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The Himalayan hallucinogenic honey and its future prospects and proposed uses

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In the valleys of Annapurna Himalayan mountain range of central Nepal, houses the country’s one of the most treasured medicinal (or probably toxic) wealth, The Himalayan honey. It is also known in various names by various parts of the world namely, Himalayan honey; mountain honey; etc. is found. It is harvested by the localities Gurung people in the remote villages of Talo Chipla. The bees producing this honey are not normal bees, they are the largest bees in the world, namely; Apis dorsata laboriosa, the mysterious Himalayan honeybees of the Nepal. Due to high altitude, normal bees are not able to reach heights to feed on the nectar of the Rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum) flower. It is Nepal's national flower, and the pollen picked up by these enormous bees, contains the chemical Grayanotoxin, which infuses their honey with its drug-like qualities. It is almost impossible control the amount of rhododendron pollen used up by the bees, so the potency of the high-inducing, hallucinogenic-psychedelic honey varies from season to season. Yet, during spring and fall as evident from various studies, it has been seen that the amount of psychedelic activity of the honey is more. The Kulung people of eastern Nepal have used the honey for long periods of times as a cough syrup and an antiseptic and further medicine whereas the beeswax has been used up as adhesive with other chemicals and skin care medicine. The use of this honey by various people has been documented over various cases in various patients. There has been reports of disease and even causalities by consuming this honey that has been reported by consumption of the hallucinogenic, psychedelic honey. In recent years, however the controlled use of the purified physio-chemical of the hallucinogenic honey upon further purification and in properly administered dosages can be used as a new novel drug to treat several neuroleptic disorders. Integrated exploration in this honey and also in the bees may lead to discovery of new noble compound that may lead to humanity to a new stepping stone of drugs of tomorrow.
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The Himalayan hallucinogenic honey and its future
prospects and proposed uses
Saurav Roy1; Soumya Biswas1; Saikat Ghosh1; Pragyan Roy1;
1KIIT School of Biotechnology; KIIT University
Roysaurav733@gmail.com; soumyabiswas.14@gmail.com
Saurav Roy; Soumya Biswas
KIIT School Of Biotechnology
soumyabiswas.14@gmail.com
Roysaurav733@gmail.com
Contact
1.Ferreres F., Tomas-Barberan F.A., Gil M.I., Tomas- Lorente F., An HPLC technique for flavonoid analysis in
honey. J. Sci. Food Agri., 1991, 56, 49–56.
2.FNCCI/AEC., Mandatory quality standard of honey in Nepal.2006, in: The study report on trade
competitiveness of Nepalese honey. Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry /Agro
Enterprise Center, p. 3.
3.Gheldof N., Engeseth N.J., Antioxidant capacity of honeys from various floral sources based on the
determination of oxygen radical absorbance capacity and inhibition of in vitro lipoprotein oxidationin human
serum samples. J. Agri. Food Chem., 2002, 50, 3050–3055.
References
In the valleys of Annapurna Himalayan mountain range of central
Nepal, houses the country’s one of the most treasured medicinal (or
probably toxic) wealth, The Himalayan honey.It is also known in
various names by various parts of the world namely, Himalayan honey;
mountain honey;etc.is found.It is harvested by the localities Gurung
people in the remote villages of Talo Chipla.The bees producing this
honey are not normal bees, they are the largest bees in the world,
namely;Apis dorsata laboriosa,the mysterious Himalayan honeybees
of the Nepal.Due to high altitude, normal bees are not able to reach
heights to feed on the nectar of the Rhododendron (Rhododendron
ferrugineum)flower.It is Nepal's national flower, and the pollen picked
up by these enormous bees, contains the chemical Grayanotoxin,which
infuses their honey with its drug-like qualities.It is almost impossible
control the amount of rhododendron pollen used up by the bees, so the
potency of the high-inducing, hallucinogenic-psychedelic honey varies
from season to season.Yet, during spring and fall as evident from
various studies, it has been seen that the amount of psychedelic activity
of the honey is more.The Kulung people of eastern Nepal have used the
honey for long periods of times as acough syrup and an antiseptic and
further medicine whereas the beeswax has been used up as adhesive
with other chemicals and skin care medicine.The use of this honey by
various people has been documented over various cases in various
patients.
There has been reports of disease and even causalities by consuming
this honey that has been reported by consumption of the hallucinogenic,
psychedelic honey.In recent years, however the controlled use of the
purified physio-chemical of the hallucinogenic honey upon further
purification and in properly administered dosages can be used as anew
novel drug to treat several neuroleptic disorders.Integrated exploration
in this honey and also in the bees may lead to discovery of new noble
compound that may lead to humanity to anew stepping stone of drugs
of tomorrow.
Abstract
Introduction
Since phenolic substances have been shown to be responsible for the
honey antioxidant activity, total phenol content of the honey samples
was investigated. The results of Physiochemical and total phenolic
content (TP) of the samples determined by DPPH assay and Folin-
Ciocalteu method are presented in Table 1 Similar phenolic contents of
several honeys from various floral sources were reported in literature,
among which the highest TP contenet was found in strawberry tree
(Fragaria ananassa) honey and honeydew honey samples [Gheldof &
Engeseth, 2002; Beretta et al., 2005; Bertoncelj et al., 2007]
Discussion
Honey produced by A. dorsata collected from Nepalese forest shows
various quality parameters close to the International Honey Quality
Standards, yet it, showed shorter shelf life due to natural high moisture
contents. Two quality parameters i.e. Invertase number and moisture
content are quite distinctive and can be used as parameters to identified
honey on the basis of bee species type. It appears that International
Honey Standards are based on honey produced by A. mellifera. There is
an urgent need that fresh standards be delimited keeping in view the
honey composition of Asian species.
Conclusions
Due to high altitude, normal bees are not able to reach heights to feed on
the nectar of the Rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum) flower. It
is Nepal's national flower, and the pollen picked up by these enormous
bees, contains the chemical Grayanotoxin, a group of closely
related neurotoxins named after Leucothoe grayana. Grayanotoxin I is
also known as landromedotoxin,acetylandromedol,rhodotoxin
and asebotoxin, which infuses their honey with its drug-like qualities.
The people of eastern Nepal have used honey as cough syrup, antiseptic
and Beeswax as skin care medicine. By controlled use of purified
psysio-chemical, and after further purification process it can be used as
new novel drug specially for treatment of Neuroleptic disorders and
may open a new path for . So, Here we are going to look into several
nobel Bio-components which can open a new pathway of drug
discovery for tomorrow & future generation.
Fig1: Apis Dorsata laboriosa
Place & Bio-component
Geographical Location
All the Nepalese honey are produced by Apis dorsata laboriosa, found
mostly in Shahbgunj, Dhakeri, Narayanpur and Perari Forests, Nepal. All
these areas belong to Banke district of Terai, mid-eastern region Nepal.
Narayanpur and Perari forests are located near Nepal-India boarder. The
altitude approximately is 200m. Similarly Shahabgunj and Dhakeri areas
are located near east-west highway of Nepal. Subtropical climate prevails
in this area. Ten to twenty colonies of A. dorsata laboriosa may be found
on the same tree, which is usually named as bee tree or generally found
more in a hanging mountain cliff. Since up-to 50 colonies of giant honey
bees (A. dorsata and A. laboriosa) may aggregate on the same nesting site
and each colony can give 10 to 30 kg of honey in a single harvest, honey
hunting is an important apicultural practice in Nepal.
Nepalese honey samples stored for 8 months showed pH in the range of
3.9-4.6, free acidity 48.5-53meq/kg, lactone 15.5-17.1meq/kg, total
acidity 61-70meq/kg, electrical conductivity 0.24-0.64mS/cm, Proline
content 148-241mg/kg, HMF content 53.4-122mg/kg, Diastase Number
1.02-13.25DN and Invertase Number 0.58-10.5IN. After 16 months of
storage the various parameters recorded were: pH 3.7-5.08, free acidity
46.1-57.07meq/kg, lactone 17-19meq/kg, total acidity 64-74meq/kg,
electrical conductivity 0.29-0.71mS/cm, Proline content 66.43-120mg/kg.
HMF content was 30-56mg/kg. Similarly diastase Number (0.22-
0.86DDN) and Invertase Number (00-0.71IN) were much below than the
minimum standard, fructose 36.93-44.61%, glucose 19.61-27.51% and
sucrose 12.07-20.38%. Although honey produced by A. dorsata from
Nepalese forest showed various quality parameters close to International
Honey Quality Standards, yet its shelf life was shorter due to high
moisture content.
Fig2: Grayanotoxin 1; Found in Himalayan Honey.
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