Concrete is the most widely used construction material. However, it cannot sustain the harsh environment and can easily deteriorate. It results in repair and reworks that amount to a considerable loss of money and time. The life span of concrete reduces if exposed to external attacks, for instance, sulfate attacks, alkali-silica reactions, corrosion, and drying shrinkage. These ubiquitous attacks cause a reduction in service life and raise the need for early repair and maintenance, resulting in higher life cycle costs and structural failures. To resolve these issues, the potential of styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR) ultrafine powder as cement replacement polymeric admixture at 0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10% have been evaluated. The effect of SBR-powder on concrete is investigated by conducting an alkali-silica reactivity test (ASR), rapid-chloride-permeability test (RCPT), drying shrinkage, and sulfate resistivity tests. Workability, compressive and flexural strength tests are also conducted. For ASR and drying shrinkage, mortar bar samples were cast, exposed to respective environments, and the percentage change in length was measured. For mechanical tests and RCPT, prisms, cylinders and cubes were cast and tested at 28 days. The SBR-powder modification reduces concrete’s permeability, drying shrinkage, and expansions due to ASR and sulfate attacks. SBR powder increased workability by 90%, compressive strength by 23%, and flexural strength by 9.4% in concrete when used at 10% cement replacement by weight. The SBR-powder (10%) modification reduced the RCPT value by up to one-third (67%), drying shrinkage by 53%, ASR by 57%, and sulfate reaction by 73%. Consequently, SBR powder usage can adequately improve the workability, mechanical properties, and durability of the concrete and lead to advanced sustainable concrete with low repair requirements.