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Ressources marines, pêche et développement en Argentine : d’une activité de rente au développement des territoiresSea resources, fishing and development: from rent seeking to territorial development

  • Université de Bretagne occidentale, Brest, FRANCE, UE
... Il s'agit en première approche d'un modèle reposant sur l'extraction des manières premières de toutes natures (minérales, énergétiques, alimentaires, d'origine minière ou agricole) qui tend à occuper des territoires marginaux, ceux où se trouvent les ressources minières ou, plus précisément, où ces nouvelles ressources sont produites par le jeu des marchés, des technologies et des normes. C'est par exemple le cas du lithium andin (Sérandour, 2020), des nouveaux espaces de production énergétique (Forget, Marie et Carrizo, 2020 ;Velut, 2021) mais également des grands espaces agricoles et, de plus en plus, maritimes (Bouvet et Carut, 2019). Au début du siècle, dans la logique des gouvernements progressistes dits de la vague rose, l'extractivisme a permis la redistribution et la réduction de la pauvreté. ...
Latin American territories and the dynamics of extractivism This paper presents the articles of the special issue on Latin America and places the papers in the broader context of Latin America in the 21st Century. It suggests to interpret Latin American reality from three contradictions connected to the development model, the political conflicts and the international insertion of the Region. It follows with a discussion about the consequences of Chinese presence on territories and the debates regarding extractivism.
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This text investigates ruptures and continuities in the management of natural resources, according to the paradigms of development that prevailed in marginal spaces of Latin America. The growth poles founded on an intensive exploitation of the natural resources, from the years 1960 to 1980, were the instrument for development and regional planning policies more attentive to homogenize the national territory by stimulating migrations and modernisation, than to preserve the environment and the cultural inheritance of the local populations. The crisis of this model opened the way to new forms of governance based on a territorial anchoring, but the tensions between the actors operating on the various scales make difficult the conciliation between nature conservation and development.
Argentina was late to discover the value of exploiting living marine resources. Nevertheless, in a few years, the country became a majour fishing nation, vigorously asserting mairtime sovereignhty, at the cost of conflicts with Chile and Great Britain. Due to the absence of a maritime tradition and of internal market, Argentina has adopted an outward looking strategy, while reconciling nationalism and foreign cooperation. But, that strategy has been implemented at the detriment of the resource and of fishermen.