The sclerophyllous forests of Quercus ilex (holm oak) possess a unique position in earth’s biosphere, existing only in countries of the Mediterranean basin. However, very little information exists about mushrooms associated with holm oak in east Mediterranean, including Greece, where Q. ilex appears mostly in relict forests and fragmented stands. A pertinent long-term investigation was undertaken ... [Show full abstract] in selected Q. ilex dominated habitats of Crete, Andros, Naxos and Ikaria islands (Aegean Archipelago) as well as in mountains of Attica. Specimens of xylotrophic basidiomycetes were collected and identified. As a result, 74 species were recorded; among them Hemimycena cephalotricha, Hyphoderma cremeoalbum, Hyphodontia radula, Irpex litschaueri, Mycena algeriensis, Phanerochaete martelliana, Phloeomana alba and Phlebia unica constitute new records for the Greek mycobiota, while 68 species are reported for the first time on Q. ilex in Greece. Moreover, the presence of Fomitiporia mediterranea on this host was evidenced through ITS sequencing, and comments are made about its relationship to F. punctata and F. pseudopunctata. The importance of findings is discussed in conjunction with their environmental value; five species could be assigned in the “Species of Special Interest” categories, and other five polypores are proposed as suitable indicators for Q. ilex habitat assessment and conservation.