, used
Unable to meet internet
standards in the areas of
potential expansion &
It cannot meet
so not so popular.
Like online credit cards
and is becoming more
Partially or entirely
Entirely, but if needed by
the central processing
agency can ask.
Transaction costs high.
So, not suitable.
Low transaction cost.
It allows stores to
accumulate debts until it
reaches the limit before
paying for it.
Transaction costs are
low. Like electronic
Safeguards regular credit
Large database &
records S. No’s of use
information face value
It can be signed & issued
freely in compliance with
Face value is often set &
can’t be altered.
It can be signed &
issued freely in
compliance with the
It can be deducted freely
in compliance with the
It can be partially used in
the real world.
An only virtual world.
Limited to virtual but
share checking a/c in
the real world.
It can be used in real or
Limit on transaction
It depend upon credit card
It depends upon how
It depend on how much
money is saved.
5.3. Table of differentiating factors between traditional payments and e-payments in terms of security
As discussed in the previous section that traditional payments were named 1) cash payment, 2) check payment, 3) credit
transfer or Grio, and 4) automated clearing house (ACH), and generally the electronic payment system was divided into five
categories 1) pre-paid card, 2) electronic-cash, 3) debit cards, 4) credit cards, and 5) electronic checks [16-22,28].
Why we need security in e-payment: The trust upon the e-payment method is solely dependent upon security because a
strong and long-lasting relationship is entirely dependent upon security . The online transaction does not mean to develop
the business over the internet but it is more critical to create a trust over the internet because there are lots of methods to fraud
so security requirements are the part of strong customer relationship [13,22-24,28]. For the most part, security is a set of
techniques, systems and computer programs to verify the source of data and guarantee the trustworthiness and protection of the
data (information) to go without this situation to prompt to a hardship (monetary) of information or system assets. Below table list
down the security components mostly used to implement the e-payments system [13,22,23,25].
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Table 6. Basic building blocks of security mechanisms
Name of security mechanisms
It provides confidentiality, authentication, and integrity
It provides authentication, integrity protection, and non-repudiation
It provides integrity and authentication
Table 7. Table of differentiation factor between conventional payment type and electronic
Type of security factor
The technical infrastructure and implementation should be as
secure as it needed to provide protection of loss.
The information should be kept safe as it described on the manual
or website page.
A legal frame for electronic payment.
Listed above are the factors that differentiate a traditional and electronic payment system. Figure 9  describes the
overall picture of security-related factors.
Figure 9. Diagram of factors that influence perceived security and perceived trust in *EPS use. - *EPS- Electronic Payment
System -Source 
From the literature, we can classify the aspects that influence consumers’ observation about security and trust in electronic
payment systems into three main categories [24-26,32]: 1) Security statements- As described earlier, security statements refer to
the information provided to consumers in association with EPS operation and security solutions, 2) Transaction procedures-
Transaction procedures refer to the steps that are designed to facilitate the actions of consumers and eliminate their security
fears, and 3) Technical protections- Technical protections refer to specific and technical mechanisms to protect consumers’
RQ-3: Discussing the proposed algorithms/models for implementing electronic payment known as a secure electronic
EPS: Electronic Payment System Secure E-Payment Protocol
There were too many other protocols that were presented in literature from which three are mostly identified in the literature
listed below name and working off those three secure-electronic payment protocols.
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The most important and open source protocols are: SSL:/TLS- Secure socket layer/Transport layer security
This protocol was originally designed by Netscape Inc. as a method for secure client-server communication over the
internet environment. On getting fame now it is implemented in most web browsers [22,26]. SSL was designed for achieving two
main objectives. These are a) to ensure privacy, by which means encryption of data being transferred to and from client and
server, and b) to provide validation/authentication of the session partners using the RSA Algorithm. Furthermore, SSL protocol is
subdivided into two categories [13,26,27] such as SSL Handshake protocol, and SSL Record protocol. It is known that SSL/TLS
is the most widely accepted and deployed protocol for implementing a secure electronic payment method/system. SSL/TLS is an
intermediary protocol that sits between TCP and higher-layer. It can be deployed over any application layer running TCP,
(Transmission Control Protocol) including HTTP and HTTPS.
The SSL communication starts by sending requests/handshake to the client and in response servers send it a certificate. A
certificate is nothing else than a piece of secure data which includes encrypted key associated with the server, and other related
information knowingly owner’s certificate, expiry date, and the domain name of the server. Market acceptance and user
confidence became the most highly factors for being famous in secure electronic protocol environment so the use of this protocol
is very high and it is also worth noting that SSL/TLS is sufficiently secure for vast majority of consumers and who use it today to
guard everything against credit card transaction and electronic banking, Figure 10 shows the working of SSL/TLS protocol.
Figure 10. Overview of SSL/TLS messages exchange between client and server
SET– Secure Electronic Transaction
The author “Arnab” wrote in his paper that back to 1996, there were two leading credit card companies, Master Card and
Visa Card became together along with IBM and other companies to create a standardized payment and security process, in the
result, they form Secure Electronic Transfer– SET [28-34]. Secure Electronic Transaction Protocol: To perform transaction
successfully and without facing problems related to security and trust, business-related group and communities, financial sectors
wanted a solution that works a very close to the way how a credit card work . SET is known as a very secure electronic
payment handler, it prevents from fraud and it was one of the main objectives behind the appearance of the set [13,33-36]. SET
uses different techniques to prevent fraud by using rigorous authentication measures in addition to the encryption as we saw in
our previous protocol. SET, Secure Electronic Transaction provides a high level of security and privacy for its customers and
ensures that the information will only see by the Bank. Furthermore, Figure 11 depicts the working of the SET protocol
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Figure 11. SET Transaction steps
Table 8. Comparison of SSL/TLS and SET (secure electronic protocol)
Encryption/Decryption with dual signature
Use of digital certificate
IOTP: Internet Open Trading Protocol
The last but not the least, IOTP known as internet open trading protocol this protocol provides interoperable framework for
C2B- consumer to business Internet-based electronic commerce– As it was designed to replicate real-world of transactions
where it is possible for consumers to select their own choice products, vendor and choose their payment method (w.r.t to
vendor’s availability) even arrange delivery on their own choice. The originators of IOTP expect that this convention will be the
most widely used language of Internet business known as e-commerce similarly as EDI has turned into the standard document
language for real commerce.
Benefits of IOTP:
Payments Types: IOPTP gives a standard structure embodying payment protocol, this implies that it is easier for payment
products to be consolidated with IOTP solutions. Therefore, the payment method will be more widely available .
Vendors: They will have more capacity to offer more a more extensive number of payment brands. They can be increasingly
sure that the client will have the software to finish the purchase. Through receiving payment and delivery receipts from their
clients, vendors will be able to give customer care knowing that they are dealing with the individual or organization with which
they originally traded . Figure 12 demonstrates the general flow of an IOTP-based purchase. Take note that it may be more
appropriate to relate IOTP as a shopping protocol instead of a payment protocol .
J. Multidiscip. Sci. 2019, 1(2), 1-17. Page 14 of 17
Figure 12. General flow IOTP protocol
RQ4: Defining Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce), its categories and size of the business in each category
The term E-commerce termed as electronic commerce, the world of e-business termed as an electronic business. E-
commerce is a service provided by merchants for their consumers by which consumers can purchase electronically without the
influence of any physical activity it may or may not include payment electronic payment method from which merchants can
receive payments electronically [38-44]. Electronic commerce purely connected with business and its types– the term business
known as an activity between buyer and seller known as business activity . Electronic Commerce completely depends upon
the types of business that occur in daily life.
Categories/Types of electronic commerce
There is a total of seven categories which we come found from literature from which four types are in use of normal use
without the interaction of any governmental body known as [45-49] and each of categories has different characteristics and the
size of business totally depends upon the amount of order or quantity of order [17,50].
a) Business to Business (B2B)– It describes transactions occurs between businesses, like transaction commerce
between manufacturers and wholesalers or between retailers and wholesalers. The amount of price depends upon the
quantity of order. The value of business or volume of business is highly greater than contrasting business terms such
as business to the consumer which is small in the amount of business. Business to Business was also known in the
context of communication. Because nowadays many businesses use social media to advertise their products and to
target their consumers for generating business; however, in this case, their consumers are also other business parties,
so this category known as business to business. The short term B2B was originally invented to describe the electronic
communications between businesses or traders in order to differentiate it from the communications between
businesses to consumers [17,38-43].
b) Business to Consumer (B2C)– The term business to consumer sometimes also known as business to the customer; it
distinguishes by the relationship between the customer either it could be business or consumer. This type of business
has developed too fast because of the fame of the web and there are various online stores that exist earlier and
making business in Million Dollar per day. An example of a business to consumer transaction could be a customer
buying an electronic mobile device from a retailer. The time when the product made available for a customer this type
of transaction known as business to the consumer while the time when the huge amount of product/item was made
available to retailers known as business to business [39-43].
c) Consumer to Business (C2B)– Consumers to business is terminology in which individual consumers offer their product
and services to the companies and companies buy their product. This type of business model totally differs from
business to consumer or it is reverse in operation. An example for this category would be like this an individual author
offers his book on Amazon.com however the percentage from the amount of that sold book can be transferred to the
author in return of services or goods .
J. Multidiscip. Sci. 2019, 1(2), 1-17. Page 15 of 17
d) Consumer to Consumer (C2C) – Consumer to Consumer is a business model in which consumers themselves sell
their services or goods over the internet. Buyer trust over the provider of that service in other terms electronic
commerce website or online portal where the product was being offered or auctioned. An example of this business
model could be a consumer post his services or goods and one of the needy consumers bid that post, the third party
will apply some flat commission charges for providing a platform [39-45]. These are 1) Government to Business (G2B),
2) Government to Consumer (G2C), and 3) Peer to Peer (P2P).
In all the above-defined categories there is no need for face to face conversation/operation and all transactions made
through electronic commerce . The most of literature only describes basic four models hence we are also providing a
definition for four models and left three models as undefined. Table 9 depicts the general types of electronic commerce in a
graphical representation [39,42].
Table 9. Types of e-commerce
Business to Business
Online business, selling to other businesses.
Business to Consumers
Online business, selling to individuals.
Consumers to Consumers
Consumers selling to other consumers.
Peer to Peer
Use of peer to peer technology, it is a communications model in which
each party has the same capabilities and either party can initiate a
Use of wireless digital tech devices to perform transactions over the
internet for business growth.
Size of Business
The models in terms of the size of business as follows; micropayments such as the amount between ($1 to $10) is mainly
conducted in the consumer to consumer and business to consumer e-commerce. Payment amount between ($10 to $500)
considered as business to consumer model. Payment amount more than $500 mainly conducted in business to business model
P2P and C2C both models almost fall into the same category and both are relatively small in terms of amount in comparison of
business to business and business to consumer. Furthermore, author Cavarretta and de Silva  also, add three more
categories to categorize the e-commerce model in terms of the amount of business. These are i) Tiny value transactions: below
$1 ii) Medium value transactions: between $ 1 and $ 1,000, and iii) Large value transactions: above $ 1,000 [14,50].
In this study, we presented an overview of electronic payments by conducting a systematic review study on articles
published during the year-2000 to year-2016. A multi-step model was used to include and exclude the studies as depicted in
Figure-1, these studies were searched from the highly reputed database by using keywords related to our study all the things
were presented in the above tables. In order to give an answer to each question, we identified many studies from which we
extracted and summarized the data related to our study.
Conflicts of interest. There is no conflict of interest.
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