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Abstract

Meta-analytic studies are distinguished by comparing literature that reports positive effects with respect to literature that warns of spurious or negative effects. The aim of the present work was to establish the proportion of probabilities between categories and subcategories extracted from the consulted, updated and specialized literature. A documentary study was carried out with a selection of sources indexed to international repositories such as Copernicus, Dialnet, Ebsco, Latindex, Redalyc, Scielo. An indistinct scenario was found, even though the literature that reports positive effects on the quality of life and the subjective well-being of public health services prevails; suggesting the extension of the work to repositories like WoS and Scopus.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
*Corresponding author: E-mail: garcialirios@yahoo.com;
Journal of Geography, Environment and Earth Science
International
22(2): 1-9, 2019; Article no.JGEESI.50029
ISSN: 2454-7352
Algorithmic Meta-analysis of the Effects of Social
Services on the Vulnerable Population
J. Carreón-Guillén
1
, C. Y. Quiroz-Campas
1
, E. Bolivar-Mojica
1
,
O. Coronado-Rincón
1
, J. Hernández-Valdés
1
, N. A. Morales-Ortega
1
and C. García-Lirios
1*
1
Department of Social Work, UNAM-ENTS, Ciudad Universitaria, Interior Circuit S/N, Mexico.
Authors’ contributions
This work was carried out in collaboration among all authors. Author JCG designed the study,
performed the statistical analysis, wrote the protocol and wrote the first draft of the manuscript.
Authors CYQC and CGL and NAMO managed the analyses of the study. Authors OCR and EBM
managed the literature searches. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Article Information
DOI: 10.9734/JGEESI/2019/v22i230141
Editor(s):
(1) Dr. Wen-Cheng Liu, Department of Civil and Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, Taiwan and
Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute, National United University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Reviewers:
(1) Yatin Talwar Mohfw, India.
(2)
Stanley Emife Nwani, Lagos State University, Nigeria.
Complete Peer review History:
http://www.sdiarticle3.com/review-history/50029
Received 25 April 2019
Accepted 30 June 2019
Published 05 July 2019
ABSTRACT
Meta-analytic studies are distinguished by comparing literature that reports positive effects with
respect to literature that warns of spurious or negative effects. The aim of the present work was to
establish the proportion of probabilities between categories and subcategories extracted from the
consulted, updated and specialized literature. A documentary study was carried out with a selection
of sources indexed to international repositories such as Copernicus, Dialnet, Ebsco, Latindex,
Redalyc, Scielo. An indistinct scenario was found, even though the literature that reports positive
effects on the quality of life and the subjective well-being of public health services prevails;
suggesting the extension of the work to repositories like WoS and Scopus.
Keywords: Device; positivity; biopolitics; intervention; social work.
Original Research Article
Carreón-Guillén et al.; JGEESI, 22(2): 1-9, 2019; Article no.JGEESI.50029
2
1. INTRODUCTION
The history of the intervention of Social Work in
the area of health has been built from a device
that in the case of the Institutions of Higher
Education, Social Sciences and Humanities this
acquires a connotation of dispositivity in the
Foucauldian sense of reproduction of social
domination through the power of vigilance and
punishment [1].
In this way, the present work is part of the Social
Sciences division, Social Work discipline,
subdiscipline of local development, but it can
also be evaluated from the anthropology of
power, sociology of violence or the psychology of
conflict.
The objective of this paper is to establish the
relationship between the proposed Foucault
devices, the intervention of Social Work and
Local Development from a review of 2010 to
2019 relative to the works published in
repositories of Latin America - Copernicus,
Dialnet, Ebsco, Latindex, Redalyc, Scielo,
considering the keywords of "development",
"Social Work", "device" and "intervention". In this
sense, was discuss the scope and limits of the
positivity device for the case of Social Work and
its history of intervention in public health
institutions.
The discussion will allow us to move towards a
reconceptualization scenario in which we see an
alternative intervention device that not only
reproduces health policies, but also questions
them in favor of the groups that are being
violated [2].
1.1 Dispositive Academic Positivity
Foucault [3] links the concept of device to power
and technology to account for a network of
relationships between actors and institutions
focused on the reproduction of social domination,
although with emphasis on the sexual dimension
in order to establish asymmetries between
genders (p.29).
Consequently, the notion of device is linked to
the advancement of information and
communication technologies (ICTs), since the
essence of the device is the espionage of the
private sphere. As ICTs specialize, they register
personalized information that will be
disseminated and facilitate the governance of the
individual and the groups in which he or she is
inserted and wants to belong [4].
Once the State has established an inventory of
the private sphere, then it can govern the public
sphere in a more persuasive way without having
to resort to the oppression of its praetorian,
military or police institutions. This subtlety is the
hallmark of the State and therefore of its device
for reproducing the asymmetries between rulers
and the governed (Sanchez, Garcia, Juarez,
Molina, Amemiya & Martinez, 2019).
Foucault [3] suggests that the sexual device
advances until it becomes a device of subjectivity
(p.94). The distinction is fundamental, because
while in the pre-modern stage of humanity, the
nascent State ruled with the truth to individuals,
in the contemporary era of the State is intended
control, vigilance and punishment of the truth,
privileging the reproduction of power through
conformity and obedience of the law.
If the device of power, sexual and subjective, is
instrumented in the dissemination of information
about a reality determined as truth by the State,
then science has become an instrument of the
rulers not only to establish differences with
respect to the governed, but to reproduce those
asymmetries through positivity [5].
Foucault [6] proposes the positivity category to
explain the pseudoscientific influence of
disciplines and their instrumentation in the
private sphere (page 299). The archeology of
knowledge unmasks the disciplines that have
usurped the scientific, hypothetical-deductive
method to enroll in science and thereby ascribe
to its institutionalization.
That is, the pseudoscientific positivity,
as "statements that concern the similarities and
differences between beings, their visible
structure, their specific and generic characters,
their possible classification, the discontinuities
that separate them, and the transitions that link
them." Foucault [6] warns the essence of the
power device, namely: the pseudoscience
applied to the reproduction of the social
domination of rulers to the governed.
It is a stacking of theories, concepts, sentences
and indicators that are presented as science,
but without an identity with the social, even when
this process is carried out with rigor and this is
supported by the prestige of an academic
community, the positivity is not scientificity, but
rather pseudo-scientificity that cannot be
according to the needs of a sector of civil
society [6].
However, the power device is not only in the
pseudoscience to reproduce the asymmetries
Carreón-Guillén et al.; JGEESI, 22(2): 1-9, 2019; Article no.JGEESI.50029
3
between the actors. It is also observable in
institutions that apply science closer to
knowledge, medicine and psychology as
examples [7]. In this sense, systematic observa-
tion is not only an inheritance of medicine, but
also intervention with the purpose of modifying
the course of personal micro-history, as well as
the implementation of a distinctive institutional
seal involves the instrumentation of the power
device (p. 229).
If the surveillance and control device subjects
those who violate the law, the disciplinary device
limits the analysis to the positivity of a scientific
tradition that reflects the power of the most
advanced sciences on the pseudosciences that
imitate them. The consequences of both devices,
surveillance and control, on the intervention is
not only the reproduction of the domination of
rulers to their governed, but also the establish-
ment of a legal and punitive sphere that punishes
those who have exceeded the disciplinary
limits [7].
In effect, pseudoscientific positivity does not
contribute to the dialogue between political and
social actors, but it conditions its asymmetries
through discourses and enhances the vigilance
of the rulers towards the governed in the same
way that knowledge is guided by those who are
imitated in their scientific procedures [8].
However, the devices not only operate in
education or the private sphere, they also
manifest themselves in the market through the
establishment of a fair price, but in so far as it is
established from the monitoring of inputs, supply
and demand, he has lost its dimension of justice,
since it does not reflect the time socially
necessary for listing, but rather a police monetary
control [9].
In the same way in which prices reach a true
price through supply and demand, the other
elements that are monitored by the State and
determined by a discretionary price, will be free
and may have a fair value that is the result of
utility that a society attributes to him and not that
imposed by his government [9].
Therefore, justice will be achieved by the State
as soon as it stops monitoring and establishing a
quotation which should be generated by supply
and demand, through the natural freedom of a
market in which the wills are not co-opted by the
government State [9].
In short, the power device, through its devices for
monitoring and punishing sexuality, education
and subjectivity it is built by a positivity that
prevents the development of a morality of justice
and rather encourages values of control and
positivity that enhance the differences between
those who govern and those who are governed.
From these preliminary notions, the history of
Social Work highlights health policies that were
determining their periods, but also highlights
events that were not controlled by the State and
that allowed the reconceptualization of the
discipline, as well as its adjustment to the needs
of civil society.
1.2 Brief History of Social Work
Intervention
In a strict sense, the concept of Social Work
underlies the Statute of Welfare when, in
Germany, Prime Minister Bismark announces the
implementation of benefits for workers in the
industrial sector. In this way, the so-called social
security was part of a social policy that aimed to
encourage industrial production and ensure the
availability of products according to the needs of
the European industrial society with special
attention to the nineteenth-century German
society [10].
Social services, through social security programs
and strategies were adopted in each of the
European countries. Its emergence in the
England of the 20
th
century generated
socioeconomic studies for the establishment of
priorities for the granting of resources among the
working class. In this scenario Richmond was a
pioneer in home visits and from this fact Social
Work is considered as a discipline, since it
stands out from charity and charity to be linked to
the health sciences and behavior until then
properly developed and recognized by public
health institutions [11].
Very soon Social Work occupied an important
place in the hospitals and health centers
interested in registering the potential number of
affiliates and beneficiaries with the policies of the
Welfare State, as well as those organizations
interested in promoting health.
The emergence of professions such as nursing
and health psychology allowed Social Work to
interact with very specific worldviews about
health and lifestyles related to self-care, but to
the extent that the Welfare state was questioned
by the liberal currents were moving away from
the decision making and precautionary principles
of health risks.
In this way, social policies, in their area of public
health, were dictated from the managerial and
Carreón-Guillén et al.; JGEESI, 22(2): 1-9, 2019; Article no.JGEESI.50029
4
managerial elites of State institutions, avoiding
the discoveries and contributions of health
professionals regarding the inventory and
documentation of civil actors.at risk to your
health.
Health policies that considered patients,
beneficiaries or potential beneficiaries as passive
subjects and dependent on specialized care,
recognized the importance of homogenizing and
specifying preventive campaigns in the most
marginalized and violated sectors where the
army of industrial reserves is reproduced. The
capitalist economic system required in its
gestation stage.
To the extent that public health campaigns were
disseminated among the poorest sectors, they
stopped the population explosion, but
discouraged precautionary lifestyles and aimed
at reducing health risks. It was not until the late
20th century that industries and organizations
proposed hygiene standards and occupational
health promotion when estimating losses due to
accidents and illnesses in workplaces, as well as
in those who earned less [12].
These events transformed again the function of
Social Work that entered into a process of self-
criticism and self-questioning considered as a re-
conceptualization. In the case of Mexico is not
entirely clear when it took place and in
what context, but in line with changes in health
policies that stage of being used promoters and
stage of targeting development strategies
prevention that involved society in its self-care.
However, the deficits of financial resources for
the case of unemployment or retirement
determined a new policy of institutional
evaluation and certification. In this new scenario,
Social Work has developed models and devices
with the purpose of highlighting its essence in
terms of home visits, socioeconomic studies,
registers and inventories of lifestyles and risk
behaviors of marginalized sectors of civil society.
In short, the history of Social Work in relation to
social policies, health programs, as well as
prevention and promotion strategies, show three
phases in which the discipline has become more
important to the extent that it has systematized
its functions, but above all, it has approached the
vulnerable, marginalized and excluded sectors
while the other professions are moving
away [13].
However, in the course of its history, the
discipline influenced by public policies, had only
considered these civil sectors as dependent.
Now that the policies encourage the participation
of citizens in order to prevent diseases and
accidents that reduce their working life or
compromise their abilities, Social Work is in the
dilemma of reproducing the benefactor model, or
adopting devices that allow the study of social
sectors and anticipate participation scenarios in
different economic, political and social spheres.
1.3 Effects of Social Work Intervention on
Health
If health policies have been transformed in such
a way that considers the individual as a key and
factor even preponderant in the new public
health system, then what adjustments are
models of intervention focused on the passivity of
the individual and control of the professionals,
disseminated at the stage of the welfare state,
but now require?
Power devices that reduced health rights and
employment of workers to a specialized and
conditioned by the resources and institutional
capacities attention devices positivity l Social
Works Erian instruments rights management, but
guided by the prevention based on self-care
lifestyles (see Table 1).
In this way, the positivity devices in the Social
Work intervention guide civil participation,
highlight the negotiation and consensus around
the labor and occupational rights that health
policies recognized from the high costs for care
and the low costs aimed at prevention.
In the historical nomenclature of Foucault
[3,6,7,9] the devices are legitimized by the
positivity of the sciences that imitate the
hypothetico-deductive method with rigor and
prestige, although without the identity or
professional habitus required to dissuade
opponents and persuade adherents to the
system of social domination or differentiation
between rulers and the governed.
The positivity or assertive implementation of the
devices through speeches and strategies for
monitoring and controlling self-care and
adherence to treatment or rehabilitation reflects
the asymmetries between those who make
decisions and those who execute them. Strictly
speaking, the positivity is an imitation of
knowledge that were built in the institutions of
public health.
From l to discipline of social work the device has
been understood in a sense that more integration
selectivity and exclusion [14].
Therefore, the
intervention has been the guiding axis of the
discipline's task.
It has even defined the identity
of the social worker, since this is not only the heir
of charity, charity and altruism, but also the result
of social exclusion indicated by
vulnerability [15].
These are contexts in which
disenchantment forged the identity of the social
worker, making it more sensitive to the needs of
sectors excluded from civil society
[16]
The social issue of Social Work lies in the
complexit
y that institutions cannot monitor and
control through the reward or sanction of its
Table 1.
Positive
Risks
Device
The Stewardship of the State in matters of
welfare
centered its interest in the policies
of with
regard to health, assuming that diseases
and accidents are inherent in
Development.
As a result, Social Work generated
discourses and strategies that disseminated
homogeneous and focused health pr
Positivity
The evaluation
of the meanings that for the
individual or the
groups have
as areas of opportunity for
innovation, contributes to a Local
Development
adjusted to the needs of people.
Source: Prepared from the literature review
Fig. 1. Specification of the model
E = Extract: e1 = Positive Efects
on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Efeccts on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Efects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
Efeccts on Weelbeing; C = Category; C1 = Literature A, C2 = Litera
Carreón-Guillén et al.; JGEESI, 22(2): 1-9, 2019
; Article no.
5
Therefore, the
intervention has been the guiding axis of the
It has even defined the identity
of the social worker, since this is not only the heir
of charity, charity and altruism, but also the result
of social exclusion indicated by
suffering and
These are contexts in which
disenchantment forged the identity of the social
worker, making it more sensitive to the needs of
[16]
.
The social issue of Social W ork lies in the
y that institutions cannot monitor and
control through the reward or sanction of its
members;
professionals and beneficiaries
is more about establishing an interdisciplinary
dialogue in which complexity can be studied and
diagnosed as part of the
social question.
to say that the problems must be approached
from a dialogic rather than from positivity.
In this way, the positive devices of the Social
Work intervention can be substituted with the
recognition of the other as interlocutor in the
dialogue of knowledge that facilitates the
understanding of the complexity of the social
question.
Positive
devices in the intervention of social work
Self-care
The Stewardship of the State in matters of
centered its interest in the policies
regard to health, assuming that diseases
and accidents are inherent in
Human
As a result, Social Work generated
discourses and strategies that disseminated
homogeneous and focused health pr
ograms.
Health policies encouraged
adherence to treatments and
rehabilitation, but did not consider
the importance of prevention,
reducing risk behavior and
establishing occupational safety
protocols.
of the meanings that for the
groups have
the risks, assumed
as areas of opportunity for
entrepreneurship and
innovation, contributes to a Local
adjusted to the needs of people.
It is represented as a banner of
health and personal development
that, in add
ition to other
produces Local Development.
Source: Prepared from the literature review
Fig. 1. Specification of the model
on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Efeccts on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Efects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
Efeccts on Weelbeing; C = Category; C1 = Literature A, C2 = Litera
ture B
Source: Self-elaborated
; Article no.
JGEESI.50029
professionals and beneficiaries
[16]. It
is more about establishing an interdisciplinary
dialogue in which complexity can be studied and
social question.
That is
to say that the problems must be approached
from a dialogic rather than from positivity.
In this way, the positive devices of the Social
Work intervention can be substituted with the
recognition of the other as interlocutor in the
dialogue of knowledge that facilitates the
understanding of the complexity of the social
cases,
on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Efeccts on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Efects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
Carreón-Guillén et al.; JGEESI, 22(2): 1-9, 2019; Article no.JGEESI.50029
6
1.4 Specification of the Model for the
Study of the Effects of Social
Services on the Vulnerable Population
The specification of a model is necessary for the
hypothesis contrast. It is a series of trajectories
of relations between variables from empirically
tested theoretical frameworks (see Fig. 1). Based
on this consideration, the proposed model
includes two constructs: Literature A for the
effects of public policies on quality of life and
literature B for the effects of social programs on
subjective well-being, with their indicators being
the possible combinations between significant
effects, spurious or negative of the political
strategies of assistance on the vulnerable
population [8].
The classical theories of public administration
and social policies highlight the rector of the
State as an organizer of public health and social
assistance (hypothesis 1.1, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.4), but
the new wave of institutional theories revalue the
bureaucratic isomorphism as a factor that
maximizes or reduces organizational health
responses on biophysical and biophysical well-
being (hypotheses 1.2, 1.5, 2.2 and 2.5). Even,
new theoretical matrices that question the State
and the public health institutions in charge of
medical care warn a new governance in which
the users distrust of the quality of the public
service and the governmental action in the
matter of prevention and promotion of the collec-
tive health (hypothesis 1.3, 1.6, 2.3 and 2.6).
2. METHOD
A non-experimental, documentary, cross-
sectional and exploratory study was carried out
with a selection of indexed sources, with ISSN
(International Standard Serial Number) and
DOI (Digitall Object Identifier) records. The
information was processed in a content analysis
matrix of the academic discourse, the agenda of
topics established around the key words and the
framing of the discussion between the categories
and the variables of "intervention" and "device".
Next, a model was specified for the study of the
effect of intervention devices in Local
Development. Finally, its scope and limits are
discussed with respect to other models specified
and reported in the literature.
The data were processed considering the type of
literature: A for sources that reported effects of
the public health services on the quality of life of
the groups affected; B for sources that reported
effects of public services on wellbeing right
holders.
A content analysis was carried out, considering
the type A literature with a grade of 3 and the
type B literature with 1. Expert judges in the
topics rated synthetic extracts of the findings
reported in three rounds of feedback in which the
first grades were discussed and reconsidered by
the participants until the differences are
exhausted and consensus reached.
The data were processed in the QDA Miner
version 4.0 qualitative analysis package,
estimateing the parameters of normality,
contingency and correlation between the
extracted data.
3. RESULTS
Table 2 shows the non-parametric values that
support the analysis of contingencies between
categories A and B with respect to the
informative extracts qualified by the expert
judges.
The structure of distribution and contingency
suggest a proportional consensus higher in the
first category relative to the literature that reports
positive effects of social services on the quality of
life and the subjective well-being of users,
suggesting the observation of the structure of
relationships between categories and informative
extracts (see Table 3).
The structure of the probability ratio shows a
prevalence of the six types of literature and the
findings that it reports, suggesting the
observation of the structure of trajectories of
relations between categories and extracts, see
Fig. 2).
The structure of trajectories of proportions of
probabilities among the six subcategories with
respect to the two categories of the effects of
social services on the quality of life and
subjective well-being. A prevalence of the two
categories is observed with respect to the six
subcategories. That is, the literature consulted
seems to warn that social services indistinctly
affect negatively and positively the quality of life
and subjective well-being.
4. DISCUSSION
The contribution of the present work to the state
of the question lies in the establishment of a
model for the study of the indistinct effects of
public health policies on the quality of life and the
subjective well-being of the users reported in the
literature consulted, but the design of the
research limits the results to the research
sample, suggesting the inclusion of repositories
such as Web of Science or Elsevier.
E
M
S
W
K
R1
e1 ,764 ,125 ,132
,110
e2 ,619 ,109 ,172
,143
e3 ,562 ,180 ,191
,189
e4 ,601 ,176 ,108
,101
e5 ,782 ,160 ,167
,162
e6 ,761 ,109 ,178
,156
R2
e1 ,629 ,156 ,143
,108
e2 ,641 ,174 ,162
,173
e3 ,673 ,152 ,183
,162
e4 ,693 ,145 ,103
,151
e5 ,653 ,198 ,181
,176
e6 ,782 ,143 ,176
,182
R3
e1 ,760 ,132 .191
,101
e2 ,784 ,153 ,104
,108
e3 ,794 ,172 ,113
,178
e4 ,762 ,109 ,182
,163
e5 ,641 ,161 ,134
,191
e6 ,781 ,189 ,196
,145
E = Extract: e1 = Positive Efects on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Efeccts on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Efects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
Efeccts on Weelbeing
; R = Round, M = Mean, S = Standar Deviation, W = Sweddness, K = Kurtosis, A =
Asimetry. C = Category; C1 = Literature A, C2 = Literature B
Source: Elaborated with data study
E = Extract: e1 = Positive Efects
on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Efeccts on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Efects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
Efeccts on Weelbeing; C = Category; C1 = Literature A, C2 = Litera
Source: Elaboration with data study
Carreón-Guillén et al.; JGEESI, 22(2): 1-9, 2019
; Article no.
7
Table 2. Descriptive data
K
A
C1
X2
df
p
X2
,110
,101
,143
,103 13,24 14 <,05
,189
,104
,101
,108
,162
,109
,156
,134
,108
,167 14,23 13 <,05
,173
,134 13,25 19 <,05
,162
,142 14,21
,151
,161
,176
,172
,182
,109
,101
,101 15,21 14 <,05
,108
,172 14,35 16 <,05
,178
,191 10,21 13 <,05
,163
,172 13,21
,191
,109
,145
,102
E = Extract: e1 = Positive Efects on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Efeccts on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Efects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
; R = Round, M = Mean, S = Standar Deviation, W = Sweddness, K = Kurtosis, A =
Asimetry. C = Category; C1 = Literature A, C2 = Literature B
Source: Elaborated with data study
Fig. 2. Structural model
on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Efeccts on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Efects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
Efeccts on Weelbeing; C = Category; C1 = Literature A, C2 = Litera
ture B
Source: Elaboration with data study
; Article no.
JGEESI.50029
C2
df
P
18 <,05
12 <,05
E = Extract: e1 = Positive Efects on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Efeccts on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Efects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
; R = Round, M = Mean, S = Standar Deviation, W = Sweddness, K = Kurtosis, A =
on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Efeccts on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Efects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
Carreón-Guillén et al.; JGEESI, 22(2): 1-9, 2019; Article no.JGEESI.50029
8
Table 3. Odds ratio
e1
e2
e3
e4
e5
e1
e2 ,328 (,109 ,781)
e3 ,427 (,129 ,671) ,432 (,123 ,784)
e4 ,203 (,109 ,437) ,127 (,432 ,671) ,231 (,109 ,601)
e5 ,321 (,109 ,562) ,324 (,127 ,439) ,146 (,027 ,712) ,321 (,243 ,456)
E = Extract: e1 = Positive Effects on Quality on Life, e2 = Negative Effects on Quality of Life, e3 = Spurious
Effects on Quality on Life, e4 = Positive Effects on Wellbeing, e5 = Negative Effects on Wellbeing, e6 = Spurious
Effects on Wellbeing; Source: Elaboration with data study
The literature consulted on the effects of public
health services on the quality of life and the
subjunctive warn of an improvement trend based
on social care, but in the present work indistinct
proportions of probability have been
demonstrated.
Such findings suggest the systematization of
other sources from repositories such as WoS
and Scopus, considering the biased tendency of
positive reports, although an emergency of
spurious effects is observed while the negative
effects have not been reported to the same
extent.
5. CONCLUSION
The objective of the present work was to
establish the proportion of probabilities of the
effects of health policies with respect to the
quality of life and the well-being of the users,
although the research design limited the findings
to the research scenario suggesting the
extension of the work to repositories like WoS
and Scopus.
Regarding the incidence of results in health
policies, the need for greater transparency in the
publication of the spurious and negative effects
of care systems, the quality of care and the
evaluation of public services is appreciated.
COMPETING INTERESTS
Authors have declared that no competing
interests exist.
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_________________________________________________________________________________
© 2019 Carreón-Guillén et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any
medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Peer-review history:
The peer review history for this paper can be accessed here:
http://www.sdiarticle3.com/review-history/50029
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Specification of a model of adherence to treatment
  • B Llamas
  • S Nava
  • C Garcia
Llamas B, Nava S, Garcia C. Specification of a model of adherence to treatment. AJAYU. 2019;17(1):140-160.
Hermeneutics of the subject. Madrid: The Pickaxe
  • M Foucault
Foucault M. Hermeneutics of the subject. Madrid: The Pickaxe; 1987.
Watch and punish. Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI
  • M Foucault
Foucault M. Watch and punish. Buenos Aires: Siglo XXI; 2003.
Meta analityc algorithm structure of the mobility habitus
  • R M Rincón
  • M L Quintero
  • J Coss
  • M Juárez
  • M Amemiya
  • E Segura
  • B L Rivera
  • Z J Sanchez
  • C Garcia
Rincón RM, Quintero ML, Coss J, Juárez M, Amemiya M, Segura E, Rivera BL, Sanchez ZJ, Garcia C. Meta analityc algorithm structure of the mobility habitus. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2019;1(1):1-6. Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2. 2.11515.36644