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This study aims to analyze recruitment strategies to fulfil human resource needs. This study uses theory and research results to explain the implications of the recruitment process to meet human resource needs.. Research result explain that the recruitment strategy starts by determining manpower planning which includes job design, job specification, and job description. The next process of determining recruitment strategies includes recruitment sources, recruitment methods, and recruitment stages. Positive implications of recruitment are high motivation, job satisfaction, and performance improvement. So the recruitment strategy is the main activity of human resource management to hire the best talent and own superior competence in achieving the business target of the company.
Ahmad Azmy
Tanri Abeng School of Management & Leadership
Jl. Swadarma Raya No.88 Ulujami-Pesanggrahan South Jakarta
This study aims to analyze recruitment strategies to fulfil human resource needs. This study uses theory
and research results to explain the implications of the recruitment process to meet human resource
needs.. Research result explain that the recruitment strategy starts by determining manpower planning
which includes job design, job specification, and job description. The next process of determining
recruitment strategies includes recruitment sources, recruitment methods, and recruitment stages.
Positive implications of recruitment are high motivation, job satisfaction, and performance improvement.
So the recruitment strategy is the main activity of human resource management to hire the best talent and
own superior competence in achieving the business target of the company.
Keywords: Recruitment Strategy, Manpower Planning, Recruitment Implication
The company has several business
plans that must be achieved each year.
Business planning has stages to be
implemented with a fast and precise process.
The planning process requires both human
and capital resources. Implementation of the
planning process requires appropriate human
resources and in accordance with the needs
of the organization. Business plan will be
able to be implemented if supported by
human resources with superior capability
and competence. Therefore the success of an
organization can be achieved through the
excellence of human resources.
Every organization has a vision and
mission on every goal achievement. Hill and
Jones (2011) explain that vision is the dream
of the company's future is expected, while
the mission is the stage that must be done
company in realizing the company's dream.
This vision and mission will be formulated
in the form of strategic planning. Strategic
planning will be made in more detail and
formulated the resources needed at the
implementation stage. One of the resources
needed is human resources where the
organization needs the competence and
ability to execute the planning for the
achievement of business targets. Vision and
mission serve as a guide in the planning
process so that human resources understand
organizational expectations and achieve
business targets.
The process of obtaining superior
human resources must be created a
mechanism or system to hire the best
candidates. Human resource management
organize a mechanism or system whereby
company is able to hire desired candidate for
the success of business achievement. The
process of obtaining candidates according to
the needs of the organization is called
recruitment. Dessler (2013) explains that
recruitment is the process of collecting
relevant information about work-related
tasks and human characteristics needed to do
the work so as to help managers determine
the qualifications and types of skills needed
in the recruitment process. Then continued
Mathis and Jackson (2010) argue that
recruitment is the process of generating a
pool of qualified applicants to perform an
organization's work. Recruitment is an early
process in which the organization must be
able to formulate human resource
requirements including qualifications and
competency needs.
Competence of human resources
must be tailored with the needs of company.
Competence of human resources must be
formulated precisely how the company
should be able to hire the best people for
realizing achievement of business targets.
Initial process should be done by the
company how to formulate the work plan,
qualifications, responsibilities, and work
process. Brannick and Levine (2002) explain
that job analysis is an organized process
where companies are able to formulate the
nature of the work to be performed by
employees. The process of this company as
a business organization must make the
formulation of work and the process that
will be performed by employees. After
determining the type of work and the
process, the company must determine the
qualifications that must be able to perform
the work with the best performance.
Mangaleswaran and Kirushantan
(2015) explain that job descriptions will be
blueprints capable of outlining the duties
and responsibilities expected of the worker
candidate. Job description will explain in
detail the obligations, workloads, and job
targets to be performed by the shortlisted
candidates in the recruitment process. This
job description will help the company in
measuring its overall performance by
examining the results of work already
performed by selected candidates in the
recruitment process. Companies as business
organizations will benefit from detailed job
descriptions and are able to monitor all job.
The recruitment planning process is
a good first step for the company to get
human resources in accordance with the
capacity and business needs. A good
business system will not be able to run
optimally if it is not supported by human
resources with superior competence. This is
an early challenge for a company to run a
business competitively by recruiting the
right people both in terms of expertise and
capability in achieving company's business
objectives. Ekwoaba, Ikeije, and Ufoma
(2016) explained that the recruitment link
with performance is crucial to the success
and performance of the company's business.
The right recruitment strategy and supported
by qualification determination according to
the needs of organization. So the target
achievement of the company can be
achieved maximally and recruitment costs
that have been issued can be offset by hiring
the best candidate.
This research will analyze how
recruitment strategy is able to hire right
candidate according to needs of
organization. Recruitment will be seen from
various aspects both from the theoretical
foundations, company implementation, and
has a positive effect in improving the
performance of human resources as a whole.
Stringent business competition requires
superior human resources supported with
competence and capability according to the
needs of the organization. The results of this
study will create new thinking in human
resource theory about strategic recruitment
and able to realize the future of company.
This research uses descriptive
qualitative method. Sugiyono (2011)
explains that descriptive research is a
research conducted to determine the value of
independent variables, either one variable or
more (independent) without making
comparisons or connecting with other
variables. This research will analyze the
results of research related to recruitment
strategy in getting the best candidate and
implicate on employee performance.
Theories used are related to recruitment that
has strategic aspect on achieving company
performance targets both individually and
organization. Stages of research to be
performed are as follows:
Figure 1 Research Methodology
Initial stage will be done by
conducting recruitment theory studies in
accordance with research topic. Research
theories that will be reviewed related
recruitment strategy starting from the
planning process to the establishment of
recruitment stages. This theory will be
interconnected with regard to human
resource recruitment. Company will
compete to hire the best candidates
according to business needs. Achieving
business targets will not be achieved unless
there is synergy with human resource
recruitment. Recruitment of human
resources will be seen to strategically have
an effect in the company's business
Second stage will conduct research
results related implications of recruitment of
the company's business. The results of this
research aims to see a relationship with the
theory of recruitment is still relevant. The
results will be analyzed how the
implications of recruitment to business
achievement, employee performance, and
other aspects in accordance with the topic of
research. The results will be seen how the
strategic role of recruitment in hiring the
best candidate according to company need.
Business company must have a long-term
existence that can be developed and
improved on an ongoing basis.
Third stage is recruitment
implications. Success of recruitment will be
analyzed with the results of research in
improving performance and productivity of
business organization. Competitive
recruitment implication becomes a challenge
for organization to be able to hire the best
candidate for achievement business
company. Company reputation is always a
consideration for applicant candidates to
join and enhance business value of the
organization as a whole. Therefore,
recruitment implications will be
comprehensively analyzed between
theoretical and implementation.
research results
and theory
The fourth stage is to compare the
results of research and reality that exist in
the business world. This process will
analyze in a balanced way how recruitment
can improve the productivity of the
company's business. Superior human
resources will be able to achieve business
targets and become regeneration of
leadership within the organization. The
results of the study will explain thoroughly
how recruitment can improve job motivation
and productivity. At this stage is expected to
produce a clear picture related to the
recruitment process and the results for the
organization. The last stage generates a
synthesis of research where the results of the
analysis will conclude how strategic
recruitment is able to get the best people for
the organization. This will clearly illustrate
how recruitment will affect other activities
in human resource management.
Results and Discussion
Recruitment will play a strategic role
in company's business. The right recruitment
strategy will produce human resources
according to company's business needs. The
accuracy of recruitment methods will have a
positive effect on performance company and
business as a whole. Adeola and Adebiyi
(2015) see that there is an effect of the
influence recruitment activities with
employee performance and motivation.
Effective recruitment must be able to obtain
human resources needed by company. The
effect of recruitment influence will be able
to increase employee motivation in reaching
organizational expectation. Recruitment
practices undertaken in the Nigerian banking
industry are able to play a strategic role in
recruiting employees and improving
company performance.
Stoilkovska, Ilieva, and Gjakovski
(2015) explain that recruitment
implementation should view the
understanding of gender equality, race,
religion, and avoid discrimination.
Implementation of recruitment conducted in
Macedonia has been done professionally and
considers that everyone deserves equal
opportunity to work in the company.
Understanding equality of opportunity must
exist in the implementation of corporate
recruitment. Recruitment that has been done
should view that the candidate has the same
opportunity and skill needs that fit with
company's business. The recruitment pattern
is still limited to provide access to disability
in applying for jobs. People with disabilities
have the opportunity to develop and improve
careers in accordance with the pattern of
human resource development. Therefore,
recruitment is the main activity that must be
done to hire the best people and give equal
opportunity to all parties
Bellionardi and Pujiarti (2013)
explain that implementation of recruitment
model to hire the right people and improve
competitiveness of company.
Implementation of recruitment conducted at
PT. Semarang Autocomp Manufacturing
Indonesia (SAMI) through several stages
includes the analysis of employee needs, the
selection process to analyze suitability of
capabilities, and the placement process
according to position. The right recruitment
pattern will be in line with the company's
expectations. Human resources are an
important factor in achieving company’s
business targets. The competitiveness of
organization will be enhanced through
appropriate recruitment patterns and needs
of organization. Implementation of
recruitment patterns using internal and
external factors. Internal factors use several
considerations consisting of employee
needs, company policy, company resources,
position requirements, vision, mission and
corporate objectives. External factors using
considerations include labor regulations and
industry competition. Therefore, both of
these factors must be analyzed and decided
in the recruitment process so as to obtain
employees according to the needs of the
Chungyalpa and Karisma (2016)
explained that recruitment process starts
from job analysis, manpower planning, and
process of recruitment & selection. Job
analysis is a preliminary process in which
the company conducts an investigation to
determine the type of job and qualifications
required to complete job process. This
process will determine other stages such as
training, development, performance
appraisal, and career systems. Therefore, job
analysis will serve as basis for the decision
to determine characteristics and needs of the
candidate's capacity to be recruited in
accordance with the achievement of job
target by company.
Manpower planning is a process
undertaken by companies making mapping
across different divisions to determine
number of workers. The prediction of
worker number will determine in
recruitment process for both short-term and
long term. The development of company's
business will require availability of human
resources in improving productivity and
scale of organization's long-term business.
After the labor planning process is
completed with some job analysis
components. Then the company will start
the process of recruitment and selection in
accordance with needs of the workforce.
Ekwoaba, Ikeije, and Ufoma (2015)
conducted research related to the impact of
recruitment and selection criteria on
company performance. The results of their
research explain that the criteria of
recruitment and selection have a significant
influence on company performance.
Recruitment and selection criteria are crucial
to the success of a company's business.
Business organizations that already have an
international scale will continue to seek
superior human resources and are ready to
adapt to the rapidly changing business
trends. Superior human resources will be the
company's need to generate business
innovation. Therefore, the criteria of
recruitment and selection must be analyzed
and decided to hire the best people who are
able to achieve vision and mission of the
The employee recruitment decision-
making process should involve Human
Resources Division. Human Resources
Division will conduct analysis and survey to
see the process of job analysis and
manpower planning. Hsu and Leat (2000)
surveyed the manufacturing industry in
Taiwan. The survey results explain that
human resource policies should be
integrated with company's business strategy.
Human resource division is very influential
in making decisions related to recruitment,
selection, training, and employee
development. The recruitment method will
have positive implications on the company's
business performance. The main purpose of
recruitment is how to get the right people
according to the business needs of company.
This is the main target of Human Resources
Division to formulate and implement
appropriate recruitment practices and be
able to hire the best people with high
Selection of recruitment methods can
be done internally and externally in
accordance with the needs of job positions.
Devaro (2016) explains that the selection of
internal and external recruitment methods
should be tailored to the company's
conditions. Internal recruitment can be done
if existing human resources are able to fill
the job vacancy. Internal candidates have the
competence and qualifications according to
the field of work so that the company does
not require external recruitment. If the
internal candidate does not have the
competencies and capabilities corresponding
to the job position. Then external
recruitment can be done where the company
will inform the job vacancy or use the
services of a third party. External
recruitment should be able to attract
candidates to apply for jobs both from
corporate reputation, career opportunities,
and compensation management.
Company reputation has always been
the reason for candidate to apply a job. This
will make it easier for companies to hire
superior human resources and competence
according to business company. Khalid and
Tariq (2015) explain that the company's
reputation has a strong correlation with
recruitment process. The applicant candidate
will make observations regarding scale of
business and its reputation in business
world. A good corporate reputation will
always be sought by job applicants and a
dream for candidates to join in building an
organization's business. The Human
Resources Division will undertake a number
of rigorous screenings to select candidates
according to the qualifications and
competencies that are appropriate with
company business. Therefore, companies
must build a business reputation to increase
popularity in the labor market.
Implementation of recruitment that
has been described in several research
results. Li (2015) explains that Nestyle in
planning employee recruitment starts from
the job analysis process, job description, and
revision of job design. These three processes
will result in a new standard procedure for
the type of work the candidate will
undertake in the recruitment process. After
going through all three stages of this
process, Nestle will decide which
recruitment source will be used to fill the job
position. Recruitment resources can be done
internally and externally. Nestle builds the
company's reputation through superior
business processes and high quality
products. The recruitment process is done
online and builds cooperation with several
leading universities in an effort to obtain
high quality human resources. Nestle's
recruitment process has been linked to
recruitment theories and has a positive
impact on the company's business
Low (2013) explains that recruitment
must be able to improve the competitiveness
of the organization. Recruitment practices
already undertaken in the Eastern Cape
prioritize access to information and ease of
candidates in obtaining job vacancy
information. Recruitment already done in
South Africa should improve access to
online-based information. It aims to
facilitate access to information for
applicants regarding job openings. Online
recruitment will increase the number of
applicants and the company's popularity.
Nestle and Eastern Cape are trying to use
online recruitment method as the
information base of applicant candidate. The
recruitment process will make it easier for
the Human Resources Division to find out
the applicant's profile quickly and
The current era of recruitment can be
done with social media. The use of social
media such as Facebook, Linkedin, and
some other social media can be used
effectively in the process of human resource
recruitment. Melanthiou, Pavlou, and
Constantinou (2014) found that social
media-based recruitment has many
advantages for company. The company is
able to provide broad access to information
for applicant candidates to find job vacancy
information. A good corporate reputation
will have a positive impact on job applicant
screening through social media. Job
applicants will easily search for information
by using keyword of the company name and
access it effectively. However, companies
should be cautious about using profile
information of social media-based
applicants. Companies should carefully
investigate and check their background and
work experience. The profile of job
applicants will be main foundation for the
company in using social media as the
information base. Therefore companies
should formulate effective e-recruitment
effectively and appropriately for the needs
of the company.
Most companies are already
recruiting via the internet. Kumar and Garg
(2010) analyzed how the implications of on-
line recruitment are able to improve the
performance of the process hiring
employees. The use of information
technology as a tool to extend information to
all communities. On-line recruitment can
increase effectiveness in meeting human
resource needs. The conventional
recruitment process is still needed to analyze
candidate profiles and background so as to
obtain complete information. Recruitment
has a high objectivity to be able to meet the
needs of human resources company.
Multinational corporations and large
business scales are already using on-line
recruitment to improve access to
information and are reachable by all
candidates without having to conventionally.
Company expectations of the recruitment
process can improve business performance.
Potale, Lengkong, and Moniharapon (2016)
see that recruitment has a positive effect on
employee performance. The results of his
research explain that the effectiveness of
recruitment conducted by PT. Bank SulutGo
able to improve employee performance and
work productivity. Recruitment process
carried out in accordance with the stages, it
will be able to get the best candidate
according to company needs. Recruitment
objectivity will be achievable in getting the
best people in the labor market.
Recruitment practices are able to
demonstrate the significance of business
performance of Small & Medium
Enterprises in Japan. Gamage (2014)
demonstrates that the practice of Human
Resource Management focused on
appropriate recruitment practices can
improve business performance in Japan.
Small & Medium Enterprises play a central
role in the Japanese economy. The problem
that often happens many companies inform
the role of human resources in improving
business performance. This implication
suggests that many companies lose
employees too quickly and undermine
business performance. Recruitment practices
play an important role in meeting human
resource needs. Target human resources in
improving motivation, commitment,
employee involvement in business process,
product innovation, and financial
performance will be able to be fulfilled
through proper recruitment process.
Therefore, the recruitment and selection
process will be able to answer the company's
challenge in getting the right people
according to the competence and business
Setiani (2013) explains that an
effective recruitment process is able to
obtain candidates according to the
competencies and skills required by the
company. The recruitment process should be
formulated by looking at the business needs
of the company. The business process of the
company is capable of being done by human
resources with the expertise possessed by
the employees. Recruitment is an early
process in which the company will
determine the characteristics and
qualifications of work that must be
possessed by job applicants. Stages in
looking at the suitability between the skills
and the needs of the company will be able to
be analyzed through the selection process.
However, if the recruitment process is done
only to meet the needs of human resources
without seeing the business objectivity of
the company. Then the company will not be
able to recruit candidates appropriately. The
company will only waste time and money
without having proper recruitment
procedures. The solution to be executed is
the recruitment process will check all
candidate background and track record by
adjusting the job position. So the
recruitment process will be able to produce
accurate information accuracy and retrieval
of factual data-based information.
Recruitment objectivity has a high
intensity in hiring the best people fit the
organization's needs. Selection of
recruitment method by analyzing several
steps that must be considered by the
company. Shafique (2012) explains that
recruitment should see needs and adapt
technological developments. Recruitment
through information technology is more
effective than using conventional methods.
This is due to the generation Y must use a
technology-based approach. However, the
process of identifying and analyzing the
compatibility of candidates' competencies
and characteristics must be through an
interview process. Interview method is more
effective for digging comprehensive
information related to candidate profile. The
suitability of motivation and competence
will be important information for the
organization to be able to know the
candidate can be improved and developed
his talent for the company's long-term
assets. Recruitment strategy will be able to
answer the needs of companies in obtaining
superior human resources and competitive
The success of recruitment in filling
human resource needs will be in line with
achievement business targets. The
recruitment process must be in line with the
organization's vision and mission. The
company will seek to recruit employees
according to business needs. Yullyanti
(2009) explains that recruitment has an
indirect effect on employee performance
through the selection process. The
determination of the recruitment stages will
be continued in formulating the tests to be
faced by the applicant candidate. Selection
will perform the process of identifying and
analyzing candidate competencies with job
positions. However, the selection process
will be done through the recruitment process
determined by the organization.
Achievement of maximum performance will
be determined by human resources.
Competence, knowledge, and human
resource capabilities play an important role
in the success of a company's business.
Based on the analysis of research
results on the recruitment process as an
effort to meet human resource needs. Then
the implications of recruitment will have a
significant effect on job satisfaction,
increasing motivation, and overall company
performance. Recruitment is a preliminary
process in human resource management to
hire the best candidates according to
company needs. Identification of
recruitment planning and strategy to be done
must be formulated in detail according to the
company's business. The pattern of
recruitment and method will be determined
how the company's expectations of the
candidate who will run the business wheel.
Human resources management activities will
be able to continue depending on how the
recruitment is able to obtain candidates
according to the qualifications and needs of
the company. Competence and knowledge
possessed by the candidate is capable of
generating business creativity and
innovation. High business competition
always puts pressure on companies to be
able to hire the best candidates in the labor
market through proper recruitment process.
Below is the result of research
synthesis that has been analyzed to see the
pattern and recruitment strategy to get the
best candidate as follows:
Figure 1 Research Synthesis Recruitment Strategy
Figure 2 Recruitment Strategy Process
Job Design
Recruitment Strategy
On-line Offline Screening Selection Interview &
Based on the results of research
synthesis related to corporate recruitment
strategy must be initiated to create
manpower planning. This process makes job
design, job specifications, and job
descriptions. Job design will contain the
work process information that will be
performed by the candidate from
recruitment process. The information to be
included in job design consist of workload,
responsibility, job target, and job
implementation process. Organization will
determine qualification standards and
requirements that must be possessed by the
candidate to carry out the work. Job
implementation requires competence and
knowledge that candidates must have in the
recruitment process. Job specifications will
serve as an information material for the
company to determine the job requirements
that must be owned by the candidate. The
final process in employment planning is the
job description. The Company will create a
job description containing the
implementation and performance indicators
that must be achieved by the elected
candidates in the recruitment process.
The process of manpower planning
will serve as the basis for information to
formulate a recruitment strategy. The
components to be defined from the
recruitment strategy are the sources, timing,
and stages that will be faced by job
applicants. Recruitable resources that can be
considered include both internal and
external. Both sources of recruitment can be
done according to the needs of the company.
If the company establishes an internal
source, it must be ensured that the candidate
already possesses superior knowledge, work
experience, and competence as opposed to
external recruiting. External recruitment can
be established by looking at the
unavailability of candidates within the
company. This should be the company's
consideration in deciding the availability of
candidates in the labor market.
The next process is to set recruitment
methods including on-line and offline.
Online recruitment methods require using of
information technology for the provision of
job vacancy information, the process of
recruitment stages, and decision making of
recruitment. The online method is widely
used by companies to expand access
information for candidates regardless of
territorial boundaries. The company hopes to
hire the best candidates from various
countries without any territorial boundaries
so as to implement the diversity of human
resources. Offline method is used to obtain
human resources directly by cooperating
with institutions and institutions that can be
used as a source of recruitment. The
company cooperates with universities and
educational institutions to recruit the best
students as employee candidates. Both
methods are still used by the company and
adapted to the process to fulfil needs of
human resources.
The last process in strategy
recruitment is the recruitment stage. The
recruitment stages must be determined by
the company as part of the recruitment
strategy process including screening,
selection, and job placement. Screening
stage aims to investigate from several
candidates through job application letter,
Curriculum Vitae, work experience,
education level, and compatibility of
competence with job position. This process
will set a number of candidates to follow the
selection process. Selection stage aims to
analyze the competence and ability of
candidates with job positions. The selection
process can be determined according to the
level of competency requirement to carry
out job descriptions. After the selection
process, the company can determine the
chosen candidate according to the level of
competency requirement. The candidate will
then proceed to the interview and placement
stage. The interview stage aims to obtain
complete information related to the
character, motivation, background, and
ability possessed by the candidate. If the
candidate is considered feasible, it will
proceed to the job placement process in
accordance with the job position.
The positive impact of recruitment
strategies implemented effectively and
efficiently involves improving morale,
improving job satisfaction, and improving
overall performance. Recruitment strategies
are implemented correctly and
systematically, then the company will get
candidates according to the needs of the
organization. Selected candidates have high
motivation to be able to contribute in the
company's business. The work process can
be done correctly and measured
performance according to predetermined
indicators through manpower planning. Job
satisfaction will be able to build as part of
organizational culture and improve
performance comprehensively. Therefore,
the success of the recruitment strategy will
have a positive impact on the company's
performance by obtaining superior and
competitive human resources.
This research analyzes the
recruitment strategy to get the best candidate
in the labor market. The results of the
research explain that the position of
recruitment strategy is to formulate and
determine the sources, methods, and stages
of recruitment. The process of determining
recruitment strategy depends on manpower
planning. The three components considered
in the labor planning process include job
design, job specification, and job
description. These three processes must be
undertaken to identify and determine the job
positions and the number of employees to be
recruited by the company. Recruitment
strategies play an important role in meeting
human resource needs. Successful
implementation of capital-based human
resource management should begin with a
recruitment strategy in order to be able to
obtain a superior and competitive candidate.
The conclusion of this research is
that recruitment has a positive impact on
business performance. Recruitment must be
able to adapt to the development of business
trends. Some research results explain with
the development of information technology,
then the recruitment process can be done
with online methods in order to be able to
expand access to information. Recruitment
must pay attention to equality of work to
give everyone opportunity and avoid
discrimination. Recruitment strategy must
be formulated and specified. This is all done
to improve the business performance of the
company and able to meet the needs of
human resources.
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