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EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT PRACTICE

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A substantial body of theory and empirical evidence exists to attest to the fact that motivation and productivity are concepts which have been subjects of immense interest among researchers and managers. The objective of this paper is to conduct a literature review and analysis on theories and empirical evidence on the relationship between employee motivation and organizational productivity with a view to drawing important lessons for managerial practice. To achieve this, the paper conducted a review of some of the key theories and empirical studies on motivation and its impact on employee productivity drawing experiences from diverse organizational settings in Nigeria and several other countries. The study revealed that there are different factors to consider in motivating employees: some monetary or financial such as pay and others are non-financial like recognition and challenging jobs. Important implications are presented for managerial practice.
International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management
United Kingdom Vol. V, Issue 12, December 2017
Licensed under Creative Common Page 662
http://ijecm.co.uk/ ISSN 2348 0386
EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY: A REVIEW OF
LITERATURE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT PRACTICE
M. A. Bawa
Department of Petroleum Marketing and Business Studies
Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
maminubawa@gmail.com
Abstract
A substantial body of theory and empirical evidence exists to attest to the fact that motivation
and productivity are concepts which have been subjects of immense interest among
researchers and managers. The objective of this paper is to conduct a literature review and
analysis on theories and empirical evidence on the relationship between employee motivation
and organizational productivity with a view to drawing important lessons for managerial practice.
To achieve this, the paper conducted a review of some of the key theories and empirical studies
on motivation and its impact on employee productivity drawing experiences from diverse
organizational settings in Nigeria and several other countries. The study revealed that there are
different factors to consider in motivating employees: some monetary or financial such as pay
and others are non-financial like recognition and challenging jobs. Important implications are
presented for managerial practice.
Keywords: Motivation, productivity, theories, non-financial rewards, Nigeria
INTRODUCTION
Motivation and productivity are concepts which have been subjects of immense interest among
researchers and practitioners. Both concepts have been defined in a variety of ways by several
scholars. If we have to review the definitions, the paper will be unnecessarily long and boring.
Therefore, we have adopted the approach of describing what we mean by these two terms and
proceeding to discuss the issues with the understanding that the descriptions will serve the
purpose of definitions.
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By motivation here we mean the way and manner in which an individual or group of individuals
are inspired to behave in a desired manner with a view to receiving some positive rewards or to
satisfy certain human needs. To be motivated is to do something which is different; to be
inspired to go beyond the call of duty. That is to do more than you have to do not because you
are told to but because you want to. The concept of productivity is one of the most fashionable
and frequently used in the domain of management today. It is described as the optimal
utilization of resources in the production of goods and rendering of services that meets
predetermined objectives.
Research in the relationship between motivation and productivity is justified on at least
two grounds. The first justification is the rapidly changing workplace environment and its
meaning to the young generation of employees in high paying jobs in the oil and gas and other
high technology related organizations who do not accept the traditional approach to employee
motivation. Who, according to Singh, et al. (2012), do not accept the 'status quo', and have
moved from obedience to questioning; and who assess work in terms of its significance in
human life and human nature. Secondly, this study is also timely in the Nigerian economy with
the current recession characterized by low employee morale, low sales volumes, challenges to
industrial harmony, etc. It is argued that motivation is the key to economic recovery in the
country (Aremu, 2017). A review of theories and empirical evidence on the central issues at
stake on how to boost motivation therefore becomes timely. The rest of the paper is divided into
four sections. The immediate section after this introduction briefly reviews some theories and
empirical studies on motivation. The third section presents our views on motivation of workers
for enhancing their productivity based on the literature analysis. Section four concludes the
paper.
LITERATURE REVIEW
Theories of Motivation
It is adequately documented in the literature that several thinkers from Adam Smith to Abraham
Maslow and others have studied human behaviour from different perspectives economic,
psychological, behavioural, etc., to understand what motivate people to do the things they do. In
the process, they developed several theories of motivation. This section presents a brief review
of some of the theories and empirical evidences on the relationship between motivation and
productivity. Broadly speaking the theories of motivation can be classified in to content theories
and process theories. The former deals with what motivates and are concerned with identifying
people’s needs and their relative strengths, and the goals they pursue in order to satisfy these
needs. The main content theories include Maslow’s hierarchy needs; Herzberg’s two factor
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theory and McClelland’s achievement motivation theory. Process theories on the other hand,
place emphasis on the actual process of motivation. These theories are concerned with the
relationships among the dynamic variables which make up motivation and with how behaviour is
initiated, directed and sustained. Examples are expectancy based models, equity theory goal
theory and attribution theory (Uzonna, 2013).
The most popular theory of motivation in the classical literature is perhaps that of a
United States psychologist, Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory. Maslow (1943)
discussed five levels of employee needs: physiological, safety and security, social, esteem or
ego and self- actualizion. According to this theory, people have many needs which motivate
them to work, that those needs are arranged in a hierarchical manner in such a way that lower
level needs (physiological and safety) had to be satisfied before the next higher level social
need would motivate employees to work hard and increase productivity.
The second theory of motivation is the two factor theory or motivator and hygiene theory
developed by Frederick Herzberg (Herzberg, 1966). Motivators or intrinsic factors such as drive
for achievement and advancement, being treated in a caring and considerate manner and
receiving positive recognition are inherent in the job itself and which the individual enjoys as a
result of successfully completing the task, produce job satisfaction and motivate employees to
work harder. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as salary, benefits and job security are external
to the task and often determined at the organizational level can lead to dissatisfaction and lack
of motivation if not present in positive degrees. Uzonna (2013) argues that one important
element of Herzberg’s theory is that knowing employee needs can help us motivate today’s
young, ambitious and knowledge and technology-based workers. Given the fact that these
workers already command high paying jobs, we can infer that money or cash rewards alone
does not provide enough of an incentive as a motivator for performance. This implies that to
motivate workers, organizations need to look beyond monetary rewards.
Victor Vroom developed the expectancy theory based on the belief that employee effort
will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards. Rewards may be either positive
or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated.
Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated to work
harder (Vroom, 1964, as cited in Malik, et al, 2011: 39). This theory was further developed by
Porter and Lawler (1968).
Another theory is the equity theory of motivation developed in the early 1960’s by J.
Stacey Adams, a psychologist. The theory proposes that a person's motivation is based on what
he or she considers being fair when compared to others (Redmond & Housell, 2015). It
recognizes that motivation can be affected through an individual's perception of fair treatment in
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social exchanges. When compared to other people, individuals want to be compensated fairly
for their contributions to the organization. A person's beliefs regarding what is fair and what is
not can affect his motivation, attitudes and behaviours which will in turn affect subsequent
performance. When applied to the workplace, equity theory focuses on an employee's work-
compensation relationship or "exchange relationship" as well as that employee's attempt to
minimize any sense of unfairness that might result. According to the theory, underpayment
inequity induces anger and distress while overpayment induces guilt. (Redmond & Housell,
2015).
Lastly, B.F. Skinner's reinforcement theory states that those employee behaviours that
lead to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviours that lead to negative outcomes will
not be repeated (Skinner, 1953, as cited in Malik, et. al., 2011:39). A reinforcer can therefore be
seen as a reward or incentive to behave in a certain way. Reinforcers may be tangible like food
or money and they can be intangible like approval or praise. The implication is that
organizations should reinforce employee behaviours that lead to positive outcomes and
discourage those behaviours that lead to negative outcomes. This can be achieved through staff
training and development, among other strategies.
Empirical Studies on Motivation
Almost all the theories discussed above have been tested empirically. One of the early empirical
studies on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory tried to test whether the list of needs derived
from American culture by Maslow is applicable to other cultures. The study found that managers
had these needs and that they were important. However, although these needs may be
universally accepted the importance attached to the satisfaction of different needs varies from
culture to culture (Haire, et. al., 1963).
A survey conducted by Velnampy (2007) to test Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
reveals that consciously or unconsciously lower level employees in both public and private
sector organizations of Sri Lanka attach more importance to lower level needs and higher level
employees emphasize higher level needs.
In another study, Sajuyigbe, et al. (2013) collected data from 100 employees of selected
manufacturing companies in Ibadan, Nigeria and concluded that pay, performance bonus,
recognition and praise were significantly related to organizational performance, supporting
Herzberg’s motivation hygiene theory.
Apart from cash or monetary rewards, motivation theories and empirical studies also
attest to the role of non-cash rewards in motivation especially in technologybased, high paying
jobs. Brown and Armstrong (1999) reported that the non-financial schemes in their survey were
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particularly popular among knowledge and technology based sectors as well as sales and
service companies. Another study by Beran (2005) confirmed that majority of companies have
in place one form of non-financial rewards or the other especially employee recognition and that
the policy enhanced productivity. In another study, Rose (1998) discovered that the respondent
companies that prefer non-financial rewards are those that rely on high level of customer
contact.
Studies using data collected in the United Kingdom also attests to the role of non-
financial incentives in motivating employees to high productivity. In a 2009 McKinsey Quarterly
survey of 1,047 executives, managers and employees from a range of sectors in the United
Kingdom (Vrancic, 2015), the respondents view three non-financial motivators: praise from
immediate managers, leadership attention (for example, one-on-one conversations) and a
chance to lead projects or task forces as no less or even more effective motivators than the
three highest-rated financial incentives: cash bonuses, increased base pay, and stock or stock
options. In addition, it was also found that the survey’s top three nonfinancial motivators play
critical roles in making employees feel that their companies value them, take their well-being
seriously and strive to create opportunities for career growth. According to these researchers,
these themes recur constantly in most studies on ways to motivate and engage employees
(Vrancic, 2015).
Another study conducted by Ng, et. al. (2010) as cited in Singh, et. al. (2012) sought to
study the expectations and priorities of young employees. They found that this category of
workers rated opportunities for career advancement as the most desirable work related attribute
followed by good people to relate to and opportunities for good training and development.
According to these researchers, surprisingly, pay, benefits and job security were ranked in the
middle behind career advancement.
In Pakistan, Tausif (2012, as cited in Haider, et al., 2015:348) conducted a survey
among public school teachers and found that non-financial rewards were essential in developing
employees’ job satisfaction and motivation. Similarly, Barton (2006, as cited in Haider, et al.,
2015: 348) found that employee recognition is the most important factor among non-financial
rewards in enhancing job satisfaction. Bull (2005, as cited in Haider, et al., 2015: 348)
conducted a study and concluded that challenging jobs enhanced employee job satisfaction.
Finally, several universities and technology related institutions in the United States like
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Washington and University of
California have designed, implemented and maintained employee recognition programmes to
encourage hard work and productivity in the workplace.
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In an empirical study to test equity theory, Griffeth and Gaertner (2001) developed and tested a
model using data collected from 192 hospital employees using structural equation modeling
which placed satisfaction and intention to quit as mediators of employee turnover. The
researchers utilized many dimensions of perceived unfairness which includes: pay rules (the
fairness of one’s pay relative to one’s coworkers and the fairness of granting pay increases and
promotions); pay administration (or the perceptions of the fairness of the supervisor in
administering the rules for pay increases and promotions); pay level, work pace (or the fairness
of the supervisor in maintaining a fair pace of work activity and rule administration. The results
showed that pay rules, pay administration and work pace or supervisor satisfaction were
strongly related to quit intentions.
Other studies aimed at testing equity theory include Summers and Hendrix (1991, as
cited in Griffeth & Gaertner, 2001: 11019) who found a significant relationship between job
satisfaction and intention to quit and Iverson and Roy (1994, as cited in Griffeth & Gaertner,
2001: 1019) who investigated the perception of various pay and benefits in relation to co-
workers and found a strong correlation between pay equity and job satisfaction.
Staff training and development is another indispensable motivator in the workplace. In a
study conducted by Aibievi (2014) collected data from 100 non-academic staff of University of
Benin, Nigeria to test the impact of training and development on employee motivation. The
study found a significant positive relationship between training and motivation; that trained staff
were found to be more dedicated to duty compared to those who did not receive training and
also that training could lead to increased productivity.
From the above brief discussion of the theory and empirical evidences, it is now time for
us to bring out our views on how to motivate workers to increase their productivity.
Based on the preceding discussion on theories and empirical evidence, we are
compelled to arrive at the following synthesis of the literature. First and foremost, there is the
need to motivate workers in order to increase their productivity and also that there are many
financial and non-financial strategies of motivating workers. Secondly, it appears that there is no
single general rule applicable to each and every circumstance. Differences exist amongst
lower, middle and higher level employees in terms of their needs. For some, the literature
suggests that monetary rewards and supervision are necessary strategies before they can
perform.. Others work better in an atmosphere of fairness, equity, love and encouragement.
Some must be compelled or even punished before they can work.
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MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
From the preceding section, it becomes clear that each manager or supervisor needs to study
his workers individually and generally in order to come up with adequate measures of
motivation. This calls for a basket of measures to motivate workers. One single measure of
motivation is not likely to work in the diverse circumstances in which we live.
Against this background, the paper provides a selected menu of how to motivate
workers to work harder in order to raise productivity in the work place.
The first far reaching practical implication for management practice is the application of
Maslow’s theory by using employee expectations and lifestyles. It is established that significant
difference exists between lower level needs and higher level needs of employees. According to
Maslow, physiological needs for food, clothing and shelter are the most dominating in a person
while an employee is just starting his career. At this stage if you want to motivate the person,
pay him on time. This is because it is quite clear that at this stage the basic form of motivation is
salary. An average Nigerian worker is motivated when he receives salary alerts especially if he
is expecting some arrears. If that is guaranteed, Management can also consider additional
monetary reward (e.g., productivity bonus) and this can motivate him to increase his
productivity. Another man who has reasonably satisfied the first need but who is now afraid of
losing his job (e.g., pre-mature retirement due to poor performance), can be motivated to put on
more effort and increase productivity on account of that fear. But a person who has reasonably
satisfied the second need now wants acceptance, to love and be loved; you can motivate him to
work harder and increase productivity by providing him with a Staff Club as an easy avenue to
make friends or facilitate membership of social and professional associations subsidized by the
employer.
A man who satisfied this need for love is now looking for esteem which is bred by
accomplishments. The man can be motivated by giving him recognition. A man who has
satisfied this need now needs self-actualization. He aspires to reach his highest potential. This
man can be motivated by giving him assignments that praises his worth, opportunity for career
growth such as promotion, etc.
The second strategy of motivating workers to increase their productivity is to inculcate
the culture of appreciation, praise and recognition for the slightest improvement. This will spur
them into further improvement. The motivator/hygiene theory provides an essential starting point
on which to build a policy of motivating workers. The questions are: which behaviors should be
recognized and how? There are several types of recognition schemes. According to Thompson
and Milsome (2004, as cited in Silverman, 2004:7), there are those schemes that acknowledge
inputs (ideas and efforts) and those that reflect output (such as service delivery or other forms of
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successful contributions). In addition, there are schemes that emphasize pro-social behaviour
(such as communication skills, teamwork, etc.) and those that concentrate on direct benefits to
organizational performance (like improvement and customer satisfaction).
The Management of an organization can design, implement and maintain schemes like
“Academic Staff of the Year”, “Administrative Staff of the Year”, and “Department of the Year”,
etc. The assessment needs to be on a continuous basis (throughout the year) and not
necessarily a one off ballot with clearly defined and communicated criteria for recognition like
excellence in teaching, research, mentoring, community service, etc. or any other criteria which
promotes the achievement of the mission and vision of the organization. It is also important to
keep the scheme fresh and constantly updated. Similarly, since the value of recognition scheme
is the attention it receives (Wiscombe, 2002, as cited in Uzonna, 2013:205); there should be a
ceremonial coloration such as a public appreciation in a Departmental meeting or special award
lunch or dinner. The winner can be presented with a trophy, a certificate and even a token cash
award.
Closely associated with this is to give your workers a fine reputation to live up to. “You
are from a family of hard workers” coming from a manager is enough to make the worker try to
prove that he is indeed a handworker from a hardworking family. This will increase efficiency
and productivity.
The third important implication from this study is that Management of organizations
should exercise equity and fairness in administration of financial and non-financial motivation
strategies because equity is at the centre of employee job satisfaction, motivation and increased
productivity. In other words, the Management should use objective and justifiable criteria
(education level, years of experience, special skills, etc.). There is also need for consistency
even with those employees who may be perceived to try the patience of Management.
Management should not ignore the concerns of employees about unfairness or inequities in
pay, promotion, work schedules and other aspects of the human resource systems. Let
Management needs to acknowledge and resolve what it can and explain what it cannot. There
is therefore the need to re-educate and communicate to employee on fairness issues as
circumstances demand.
Fourthly, Skinner’s reinforcement theory of motivation appears useful for management in
the area of employee training and development, job design, supervision, quality control, etc. In
the area of supervision of workers, the process of informing employees how they perform is a
form of reinforcement. The supervisor should provide feedback, approval and show personal
interest in various ways to reinforce desired behaviours.
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Staff training and development function is a serious motivation strategy. Participating in special
educational/professional programs, conferences and other developmental activities help
employees to achieve professional growth and development, acquire innovative technical and
decision making skills. This will enhance their ability to deconstruct tasks and challenges and
how to feel less intimidated by their job roles and prepares them for challenges of training others
with state of the art techniques, for industry attachment and collaboration as well career
advancement. Therefore, demonstrating to staff how to cope in the workplace can lead directly
to improved motivation. In this regard, Management should seek for more funding in annual
budgets for staff training and development.
The fifth practical implication is to take a personal interest in the social life of your
subordinates by supporting them in other aspects of their lives outside work. An example is to
visit your workers when they are sick, attend their naming and wedding ceremonies, condole
them when they are bereaved and give them gifts at important festivals such as Christmas and
Sallah. In short when the Management tries to socialize, the workers will feel free. It is most
likely that the workers will feel happy with the company and identify with it. In short
Management should be genuinely interested in their workers and their problems. Management
can also consider flexible working hours for employees to focus on their family or to pursue
further studies. They will see the failure of the company as their own failure and they will work
harder.
The sixth practical technique of motivating workers is to throw challenges at them.
Assignments provide opportunities for employees to develop skills expand knowledge and
increase visibility within the organization. When considering such assignments, supervisors
should consult with employees about the types of assignments they would value (Velnampy,
2007). If you have teams or shifts, you must be able to encourage healthy competition (in hard
work) between them. Let each group want to excel the other and you will see how productivity
will increase as each tries to do better than the other.
The seventh practical method is that Management or supervisors should never be bossy
instead put a cheerful appearance. They should never scold their subordinates but try to correct
them politely. Such politeness breeds respect, creates a feeling of humaneness in the worker
and he finds himself co-operating instead of rebelling which culminate in doing things efficiently.
The eighth practical strategy of motivating workers to high productivity is to empower
them; allow them to use their initiative as long as it does not conflict with the objectives of the
company. Show them that they are competent; let them suggest ideas to you and together you
will all run the organization each thinking it is his idea and each trying to make his ideas to
succeed.
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The ninth formula make employees feel happy about doing what Management suggests to them
to do. This can be done by giving them responsibility that will boost their ego or an office that
will make them feel important, or a change that will boots their morale. All these will make the
workers to co-operate and to work much better.
The tenth and last strategy to motivate workers is to ensure that infighting and jealousies
must not be allowed to thrive, Management must try to find the cause if necessary straight away
dismiss the culprit. Infighting is one of the greatest causes of inefficiency and insubordination
and should not be promoted.
These ten strategies we feel are very likely to motivate workers to work. There can be
many more methods but these ten will bring no mean results in enhancing productivity leading
to the corporate survival and growth of the business environment.
CONCLUSION
This literature review was carried out on the impact of motivation on productivity. In achieving
this objective, the review and analysis contributes to the research in theory and practice in at
least two ways. First and most notably, this study suggested ten strategies of motivating
employees based on analysis of a catalog of theories and empirical evidence beginning with
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory and how to apply it at different levels of employees’ career
path by identifying their life styles and expectations and adopting appropriate strategies to
motivate and satisfy them. Secondly, the paper also analyzed the implications of other theories
such as equity theory and what Management can do to minimize the real or perceived inequities
in the administration of financial and non-financial rewards.
The study has some limitations as well. First, some other theories of motivation are not
included in the current review. For example, McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory, Goal
Theory and Attribution Theory (Koontz & Weihrich, 1990, as cited in Uzonna, 2013: 202) as well
as McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y. This raises the question whether including more
theories may explain the motivation-productivity relationship better. The reason for choosing a
few key theories is because of the need to keep the paper within a manageable size without
losing sight of our objectives.
In sum, the important managerial implication of this study is that if organizations desire
to keep productivity high, Management must be able to grasp the key theories and strategies of
motivation in the management of their human resources. It is only by so doing that they can
hope to understand their employees and their diverse economic, or physiological, social and
psychological concerns and how to effectively bring about desired performance levels. Based
on this review, we conclude that robust pay, promotion, recognition, conducive working
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environment, equity and fairness and other aspects of human resource management systems
are important for enhancing motivation, job satisfaction and higher productivity.
It is however important to point out scope for further studies as a way forward in
advancing research in this area in order to address some of the limitations highlighted. Empirical
research needs to be conducted to examine the role of non-financial strategies of motivation
especially those that appeal to employees’ higher level needs such as ego (esteem) and self-
actualization. This can be achieved by collecting data and testing hypotheses especially in
organizations with relatively robust pay and benefits such as the oil and gas industry in Nigeria
and other technology-based organizations. This is important for research in this area for at least
three reasons: First, it will help us understand the notion that money is not everything when it
comes to motivating a certain category of employees and also that non cash rewards appeal to
employees on a personal level (Uzonna, 2013; Olugbodi, 2017). Secondly, non-cash rewards
are important practices in organizations across the globe with astounding results (Vrancic,
2015). The third reason is the current recession in the Nigerian economy which calls for cost
reduction and as demonstrated in the paper, non-cash rewards are not only memorable but
cheaper or cost effective as well. This will further our understanding of the role of non-financial
rewards in motivating employees to higher productivity.
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The research investigated work environment, motivation and service delivery of librarians in AAU Library. The research adopted the descriptive survey research design, and interview method as the instrument for collecting data. Findings from the research show that the work environment at AAU Library is not serene and conducive, and librarians are not excited about their work because they are not properly motivated. Also, overall service delivery of the librarians is low because their work environment is not conducive and improper systems of motivation are having a negative impact on their service delivery. The research recommends that work environments should be made conducive and librarians motivated so that they can give in their best for effective service delivery and optimum productivity.
... Enhancing the productivity of the construction industry has become a global requirement (Bawa, 2017). Employee motivation is an influencing factor in enhancing the productivity of the construction industry (Jarkas, et al., 2014). ...
... Employee motivation can be carried out mainly in two ways known as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation (Chalam, 2017;Marzuki, et al., 2012;Kappia, et al., 2007). Bawa (2017) has highlighted the role of employee motivation factors in construction organizations if the organizations wish to enhance maximum employee productivity. With complex nature of the Sri Lankan construction industry, the employees in the Sri Lankan construction industry expect different types of motivation factors from their employers based on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Illangakoon, et al., 2020). ...
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This empirical study analyzes the relationship between high tech exports and unemployment. The study is conducted only thirteen years for the period of 2007 – 2019. The data set of high technology exports (% of manufactured exports) and unemployment total (labor force (percentage) – modeled International Labor Organization (ILO) estimate) was gathered from The World Bank. We use covariance analysis, correlation analysis, and cointegration to achieve the goals of this study. The Matrix form of Covariance analysis and Ellipse, Kernel fit of correlation analysis were used it. It was found there is no significant direction between high technology exports and unemployment total. The Augmented Dicky Fuller test has confirmed that those variables were stationary at logarithm first difference. At the same time, the residual series was non-stationary at level form. Therefore, the researcher concludes that there is no long-run relationship between high technology exports and unemployment and the changes in high-tech exports do not affect unemployment worldwide. So, researchers need to find other technical indicators for how to determinant unemployment. Future studies want to find short-run and causality between those two variables and want to include more.
... Enhancing the productivity of the construction industry has become a global requirement (Bawa, 2017). Employee motivation is an influencing factor in enhancing the productivity of the construction industry (Jarkas, et al., 2014). ...
... Employee motivation can be carried out mainly in two ways known as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation (Chalam, 2017;Marzuki, et al., 2012;Kappia, et al., 2007). Bawa (2017) has highlighted the role of employee motivation factors in construction organizations if the organizations wish to enhance maximum employee productivity. With complex nature of the Sri Lankan construction industry, the employees in the Sri Lankan construction industry expect different types of motivation factors from their employers based on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Illangakoon, et al., 2020). ...
... Enhancing the productivity of the construction industry has become a global requirement (Bawa, 2017). Employee motivation is an influencing factor in enhancing the productivity of the construction industry (Jarkas, et al., 2014). ...
... Employee motivation can be carried out mainly in two ways known as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation (Chalam, 2017;Marzuki, et al., 2012;Kappia, et al., 2007). Bawa (2017) has highlighted the role of employee motivation factors in construction organizations if the organizations wish to enhance maximum employee productivity. With complex nature of the Sri Lankan construction industry, the employees in the Sri Lankan construction industry expect different types of motivation factors from their employers based on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Illangakoon, et al., 2020). ...
Conference Paper
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Assessment the availability of suitable non-metalize different packing materials of the Sri Lankan biscuit industry with respect to evaluate quality factors of the packing materials
... Enhancing the productivity of the construction industry has become a global requirement (Bawa, 2017). Employee motivation is an influencing factor in enhancing the productivity of the construction industry (Jarkas, et al., 2014). ...
... Employee motivation can be carried out mainly in two ways known as intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation (Chalam, 2017;Marzuki, et al., 2012;Kappia, et al., 2007). Bawa (2017) has highlighted the role of employee motivation factors in construction organizations if the organizations wish to enhance maximum employee productivity. With complex nature of the Sri Lankan construction industry, the employees in the Sri Lankan construction industry expect different types of motivation factors from their employers based on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Illangakoon, et al., 2020). ...
Conference Paper
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This study was aimed at investigating the effects of students’ attitudes towards online learning during the Covid19 Pandemic and focused on students in the University of Vocational Technology (UoVT). The study reveals insights on students’ attitudes towards online learning during the Covid19 pandemic with the objectives intended on giving an understanding of how students' attitude towards online learning depends on the online learning experience. The study exerted a quantitative approach with descriptive statistics and regression analysis utilizing Management undergraduates in the University of Vocational Technology as respondents. The results of the study denote that the independent variables correlate with the depicted dependent variable, demonstrating that the model is statistically significant. The outcome derived from the study was that the students’ experience of their attitude towards online learning at the UoVT is favorable in the essential education and environment experience and technological availability and accessibility, though there is a refusal toward the psychological and emotional attitudes of the students towards online learning. This study emphasizes its importance in serving as an interpreter of prospective students’ attitudes toward e-learning and evidence for educationalists, investigators, policymakers, academics, decision-makers, stakeholders, or anybody interested in the
... Productivity is simply the ratio of the total resources input to the total production output. Bawa (2017) defined productivity as the optimum use of available resources in the production of goods and services with the sole aim of meeting pre-established objectives. Regarding labour productivity (Allan & Yin, 2010) defined it as the measure of Labour productivity as the volume measure of output to a volume measure of input. ...
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The construction industry plays an essential role in the life of every nation, as it makes a meaningful contribution to countries GDP, shelter and infrastructure provisions and employment generation. A critical problem that is challenging the delivery of these benefits to citizens is declining productivity among construction organisations, and pressure from competition, modern technologies and management techniques. These have led to construction projects being delivered behind schedule, over budgets and reduced quality standard. Productivity is found to have a link with the performance of construction projects and organisations growth and survival. This study showed that increase in productivity influence the growth and survival of construction organisations. This study was carried out among construction organisations in the south-south geopolitical zones of Nigeria. The study adopted quantitative and qualitative approaches using a well-structured electronic questionnaire and semi-structured interview as the tool for data collection. The survey participants were construction organisation employees (i.e. both construction professional and non-construction professionals) of middle to top management levels in their various organisations. The snowball sampling technique and electronic means was used in selecting both quantitative and qualitative participants. With a sample size of 114 and a reliability index of over 0.70, the quantitative data collected were analysed using mean item score, Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation analysis. While the thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data. A significant correlation was found between productivity and organisational growth and survival. Productivity brings about increase organisational profitability, improves competitive advantage, customer loyalty and repeat patronage, excess profits are available for re-investment for expansion purposes, and opportunity for expansion and growth. Regular leadership improvement was recommended as effective leadership/management is at the centre of ensuring sustainable productivity and organisation survival.
... It represents consciously influencing and affecting people's behaviour [55,56]. It is the process of deliberately influencing people's motives to behave in such a way that they achieve the goal set by the motivator [57,58]. Motivating focuses on the selection of incentives most effective in stimulating employees to act. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a loss of the sense of financial security among employees. The consequence is decreased productivity, affecting employers who also suffer related costs. Actions to support employees’ financial wellness are therefore important and necessary, especially in the case of those working in the strategic sector ensuring national energy security. The main aim of the article is to present, from the theoretical and practical point of view, the essence and role of Employee Financial Wellness Programs (EFWPs) in the creation of an effective incentive system in energy sector companies in Poland during the crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The following research methods were used: critical analysis of source literature, comparative analysis of existing data and the descriptive method with elements of deductive reasoning. In order to collect primary data, the indirect survey method was used, namely, the CAWI Internet survey technique, which was addressed to the main energy generation sector entities in the country. The research has shown that financial wellness instruments are new to the Polish market, where they have been in limited operation since 2021. It was confirmed that some companies in the energy sector are using such innovative tools, but they also show the need and interest to implement more extensive and comprehensive Employee Financial Wellness Programs that will reduce the financial stress of employees while motivating them to work more efficiently during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Motivation according to Bawa (2017), is an internal or external driving force that allows a person to work in a way that allows them to get favourable outcomes from their hard work or to meet their requirements. Motivation is derived from the word 'motive' which denotes a person's needs, desires, wants or urges. ...
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The researchers investigated the impact of motivation on employee productivity in the Nigerian Baptist Convention, Survey research design was adopted while questionnaire was used as the questionnaire of data collection. The reliability of the research instrument was calculated and all variables have Cronbach's alpha value, ranging from 0.907 to 0.935, which achieved the minimum acceptable level of coefficient alpha above 0.70. The data collected were analysed, using the Special Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) to generate tables as well as percentages. This was done to ensure an easy and clear understanding of the work. Multiple linear regression and correlation were used to test the validity of the hypotheses to establish the link between motivation and productivity. The R-square coefficient of the variables (work environment, training and development, recognition, leadership style and workers' efficiency) was 0.999. This shows that the variables constitute 99.9% of total variance which is a high coefficient on the employment motivation (dependent variable). This shows that they have a significant impact on employee motivation at Nigerian Baptist Convention. Thus, organisations, managers and employers should take the issue of motivation seriously.
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The study examined the role of training needs assessment on the training outcomes in the insurance sector in Kenya. A desktop methodology was used to carry out this study. This necessitated the use of secondary data obtained from publicly available sources such as published studies, reports, and statistics. This approach of data collection is used by many researchers since it saves time and lowers the cost of data collection. It is also quite reliable and has a wide variety of insights since it is compiled from well-known sources. The current study made use of online journals and libraries, both of which make secondary data readily available. The results revealed that there exist conceptual and geographical gaps relating to the study on the role of training needs assessment on the training outcomes in the insurance sector in Kenya. Most of the results from the empirical review revealed that the main role of training needs assessment on training outcomes is to ensure that the training programs implemented are effective, meet the employees’ needs and to improve the performance of the insurance sectors in Kenya. In addition, TNA enabled organizations to implement flexible, practical oriented training programs so as to keep the employees motivated. The results of the study will be of great significance to the management team of the insurance sector, since it will provide a good knowledge base on what training needs assessment involves and its role on training outcomes in the insurance sector in Kenya. Employees in the insurance sector will also benefit from the findings of this study since it will provide a well-detailed information on some of the employee needs that spearhead the implementation of training programs. The results of the study will also benefit the policymakers in the insurance sector by identifying the appropriate training needs assessment models that will improve the training outcomes of insurance firms in Kenya. Lastly, the findings of this study will serve as a foundation for literature review of researchers and academicians interested in carrying out a study related to these research topics.
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The changing workforce may to some extent be a boon or bane to the business. Although it may not be absolute to conclude that the current changes in the workforce with regards to attitude, skills, interest and above all how the workforce deal with their fellow employees, managers, and supervisors are entirely beyond control for management to intervene and make it somehow less impairing to the firm. These changes once properly managed and exploited can be beneficial for the firm in terms of higher productivity or even efficiency in the use of resources. But the big question now is how companies may deal productively with these changes in the workforce without undermining or contravening workers’ cultural/behavioural orientation that may lead to resignation or decline in performance. Therefore, due to the foregoing scenarios in workers’ cultural and behavioural conditions today, this study is thus envisioned to explore possibilities and come up with appropriate strategies that may be recommended on human resource policies and strategies that may be beneficial for the firm.
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Abstract The study examined the impact of finance on the performance of selected manufacturing companies in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Secondary data was use selecting three companies with ten years audited financial statements (2007 — 2016). To test the hypothesis, multiple regression analysis (step-wise) was used because there were more than one source of finance (equity, term loan, overdraft).The regression result showed positive relationship between finance and the performance variables of production, sales and gross profit and all were significant at 5% level, therefore, the null hypothesis was accepted. The study concluded that finance has significant relationship between finance and performance variables for three companies. The study recommended that as many sources of finance should be explored for manufacturing companies, profit should be ploughed back and careful analysis should be made between risks and returns for financing a manufacturing outfit. Keywords: Finance, performance, production, sales, gross profit, capital, manufacturing, company.
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Abstract Motivating employees is a way to make them to give their best to the organization for the achievement of organizational goals. But choosing the strategy for motivation may differ from time to time and organization to organization, because it is a psychological phenomenon and it is depending on the preference of employees. Therefore the present study is made to find out the motivational factors with the samples of 676 respondents from 55 public and private sector organizations in Sri Lanka. The finding of the study is that the perceived level of motivation of the employees in both the sectors is high. As the factors influencing motivation, wages and salaries, physical working conditions, job descriptions, dependency, friendly working atmosphere, interpersonal relationships, prestige and work assignment, incentives and bonus, work facilities, security, power, challenging and advancement and personal growth are most important factors. Moreover, lower level employees in both the sectors give more important to lower level needs while middle and higher level employees emphasize higher level needs. Keywords: Motivation, Economic needs, Social needs, Psychological needs
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The volume of literature on the causes of employee turnover continues to grow. In spite of this, attempts to distinguish between the causes of voluntary and involuntary turnover in organizations, though recognized for quite some time, receive little attention from researchers. The two phenomena seem to be influenced by a different set of factors. There are clear-cut theoretical and empirical reasons for this assertion. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between human resource (HR) practices and employee turnover in Malaysia where companies are generally experiencing labour shortage and labour turnover. Using data collected from a census of managers, the study utilized Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and simple regression and tested hypotheses developed to investigate the relationship between HR practices and employee voluntary and involuntary turnover. The results show that (1) staffing process and employee monitoring were effective in reducing involuntary turnover, and (2) none of the HR practices were effective in reducing voluntary turnover. In other words, workers continue to leave or quit irrespective of the type of HR practices implemented. The paper concludes that economic factors such as availability of alternative jobs are most likely relevant in explaining the turnover process. Based on these findings, various strategies were suggested which have wider managerial and policy implications for the management of turnover in similar settings.
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An important role of management is to help make work more satisfying and rewarding for employees and to make employees‟ motivation consistent with organizational objectives. With the diversity of contemporary workplaces, this is a complex task. Many factors, including the influences of different cultures, affect what people value and what is rewarding to them. From a manager's perspective, this study tries to understand what prompts people, what influences them, and why they persist in particular actions. This study also intends to evaluate motivation of employees in the organization. A good motivational program procedure is essential to achieve goal of the organization. If efficient motivational programmes of employees are made not only in this particular organization but also in any other organization, the organizations can achieve the efficiency also to develop a good organizational culture and the attainment of organisational goals at large.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of equity theory in the context of the contemporary turnover process. A model was developed and tested with 192 hospital employees using structural equation modeling (SEM), which placed satisfaction and intention to quit as mediators of employee turnover. The results strongly support the present model, but also suggest a role for other mediators, some of which are suggested for future research. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Applied Social Psychology is the property of Wiley-Blackwell and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)