Book

Abstract

Government and societal attention on young people’s involvement in offending has resulted in expansion of the youth justice system, with emphasis on developing effective and sustainable interventions to reduce recidivism and enhance outcomes for young people. Social impact measurement provides the tools for exploring the experiences and outcomes of youth justice interventions. By exploring the social impact of Secure Training Centres, this book will explore the gap present between the theoretical understanding of youth offending and the reality in practice. In addition to exploring the discrepancies between the original remit of Secure Training Centres and current practice, the authors will contribute to the body of knowledge on youth justice by identifying suitable methods for measuring the social impact of youth offending interventions. In doing so the authors seek to provide an evidential frame through which to critique current policy and practice in youth justice as too focused on punitive approaches to recidivism, which lead to poor outcomes for young people and therefore greater costs to society.
... It highlights five key areas in helping children's successful transition from custodial environments: health, wellbeing, and safety; relationships; education; independence; and transition (Paterson-Young, 2018). Paterson-Young, Hazenberg, and Bajwa-Patel (2019) argue that challenges in satisfying early stages in the rehabilitative environment can disrupt progression during later stages. Therefore, it is essential to understand that the satisfaction of needs is not all or nothing and that children will progress at different rates (Paterson-Young et al., 2019). ...
... Paterson-Young, Hazenberg, and Bajwa-Patel (2019) argue that challenges in satisfying early stages in the rehabilitative environment can disrupt progression during later stages. Therefore, it is essential to understand that the satisfaction of needs is not all or nothing and that children will progress at different rates (Paterson-Young et al., 2019). The application of Maslow's (1943Maslow's ( , 1987 hierarchy of needs and Paterson-Young's (2018) rehabilitative environment aids our understanding of 'what works' in supporting children's ability to achieve positive outcomes, especially for children who have unmet safety needs due to exposure to violence in the home and, indeed, in custody. ...
... Children viewed restraint as a normal part of life in the Secure Training Centre, mirroring experiences of violence in the home. Violence in custody can hinder the development of pro-social attitudes, relationships, and progression through Maslow's hierarchy of needs (1943Maslow's hierarchy of needs ( , 1987 and Paterson-Young's Rehabilitative Pyramid (Paterson-Young, 2018;Paterson-Young et al., 2019). ...
Article
Background: Violence in the home is recognised as a significant problem, with around 29.5 % of children subjected to violence in the home at some point in the United Kingdom (Radford et al., 2013). Children in custodial environments are a particularly vulnerable group in society (McAra & McVie, 2010), with 51 % of the children in Secure Training Centres subjected to violence in the home (Paterson-Young, 2018). Objective: The purpose of this paper is to explore how children subjected to violence in the home cope with violence and experiences with restraint in Secure Training Centres. Participants and setting: The research was conducted with children and staff in a Secure Training Centre that accommodates boys aged between 12 and 18 years-old in England. Methods: Thematic analysis was used to analyse secondary data, originally collected by the author, from semi-structured interviews with children (N = 15) and staff (N = 15) in Secure Training Centres. It led to the identification of four themes: 'Struggling to cope with abuse', 'Substance use as a coping mechanism', 'Disjointed service delivery' and 'Mirroring violence in the home through normalised restraint'. Results: The findings illustrate that children in custodial environments who have experienced violence in the home are subjected to violent behaviour management techniques in custody, mirroring their experiences in the home. This normalised violence inhibits the development of positive coping mechanisms, relationships, and attitudes towards violence. Conclusions: Enhancing our understanding of 'what works' in supporting children subjected to violence allows for the development of effective and sustainable services founded on collaboration, violence reduction, and trauma-informed practices.
... ' (P11) These positive comments about missing education, teachers being 'good' and 'proper education' indicate that, for a few, the education they receive in the STC is beneficial and could be the first steps on their route to a crime-free life. Educational opportunities and qualifications help to cultivate self-efficacy (Bandura 1977; and increase children's ability to access meaningful opportunities on release (Farrington 2003;Paterson-Young, Hazenberg, and Bajwa-Patel 2019). Given the importance of education for children serving a sentence and children transitioning from custody, the STC has an obligation to ensure children receive appropriate education (Paterson-Young, ibid). ...
Article
Full-text available
Whilst the number of children in custody declines, the complex needs of many of them have increased. A review of the youth justice system stated that education needs to be the central pillar in preventing offending. Research suggests that education fails children, by prioritising reputation and the standards agenda over providing care and education that meets individual needs (Runswick-Cole. 2011. “Time to End the Bias Towards Inclusion.” British Journal of Special Education 38 (3): 11). This paper explores this failure for children prior to and in custody itself, and relates this to a theoretical model that combines children’s need and self-efficacy. It suggests that until children are guaranteed an environment where their basic needs are met, there is little hope of either education or training helping them to access a life free from crime, whatever other policy changes in custody are implemented. This research shows that current provisions, for children in custody, fail to support children’s needs around safety, belonging and self-esteem. Thus, it is no surprise that children in Secure Training Centres fail to self-actualise their educational abilities, as they lack the self-efficacy to successfully engage with education.
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