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Use of Smartphone Applications in English Language Learning—A Challenge for Foreign Language Education



At present, hardly any younger person can imagine life without mobile technologies. They use them on a daily basis, including in language learning. Such learning supported with mobile devices is called mobile learning, which seems beneficial especially thanks to the unique features of mobile applications (e.g., interactivity, ubiquity, and portability) and teachers’ encouragement and feedback. The purpose of this review study is to explore original, peer-reviewed English studies from 2015 to April 2019 and to determine whether mobile applications used in the learning of English as a foreign language are beneficial and/or effective. The methods are based on a literature review of available sources found on the research topic in two acknowledged databases: Web of Science and Scopus. Altogether, 16 original journal studies on the research topic were detected. The results reveal that mobile learning is becoming a salient feature of education as it is a great opportunity for foreign language learning. Its key benefits are as follows: the enhancement of the learner’s cognitive capacity, the learner’s motivation to study in both formal and informal settings, the learner’s autonomy and confidence, as well as the promotion of personalized learning, helping low-achieving students to reach their study goals. Although mobile learning seems to be effective overall, it is desirable to design, plan and implement it with caution, according to students’ needs, and to deliver multiple language skills in authentic learning environments.
Use of Smartphone Applications in English
Language Learning—A Challenge for Foreign
Language Education
Jaroslav Kacetl and Blanka Klímová*
Department of Applied Linguistics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Králové,
Rokitanského 62, 500 03 Hradec Králové, Czech Republic
Received: 25 June 2019; Accepted: 9 July 2019; Published: 11 July 2019
At present, hardly any younger person can imagine life without mobile technologies. They
use them on a daily basis, including in language learning. Such learning supported with mobile
devices is called mobile learning, which seems beneficial especially thanks to the unique features of
mobile applications (e.g., interactivity, ubiquity, and portability) and teachers’ encouragement and
feedback. The purpose of this review study is to explore original, peer-reviewed English studies from
2015 to April 2019 and to determine whether mobile applications used in the learning of English as
a foreign language are beneficial and/or eective. The methods are based on a literature review of
available sources found on the research topic in two acknowledged databases: Web of Science and
Scopus. Altogether, 16 original journal studies on the research topic were detected. The results reveal
that mobile learning is becoming a salient feature of education as it is a great opportunity for foreign
language learning. Its key benefits are as follows: the enhancement of the learner’s cognitive capacity,
the learner’s motivation to study in both formal and informal settings, the learner’s autonomy and
confidence, as well as the promotion of personalized learning, helping low-achieving students to
reach their study goals. Although mobile learning seems to be eective overall, it is desirable to
design, plan and implement it with caution, according to students’ needs, and to deliver multiple
language skills in authentic learning environments.
Keywords: mobile apps; mobile learning; English learning; use; benefits
1. Introduction
Nowadays, mobile technologies and mobile applications (apps) are becoming an indispensable
part of learning, including foreign language learning [
]. This recent methodology of their use is called
mobile learning (m-learning). M-learning further expands e-learning by promoting independent and
active learning and by turning educational institutions into 24/7, no-barrier learning centers [
]. In a
similar vein, Klimova [
] speaks of Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) as a new subdivision
of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Leis et al. [
] even suggest a new acronym for
Smartphone Assisted Language Learning, SPALL, as the smartphone oers capabilities far beyond the
traditional mobile phone.
The key features of m-learning, such as personalized learning, independent on time and place,
collaboration with peers and teachers in both formal and informal settings, ubiquity and interactivity
of mobile devices, make m-learning ecient [1,3].
Furthermore, research in MALL shows that using mobile phones and their apps seems to be
beneficial for foreign language learning, especially thanks to their unique features (e.g., interactivity,
ubiquity, or portability) and teachers’ encouragement and feedback [58].
Educ. Sci. 2019,9, 179; doi:10.3390/educsci9030179
Educ. Sci. 2019,9, 179 2 of 9
However, Klimova [
] mentions several pitfalls of MALL; namely, students’ potential lack of
attention caused by mobile phone multi-tasking, the lack of apps suitable for English for Specific
Purposes (ESP) and at various levels of proficiency. Among the downsides are also problems with
Internet access and connection, a small screen size, or a lack of face-to-face contact. In addition,
Andersen [
] reports that the feedback function in the mobile apps is limited. In relation to foreign
language learning apps, Heil et al. [
] state that most of the apps are decontextualized, i.e., they
concentrate on individual words rather than on authentic speech production, including all four
language skills (speaking, writing, listening and reading). They also emphasize the implementation of
so-called adaptive learning, which tries to meet the unique needs of an individual through just-in-time
feedback, pathways, and resources (rather than providing a one-size-fits-all learning experience) [
Furthermore, research shows that MALL is especially eective in vocabulary learning [
] because
vocabulary can be split into smaller segments, which is suitable for designing content in smartphones.
Currently, the practice in the use of mobile apps in language learning is that they are mostly used
as a support in language acquisition. Therefore, the blended learning (BL) approach (a combination of
face-to-face instruction and online learning) is mostly implemented in relation to their use [
]. Overall,
the BL approach appears to be more eective than the use of only traditional instruction. In addition,
the BL approach is especially suitable for distant students, who due to their work commitments cannot
be involved in full-time English language study [12].
The purpose of this review study is to explore original, peer-reviewed English studies from 2015 to
April 2019 and to determine whether mobile apps used in the learning of English as a foreign language
are beneficial and/or eective. Thus, the research question is as follows:
Is the use of mobile apps beneficial and/or eective, in the learning of English as a foreign language?
(If so, why, in what ways, and how?)
2. Methods
The methods are based on a literature review of available sources found on the research topic in
two acknowledged databases: Web of Science and Scopus. The search period was conducted for studies
published between January 2015 and April 2019, since several review studies [
] on this topic
had been published before. The searched collocated keywords were as follows: eectiveness AND
mobile apps AND English learning, eect AND mobile learning AND English learning, eectiveness
AND use of mobile applications AND English language learning. The keywords were combined and
integrated in database and journal searches. The terms used were searched using ‘AND’ to combine
the keywords listed and using ‘OR’ to remove search duplication where possible. A backward search
was also conducted, i.e., references of retrieved articles were assessed for relevant articles that authors’
searches may have missed.
From the database/journal searches, 387 titles/abstracts were identified on the basis of the keywords.
More studies were identified in the database Web of Science (248 studies). In SCOPUS, it was only
139 studies. Another five articles were identified from other sources, usually from references of the
already detected articles. In addition, the authors performed a more specific search for only the
peer-reviewed original journal articles, thus excluding conference articles and review articles. This
generated altogether 190 original studies. After removing duplicates and titles/abstracts unrelated
to the research topic, 115 English-written studies remained. Of these, only 58 articles were relevant
for the research topic. These studies were investigated in full, and they were considered against the
following inclusion and exclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria were as follows:
The period of the publishing of the article was limited from 1 January 2015 up to 30 April 2019;
Only reviewed full-text studies in scientific journals in English were included;
Only experimental/quasi-experimental studies were included;
The primary outcome focused on the association of the eectiveness of the use of smartphone
apps in the learning of English as a foreign language.
Educ. Sci. 2019,9, 179 3 of 9
The exclusion criteria were as follows:
Conference papers, e.g., [
], review studies, e.g., [
], and original papers not focusing on
smartphone apps for the learning of English as a second language, e.g., [17,18], were excluded.
Based on these criteria, 16 studies were eventually involved into the final analysis. Figure 1below
illustrates the selection procedure.
Educ. Sci. 2019, 9, x FOR PEER REVIEW 3 of 9
The exclusion criteria were as follows:
Conference papers, e.g., [7,8,16], review studies, e.g., [1,3], and original papers not focusing on
smartphone apps for the learning of English as a second language, e.g., [17,18], were excluded.
Based on these criteria, 16 studies were eventually involved into the final analysis. Figure 1
below illustrates the selection procedure.
Figure 1. An overview of the selection procedure.
3. Results
Records identified through database
searching (keywords in title)
(n = 387)
Additional records identified through
other sources (from references)
(n = 5)
Full-text articles assessed for
(n = 58)
Full-text articles excluded for
the following reasons:
Conference papers (n = 31).
Review studies (n = 5).
Papers with a different research
focus (n = 6).
Studies included in qualitative
(n = 16)
Records after including only peer-reviewed
original journal articles
(n = 190)
Records screened after removing duplicates
and irrelevant content of abstracts
(n = 115)
Records excluded
(n = 75)
Figure 1. An overview of the selection procedure.
3. Results
Altogether, 16 original peer-reviewed journal articles on the research topic were detected. They
originated in eleven dierent countries, namely, China, the Czech Republic, Iran, Japan, Lebanon,
Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Turkey. However, the highest number of articles
(3) were written in Iran and Taiwan, followed by China (2).
Educ. Sci. 2019,9, 179 4 of 9
The majority of the 16 original reviewed texts agree that mobile learning, or m-learning, is
becoming a salient feature of education (e.g., [
]), as it is a great opportunity and an immense step
forward (e.g., [
]) and should therefore be supported (e.g., [
]), albeit with caution (e.g., [
and only as a supporting tool (e.g., [19]).
It is noteworthy that students usually report that they like m-learning [
]. This view is supported
by other authors who also maintain that using mobile devices like smartphones and tablets in education
is gladly accepted by learners (e.g., [
]). M-learning is sometimes used in order to help
low-achieving students and motivate them (and others) to spend more time studying outside the
classroom (e.g., [22]).
Teachers may use either some already established social networking platforms (WhatsApp,
WeChat, Telegram, Line), or special applications for learning English (Fun Dubbing), or they may
follow guidelines in creating tailor-made language learning apps (e.g., [19]).
As regards language skills practiced by means of m-learning, some research aimed at specific ones
such as writing (e.g., [20,27]), speaking [28], vocabulary [3,21,23,25], listening [28], and reading [29].
The key findings of the selected studies are described in more detail below. The research was
conducted mostly among secondary school and university students.
The mobile Internet has, according to Jin and Yan [
], distinct features, namely, convenience,
portability, immediacy, orientation, accuracy, and sensitivity, which makes it much dierent from the
desktop Internet. Jin and Yan [
] maintain that the eect of mobile learning is good as all students
improve. On the other hand, some teachers as well as parents still resist to mobile learning as they do
not understand it. Moreover, the teacher needs to invest a lot of time, and students lack self-confidence
to ask questions [30].
Jamaldeen et al. [
] consider mobile learning to be one of the major developing areas in education.
They tested a mobile-based learning application, and they claim that the users showed positive attitudes
towards m-learning and found it useful. On the other hand, their findings suggest that m-learning
would be more eective as a supporting medium of learning rather than as the primary medium
(Jamaldeen et al., 2018).
Çelik and Yavuz [
] maintain that mobile apps help integrate smartphones into radically changing
education, which is now more individualized, ubiquitous, learner-centered, and even uncontrolled.
The authors studied the eectiveness of mobile apps in vocabulary instruction, both contextual and
literal. They conclude that mobile apps are eective in language learning, but they warn that their
implementation must be done in a guided and controlled way as some apps are not designed by experts.
Kuimova et al. [
] view m-learning as an important step forward and a valuable support to
traditional learning. Their paper looks into the benefits and challenges of m-learning. According to
these authors, m-learning enhances cognitive activity, encourages the learner’s independence, helps
individualize learning, and increases the learner’s motivation. On the other hand, among its downsides
are, e.g., small screens, potential external interference, a highly addictive as well as distractive nature,
or the fact that some teachers are dicult to convince about m-learning’s potential. Kuimova et al. [
conducted research into using WhatsApp for learning English, and they conclude that mobile phones
can be used for learning as students usually take a positive stance with regard to m-learning.
Awada [
] also looked into the eectiveness of WhatsApp in language teaching and claims that
teaching writing skills by means of WhatsApp was more eective than through regular instruction.
Moreover, it increased the learners’ levels of motivation. The author states that the WhatsApp tool
creates a positive social environment, encouraging a sense of belonging to a community or a team
with other learners as well as the teacher. It also reduces anxiety. Therefore, the utilization of mobile
devices in education should be seen as vital.
Andujar [
] claims that WhatsApp with its mobile instant messaging shows the potential to
improve the student’s writing skills in the second language and activate their involvement. In addition,
WhatsApp seems to be accepted among students.
Educ. Sci. 2019,9, 179 5 of 9
Khansarian-Dehkordi and Ameri-Golestan [
] examined the way mobile learning influences
both acquisition and retention of vocabulary and concluded that even though the traditional method
brings benefits, the results of those who used mobile phones or tablet PCs with a social networking
application Line were significantly better, and these students themselves noticed their improvement.
Nonetheless, the authors emphasize that technology cannot replace the physical classroom. Mobile
devices should rather be used to encourage learners to interact with each other in the virtual world
and create a fun environment for mutual learning.
Zhang [
] studied the eect of an app called English Fun Dubbing (EFD). The author claims that
EFD supports the student’s language learning autonomy by providing them with an opportunity to
practice by themselves at their own pace. Zhang [
] concluded that a reasonable choice of a suitable
application not only enhances learning but also makes students use mobile devices in more reasonable
ways than they usually do.
According to Klimova [
], research indicates that mobile apps help develop all language skills,
primarily retaining new vocabulary, and the use of these apps also increases students’ motivation to
study. Using the apps also boosts confidence, class participation, and students’ tendency to use mobile
devices in education [3].
Gamlo [
] emphasizes the importance of motivation to learn English. The author believes in
using mobile game-based language learning. Nevertheless, the apps should be selected based on
students’ interests, needs and level.
Hwang et al. [
] conducted research into using video clips with either full captions, i.e., showing
all the words in the same language as the audio output; partial captions, i.e., showing only key words
in the same language; or partial captions with subtitles, i.e., key words in the language of audio output
(captions) and their translations (subtitles) into the language of the students. Concerning learning
motivation, the students learning with full captions showed significantly higher motivation than
those learning with partial captions and subtitles. The authors also deem it important to dierentiate
between active-style and reflective-style students. The latter prefer learning by thinking to learning by
interacting with videos.
Naderi and Akrami [
] investigated the eect of reading comprehension instruction by means of
Telegram (Messenger) groups. According to these authors, online instruction has become popular, and
their results suggest that students prefer the mobile phone as the best tool for reading short texts.
Similarly, Aghajani [
] looked into the influence of m-learning on cooperative learning (two or
more people learning together) and compared face-to-face instruction of English writing with that by
means of Telegram. They conclude that Telegram makes the learning environment more meaningful
and it helps improve students’ writing performance. In addition, Telegram, as the authors claim,
actively encourages a cooperative environment and increases motivation.
Leis et al. [
] focus mainly on the eects that using smartphones in class has on students’ autonomy,
by which is meant their study outside the classroom. Their findings show that students encouraged to
use smartphones in class tend to study more outside the classroom and are more autonomous learners
than those who are restricted from using smartphones in class. Therefore, the authors strongly advise
teachers to allow their students to use smartphones for language learning in class.
Hao et al. [
] studied how m-learning may benefit weak students of English as a foreign language.
They contend that low-achieving students, often marginalized in class, may regain the sense of
accomplishment with the help of eective mobile technology applications. Similarly, most other
students also improve.
4. Discussion
On reading these selected articles, there is a feeling that not only language learning and teaching
but education as such is on the threshold of a profound change. It may seem that the traditional model
is on the wane (e.g., [
]). The use of mobile devices in education seems to be on an inevitable
Educ. Sci. 2019,9, 179 6 of 9
rise. The problem lies in the way they should be used. Therefore, it is vital to determine potential
advantages as well as drawbacks of m-learning utilization in education.
It seems to be true that the penetration of smartphones and the potential utilization of mobile
devices make m-learning a great opportunity. Most young and adult learners use smartphones all
the time. Teachers as well as their peers can approach them at almost any time. It may streamline
communication. Mobile devices can be used for storing study materials, which significantly decreases
heavy loads that children have to carry on their backs. Moreover, the Internet enables the learner to
access target language content that they are interested in. For instance, if the student wants to study
geography, there are a lot of texts available as well as video clips on the subject. At the same time,
m-learning has become a major developing area in education. It is no coincidence that there are a lot of
teachers who have started using m-learning in their classes and researchers who conduct research into
it. Last but not least, the way that people live in the 21st century supports using mobile technologies
in education.
On the other hand, some apps used by learners are not designed by language experts. Moreover, it
seems that students should be guided and controlled in using language learning mobile apps for various
reasons, including the lack of self-confidence in using new technologies or an unsuitable language
level of apps used for particular students. Other downsides of using smartphones in education could
be small screens, external interference as well as distraction, the addictive nature of smart devices, and
the sometimes unfavorable attitudes of some teachers and parents.
Some questions also remain to be answered about m-learning (see Table 1), including the following.
Should/will m-learning remain a supportive medium or become the primary one in education? Can we
really expect profound changes in education, including a paradigm change? If so, how to best prepare
for it? What new trends can be expected in m-learning? Is it better to create (a lot of) new apps or to
utilize already existing platforms? What is the best way to guide students in m-learning? It may also
be relevant to take into account whether the student prefer an active or reflective style of learning [
There are other review articles focusing on m-learning. The review article by Klimova [
] assessed
15 original articles and the findings include the following facts. First, mobile apps are eective in
developing all skills, particularly vocabulary. Second, students’ perceptions towards using mobile
technologies for language learning are positive. Third, students using mobile technologies for language
learning are more motivated to learn both inside and outside class. Klimova [
] also listed both benefits
and limitations linked to using m-learning in language learning.
Another review by Hwang and Fu [
] had a wider scope and studied 93 papers, dividing their
research into two periods, i.e., 2007–2011 and 2012–2016. It uncovers the following trends. First, most
mobile-assisted language learning teaches English as a foreign/second language. Second, researchers’
attention was paid mainly to higher-education students, whereas pre-school children had rarely been
the subject of such studies. Third, research on vocabulary was the most common. Fourth, higher
order thinking, e.g., problem solving, critical thinking, creativity, and communicative competence, only
became an important issue between 2012 and 2016, whereas prior to 2012 it had not appeared in the
reviewed articles at all. According to Hwang and Fu [
], earlier studies on m-learning usually focused
on teaching individual language skills, whereas nowadays it is more common to deliver multiple
language skills in authentic learning environments. The authors also maintain that most studies agree
on the eectiveness of m-learning.
Thus, the answer to the research question is positive since the findings of this review study
reveal that there is a potential in the use of mobile apps. Moreover, the use of apps contributes
to the enhancement of the learner’s cognitive capacity, the learner’s motivation to study in both
formal and informal settings, the learner’s autonomy and confidence, as well as the promotion
of personalized learning, helping low-achieving students to reach their study goals. However, to
achieve the eectiveness of these apps, it is desirable to design, plan and implement them with caution,
according to students’ needs, and to deliver multiple language skills in authentic learning environments.
Educ. Sci. 2019,9, 179 7 of 9
Table 1. Mobile learning (m-learning) SWOT analysis.
SWOT Analysis: m-Learning
Mobile apps eectively
develop all language skills.
Cautious design, planning and
implementation is sometimes
missing but desirable.
Students embrace using
mobile technologies for
language learning.
Respect to students’ needs.
Students are more motivated
to study.
Essential to deliver multiple
language skills in authentic
learning environments.
M-learning is becoming a
salient feature of education.
Small screen size of mobile
Enhancement of the
learner’s cognitive capacity. Lack of human contact.
The learner’s increasing
autonomy and growing
External interference, distraction.
More personalized learning. The addictive nature of mobile
Diversified resources. Technical problems.
A lot of potential in
m-learning as a new trend.
It is not clear whether m-learning
should remain a supportive
medium or become the primary
one in education
The fast development of
Web 2.0, 3.0, X.0.
Dicult to assess if profound
changes in education should be
expected, including a paradigm
change: if so, how to best prepare
for these changes?
The rapid development of
mobile and smart
Chaotic environment—a lot of
new apps of varying quality plus
the utilization of already existing
May make full inclusion in
education possible.
Potential lack of guidance for
students in m-learning
New learning environment.
Potential problems for students
preferring a reflective style of
learning to an active one.
Source: authors’ own processing.
5. Conclusions
The results reveal that m-learning is becoming a salient feature of education as it is a great
opportunity and an immense step forward, and it should be supported especially thanks to the benefits
it brings for language learning. These include: the enhancement of the learner’s cognitive capacity,
the learner’s motivation to study in both formal and informal settings, the learner’s autonomy and
confidence, as well as the fact that it promotes personalized learning and helps low-achieving students
to reach their study goals. Although it seems to be eective overall, it is desirable to design, plan and
implement m-learning with caution, according to students’ needs, and to deliver multiple language
skills in authentic learning environments.
Educ. Sci. 2019,9, 179 8 of 9
The limitations of this review consist in the dierent methodologies conducted in the detected
studies, as well as dierent subject samples (varying from only 10 [
] to 140 [
]) and the researching
of dierent language skills. Future research should focus on the eectiveness of the use of such mobile
apps for teaching all four language skills in the context of the learner’s performance.
Author Contributions:
Conceptualization, J.K., B.K.; Methodology, B.K.; Software, not applicable; Validation,
B.K.; Formal analysis, J.K.; Investigation, J.K., B.K.; Resources, B.K.; Data curation, J.K.; Writing—original
draft preparation, J.K., B.K.; Writing—review & editing, J.K.; Visualization, N/A; Supervision, B.K.; Project
administration, N/A; Funding acquisition, N/A.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
This paper was supported by the research project SPEV 2104/2019, run at the Faculty of
Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. The authors thank Aleš Berger for
his help with data collection.
Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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... They also believed that their learning progress would be higher thanks to the use of technology, as reflected in items #2 (M = 3.8), #3 (M = 4.0), and #8 (M = 3.7), and agreed with the use of smartphones in the classroom (#6 M = 3.6) and outside of the classroom (#8 = 3.7). The results are in line with previous research [50,51] that demonstrated that students were generally positive about the use of different types of technology for language learning. They also supported a higher frequency of use of technology in general (#10 M = 3.7) and believed in the benefits of combining traditional with new technology-oriented methods (#11 M = 3.9). ...
... Table 3. Perception toward the use of technology in language learning based on a 5-point Likert scale: (1) completely disagree to (5) completely agree, reverse coding (7,9,12,13,15). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test used for non-parametric data did not elicit any significant difference between both groups (EC and CG) regarding H1 results as shown in Table 4. Therefore, the results demonstrated that secondary students hold positive views and attitudes toward technology integration in language learning, consistent with previous studies about the effect of its impact on the student's cognitive abilities, motivation for both formal and informal learning, and self-directed learning [48,50]. ...
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Although there is a growing body of literature about the use of Augmented Reality (AR) in language learning, research regarding its effectiveness for vocabulary development among secondary students is scarce. This study aims to measure the perception toward AR technology (H1), the effect of its use on vocabulary development (H2), and its impact on student motivation (H3). In this mixed method research based on convenient sampling, 130 students aged 14 to 15 (9th-graders) from two secondary education schools were assigned to an experimental (n = 64) and a control (n = 66) group. Both groups needed to learn 30 geographic terms in English over four weeks. The control group used a traditional method based on a handbook, while the experimental group was exposed to an AR-based lesson containing the same lexical terms. The instruments involved an English pre-post-test about the target vocabulary, a pre-post-survey, and a class discussion. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed through SPSS 20 statistical software and a thematic analysis, respectively. The results evidenced positive attitudes and a strong interest in AR integration in language learning. However, no significant differences were observed regarding vocabulary learning performance between both groups of secondary students.
... In the study, the users' emphasis on the help feature for Duolingo shows that the users care about the Duolingo software helping in foreign language learning. It is similar to [24], which investigates the benefits of mobile applications in foreign language learning with a literature review. In addition, users emphasized the words game and time and stated that the program provides a fun time by gamifying foreign language learning. ...
... Several experiments have had a considerable effect on their study on five learning disabilities in wellbeing and computer vision (Kacetl and Klímová, 2019). Klimova (2018) at the College of Wellington, various health problems are observed, such as those often obscured by healthcare professionals and shared in the severely autistic population. ...
... In addition, technical problems might sometimes happen to disappoint the learners, but the advantages of technology learning benefits would surely far outweigh the problem if supposed diligence is followed. According to Kacetl and Klímová (2019), though the phone has a small screen to read, the Mlearning system supports learners to rectify lots of doubts quickly. In addition, there are many user-friendly options to enlarge and zoom the text for users. ...
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There is an incessant gap between language acquisition and adoption of modern technologies, especially in semi-urban parts of economically growing countries in Asia. There is a need to establish infrastructure for Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), Information Communication Technology (ICT), Virtual Reality (VR), and Augmented Reality (AR) to enrich English Language Teaching. Though these types of establishments instil confidence and fluency among English learners, investment in procurement, running costs towards maintenance and service cost deter institutions from establishing Language Labs and Language studios. The objective of this study was to establish Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) in higher education institutions and enhance English fluency and accuracy with minimal operation and low maintenance cost. The study also methodologically shortlisted open-source mobile applications based on users' feedback on their user-friendliness, skill-levels, content, and options that promote Learners' Autonomy. A quantitative true-experimental study was conducted at the Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, India, to develop the listening skills of (n=121) students of first-year Bachelor of Technology in a varied branch. The pre-test and post-test results revealed improvements in the experimental group. The findings would immensely help the underprivileged to serve ESL learners from any part of the globe who intend to enhance their proficiency in English.
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Smoking is a bad habit that can endanger health. Several conditions caused by smoking habits are lung cancer, heart attacks, impotence, and interruption of pregnancy. Nowadays, smokers are not only adults but also some of the teenagers. The high number of teenage smokers in Indonesia has increased every year. According to the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTC) survey in 2019, 19.2% of teenage students are smokers. 20% of all junior high school students in Indonesia aged 13-15 have smoked and more than 30% of Indonesian children started smoking before 10 years old. Teenager’s life should be filled by various positive activities so that it is beneficial for themselves and their surroundings. The government has made numerous policies to reduce the number of teenage smokers in Indonesia, but they have not been making any difference. We are concerned and innovated to develop an application for education and to reduce the number of teenage smokers, especially in Indonesia. In this paper, we use a literature study to analyze the role of parents looking after their children and some effective way to help teenage smokers free themselves from cigarettes. Based on that situation, we added some key features. The key features of this application are not only smoking control and education about smoking but also games and parent surveillance to their child. Some reasons why we added those features are because games sound interesting around teenagers. We also decided to add parent surveillance because parents have a big role in controlling their children’s attitudes and habits, furthermore they can help their child to say no to smoking. Our final objective of this application is to make Indonesia’s younger generation smokefree.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, Türkiye’de yükseköğretim düzeyinde mobil öğrenmeye yönelik yayınlanmış bilimsel makalelerin eğilimlerini incelemek ve sonuçlarını sentezlemektir. Araştırmada, karma araştırma sentezi yöntemi benimsenmiş ve 2010-2020 yılları arasında yayınlanan 80 makalenin sonuçları sentezlenmiştir. Öne çıkan sonuçlardan bazıları şunlardır: Yükseköğretim düzeyinde mobil öğrenmeye yönelik çalışmalar son yıllarda artış göstermiştir. Çalışmalarda en fazla nicel araştırma yöntemi ve tarama deseni tercih edilmiştir. Deneysel ve nitel araştırmalar nispeten azdır. Örneklem olarak en sık öğrencilerle çalışılmıştır. Ölçek, en fazla kullanılan veri toplama aracı iken t test en çok başvurulan veri analiz yöntemi olmuştur. Sentezlenen sonuçlara göre mobil öğrenmeye yönelik görüş ve tutumlar genel olarak olumludur. Mobil öğrenmeye hazırbulunuşluk iyi düzeydedir. Mobil öğrenme öğrenciye bağımsızlık, bireysel öğrenme ve özgürlük sağladığı için etkili bulunmaktadır. Mobil öğrenmenin öğrenci motivasyonunu ve performansını arttırdığı düşünülmektedir. Ders içi ve ders dışı etkinliklerde mobil öğrenmeden yararlanılabilir. Mobil öğrenmede yeni teknolojilerle öğrenme kaynakları zenginleştirilmektedir. Yükseköğretimde mobil öğrenmeden en fazla yabancı dil öğretiminde yararlanılmaktadır. Özellikle mobil cihazlar yardımıyla kelime öğretimi etkili bulunmaktadır. Teknik ve ekonomik sınırlılıklar kontrol altında tutulabilir ve öğrenci dikkati sınıf içi etkinliklere çekilebilirse mobil öğrenmeden yüz yüze eğitimde destek unsur olarak faydalanılabilir.
The chapter aims to explore the role of m-learning among finance students with an additional focus on the future of online higher education. The key reason to conduct the study is to explore the hidden issues of m-learning for the students majoring in finance, especially in the online classroom setting. The study used a qualitative research approach to discover the phenomenon. The authors conducted a thorough literature review of the existing literature and attempted to fulfill the research gap following the qualitative research approach. The result shows that digitalized education provides the opportunity for finance major students to access financial markets using the Internet and gain personal and professional knowledge in a better way rather than traditional learning. The result also discovers a significant positive relationship between m-learning and online educational effectiveness. Only the students of Finance were the participants which may affect the generalizability. The study presents significant implications for education policymakers and practitioners. The study fills the gap in the current literature by discovering the role of m-learning in the online educational setting for finance major students.
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Background Given the advancement of mobile and sensing technology, the incorporation of augmented reality (AR) in context‐aware ubiquitous learning (CAUL) has offered significant benefits to oral communication development in foreign language learning. Although a great number of studies have been dedicated in this field, only a little research was conducted to formulate a facilitation framework aligning with established learning theories or pedagogies. Objectives This review thereby examined the facilitation tenets conducive to the best practice of AR‐based CAUL projects for oral communication enhancement and further established a AR‐guided CAUL framework. Methods The researchers systematically reviewed 17 related empirical AR studies from Web of Science from 2000 to 2021 and synthesized the results with focused second language acquisition theories. Results and Conclusions Three practical tenets were identified, including facilitating learner‐centred pedagogies with personal and contextual learning supports, incorporating constructivist learning design, and encouraging collaborative learning and higher‐order cognitive skills. Furthermore, in accordance with the synthesized results, a facilitation framework combining situated learning, learning‐by‐doing, and social constructivist design was developed to engage students in a learning, applying, and reflecting process in formal and informal learning contexts. Major Takeaways For the best practice of oral communication through AR, this review study offers practical facilitation tenets and theoretical framework which are in alignment with research‐proven theories. It is expected that the framework could provide frontline educational practitioners with guidance to foster students' learning outcomes and interactions.
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Сфера высшего образования во всех развитых странах является разнообразной как по своим программам, так и по источникам финансирования. Как и в большинстве стран мира, в японской образовательной системе преобладает государственный сектор, объединяющий лучшие вузы. В высших учебных заведениях государственного сектора работают высококвалифицированные преподаватели, которые, кроме учебной работы, проводят глубокие научные исследования. Япония оказывает серьезное политическое, экономическое влияние на формирование ценностных ориентаций будущих поколений. Она запустила новую стратегию по созданию университетов мирового класса. Для этого правительство выбрало 6 из 86 имеющихся в стране национальных университетов и объявило их специализированными национальными университетами. В стране частный сектор высшего образования превосходит по размеру государственный. Однако качественные оценки говорят о том, что роль безусловного лидера принадлежит государственным учебным заведениям. В статье на примере таких университетов мирового уровня, как Токийский университет, Университет гигиены труда и окружающей среды, Университет Васэда, Университет Кейо, Токийский университет науки, представлены сравнительный анализ и основные характеристики образовательных практик передовых государственных и частных вузов Японии для формирования социального капитала
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Today, mobile learning is a well-established methodology thanks to its countless benefits such as accessing learning content anytime and anywhere, adjusting the content to students’ needs, and timely feedback. The purpose of this pilot study is to illustrate that foreign language learning supported by a personalized smartphone app can be effective in the enhancement of university students’ performance by implementing smartphone app learning in a continuous assessment. The methodology is a case study analysis of students’ needs, with statistical processing of the collected data. The results reveal that foreign language learning, particularly studying and revising English vocabulary and phrases via smartphones is effective in the enhancement of university students’ performance. However, such learning must be designed around students’ needs and continuously facilitated by a teacher. Only then can it contribute to positive learning outcomes. In addition, the results also confirm that mobile learning can serve as an appropriate complementary method to other forms of course delivery. Further research should extend the mobile app to the Apple platform and iOS.
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This study examines the effect of integrating mobile-game based language learning applications (MGBLLAs) on Saudi female English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students’ motivation to learn English. It explores the perceptions of students regarding the pedagogical value of the following free MGBLLAs: Game books: Great Reader, Game to learn English - EnglishTracker, and Learn English Vocabulary Pop Quiz. A group of thirty Saudi female beginner level students, aged from 18-20 years old and enrolled for their foundation year at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) participated in the study. The study was carried out over a seven week period. Data were collected using two questionnaires. A pre-MGBLLAs integration questionnaire was modified to determine students’ motivations for learning English. A post-MGBLLAs integration questionnaire designed by the author was also issued. It was utilized to explore the perceptions of students regarding the use of the three mobile game-based language learning apps, and to discover any impact on learner motivation. The results of the pre-MGBLLAs integration revealed that the EFL students were motivated to learn English. However, their motivation was high instrumental motivation, because it is taught as a compulsory course in their foundation year and they must achieve high scores to be able to start studying their preferred major. Significantly, the findings of the post-MGBLLAs integration questionnaire revealed that students perceived the three apps as beneficial for learning and improving motivation. These results contribute to the literature regarding mobile game based learning, and EFL students’ motivation.
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In our increasingly mobile world, portable devices play a central role in ensuring the continuity of the learning process and they also provide access to education and training. Mobile learning technologies become a valuable addition to traditional learning techniques, as students have the opportunity to participate in educational activities at any time and place. This paper reviews the benefits and challenges of mobile learning and its prospects for foreign language learning. Experiments at the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University indicate that mobile learning can be a helpful tool to accelerate learning, encourage both independent and collaborative learning experiences, provide valuable interactions, enhance opportunities for language practice and promote lifelong learning.
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This paper designs the construction dimension of College English individualized teaching space, and constructs its system architecture combining with the requirements of teaching and learning cloud space. Secondly, it expounds the four application strategies of learning cloud space in College English Teaching: individualized spatial dynamic allocation strategy, self-taught strategy under the support of experience, and based on the ubiquitous environment. Fragmented learning strategy and language learning oriented interactive dialogue strategy; finally, it introduces three application patterns in College English Teaching in the light of learning cloud space: overturning, subject inquiry learning and mixed teaching, and verifying the use effect of cloud space through case studies. The results show that customized learning cloud space and its application can improve the efficiency of College English teaching and promote students'mastery of English application skills.
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p class="0abstract">Mobile devices have proven to be an appropriate tool which expands the horizons of learning beyond the classroom through means of flexibility and portability. Throughout this study, the authors have worked with a set of design guidelines which were derived from the literature. The artifact developed considering these design guidelines has been evaluated among various user groups for better understanding of m-learning as a tool to support English Language Learning. Findings of these evaluations have been used to improve the design guidelines. The authors also identify the effectiveness of mobile learning as a supporting medium of learning and as a primary medium of learning among different learner groups, which is another outcome of this study. </p
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The widespread of mobile devices bring a huge potential to e-leaning in terms of pervasiveness, ubiquity, personalization, and flexibility. In this study, a total of 70 university ESP learners were involved. Telegram, as the treatment in this study was compared to a conventional method; face-to-face in the cooperative writing activities. First of all a pre-test was administered to all students and based on the preliminary results; students were divided into Telegram and face-to-face Cooperative writing groups. After using both approaches, a post-test was given to participants. Then, a questionnaire was given to the students in order to investigate the effect of Telegram on the attitudes of ESP vocabularies and expressions by the ESP learners. The data were then analysed using independent t-test and paired sample t-test. From the findings, it was found that participants in Telegram Cooperative writing groups displayed slightly higher scores compared to face-to-face Cooperative writing groups. However, the differences between Telegram and face-to-face Cooperative writing groups were not significant in the post-test writing scores. When comparison was made within each group, this study found that there were significant differences for overall writing performance, content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanics. The results also indicated that the students had positive attitudes toward using telegram Cooperative learning.
This study provides a new view on blended learning. It describes successful mobile blended learning, which is based on the combination of traditional, face-to-face classes and the use of mobile app, which was exploited as support for the retention and practice of new English words and phrases at the Faculty of Informatics and Management of the University of Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of mobile app on students’ learning achievement in the university Course of Practical English Language. The methodology is based on an experiment and statistical analysis of students’ achievement results. The findings of this study confirm that the use of mobile app is effective in learning new words and phrases, which is in line with other studies on this topic. In fact, the use of app in informal settings extends and enriches student’s learning environment and enhances student’s learning potential. Future research should continue in order to obtain more subject samples. It will be also important to see if the success rate of students who use the mobile app while studying changes or remains the same over time. In addition, the authors might research students’ motivation and attitude towards the use of mobile app.
In this study, 3 Mobile-Assisted Language Learning interfaces are proposed considering the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning, Cognitive Load Theory, and the Active/Reflective learning styles. A quasi-experimental design was adopted to compare the effects of 3 smartphone interfaces, namely partial English captions (EG1), full English captions (EG2), and partial English captions with Chinese subtitles (CG), on the cognitive load, learning motivation, and learning anxiety and enjoyment of 119 11th-grade students with different learning styles. It was found that EG2 had significantly higher learning motivation than EG1 and CG. On the other hand, significant interaction between the 3 smartphone interfaces and learning styles was found for the students’ cognitive loads. Further analysis showed that, in EG1, the active-style students’ cognitive load was significantly lower than that of the reflective-style students. In addition, it was found that the active-style students’ learning enjoyment was significantly higher than that of the reflective-style students, while no significant difference was found between the learning anxiety ratings of the students with different learning styles in the 3 groups. Therefore, it is suggested that the role of learning styles needs to be further considered when designing caption interfaces for smartphone applications in the future.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a mobile application (app) designed within the framework of cognitive apprenticeship, in order to facilitate students struggling with learning English as a foreign language (EFL). The participants were ten seventh-graders, who were performing significantly below grade level in their EFL classroom. The research questions targeted changes in learning outcomes with the aid of the app, attitudes the participants had towards the learning experience, and student perceptions regarding the design of the app. Data were collected by interviews, observation, surveys, and exams. The results indicated use of the app enhanced EFL learning. Not only did the app provide a feasible path for the students moving from individual learning to cooperative learning, it also bolstered their confidence in learning, ultimately promoting positive attitudes toward EFL learning. Finally, the design of the app was confirmed as an effective tool for mobile instruction, yet student perceptions of the interface design indicated a need for modification to be more adaptive. The findings confirm the legitimacy of the app's instructional design and may provide evidence-based learning materials to scaffold EFL learning.
This study reviewed the mobile technology-assisted language learning studies published from 2007 to 2016 in selected journals. Several critical issues were investigated, such as research methods, research issues, language and learner types, and learning outcomes. It was found that English as a foreign/second language was the most common target language; few studies have been conducted on native language learning. Early studies mainly focused on fostering learners’ individual language skills, while in the recent 5 years, researchers started to consider the issue of delivering multiple language skills in authentic learning environments. In addition, an increasing number of studies have involved mixed methods and longer treatment periods. Moreover, the effectiveness of mobile learning in terms of speaking, writing, vocabulary, and pronunciation was generally identified by most of the studies. On the other hand, more evidence is needed to further confirm its impacts on listening, reading, grammar, and integrated/whole language learning. Finally, some suggestions are provided to researchers or practitioners to facilitate their future work.