The Effect of Subject Lines on Open Rates of Email Marketing Messages

  • University College Roosevelt, Utrecht University
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This article investigates the effects of email subject lines on the open rate of email marketing messages. Based on previous literature, three different subject lines with distinctive elements of copywriting were developed: a (1) personal, (2) emotion eliciting and (3) short subject line. The open rates of emails with these subject lines were compared to the open rates of emails with a fourth subject line without these copywriting elements, the control group. An A/B test was conducted where an email marketing message sent to a total of 1,409,963 customers of Recipients received an email with one out of four possible subject lines. Results show that all emails with subject lines including a distinctive element of copywriting had higher open rates compared to those with a subject line that belonged to the control group. The control group had an open rate of 24.3%, the personal subject line 25.0%, the short subject line 26.9% and the emotion inducing subject line 26.1%. The differences are statistically significant and substantive for In conclusion, adjusting a subject line by influencing its content in terms of length, emotional triggers and personalization can all independently lead to a higher open rate of email marketing messages. Advances In Social Sciences Research Journal

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... [25][26][27][28]) and on the design of subject lines in e-mail marketing (e.g. [29][30][31]) will be reviewed. ...
... Other sources also emphasize the relevance of high information content in straightforward subject lines [29]. The use of emotions is also identified as a positive driver of open rates in email marketing messages based on an A/B test evaluation of an email message sent to 1,409,963 recipients [31]. ...
... In fact, this assumption cannot be confirmed by the authors [48]. Nevertheless, other sources, contrary to the results presented above [29], [30], [48], find that short [31] or completely empty subject lines [49] perform better than longer subject lines. ...
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With the increasing relevance of mobile apps for companies, push notifications to address app users are also becoming more important. While the acceptance factors of push notifications have already been extensively researched, the effect of the different design elements on user interaction by opening the mobile app is still completely unexplored. Based on existing scientific findings from related fields, especially banner advertising and e-mail marketing, the authors first develop hypotheses on the effect of title, button and image on user interaction with push notifications. In several experiments the hypotheses are tested using the example of a mobile shopping app. The results are evaluated using Chi-square test and Cramer's V. While the use of a title seems to have a positive effect on interaction rates, the hypotheses on the positive effect of buttons and images on interaction rates have to be rejected.
The COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 has had a rapid, profound and unprecedented impact on international education and global student mobility. A near-total shutdown of international air travel over the first four months of 2020 has rendered millions of international students unable to travel to their destination country to commence or resume studies. Those students who were already in their destination country before the travel shutdown has been subject to widespread lockdowns, campus closures, and social distancing requirements, preventing them from engaging with their studies in the way they had anticipated and prepared for. Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) conducted two separate pieces of market research to quantify the impact of the pandemic on international student mobility and the expected impact on higher education institutions: a survey of prospective international students, and one of international education professionals at universities from around the world. The results of these surveys indicate that the pandemic has had an acute impact on the future study intentions of prospective students, many of whom say their plans have been affected, and express fear and uncertainty about what the future holds for their education. Most universities are expecting a drop in international applications in the coming intakes and have implemented measures to maintain learning during the period where on-campus instruction is not possible, although they too share uncertainty about what the coming months hold, and how best to respond.
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Küreselleşme ve teknolojik gelişmeler, işletmeleri özellikle pazarlama ve reklam iletişiminde, müşterilere ulaşmak için yeterli etkileşime sahip yeni medya kanalları keşfetmeye zorlamaktadır. İşletmeler her zaman müşterileriyle daha kolay, daha ucuz ve daha hızlı iletişim kurmanın yollarını ararken, internet her üçünü de sunmaktadır. E-posta pazarlaması, reklam veya ticari bilgi göndermek için e-posta kullanan çevrimiçi bir pazarlama tekniğidir. E-posta pazarlama, düşük maliyeti, yüksek yatırım getirisi ve marka bağlılığı oluşturma avantajıyla da işletmeler için son derece cazip bir pazarlama aracıdır. Bu makale, güncel istatistikleri de paylaşarak e-posta pazarlamasıyla ilgili geniş bir kavramsal çerçeve oluşturmaya odaklanmaktadır. Bununla birlikte işletme yöneticilerin e-posta pazarlama kampanyalarını daha etkin bir şekilde tasarlamalarına yardımcı olmak için gereken e-posta pazarlama stratejilerini de açıklamaya çalışmaktadır. Makalede ayrıca izin pazarlaması, e-posta pazarlama metrikleri, e-posta pazarlamanın avantaj ve dezavantajları konularına da yer verilmiştir. Globalization and technological advances force businesses to discover new media channels with sufficient interaction to reach customers, especially in marketing and advertising communications. While businesses are always looking for ways to communicate with their customers easier, cheaper and faster, the internet offers all three. Email marketing is an online marketing technique that uses email to send advertising or commercial information. Email marketing is also an attractive marketing tool for businesses with its low cost, high return on investment and brand loyalty advantage. This article focuses on creating a broad conceptual framework for email marketing by sharing up-to-date statistics. In addition, it tries to explain the e-mail marketing strategies required to help business managers design their e-mail marketing campaigns more effectively. The article also covers permission marketing, e-mail marketing metrics, advantages and disadvantages of e-mail marketing.
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Organisations make use of e-mail marketing messages, with Swedish companies spending SEK40 million on this form of marketing communication. The purpose of this paper was to examine the attitudes of decision-makers in the Swedish manufacturing industry regarding e-mail marketing messages received. The authors used a quantitative research approach with an online-survey in order to collect the necessary data. The population was decision-makers within the manufacturing industry in Sweden and 1 777 responses from decision-makers were received and analysed. The majority of decision-makers tend to have negative attitudes toward e-mail marketing messages. Differences in attitudes exist between those of different ages and positions within companies. While respondents indicated that they check their e-mail frequently, no significant differences in attitudes to e-mail marketing messages could be identified. Marketers can attempt to improve attitudes among recipients by building relationships with the recipients prior to sending e-mail marketing messages, and paying attention to the layout and content of the e-mails.
Obtaining a reasonable level of response from email surveys and direct marketing via email is usually seen as notoriously difficult. This paper argues that 'response' is a complex concept and reports the results of an email survey in Norway into the effects on a range of response characteristics of email use patterns, perceptions about technology, campaign elements and seeking different levels of permission from potential responders. The results challenge many of the assumptions about email response characteristics.
Objective – This study examined the effects that mentioning the survey incentive prize in the subject line of a reminder email had on the response rate and data quality. To date, manipulation of the subject line, specifically in terms of mentioning the incentive prize, has received limited attention in the survey design literature. Methods – The delivery of the survey invitation is discussed in terms of the timing of the launch and reminder emails. Particular emphasis is given to the design of the email subject line and justification of the format. Weekly response rates from four LibQUAL+TM surveys were compared. In addition, weekly responses for one year were analyzed using SPSS to investigate if there were any between means differences in terms of three elements of data quality. The three elements were: length of time it took to complete the survey, the number of core questions with an N/A response, and the number of illogical responses where minimum scores were higher than desired. Results – The response rates for the second week were grouped together based on the presence or absence of the subject line manipulation. There was a significant difference between these means (4.75%, p 0.033). There was no statistical difference in regards to the measures of data quality as determined by a one-way ANOVA test. Conclusions – Reminding survey participants with an email that mentions the incentive prize in the subject line appears to increase response rates with no deleterious effects on data quality. The results of this investigation are encouraging, and those running the LibQUAL+TM survey in their universities should consider implementing this method to increase response rates. Further research to replicate these findings in other contexts and using an experimental design would be beneficial.
Originating as a debilitating trend in the 1990s, information overload has exacerbated in the digitally disseminated information age of the twenty-first century. In sharp contrast to the limited sources of information in the mid-1990s before the exponential growth of the Internet, the twenty-first century has witnessed a deluge of data, 24/7 media, and digital information that inundate professionals as well as common citizens, leading to the phenomenon of information overload. Based on meta-analyses and state-of-the-discipline review of information overload research paradigms, this chapter traces the theoretical and conceptual evolution of information overload in four parts. The first part explicates the theory and concept of information overload. The second part delineates the evolution of information overload as a twentieth century concept and credits the founders of Time Magazine, American media pioneers Henry Luce and Briton Hadden, for precociously recognizing information overload in the early decades of the twentieth century. It also traces the works of scientist Vannevar Bush, futurist Alvin Toffler, and designer Richard Saul Wurman, who posited critical perspectives that advanced information overload theory. The third part features a historical timeline of important innovations that have contributed to the evolution and proliferation of information in our society. The fourth and final part presents definitions, concepts, and theories related to the context and causes of information overload. In tracing the conceptual evolution of information overload, this chapter identifies a significant opportunity for strategies to combat information overload even as we are drowned by it. Such opportunities highlight the importance of the information overload research paradigm, which has inspired academic researchers and professionals to explore the surging significance of information overload research and practice in the twenty-first century.
This paper investigates the relationship between blank and non-blank email subject lines on levels of response to a solicitation to participate in an interview, and on participation in a web survey. Email use has grown substantially in recent years, presenting significant opportunity to the empiricist seeking research respondents. However, response to emails may be low because growth in the sheer volume of messages that individuals receive per day has led to a sense of ‘email overload’, and faced with the challenge of personal email management, many recipients choose to ignore some messages, or do not read them all fully. Drawing on information gap theory, we expected that sending an invitation with a blank subject line would induce a sense of curiosity in recipients that would improve email response and willingness to participate in research studies. However, findings from research with two samples with different propensities to participate in research (academics and business owners) revealed that an email invitation with a blank subject line does not increase overall response rates to a web survey and a face-to-face interview over either an informative subject line or a provocative subject line, but that it does prompt a greater number of active refusals. Based on this finding, recommendations for researchers are outlined.
This article investigates the effect of e-mail subject lines on survey viewing and survey response. Using two samples of students (low involvement with the survey sponsor and high involvement with the survey sponsor), the authors tested a variety of combinations of subject lines: the reason for the e-mail contact (survey), the sponsor of the e-mail (Liberal Arts University), a plea for help (request for assistance), and a blank subject line. The authors found a modest effect of subject line for the low-involvement sample, with blank subject lines yielding the highest response.
Previous research on web-based surveys lacks systematic tests of Internet-related factors of unit response rates. Strategies that do not rely on more expensive and time-consuming methods to improve response rates are important for maximizing the utility of this survey mode in social science research. This article presents detailed analyses of response rate data from a two-stage experiment embedded in a web-based survey. These data show that contrary to some previous assertions, theoretically consistent Internet-related strategies for meaningfully improving response rates to web-based surveys exist and that further attempts to identify these mechanisms should focus on invitation and reminder e-mails. This idea is a departure from previous analyses that examine survey content and presentation for sources of variability around web-based survey response rates.
One of the key topics in direct marketing via the Internet is personalisation. In the past this way of communicating meant considerable extra costs. The Internet, however, has considerably lowered the incremental costs of personalising messages. E-mail has enabled companies to communicate with customers in a segmented way, without entailing extra physical costs. Personalisation is, therefore, becoming increasingly popular.The underlying assumption behind these personalisation efforts is that `sending the right message to the right customers will (dramatically) increase the effectiveness of communication'. This sounds logical, but little research has been done on the concrete effects of personalisation. This paper sheds more light on the issue, by demonstrating the effects of personalised communication as opposed to generic communication.Although personalisation can be based on many things including behaviour, most companies start out with message differentiation based on preferences or characteristics as given by the customers. This paper examines the effects of this personalisation method in more detail.Journal of Database Marketing (2002) 9, 137-142; doi:10.1057/palgrave.jdm.3240069
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