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Preventive effect of the bark of Passiflora edulis on obesity-related disorders and oxidative stress in db/db mice


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To verify if the bark of Passiflora edulis prevents obesity-related disorders and oxidative stress in db/db mice. Obese male db/db mice (n = 14 animals) were randomly divided into two groups to receive standard chow and water (obese, n = 7 (OB)) or standard chow with bark of Passiflora edulis (BPe) (obese + BPe, n = 7 (OB + BPe)) for 16 weeks. The evaluated parameters in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, total body fat and fat deposits, serum glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in serum and organs (adipose tissue, kidney, liver, and heart). All groups were compared by Student t test, with p < 0.05. The results showed the benefits from BPe by preventing abdominal fat deposition and by reducing the total cholesterol. Moreover, the compound increased the antioxidant capacity from the organs analyzed and reduced the MDA levels in the liver. It is possible to conclude that the consumption of the BPe prevents obesity-related disorders and oxidative stress in db/db mice.
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Preventive effect of the bark of Passiflora edulis on obesity-related
disorders and oxidative stress in db/db mice
Marielle Fernanda Panelli
&Jéssica Leite Garcia
&Sérgio Luiz Borges de Souza
&Mariane Róvero Costa
Artur Junio Togneri Ferron
&Cristina Schmitt Gregolin
&Igor Otávio Minatel
&Ana Paula Costa Rodrigues Ferraz
Damiana Tortolero Pierine
&Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti- Ferron
&Camila Renata Corrêa
Received: 25 February 2019 /Accepted: 25 April 2019
#Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019
Purpose To verify if the bark of Passiflora edulis prevents obesity-related disorders and oxidative stress in db/db mice.
Methods Obese male db/db mice (n= 14 animals) were randomly divided into two groups to receive standard chow and water
(obese, n= 7 (OB)) or standard chow with bark of Passiflora edulis (BPe) (obese + BPe, n= 7 (OB + BPe)) for 16 weeks. The
evaluated parameters in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, total body fat and fat deposits, serum glucose,
triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in serum and organs
(adipose tissue, kidney, liver, and heart). All groups were compared by Student ttest, with p<0.05.
Results The results showed the benefits from BPe by preventing abdominal fat deposition and by reducing the total cholesterol.
Moreover, the compound increased the antioxidant capacity from the organs analyzed and reduced the MDA levels in the liver.
Conclusion It is possible to conclude that the consumption of the BPe prevents obesity-related disorders and oxidative stress in
db/db mice.
Keywords Obesity .Db/db mice .Passion fruit
The prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases, such as hy-
pertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia, has increased
around the world. The literature reports that fat accumulation,
especially abdominal obesity, is related to the development of
obesity-related disorders [16]. Several mechanisms try to
explain the association between obesity and diseases, among
them, higher adiposity, which would induce a redox system
imbalance, characterized by the excess of oxygen reactive
species (ROS) [7]. This condition leads to oxidation of differ-
ent molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and
DNA, which are involved in the development of different
disorders [8,9].
Antioxidants are substances able to protect the organism
against diseases by avoiding molecule oxidation [10,11]. They
are obtained from both endogenous and exogenous sources;
however, the latter is considered the most important since the
nutrients from the diet are indispensable for the endogenous an-
tioxidant synthesis [12]. Based on this, the early introduction of
fruits and vegetables in the diet, which are rich in antioxidants
and bioactive compounds, could be an effective strategy to pre-
vent or delay the obesity-related disorders [1315].
Passiflora edulis, popularly known as passion fruitor
maracujá,is a fruit that contains several antioxidants in the
pulp, leaves, seeds, and bark, such as phenolics, carotenoids,
vitamin C, and polyamines [16]. In a previous study published
by our group [17], it was demonstrated that the treatment of
obese db/db mice with the BPe reduced the body fat and
improved metabolic and antioxidant parameters. However,
there is a lack of studies regarding the preventive effect of
the BPe. So, the aim of this study was to verify if the BPe
prevents obesity-related disorders and oxidative stress in db/
db mice.
*Fabiane Valentini Francisqueti- Ferron
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Medical School,
Botucatu, Brazil
São Paulo State University (UNESP), Institute of Biosciences,
Botucatu, Brazil
Materials and methods
Animals and experimental protocol
In this study, db/db mice were used, which are animals genet-
ically deficient for the leptin receptor, and considered by the
literature an established model for obesity and type 2 diabetes
[18]. All the animals were acquired from Universidade de São
PauloUSP, Brazil. After weaning (21 days of age), male db/
db mice (n= 14 animals) were randomly divided into two
groups to receive standard chow (Presence for rats and mice,
Presence Nutrição Animal, Brazil) and water (obese, n=7
animals (OB)) or standard chow with BPe ((obese + BPe,
n= 7 animals (OB + BPe)) during 16 weeks.
For all the animals, chow and water were offered ad
libitum.Feed and water consumption were measured daily,
and body weight was measured weekly. Two animals per cage
were kept in an environment with controlled temperature (24
± 2 °C), humidity (55 ± 5%), and light-dark cycle (1212 h).
The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee on
Animal Experimentation of the Botucatu Medical School,
Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP, (1104/2017) in São
Paulo, Brazil, and followed the recommendations of the Guide
for the Care and Use of Experimental Animals [19]. At the end
of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized with keta-
mine and xylazine and then euthanized by cardiac puncture,
and the organs and blood were collected for analysis.
Preparation of chow with bark of Passiflora edulis
The Passiflora edulis fruits were obtained from a rural pro-
ducer in Presidente Prudente city, São Paulo, Brazil, at the
ripening stage and submitted to selection, washed, cut into
small pieces, and oven-dried at 60 °C for 48 h. After this
process, the dried barks were milled (Logen Scientific,
Diadema São Paulo, Brazil) and added to grounded commer-
cial chow (Presence, Paulínea, São Paulo, Brazil), to reach the
proportion of 7 g of Passiflora edulis bark/kg of chow (corre-
spondent to 1.5 g/kg of body weight per day) [20]. Following
this, the mixture was pelleted again for consumption.
Nutritional parameters
In order to characterize the nutritional profile, the initial body
weight (IBW), final body weight (FBW), total body fat (TF
sum of fat deposits: epididymal, retroperitoneal, visceral, and
subcutaneous), adiposity index (AItotal body fat/final body
weight × 100), and feed intake (g/day) were considered.
Metabolic parameters
After 8-h fasting, serum glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol
levels (kits from BioClin®, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil) were
determined by an automatic enzymatic analyzer system
(Chemistry Analyzer BS-200, Mindray Medical
International Limited, Shenzhen, China).
Preparation of tissues for oxidative stress analysis
Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are able to oxidize
biomolecules and to affect the antioxidant capacity, so it was
analyzed in this study: MDA levels, an important lipid perox-
idation biomarker, and the antioxidant capacity in the serum
and tissues (adipose, hepatic, cardiac, and renal). Tissues
(100 mg) were homogenized in 1 mL of cold phosphate saline
buffer (PBS), pH = 7.4, and centrifuged (800×g,4°C,
10 min). The supernatant was used in the following analyses:
One hundred microliters of the homogenate was used for
malondialdehyde (MDA) analysis. Briefly, 700 μLof1%or-
thophosphoric acid and 200 μL of thiobarbituric acid (42 mM)
were added to the samples. Then, the mixture was boiled for
60 min in a water bath, and afterward, it was immediately
cooled on ice. A total of 200 μL was transferred to a 2-mL
tube containing 200-μL sodium hydroxide/methanol
(1:12 v/v). The sample was vortex-mixed for 10 s and centri-
fuged for 3 min at 13,000g. The supernatant (200 μL) was
transferred to a 300-μL glass vial and 50 μL was injected onto
the column. The HPLC was a Shimadzu LC-10AD system
(Kyoto, Japan) equipped with a C18 Luna column (5 μm,
150 × 4.60 mm, Phenomenex Inc., Torrance, CA, USA), a
Shimadzu RF-535 fluorescence detector (excitation 525 nm,
emission 551 nm), and 0.5 mL/min flow of phosphate buffer
(KH2PO4 1 mM, pH 6.8) [10]. The MDA was quantified by
the determination of the peak area in the chromatograms rel-
ative to a standard curve of known concentrations. A calibra-
tion curve was obtained by tetra-ethoxypropane (TEP) solu-
tions [21].
Antioxidant capacity
The hydrophilic antioxidant capacity was determined
fluorometrically as described by Beretta et al. [22] using a
microplate reader (VICTOR X2, Perkin Elmer-Boston, MA,
USA). The antioxidant capacity was quantified by the com-
parison between the areas under the curve relative to the oxi-
dation kinetics of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) suspension,
used as a reference for the biological matrix. The compound
2,2-Azobis (2-aminopropano)-dihydrochloride (AAPH) was
used as the peroxyl radical initiator. The results represent the
percentage of the inhibition of 4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-
butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-undecanoic acid
(BODIPY, 581/591) in serum relative to that occurring in the
control sample of BODIPY 581/591 in PC liposome. All
analyses were performed in triplicate, and the results represent
the percentual of protection.
Statistical analysis
Data were analyzed by the Student ttest or the Mann
Whitney and the results are presented as means ± standard
deviation (SD) or medians (interquartile range). Statistical
analyses were performed using Sigma Stat for Windows ver-
sion 3.5. (Systat Software, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA), and a p
value of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
The nutritional parameters are presented in Table 1and it
is possible to verify that BPe was able to prevent the
increase in both visceral and retroperitoneal adipose tis-
sues. Moreover, the treated group (obese + BPe) showed
Table 1 Nutritional parameters
Obese Obese + passiflora
Feed intake (g/day 6.53 ± 0.27 10.8 ± 0.5*
IBW (g) 15.8 ± 2.23 14.3 ± 1.8
FBW (g) 53.8 ± 3.6 49.3 ± 5.4
RAT (g) 1.93 ± 0.29 1.50 ± 0.28*
EAT (g) 3.00 (0.19) 2.93 (0.16)
VAT (g) 1.76 ± 0.13 1.42 ± 0.33*
TAS (g) 9.50 ± 0.89 8.07 ± 1.68
TF (g) 16.3 (1.3) 14.5 (1.6)*
AI (%) 31.1 (2.5) 28.9 (2.4)*
BPe,barkofPassiflora edulis;IBW, initial body weight; FBW,finalbody
weight; RAT, retroperitoneal adipose tissue; EAT, epididymal adipose
tissue; VAT, visceral adipose tissue; SAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue;
TF,totalfat;AI, adiposity index. Data are expressed in mean ± standard
deviation, or median and interquartile range (FBW, RAT, TF, AI).
*Indicates P<0.05
Fig. 1 Serum biochemical parameters for total cholesterol (a), triglycerides (b), and glucose (c). Data are expressed in mean ± standard deviation, or
median. Asterisk indicates p< 0.05. BPe, bark of Passiflora edulis
lower total body fat and adiposity index than the obese
Figure 1presents the serum biochemical parameters. It is
possible to verify the positive effect of the BPe preventing the
increase in the total cholesterol in the treated group. No effect
was observed on glucose and triglycerides levels.
The antioxidant capacity in serum, liver, kidney, left ven-
tricle, and adipose tissue was analyzed an is presented in
Fig. 2. The BPe was able to increase the antioxidant capacity
in serum, kidney, liver, and adipose tissue. Regarding the ef-
fect on the left ventricle, no change was observed.
Figure 3presents the MDA levels in the kidney, liver, left
ventricle, and adipose tissue. It is possible to verify a lower
level of this marker in the liver. There was no effect on MDA
levels in the kidney, left ventricle, and adipose tissue.
The principal findings of this study are that BPe treatment
conferred protection against obesity, reduced levels of total
cholesterol, increased antioxidant defense, and reduced
MDA in the liver. These are important findings since the
BPe was effective to modulate the genome-wide expression
profiling in a classic obesity experimental model [23].
The expansion of the adipose tissue, especially the
visceral fat, is indicated as the central dogma regarding
the physiopathology of obesity disorders [24]. Our re-
sults showed a positive effect from the BPe by
preventing visceral and total fat accumulation in the
treatment group. Studies show that natural bioactive
compounds can prevent obesity development by the
modulation of several pathways [25], among them the
stimulation of the peroxisome proliferatoractivated re-
ceptor gamma (PPAR-γ) synthesis. The increased levels
of PPAR-γinduced by some bioactive compounds would
be responsible for the adipose tissue browning, making it
more metabolic and decreasing its lipid deposition [26].
Once the bark of Passiflora edulis is rich in carotenoids
and flavonoids [17], the compound used in this study
may be able to modulate some of these mechanisms in-
volved in fat accumulation.
According to the literature, the reduction in body fat is
responsible for significant metabolic benefits, as the pre-
vention of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, type 2
diabetes, and dyslipidemia [27]. In this study, the treated
group presented only lower levels of total cholesterol
compared with the non-treated group. This finding can
be attributed to the pectin, a soluble fiber presented in
the BPe, able to form gels and prevents cholesterol ab-
sorption [28]. No effect was observed in glucose level,
which is an expected result once db/db mice are a genet-
ic rodent model for type 2 diabetes [23]. The absence of
effect on triglycerides levels can be related to insulin
resistance. Increased secretion of triglyceride-enriched
VLDL (very-low-density protein) is the commonest
cause of elevated plasma triglycerides in insulin resis-
tance and diabetes conditions [29].
The imbalance of the redox system is considered one of the
main causes of obesity-related disorder development [30]. In
Fig. 2 Antioxidant capacity in serum (a), kidney (b), liver (c), left ventricle (d), and adipose tissue (e). Data are expressed in mean ± standard deviation,
or median. Asterisk indicates P< 0.05. BPe, bark of Passiflora edulis
the present study, the BPe increased both systemic and tissues
antioxidant capacity, which can be attributed to the antioxi-
dant activity from the BPe, already described in our previous
study [17]. This property is an important finding that demon-
strates the effectiveness to prevent diseases and modulates
antioxidant response by the bioactive compounds present in
discarded parts from foods.
One consequence of the oxidative stress is the lipid
peroxidation, a free radicalmediated chain of reactions
that result in an oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturat-
ed lipids, which are components of biological mem-
branes and common targets of reactive species [31].
Lipid peroxidation results in MDA production, the most
frequently used biomarker of the oxidative stress in
many health problems such as cancer, chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular diseases [32]. Our
results showed that the BPe prevented lipid peroxidation
(MDA production) only in the liver. There are several
potential mechanisms that explain the increased lipid per-
oxidation in hepatic tissue. Higher levels of triglycerides
are deposited inside the hepatocytes, which favors the
occurrence of oxidative stress and the progression of
steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Reactive oxygen
species and lipid peroxidation products impair the respi-
ratory chain in hepatocytes, either directly or indirectly,
exposing the mitochondrial genome to oxidative damage.
These features, in turn, lead to the generation of more
ROS, and a vicious cycle may ensue. All groups present
higher levels of TG, and the BPe was able to prevent the
hepatic lipid peroxidation [33].
The absence of effect on MDA in the other organs can
be explained by the duration of the experiment. The oc-
currence of free radical production and consequently lip-
id peroxidation in the heart is associated with the elevat-
ed myocardial work and mechanical overload. In kid-
neys, the lipid peroxidation is responsible for the accu-
mulation of adipose tissue around the kidneys of obese
rats [33]. In adipose tissue, oxidative stress occurs espe-
cially in hypertrophied cells [34]. Probably the obese
group did not develop a level of obesity which is able
to lead to oxidative stress in all organs. However, it
demonstrates that the liver is the primary organ affected
Fig. 3 Malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in the kidney (a), left ventricle (b), liver (c), and adipose tissue (d). Data are expressed in mean ± standard
deviation, or median. Asterisk indicates P< 0.05. BPe, bark of Passiflora edulis
by the reactive species in obesity condition and the BPe
prevents the lipid peroxidation.
In summary, the results showed that the BPe is a good source
of fiber and phytochemicals and have a wide variety of health
benefits as a protection against obesity. In addition, it is note-
worthy that BPe reduced the total cholesterol and increased
the antioxidant capacity of treated animals. Based on these
results, it is possible to conclude that the BPe consumption
prevents obesity-related disorders and oxidative stress in db/
db mice.
Funding Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo
FAPESP (2015/09292-0).
Compliance with ethical standards
The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal
Experimentation of the Botucatu Medical School, Universidade Estadual
Paulista-UNESP, (1104/2017) in São Paulo, Brazil, and followed the
recommendations of the Guide for the Care and Use of Experimental
Animals [19].
Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of
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... However, no changes in glucose levels were observed by P. edulis supplementation (Panelli et al., 2018) as previously have been reported Lima et al. (2016). Panelli et al. (2019) repeated the same in vivo assay, with the difference in the supplemented time, as can be appreciated in Table 2, to verify the anti-obesity effects of bark from P. edulis. The main results were confirmed, such as decrease cholesterol serum, reduced weight and visceral fat accumulation and peroxidation status of visceral fat, liver and ventricule. ...
Background The prevalence of obesity around the world arises nowadays in its maximum number. Passiflora sp. genus (Passifloreace family) is native to Brazil and widely cultivated in other regions of America. The extracts of their leaves and fruits have been reported to show sedative and anxiolytic effects. Furthermore, they have been used as a medicinal plant in many populations worldwide. The Passiflora genus has been tested through in vivo studies to treat and prevent obesity and its complications. Likewise, their use as ingredients for developing probiotic foods has been increased. Scope and approach Therefore, the current review aimed to summarize and analyze the current knowledge about the in vivo effects of the Passiflora genus in preventing and treating obesity and overweight, following the systematic review protocol. Furthermore, an extensive review of the use of passion fruit and its by-products in the development of probiotic foods has been included. Key findings and conclusions Twelve works were selected in which different Passiflora genus parts (leave, seed, fruit) have been tested as anti-obesity agents, mainly in animal male models where obesity was induced through diet. Most evidence showed that Passiflora supplementation prevents body fat accumulation and protects against liver damage. However, more in vivo studies with female representation and a significant number of subjects are needed to confirm these results. Probiotics foods are related to improving health and obesity. An emergent tendency is developing probiotic foods (dairy or non-dairy based) with passion fruit or its by-products. Therefore, these new probiotic foods could be used in the transition from high sugar and fat foods to palatable-healthy foods in obese people to help them in their dietary pattern modifications.
Full-text available
Metabolic complications in an obese state can be aggravated by an abnormal inflammatory response and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species. Pro-inflammatory response is known to be associated with the formation of toxic reactive oxygen species and subsequent generation of oxidative stress. Indeed, adipocytes from obese individuals display an altered adipokine profile, with upregulated expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-6). Interestingly, natural compounds, including phenolic enriched foods are increasingly explored for their ameliorative effects against various metabolic diseases. Of interest is gallic acid, a trihydroxybenzoic acid that has progressively demonstrated robust anti-obesity capabilities in various experimental models. In addition to reducing excessive lipid storage in obese subjects, gallic acid has been shown to specifically target the adipose tissue to suppress lipogenesis, improve insulin signaling, and concomitantly combat raised pro-inflammatory response and oxidative stress. This review will revise mechanisms involved in the pathophysiological effects of inflammation and oxidative stress in an obese state. To better inform on its therapeutic potential and improvement of human health, available evidence reporting on the anti-obesity properties of gallic acid and its derivatives will be discussed, with emphases on its modulatory effect on molecular mechanisms involved in insulin signaling, inflammation and oxidative stress.
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Obesity is considered an important risk factor for several disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis, which are associated with inflammation and oxidative stress as a trigger factor. Passiflora edulis contains important bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, vitamin C, and polyamines in pulp, leaves, seeds, and bark. Aim: To evaluate the effect of bark of Passiflora edulis (BPe) on body composition, and metabolic and oxidative stress parameters in genetically obese mice. Methods: Obese male db/db mice (n = 14 animals) received normal feeds and water ad libitum for 8 weeks. Then, animals were randomly divided to continue either receiving standard chow (obese, n = 7 (OB)) or feed with standard chow plus bark Passiflora edulis (BPe) (obese + BPe, n = 7 (OB + BPe)) for 8 more weeks, totaling 16 weeks. BPe was added to chow (7 g of BPe/kg of chow corresponding to 1.5 g/kg of body weight). The parameters evaluated in animals included food and caloric intake, body weight, body fat, plasma glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol. Malondialdehyde and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in plasma and organs. Groups were compared by Student t-test, with p < 0.05. Results: BPe reduced visceral and subcutaneous fat deposit and adiposity index, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, ameliorated the antioxidant capacity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Conclusion: the bark of Passiflora edulis was effective in improving body composition, and metabolic and antioxidant parameters in obese mice.
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Skeletal muscle utilizes both free fatty acids (FFAs) and glucose that circulate in the blood stream. When blood glucose levels acutely increase, insulin stimulates muscle glucose uptake, oxidation, and glycogen synthesis. Under these conditions, skeletal muscle preferentially oxidizes glucose while the oxidation of fatty acids (FAs) oxidation is reciprocally decreased. In metabolic disorders associated with insulin resistance, such as diabetes and obesity, both glucose uptake, and utilization muscle are significantly reduced causing FA oxidation to provide the majority of ATP for metabolic processes and contraction. Although the causes of this metabolic inflexibility or disrupted “glucose-fatty acid cycle” are largely unknown, a diet high in fat and sugar (HFS) may be a contributing factor. This metabolic inflexibility observed in models of obesity or with HFS feeding is detrimental because high rates of FA oxidation in skeletal muscle can lead to the buildup of toxic metabolites of fat metabolism and the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which further exacerbate the insulin resistance. Further, HFS leads to skeletal muscle atrophy with a decrease in myofibrillar proteins and phenotypically characterized by loss of muscle mass and strength. Overactivation of ubiquitin proteasome pathway, oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction are some of the mechanisms involved in muscle atrophy induced by obesity or in mice fed with HFS. In this review, we will discuss how HFS diet negatively impacts the various physiological and metabolic mechanisms in skeletal muscle.
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The objective of this study was to determine the proximal composition, the physical and chemical characteristics and the in vitro antioxidant capacity (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) of the pulp of the wild passion fruit (Passiflora glandulosa Cav.) from Cariri region, Ceara, Brazil. The results showed that the proximal composition and the caloric value of this passion fruit are similar to other species, but with a high ascorbic acid content. The fruit pulp showed low level of antioxidant activity and low level of polyphenolic compounds followed by three methodologies used. Due to high levels of titratable acidity (3.52) and total soluble solids (17.80° Brix), this fruit can be considered as a high value fruit for commerce. However, it is a species of passion fruit with few studies described in the literature, and more research is needed to assess its nutritional and functional potential. © 2017, Eduem - Editora da Universidade Estadual de Maringa. All rights reserved.
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Cholesterol is a vital component of the human body. It stabilizes cell membranes and is the precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. However, cholesterol accumulation in the bloodstream (hypercholesterolemia) can cause atherosclerotic plaques within artery walls, leading to heart attacks and strokes. The efficiency of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is of great interest because human and animal studies have linked cholesterol absorption with plasma concentration of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cholesterol absorption is highly regulated and influenced by particular compounds in the food supply. Therefore, it is desirable to learn more about natural food components that inhibit cholesterol absorption so that food ingredients and dietary supplements can be developed for consumers who wish to manage their plasma cholesterol levels by non-pharmacological means. Food components thus far identified as inhibitors of cholesterol absorption include phytosterols, soluble fibers, phospholipids, and stearic acid.
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Objectives White adipose tissue (WAT) expands through hypertrophy (increased adipocyte size) and/or hyperplasia (increased adipocyte number). Hypertrophy has been associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia independently of body composition and fat distribution. In contrast, hyperplasia protects against metabolic alterations. Proanthocyanidins, which are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet, improve metabolic disturbances associated with diet-induced obesity without reducing body weight or adiposity. The aim of this study was to determine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) can modulate WAT expandability. Because GSPE also contains gallic acid, we also studied the capacity of gallic acid to remodel WAT. Design Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet (n=6) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 11 weeks. After 8 weeks, the CAF-fed animals were supplemented with 25 mg GSPE/kg body weight (n=6), 7 mg gallic acid/kg body weight (n=6) or the vehicle (n=6) for 3 weeks. Histological analyses were performed in the retroperitoneal (rWAT) and inguinal (iWAT) WAT to determine adipocyte size and number. Specific markers for adipogenesis and WAT functionality were analysed in rWAT using quantitative RT-PCR. Results GSPE or gallic acid supplementation did not reduce weight gain or reverse and adiposity. However, GSPE reduced adipocyte size significantly in rWAT and moderately in iWAT and tripled the adipocyte number in rWAT. Gallic acid slightly reduced adipocyte size in rWAT and iWAT and doubled the adipocyte number in both WATs. In accordance with this adipogenic activity, Pref-1 and PPARγ tended to be overexpressed in rWAT of rats supplemented with GSPE. Moreover, GSPE supplementation increased Plin1 and Fabp4 expression and restored adiponectin expression completely, indicating a better functionality of visceral WAT. Conclusions GSPE supplementation has anti-hypertrophic and hyperplasic activities in rats with established obesity, mainly in visceral WAT inducing a healthier expansion of WAT to match the surplus energy provided by the cafeteria diet.
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a high prevalence around the world. Considering the components used to classify MetS, it is clear that it is closely related to obesity. These two conditions begin with an increase in abdominal adipose tissue, which is metabolically more active, containing a greater amount of resident macrophages compared to other fat deposits. Abdominal adiposity promotes inflammation and oxidative stress, which are precursors of various complications involving MetS components, namely insulin resistance, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. One way to block the effects of oxidative stress would be through the antioxidant defense system, which offsets the excess free radicals. It is known that individuals with metabolic syndrome and obesity have high consumption of fats and sugars originated from processed foods containing high levels of sodium as well as low intake of fruits and vegetables, thus maintaining a state of oxidative stress, that can speed up the onset of MetS. Healthy eating habits could prevent or delay MetS by adding antioxidant-rich foods into the diet.
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is established as the combination of central obesity and different metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. This cluster of factors affects approximately 10%-50% of adults worldwide and the prevalence has been increasing in epidemic proportions over the last years. Thus, dietary strategies to treat this heterogenic disease are under continuous study. In this sense, diets based on negative-energy-balance, the Mediterranean dietary pattern, n-3 fatty acids, total antioxidant capacity and meal frequency have been suggested as effective approaches to treat MetS. Furthermore, the type and percentage of carbohydrates, the glycemic index or glycemic load, and dietary fiber content are some of the most relevant aspects related to insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance, which are important co-morbidities of MetS. Finally, new studies focused on the molecular action of specific nutritional bioactive compounds with positive effects on the MetS are currently an objective of scientific research worldwide. The present review summarizes some of the most relevant dietary approaches and bioactive compounds employed in the treatment of the MetS to date.
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Remarkable interest has risen in the idea that oxidative/nitrosative stress is mediated in the etiology of numerous human diseases. Oxidative/Nitrosative stress is the result of an disequilibrium in oxidant/antioxidant which reveals from continuous increase of Reactive Oxygen and Reactive Nitrogen Species production. The aim of this review is to emphasize with current information the importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular responce against oxidative/nitrosative stress, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue. Products of lipid peroxidation have commonly been used as biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress damage. Lipid peroxidation generates a variety of relatively stable decomposition end products, mainly α, β-unsaturated reactive aldehydes, such as malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, 2-propenal (acrolein) and isoprostanes, which can be measured in plasma and urine as an indirect index of oxidative/nitrosative stress. Antioxidants are exogenous or endogenous molecules that mitigate any form of oxidative/nitrosative stress or its consequences. They may act from directly scavenging free radicals to increasing antioxidative defences. Antioxidant deficiencies can develop as a result of decreased antioxidant intake, synthesis of endogenous enzymes or increased antioxidant utilization. Antioxidant supplementation has become an increasingly popular practice to maintain optimal body function. However, antoxidants exhibit pro-oxidant activity depending on the specific set of conditions. Of particular importance are their dosage and redox conditions in the cell.