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Taxonomic revision of Arisaema (Araceae) sect. Sinarisaema in India

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History and status of the section Sinarisaema Nakai in India are discussed. The present study is a result of intensive field trips across the country from 2010 to 2019. Twenty three species are recognized from the country based on the morphological data procured from live samples as well as herbarium specimens deposited in various herbaria in India and abroad. Two species, viz. A. fischeri Manudev & Nampy and A. subulatum Manudev & Nampy are newly described while lectotypes are designated for four names currently treated as synonyms. Detailed description and photographic images are provided for each taxon. A taxonomic key is given for the easy identification in the field. The conservation status of five species is assessed based on the criteria laid out by IUCN.
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Rheedea
Journal of the Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Vol. 29(2): 119–173 (2019)
ISSN: 0971-2313 (Print edition)
https://dx.doi.org/10.22244/rheedea.2019.29.2.01
Taxonomic revision of Arisaema (Araceae)
sect. Sinarisaema in India
K.M. Manudev1, P.G. Arunkumar2 & Santhosh Nampy2
1Postgraduate & Research Department of Botany, St. Joseph’s College (Autonomous), Devagiri,
Kozhikode District, Kerala – 673 008, India. E-mail: manudevkmadhavan@gmail.com
2Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Malappuram P.O., Kerala – 673 635, India. E-mail: santhoshnampy5@gmail.com
Abstract: History and status of the section Sinarisaema
Nakai in India are discussed. The present study is a result
of intensive eld trips across the country from 2010 to
2019. Twenty three species are recognized from the
country based on the morphological data procured from
live samples as well as herbarium specimens deposited in
various herbaria in India and abroad. Two species, viz. A.
scheri Manudev & Nampy and A. subulatum Manudev &
Nampy are newly described while lectotypes are designated
for four names currently treated as synonyms. Detailed
description and photographic images are provided for each
taxon. A taxonomic key is given for the easy identication
in the eld. The conservation status of ve species is
assessed based on the criteria laid out by IUCN.
Keywords: Arisaema, Endemism, North-East India,
Sect. Sinarisaema, Western Ghats.
Introduction
Arisaema Mart., commonly called Cobra lilies, is one
of the largest genera of the family Araceae. Of the 220
taxa worldwide, 208 are reported from Asia, mainly
distributed in India, China and Japan (Govaerts et al.,
2019). With fty species and six varieties, Arisaema
becomes the largest genus of Aroid family in India,
primarily distributed in the forest outskirts of Western
Ghats and temperate Himalayan Mountains. Several
authors classied the genus Arisaema: Schott (1860),
Engler (1920), Hara (1971), Murata (1984), Gusman
and Gusman (2002, 2006), Murata (2011) and Murata
et al. (2013). According to Murata et al. (2013), the
genus is divided in to 13 sections viz. Sect. Arisaema,
Sect. Attenuata (Engl.) H.Li, Sect. Clavata (Engl.) H.
Ohashi & J.Murata, Sect. Decipientia (Engl.) H.Li,
Sect. Dochafa (Schott) H.Hara, Sect. Flagellarisaema
(Nakai) H.Hara, Sect. Franchetiana (Engl.) H.Hara,
Sect. Nepenthoidea (Engl.) Gusman & L.Gusman, Sect.
Odorata J.Murata ex J.Murata, Sect. Pistillata (Engl.)
Nakai, Sect. Sinarisaema Nakai, Sect. Tenuipistillata
(Engl.) H.Hara and Sect. Tortuosa (Engl.) Nakai. Nine
sections are found to occur in India among which
Sect. Sinarisaema Nakai is the largest with 23 taxa.
Section Sinarisaema was originally established by
Nakai (1950) to accommodate species with radiate
leaves, caudate limb and clavate spadix appendix.
Hara (1971) included 10 species, most of them
from India and opined that A. murrayi be included
in this section. In addition, he also recognized a
monotypic section Exappendiculata to accommodate
A. exappendiculatum H.Hara, characterised by the
absence of a spadix appendix and annular anthers.
Murata (1984) and Gusman and Gusman (2006)
treated Sect. Exappendiculata as a subsection under
Sinarisaema. Li et al. (2010) abandoned the sectional
and subsectional status of Exappendiculata and
merged it under Sect. Sinarisaema. The same is
followed in the latest circumscription of this section
by Murata et al. (2013).
Section Sinarisaema is characterised by radiate
leaves with prominent pseudostems, caudate to
acuminate spathe limb and clavate spadix appendix,
just projecting from the mouth. Sometimes, as in a
few south Indian taxa, the spadix appendix is rugose
or knobbed at the apex. This section currently
includes 38 species and two infraspecic taxa in the
world. The section diversied in India and forms
the largest section with 23 taxa including the two
new species described here. Of the 23 taxa, 18 are
endemic and 15 are conned to the Western Ghats.
Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema Nakai, J. Jap. Bot.
25: 6. 1950; Hara, Fl. E. Himal. 347. 1971; Gusman
& L.Gusman, Gen. Arisaema, ed. 2. 349. 2006; Li
et al. in Zhu et al., Fl. China, 23: 65. 2010; Murata
et al., J. Jap. Bot. 88: 44. 2013. Type: Arisaema
formosanum (Hayata) Hayata.
Received: 08.05.2019; Revised & Accepted: 24.06.2019
Published Online: 30.06.2019
120 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Arisaema sect. Radiatisecta Schott, Prodr. Syst.
Aroid. 26 & 42. 1860, nom. nud.
Arisaema [unranked] Radiatisecta Engl. in A.DC.
& C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 550. 1879. Type: Not
designated.
Arisaema [sect. Radiatisecta] [unranked] (*§§a.)
Indica Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 26 & 44. 1860.
Type: Not designated.
Arisaema sect. Peltatisecta Schott, Prodr. Syst. Aroid.
27 & 48. 1860, nom. nud.
Arisaema sect. Exappendiculata H.Hara, Univ. Mus.
Univ. Tokyo Bull. 2: 353. 1971.
Arisaema subsect. Exappendiculata (H.Hara)
J.Murata, J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo. Sect. III 13:
475. 1984.
Arisaema subsect. Exappendiculata (H.Hara)
Gusman, Gen. Arisaema, ed. 2. 351. 2006, nom.
super. Type: A. exappendiculatum H.Hara.
Dioecious, deciduous, perennial herbs.
Subterranean stem a tuberous corm, white, cream,
green to purplish inside, sometimes stoloniferous.
Psuedostem prominent, almost the half the length
of petiole. Leaves usually single, rarely 2; leaets
5 –25, radiate, sessile, sometimes petiolulate. Spadix
appendix subsessile, very rarely stipitate, clavate or
cylindrical, with smooth or rugose or sometimes
with a knobbed apex; fruiting peduncle usually
erect, sometimes nodding.
Key to the species of section
Sinarisaema
1. Spathe limb cucullate or galeiform ..................2
1. Spathe limb not cucullate or galeiform ............6
2. Tube of spathe 3-angled; limb apex gradually
tapering and curved to a parrot like beak
......................................................... A. psittaccus
2. Tube of spathe cylindric; limb apex not curved
to a parrot-like beak .........................................3
3. Spadix appendix stipitate; spathe limb ending in
a terminal, ovate or obovate, hanging lobe .... 4
3. Spadix appendix not stipitate; spathe limb not
ending in a terminal hanging lobe ..................5
4. Mouth of tube widely auriculate; limb obovate;
spadix appendix purplish to green, truncate at
apex ........................................... A. nilamburense
4. Mouth of tube not auriculate; limb ovate;
spadix appendix whitish, attenuate at apex
.................................................. A. sarracenioides
5. Male owers with fused, annulate anthers,
spathe limb ending in a long caudate tail ..........
................................................... A. agasthyanum
5. Male owers with free anthers; spathe limb does
not ending in a long caudate tail ..A. translucens
6. Fruiting peduncles nodding at maturity;
leaets linear to oblong or oblong-elliptic, apex
prolonged in to a slender tail ............................7
6. Fruiting peduncles erect at maturity; leaets
ovate-elliptic, elliptic, elliptic-laneolate,
lanceolate, oblong or oblanceolate, apex not
ending in a tail ..................................................8
7. Leaets 7–12, not ending in a drooping tail;
spathe limb purplish-brown to carmine, with
conspicuous white to pale green stripes along
the veins ending in an anastomosis; corms
stoloniferous .......................................A. ciliatum
7. Leaets > 15, ending in a drooping tail;
spathe limb greenish, devoid of stripes, corms
proliferous ...............................A. consanguineum
8. Corms purplish inside .................... A. concinnum
8. Corms white, cream, yellow to green inside . 9
9. Spathe limb invariably greenish, not striped......10
9. Spathe limb green, yellowish or purplish, variously
striped...............................................................11
10. Leaets caudate at apex, pale green below;
spathe limb caudate at apex, spadix appendix
rugose at apex; corms producing bulblets
......................................................... A. caudatum
10. Leaets acuminate at apex, glaucous beneath;
spathe limb acuminate at apex; spadix
appendix smooth at apex; corms stoloniferous
......................................................... A. fraternum
11. Spadix appendix cylindric, terete or club-
shaped, stipitate or nearly so ..........................12
11. Spadix appendix slender, liform or nearly so,
sessile ................................................................20
12. Spathe limb acute-acuminate, not tapering to
a long tail (rarely with a tail); spadix appendix
stipitate or nearly so .......................................13
121
K.M. Manudev et al. 121
12. Spathe limb narrowly acuminate, tapering in to
a tail; spadix appendix sessile ..........................17
13. Mouth margins auriculate, sometimes recurved;
spathe limb arching forward or drooping;
spadix appendix cylindric, truncate or round at
apex, very rarely pointed..... ...........................14
13. Mouth margins not auriculate, not recurved;
spathe limb usually erect; spadix appendix
fusiform, ending in a warted knob at
apex................. .................................... A. barnesii
14. Spadix appendix echinate at apex .................. 15
14. Spadix appendix smooth, rarely rugulose ..... 16
15. Spathe dull-white, densely streaked with
irregular purple blotches ..........A. arunachalense
15. Spathe green or purple with white parallel
stripes .............................................. A. echinatum
16. Male spadix with subulate neuters......................
................................................... A. peerumedense
16. Male spadix without subulate neuters .................
......................................................A. leschenaultii
17. Mouth margins auriculate, sometimes recurved
........................................................ A. subulatum
17. Mouth margins not auriculate, not recurved .....
.........................................................................18
18. Spadix appendix with a knobbed apex .... A. scheri
18. Spadix appendix not ending in a knobbed apex .... 19
19. Spathe tube narrowing in the upper third,
then aring again at mouth; spathe limb dull
orange-yellow with pale pink stripes, drooping
downward ........................................A. siangense
19. Spathe tube cylindric or funnel-shaped; spathe
limb bright green to yellowish green or
brownish, white striped, erect when young
then drooping...................................A. peltatum
20. Margins of the mouth widely auriculate;
limb base narrower than the mouth,
margins curved back forming a neck like
constriction..................................A. madhuanum
20. Margins of the mouth not widely auriculate;
limb base as wide as the mouth, margins not
curved back .....................................................21
21. Plants c. 30 cm tall; spathe limb ovate, green
without a white patch at the base; spadix
appendix terminating in a distinct, minutely
warted knob... .............................. A. tylophorum
21. Plants above 40 cm tall; spathe limb triangular
or elongate-lanceolate, green with a large white
patch at the base; spadix appendix gradually
tapering into a liform apex without a knob .....
........................................................A. attenuatum
Arisaema agasthyanum Sivad. & C.S.Kumar,
Aroideana 10(4): 19. 1987; Mohanan & Sivad., Fl.
Agasthyamala 756. 2002; Gusman & L.Gusman,
Gen. Arisaema, ed. 2. 357. 2006; Kottaim. &
R.Ganesan, Ethnobot. Leaets 12: 388. 2008. Type:
INDIA, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram district,
Agasthyamala, 1869 m, 15.05.1985, Sathish Kumar
TBG & RI-1350 (K). Fig. 1
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
50–65 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm,
subglobose, c. 3.5 cm diam., 2–3 cm tall, cream to
light green. Roots many arising from the upper
side of the corm, extensively long with secondary
rootlets; tuberlets often present, surrounding the
pseudostem. Cataphylls 3, rarely 4; outer c. 1.5
cm long, acute-obtuse at apex, often degenerated,
decidedly mucronate, pale coloured; middle 5–7.5
cm long, rose to dull green towards the distal end;
inner 12–18 cm long, dark coloured with faint
greenish brown marks; often a degenerated outer
cataphyll also present. Leaf solitary, radiatisect;
petiole slender, c. 65 cm long, light green with faint
dull green marks formed of vertical streaks; leaets
(3–5)–7–10, sessile, obovate-elliptic, 10.5–17 cm
long, 3.5–5 cm wide, acuminate, margins slightly
undulate, minutely praemorse, with a greenish
dorsal border, dark green ventrally, pale-glaucous
beneath, lateral veins up to 18 pairs, mid-vein esh
coloured mottled with minute rose-purplish spots.
Inorescence dioecious, not exceeding the height
of the leaf; peduncle slender, 27–30 cm long, 0.6–
0.8 cm long thick, exserted by about 6–12 cm from
the sheathing pseudostem, more or less completely
enclosed in the petiole in male plants, light green
with dull green marks formed of vertical streaks,
often pale green without mottling. Spathe c. 25 cm
long; tube of spathe cylindric, slightly funnel shaped
towards the mouth region, 5.5–6 cm long, 1.5–2
cm wide, striped with white and purple; margins
of the mouth with auricular extensions; limb c. 19
cm long, c. 6 cm wide, galeiform, expanded in the
middle, tapering to a purple caudate tail, white
122 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 1. Arisaema agasthyanum Sivad. & C.S.Kumar: a. Habit; b. Inflorescence; c. Corm; d. Spathe-front view; e. Spathe-back view; f & g. Male
spadix; h. Female spadix; i. Female floriferous region; j & k. Male flowers-enlarged view; l & m. Female flowers-enlarged view; n. Neuters with
aborted anthers; o. Fruiting spike.
123
K.M. Manudev et al.
towards the base, dark purple distally. Female
spadix sessile, 7–7.5 cm long, c. 0.5 cm wide, just
reaching to the mouth of the tube; female fertile
region 2–2.5 cm long; pistils many, compactly
arranged, bottle-shaped, green; ovules 4 –6; style
short; stigma papillose, white to hyaline; neuters
subulate, few, 1.5–2 cm long, scattered below the
barren appendix up to 2 cm, upcurved, light green;
appendix sub-cylindric, irregularly truncate and
shortly stipitate, slightly swollen distally, warted
on ageing, purple to green. Male spadix sessile,
slender, naked or sometimes one or two neuters
present; male fertile region 2–3 cm long; male
owers stipitate, scattered, 1–3-androus; anthers
sessile, cream-white, forming an annular structure
with rounded or circumscissile dehiscence, rarely
anthers become free. Fruiting spike cylindrical, c.
5 cm long, c. 2.5 cm wide, borne on an upright
peduncle; receptacle cream coloured; berries
compactly arranged, green when young, orange-
red at maturity, apex muticate, 3–6-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: May –August.
Habitat: In grasslands, among bushes at an
elevation above 1800 m, along with Adiantum sp.
(Adiatntaceae), Canthium sp., Hedyotis travancorica
Bedd., Psychotria sohmeri Kiehn. (Rubiaceae),
Memecylon sp. (Memecylaceae) and Liparis sp.
(Orchidaceae).
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Kerala,
Thiruvananthapuram district, Agasthyamala,
22.05.1901, C.A. Barber 2910 (CAL!); ibid.,
Athirumala, c. 1200 m, 24.06.1993, N. Mohanan
11452, 11453 (TBGT!); Pongalappara, 1400–1600
m, 15.05.1988, N. Mohanan 9807, 9808 (TBGT!);
ibid., c. 1560 m, 11.06.2011, Manudev 4451 (CALI!);
ibid., 05.06.2014, Manudev & Arunkumar 138922
(CALI!); ibid., 07.06.2015, Arunkumar & Manudev
144919 (CALI!); ibid., 06.07.2015, in fruiting,
Arunkumar & Rajeevan 144916 (CALI!); ibid.,
06.07.2015, in owering, Arunkumar & Rajeevan
144918, 144919 (CALI!); ibid., 01.08.2015, in
fruiting, A.J. Robi s.n.
Notes: Similar to A. translucens C.E.C.Fisch., but
can be distinguished by its galieform, expanded
limb and annulate staminate owers. Other than
this species, annulate staminate owers are seen
only in A. exappendiculatum H.Hara, a species
endemic to Nepal.
Conservation status: The population size at
the type locality, Pongalappara is very low,
consisting of hardly 20 plants. Based on ‘Extent of
Occurrence’ (EOO<100 km2; Criterion B1), ‘Area
of Occupancy’ [Criterion B2: AOO<10 km2 with
Extreme uctuations in number of subpopulations
[sub-criterion ‘c (iii)’], and number of mature
individuals (Criterion D), A. agasthyanum has been
assessed here as ‘CRITICALLY ENDANGERED’
[CR: B1, B2b(iii & iv), B2c(iii) & D] according to
IUCN’s guidelines (IUCN SPS, 2017).
Arisaema arunachalense A.Nangkar, A.P.Das &
H.Tag, (as A. arunachalensis), Pleione 11(2): 482.
2017. Type: INDIA, Arunachal Pradesh, East
Siang District, Pasighat, 560 m, 08.05.2015, A.
Nangkar & Hui Tag 026 (ASSAM). Fig. 2
Dioecious, perennial herbs, c. 70 cm tall.
Subterranean stem a corm, 1–2.2 cm long, 2.5–4.3
cm diam., depressed globose. Roots many, from
the top of the corm; stolons absent. Cataphylls
2, to 18 cm long, one short and other long.
Leaves 1, held above the inorescence; petiole
10–70 cm long, terete, white, generally pinkish
towards the base, mottled with purple patches and
spots; leaets 5–9, radiate, 14–34 cm long, 3–9.5
cm wide, broadly obovate-lanceolate, long-
acuminate (c. 2 cm long) at apex, base gradually
attenuate; slightly unequal in size, pale green
above, whitish below, marginal veins extending
from base to tip. Sheathing pseudostem c. 18 cm
long, mottled as in petiole. Inorescence arises
just above the cataphylls, 12–18 cm above from
the corm; peduncle much shorter than petiole,
25–34 cm long, exserted by 7–10 cm long from
the pseudostem, mottled as in petiole, nodding
at fruiting. Spathe dull-white on both surfaces;
tube of spathe cylindric, funnel-shaped towards
mouth, 20.3–23.2 cm long, dull-white with
purple longitudinal lines on both surfaces, slightly
constricted at the mouth, margins of the mouth
dilated to a revolute auricular extension; limb
wider than the tube, sagittate-ovate, caudate-
acuminate at apex, forming a slender tail (c. 5 cm),
dull white, densely purple-blotched, sometimes
blotches coalescing. Female spadix sessile, 9.5–
11.2 cm long, cylindric with a narrow fertile
124 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
region, mottled with purple blotches, sterile
zone with 14–17, dark purple subulate neuters;
appendix stipitate, cylindric with swollen apex
(looks like the tip of drum-stick), dark purple and
white mottled, exceeding the mouth of the tube;
pistils many, sessile, compactly arranged, ovoid,
green, stigma short, continuous, whitish. Male
spadix smaller than female, with many pistillodes
towards the base, neuters absent, sterile male
owers at the middle and fertile male owers
above; male owers sessile, scattered at the middle,
crowded distally, consisting of 4 or 5 dark purple
anthers. Fruiting spike not seen.
Flowering & fruiting: April–October.
Habitat: On the oor of dense evergreen forests
with thick humus at an elevation of 500–700 m.
Distribution: India (North-East Himalayas),
endemic.
Notes: Arisaema arunachalense is close to A.
echinatum (Wall.) Schott in having an echinate
spadix appendix but can be distinguished by its
longer pseudostem, densely purple blotched spathe
limb and swollen tip of appendix as opposed to very
short pseudostem, white striped green or purple
spathe limb and obtuse apex of spadix appendix in
the latter. This species thrives in tropical or sub-
tropical evergreen forests at elevations 500–700 m
whereas A. ciliatum grows above 2500 m. Authors
used the epithet arunachalensis’ in the protologue.
The genus name being in neuter gender, the
epithet should be corrected to arunachalense’.
The description provided here is taken from the
protologue.
Arisaema attenuatum E.Barnes & C.E.C.Fisch.,
Bull. Misc. Inf. Royal Gard. Kew 1936(4): 275.
1936; Chatterjee, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 8: 121.
1955; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 331. 1988; Sivad.
in Manoharan et al., Silent Valley-Whispers of
Reason. 233. 1999. Type: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki
district, Munnar, s.d., E. Barnes 1193 (K000203014
digital image!).
A. leschenaultii auct. Gusman & L.Gusman, Gen.
Arisaema ed. 2. 392. 2006, pro parte, non Blume
1836. Fig.3
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
40–65 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous
corm, subglobose, 3–5 cm diameter, 2–3 cm
tall, smooth or wrinkled, tuberlets often present,
surrounding the pseudostem. Roots arising from
the upper side of the corm. Cataphylls 3 or 4,
acute-obtuse at apex, slightly keeled towards tip,
decidedly mucronate; outer 2 –3 cm long, pale
coloured; middle c. 9 cm long, light green with
brownish-purplish and esh coloured patches;
inner c. 21 cm long similar to middle-one, dark
coloured; often a degenerated outer cataphyll also
present. Leaf solitary, radiatisect, emerging after
the inorescence; petiole slender, up to 65 cm
long, light green mottled with brownish-purple
patches; leaets 7–9, sessile, oblong-lanceolate,
sometimes oblanceolate, 15–21 cm long, 3.5–4.2
cm wide, narrowly acute to tapering, margins
minutely praemorse, with a purplish dorsal border,
Figure 2. Arisaema arunachalense A.Nangkar, A.P.Das & H.Tag: a. Habit; b. Inflorescence; c. Female spadix (Images A.P.Das).
125
K.M. Manudev et al.
dark green ventrally, pale dorsally, midvein often
mottled with purplish spots. Pseudostem 25–30 cm
long, mottled as in petiole. Inorescence held below
the leaf; peduncle slender, 30–35 cm long, exserted
by about 4–5 cm from the sheathing pseudostem,
dark purplish or green-greenish white. Spathe
6.5–12 cm long; tube of spathe cylindric, slightly
funnel-shaped towards the mouth, 6.5–7 cm long,
1–1.5 cm wide, white or greenish white basally
and greenish towards the distal end with purplish-
brown bands along the length of the tube, bands
lighter outside, darker inside; purple bands often
absent in male plants where it is replaced by green
bands outside; margins of the mouth decidedly
revolute; limb, short, triangular, elongate-
lanceolate, narrowly acuminate to tapering, 2–5
cm long, 1.5–2.5 cm wide, green with a large
roundish white patch at base with radiating stellate
arms, few purplish markings at the junction of the
green and white, tail erect or arching forward and
pointing downwards. Female spadix sessile, 8 –10
cm long, 0.2–0.3 cm thick, exceeding the tube and
arching forward; female fertile region 2–2.5 cm
long; pistils many, crowded, sessile, subglobose,
green; ovules 2 or 3; style short or absent; stigma
papillate, stellate, often with a dark bluish neck;
neuters subulate, few, 2–3 mm long, scattered over
a distance of 2–3 cm, upcurved, completely purple
or o-white with a purple tip; appendix slender or
liform, tapering distally, green or purplish bu
towards the base, becomes greenish towards the
distal end, often with a warty, purple tip. Male
spadix sessile, slender, similar to female, 5.5–8.7 cm
long, 0.3–0.5 cm thick; male fertile region 2–3 cm
long; male owers scattered over or crowded at the
base, distant above, 2–4-androus; anthers sessile,
purple, dehisce by an apical pore; pollens spherical,
slightly echinate, purple; neuters usually absent,
rarely 1 or 2 present. Fruiting spike not seen.
Flowering: May–June.
Habitat: In grasslands and in shola forests at an
elevation above 1200 m, together with A. peltatum,
A. leschenaultii and A. tortuosum.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki district,
Devikulam, c. 1800 m, 27.07.1982, N. Sasidharan
4173, 4178 (KFRI!); Lockhurt gap, Munnar-
Poopara road, 23.05.2011, Manudev & Santhosh
Nampy 4430, 4431 (CALI!); ibid., 25.05.2012,
Anisha & Manudev 4563 (CALI!); Mathikettan
shola, Aduvizhuntha kudi, 22.11.2014, Syam Radh
& Rajeevan, 137822, 137824 (CALI!); Checkpost
to Onnam Thodu, Mathikettan, 22.05.2015,
Manudev & Syam Radh 138959 (CALI!); Choondal,
Mathikettan, 23.04.2016, Syam Radh & Arunkumar
149117 (CALI!); Ettukalichelamaram to Check
post, 22.05.2015, Manudev & Syam Radh 138957
(CALI!); Onnamthode, Mathikettan, 08.05.2016,
Syam Radh 137976, 137979 (CALI!); Pallivasal,
24.05.2011, Manudev & Santhosh Nampy 4438
(CALI!); Sivan Para, Mathikettan, 23.08.2014,
Syam Radh & Prashob 143502 (CALI!); Pothamedu,
c. 1100 m, 25.07.2013, Manudev 135307 (CALI!).
Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore district, Anamalai hills,
26.06.1973, R.N. Kayal & H.N. Tribedi 569 (CAL!).
Notes: Arisaema attenuatum was described by Fischer
(1936) from the collections of Professor Edward
Barnes from Munnar High ranges. Gusman and
Gusman (2006) treated this species as a synonym
of A. leschenaultii, a common species distributed
throughout the Western Ghats showing signicant
variation. However, it is distinct from the latter in
having shorter spathe limb with a basal white spot
and slender spadix appendix.
Conservation status: The population size of A.
attenuatum thriving at the Devikulam and Lockhurt
Gap is very scanty with about less than 10 mature
individuals; while at the Pallivasal, 25 mature
individuals were observed and at the Mathikettan
shola National Park about 65 individuals. There
are a few specimens at CAL collected from
Anamalai hills of Tamilnadu region, not far
away from the type locality. Based on ‘Extent of
Occurrence’ (EOO<100 km2; Criterion B1), ‘Area
of Occupancy’ [Criterion B2: AOO<10 km2 with
extreme uctuations in number of subpopulations
[sub-criterion ‘c (iii)’], and number of mature
individuals (Criterion C), A. attenuatum is assessed
here as ‘CRITICALLY ENDANGERED’ [CR:
B1, B2b(iii), B2c(iii) & C2b.] according to IUCN’s
guidelines (IUCN SPS, 2017). This species is
threatened due to habitat loss mainly by the
conversion of forest areas in to tea plantations in
Munnar regions.
Arisaema barnesii C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc.
Inform. Kew 1933: 342. 1933; Gamble, Fl. Madras
126 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 3. Arisaema attenuatum E.Barnes & C.E.C.Fisch.: a. Habit; b. Corm; c. Leaf margin-enlarged view; d. Male inflorescence; e. Female inflo-
rescence; f. Mouth of the spathe tube; g. Spathe-front view; h. Spathe-back view; i. Male spadix; j. Female spadices; k. Male floriferous region;
l. Male flower-enlarged view; m. Neuters; n. Female flowers; o. Pistils.
127
K.M. Manudev et al.
3(11): 1891. 1936; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 331.
1988; Sivad. in Manoharan et al., Silent Valley-
Whispers of Reason. 233. 1999; N.Mohanan &
Sivad., Fl. Agasthyamala 756. 2002. Type: INDIA,
Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris district, Kotagiri, Longwood
Shola, 20.05.1932, E.Barnes A.R.3b & c (K, digital
images!) Fig. 4
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
about 40–65 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous
corm, subglobose, 3–7 cm diam., 2–5 cm tall,
cream to greenish white inside, tuberlets often
present, surrounding the pseudostem. Roots arising
from the upper side of the tuber. Cataphylls 3 or 4,
acute-obtuse at apex: outer 2–3 cm long, slightly
keeled towards the tip, decidedly mucronate, pale
coloured; middle c. 9 cm long, light green with
brownish-purplish and esh coloured patches;
inner c. 21 cm long similar to middle-one, dark
coloured; often a degenerated outer cataphyll also
present. Leaf solitary, radiatisect, emerging after
the inorescence; petiole slender, up to 65 cm long,
light green mottled with brownish-purple patches;
leaets 7–9, shortly petiolulate, oblong-lanceolate,
sometimes oblanceolate, 15–21 cm long, 3.5–4.2
cm wide, narrowly acute to tapering, margins
minutely praemorse, with a purplish dorsal border,
dark green ventrally, pale dorsally, midvein often
mottled with purplish spots. Pseudostem 25–30 cm
long, mottled as in petiole. Inorescence dioecious,
held below the level of leaf; peduncle slender,
30–35 cm long, exserted by about 4–5 cm from
the sheathing pseudostem, dark purplish or green-
greenish white. Spathe 6.5–12 cm long; tube of
spathe cylindric, slightly funnel-shaped towards
the mouth region, 6.5–7 cm long, 1–1.5 cm wide,
purplish brown basally and greenish towards the
distal end with white or greenish white stripes
along the length of the tube, dark purplish inside;
margins of the mouth slightly revolute; limb
ovate, 3.5–6 cm long, 2.5–3.5 wide, horizontal,
or sometimes erect, tapering in to a liform tail,
sometimes terminated by a minute knob, green
outside with white stripes, dark carmine, dark
purple or green inside with 5 white stripes at the
base. Female spadix sessile, c. 7 cm long, 0.2–0.3
cm thick; female oriferous region 2.5–3 cm long;
pistils crowded, sub-globose, green; style short;
stigma papillose; appendix narrowly fusiform,
widest at the middle, tapering to a short tail
with a small minutely warted apical knob, dark-
purple or pale below and the apex dark purple, the
basal portion with a few narrow ridges; neuters
subulate, on the lower third of the appendix, a few
laminate ridges above these up to halfway. Male
spadix similar to female, slender, 5–6 cm long,
male oriferous region 2–3 cm long; male owers
scattered over or crowded at the base and distant
above, 2–7-androus; anthers sessile, purple, dehisce
by an apical pore. Fruiting spike not seen.
Flowering & fruiting: March–September.
Habitat: In shola forests and in evergreen forests
at an elevation above 1000 m, associated with A.
leschenaultii, A. tortuosum, A. tylophorum, etc.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Kerala, Kannur
district, Aralam wild life sanctuary, 03.03.2014,
owered in garden, Alfred & Manudev 4388 (CALI!).
Palakkad district, Dhoni hills, 07.07.2012, Prabhu
kumar & Alfred 5078 (CALI!). Thrissur district,
Sholayar, 01.05.2011, Manudev & Alfred 4404, 4412
(CALI!). Wayanad district, Chandanathode, on
the way, near Seminary villa, 625 m, 03.05.1979,
V.S. Ramachandran 62222 (CAL!); Mandanmala,
Vythiri, 29.04.2011, Manudev & Nikhil Krishna
5254 (CALI!); Vellarimala, 05.04.2013, Robi
Jose & Manudev 135201 (CALI!). Tamil Nadu,
Coimbatore district, c. 1005 m (3300 ft), 30.05.1910,
C.E.C. Fischer 1957 (DD!). Nilgiris District, s.loc.,
s.d., Perottett 1813 (P017050542, digital image!).
Longwood shola, Kotagiri, 21.06.2011, Manudev,
Prabhu kumar & Sreeraj 4483 (CALI!). Tirunelveli
district, Naterikad, c. 1220 m (4000 ft), 13.02.1913,
D. Hooper & M.S. Ramaswami 38527 (CALI!).
Notes: This species is closely related to A.
peltatum and A. leschenaultii, from them it can be
distinguished by its petiolulate leaets and narrowly
fusiform appendix widest at the middle, tapering
to a short tail with a small minutely warted apical
knob and a ridged basal portion.
Conservation status: This species is known to
occur in Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve and adjacent
regions. However, not more than 10 mature
individuals are observed in each population. Due
to the large-scale conversion of forests in to tea
and cardamom plantations, gradual decline of the
quality of habitat has led to a faster decline of this
128 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 4. Arisaema barnesii C.E.C.Fisch.: a. Habit; c. Corm; b, d & e. Inflorescences; f–i. Spathe (f & h. front view; g & i. back view); j. Male spadix;
k & l. Female spadices; m. Male floriferous region; n. Male flowers-enlarged view; o. Female flowers-enlarged view; p. Young fruiting spike.
129
K.M. Manudev et al.
species. Based on Extent of Occurrence (Criterion
B1: EOO >5000 km2), continued decline in area of
occupancy, quality of habitat (sub-criterion b(ii) &
b(iii), ‘Reduction in population size’ (Criterion A1:
suspected population size reduction of ≥70), decline
in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or
quality of habitat (sub-criterion ‘1b’), the eects
of introduced taxa and pollutants (sub-criterion
‘e’), A. barnesii is assessed here as ENDANGERED
[EN: A1, 1b & e; B1, B2b(ii, iii), B2c(ii, iii, iv) &
D] according to IUCN’s guidelines (IUCN SPS,
2017).
Arisaema caudatum Engl. in A.DC. & C.DC.,
Monogr. Phan. 2: 559. 1879; Hook.f., Fl. Brit.
Ind. 6: 507. 1893; Woodrow, J. Bombay Nat.
Hist. Soc. 13(3): 428. 1901; T.Cooke, Fl. Bombay
1: 821. 1903; Engl., Panzenr. IV. 23F(73): 183.
1920; Blatt., J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 26: 364. 1931; J.
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 35: 19. 1931; Chatterjee,
Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 8: 129. 1955; R.S.Rao & K.K.
Ahuja, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 11(3–4): 450. 1969;
Sandhya Deshpande et al., Fl. Mahabhaleshwar
2: 615. 1995; S.R.Yadav & Sardesai, Fl. Kolhapur
Dist. 517. 2002. Type: INDIA, Concan, s.d., Stocks
s.n. (P01750624 digital image!).
A. longecaudatum Blatt., J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal 26:
362. 1931; J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 35: 20. 1931;
Chatterjee, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 8: 128. 1955.
Type: INDIA, Maharashtra, Mahabhaleshwar,
07.1925, Blatter P10 (BLAT).
A. leschenaultii auct. Gusman & L.Gusman, Gen.
Arisaema ed. 2. 392. 2006, pro parte, non Blume,
1836. Figs. 5 & 6
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
c. 70 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm,
subglobose, 2–2.5 × 3–3.5 cm, wrinkled, cream-
white, few tuberlets often surrounding the
pseudostem. Roots many, from the upper side of
the corm. Cataphylls 3 or 4, obtuse-orbicular at
apex, slightly keeled and mucronate; outer 3.5–6
cm long, pale-brown to purple-brown with faint
brown-reddish mottling; middle 7.3–12 cm long,
completely enclosing the pseudostem, green,
sometimes cylindric below up to 3 cm long; inner
15.2–29 cm long, dark brown mottled, cylindric
below, up to 12 cm long; sometimes a pale coloured
outer cataphyll c. 2.5–3 cm long may be present
together with another degenerated cataphyll. Leaf
solitary, rarely 2, radiatisect, opens usually before
inorescence or emerges together; petiole up to 68
cm long, green, pale-brown mottled; leaets 5–8,
sub-sessile or petiolulate, elliptic, ovate-obovate,
15–18 cm long, 6.2–9.5 cm wide, base cuneate, long
caudate, 3–9 cm long, margins entire, dark green
ventrally, pale dorsally. Pseudostem 21–43 cm long,
1–3 cm thick, mottled as in petiole. Inorescence
matures after the emergence of leaf, held below
or at the level of leaf; peduncle 36.5–64 cm long,
pale to dark brown mottled, greenish distally,
sometimes green all over without any mottling,
exserted by 11–21 cm long from the pseudostem.
Spathe 20–29 cm long; tube of spathe cylindric,
slightly funnel-shaped towards the mouth, 6–8 cm
long, 1.2–2 cm wide, slightly constricted at the
distal end before the mouth, green with white-
faint lines along the veins, whitish towards the
mouth; margins of the mouth dilated, revolute;
limb, ovate-lanceolate, 13.5–21cm long, 3.5–4.5
cm wide, narrowly acuminate to caudate, tapering
in to a slender tail up to 11–15 cm long, green-dull
green all over with white to pale stripes along the
veins, arched over and drooping. Female spadix
sessile, 7–8 cm long, 0.4–0.8 cm thick; fertile region
narrow of 2–2.5 cm long, followed by very few
neuters; appendix decidedly stipitate with a slight
constriction at the base after neuters, reaching the
mouth of the tube or just exceeding, blunt at apex,
slightly swollen and rugose, green to light green;
neuters subulate, sometimes forked, very few, 2–3
mm long, scattered, upcurved, green; pistils many,
compactly arranged, globose or urn-shaped with
rhomboid margins, green; ovules 6–14, white;
stigma papillate, stellate, sessile; often a few sterile
male owers also seen. Male spadix sessile, similar
to female, slender, c. 7 cm long, 0.3–0.5 cm thick;
fertile region narrow, 2–2.5 cm long; male owers
scattered over or crowded at the base and distant
above, sessile or decidedly stipitate, consisting
of 2–5-androus; anthers sessile, cream-white or
pale purple with a terminal mucro, dehisce by an
apical pore; neuters very few, subulate-echinate,
2–3 cm long, often forked, pale green. Fruiting
spike cylindrical, c. 6 cm long, c. 3 cm wide; borne
on an upright peduncle; receptacle cream; berries
globose, compactly arranged, green, turns yellow
to red at maturity, 5–8-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: June–October.
130 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 5. Arisaema caudatum Engl.: a. Habit; b. Corm; c. Leaf tip; d. Inflorescence; e. Spathe-front view; f. Spathe-back view; g. Male spadix; h. Female
spadix; i. Male floriferous region; j. Male flowers-enlarged view; k. Female floriferous region; l. Pistil; m. Neuters with aborted anthers; n. Fruiting spike.
131
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 6. Holotype of Arisaema caudatum Engl. [Stocks s.n. (P01750624)] © Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
132 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Habitat: In semi-evergreen forests, near grasslands
at an elevation above 300 m, along with A. murrayi,
A. ghaticum, A. sahyadricum, A.sivadasaniiand A.
tortuosum.
Distribution: India (northern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Maharashtra, Satara
district, Kas, 08.1992, M.P. Bachulkar & Cholekar
3215 (SUK!). Sindhudurgh district, Amboli-
Chaukul road (cultivated in St. Joseph’s College
Botanical Garden), 07.07.2012, Manudev &
Santhosh Nampy 5010A (CALI!); ibid., 07.07.2012,
Manudev & Santhosh Nampy 5008A (CALI!); ibid.,
27.06.2012, Manudev & Santhosh Nampy 5031A, B
(CALI!).
Notes: This species was described from a badly
dried specimen, as said by Engler (1879) himself
in his Monographiae Phanerogamarum. Hooker
(1893) gave a description based on an illustration
of Stocks who had seen this plant from Concan
regions. Though incomplete, the descriptions
of Hooker and Engler were adopted by the
subsequent workers. Subsequently, Blatter (1931)
described another species, A. longecaudatum, from
Mahabhaleshwar in Maharashtra. Rao and Ahuja
(1969), proposed a neotype for A. caudatum, and
merged A. longecaudatum as a synonym. However,
the original sheet used by Engler to describe this
taxon was relocated during the present study from
Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris,
hence supersedes this neotype. Arisaema caudatum
is closely related to A. leschenaultii, but can easily
be identied by its caudate leaves and long tailed
spathe limb.
Arisaema ciliatum H.Li var. liubaense Gusman
& Gouda, Blumea 44: 39. 1999; Manudev et al.,
Pleione 9(1): 229. 2015. Type: Originally from
CHINA, Szechuan (Sichuan) Province, near
Liuba, area of Mt. Minya Konka, 3600 m, C. Teune
369, subsequently raised by Gusman, 09.05.1989
(U, digital images!). Fig. 7
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
c. 55 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm,
globose to subglobose, 2–3 cm diam., 1.5–2.5 cm
tall, cream-white, stoloniferous. Roots many, from
the upper side of the corm, white. Cataphylls 2 or
3, obtuse-orbicular at apex, mucronate; outer c. 2.5
cm long, pale to white or purplish distally; middle
8–12.5 cm long, pale to white below, pink to purplish
above; inner 17–30 cm long, pale purple or pink,
brown or greenish brown, not mottled. Leaf solitary,
radiatisect, usually unfolds with the emergence of
inorescence; petiole up to 55 cm long, 0.5–0.7
cm thick, pale to dark greenish brown, greenish
distally, not mottled; leaets 7–12, sessile, narrow,
linear to oblong-elliptic, 7–19.5 cm long, 2–3.8 cm
wide, long acuminate at apex and prolonged in to
c. 3.5 cm long tail, base gradually cuneate, margins
entire, often wavy or undulate, pale-dark green
ventrally, glaucous dorsally. Pseudostem 27.5–40
cm long, 0.7–1.5 cm wide, coloured as in petiole.
Inorescence held below the leaf; peduncle 32–45
cm long, green or pale to dark brownish green,
exserted by c. 5 cm from the pseudostem. Spathe 17–
25.5 cm long with a tail up to 15 cm long; tube of
spathe cylindric, funnel-shaped towards the mouth,
5–6 cm long, 1–2 cm wide, pale green to brownish
green, pale to white striped along the veins; margins
of the mouth strongly recurved, not ciliate; limb
ovate-lanceolate, 5.5–6 cm long, 4.5–5.7 cm wide,
wider than tube, acute-acuminate and prolonged
in to a slender tail, 5–15 cm long, purplish-brown
to carmine, with conspicuous white to pale green
stripes along the veins ending in an anastomosis,
horizontal, arched over and curved down with
tails drooping. Female spadix sessile, 6.5–7.5 cm
long, cylindric, well exserted from the tube; fertile
region narrow, 2–2.5 cm long, followed by a few
neuters; appendix cylindric, 4–5.5 cm long, 0.6–0.8
cm thick, constricted or truncate at the base after
neuters, rounded and smooth at apex, green to light
green; neuters subulate, a few, 0.3–0.5 cm long,
upcurved, green; pistils many, sessile, compactly
arranged, ovoid or bottle-shaped, green; ovules
1–4, white; style short; stigma papillate, stellate,
white. Male spadix similar to female, slender, 5–6.5
cm long, 0.6–0.7 cm thick; fertile region narrow
1.8–2 cm long, pale green to green; neuters usually
absent; male owers scattered over or crowded at
the base and distant above, stipitate, 2–4-androus;
anthers cream, dehisce by an apical round to oblong
pore. Fruiting spike cylindrical, c. 6.5 cm long, c. 2.5
cm wide, borne on a nodding peduncle; receptacle
cream coloured; berries compactly arranged, green
when young, orange-red at maturity, 1–4 seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: May–July.
Habitat: As an under growth in evergreen forests or
133
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 7. Arisaema ciliatum H.Li var. liubaense Gusman & Gouda: a. Habit; b. Corm; c. Inflorescence; d. Mouth portion enlarged; e. Spathe-front
view; f. Spathe-back view; g. Female spadices; h. Male spadix; i. Female floriferous region; j. Female flowers-enlarged view; k. Neuters; l. Male
floriferous region; m. Male flowers-enlarged view; n. Fruiting spike.
134 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
on the edges, in humid semi-shady conditions or
along streams, often found along with A. fraternum,
A. nepenthoides, Cautleya spicata (Smith) Baker
(Zingiberaceae), etc.
Distribution: India (North-East Himalayas) and
China (Sichuan).
Specimens examined: INDIA, Meghalaya. East
Khasi Hills district, Laitryngew, on the way to
Cherrapunjee, 1684 m, 10.05.2013, in owering,
Manudev & Santhosh Nampy 135220 (CALI!); ibid.,
22.07.2014, in fruiting, Manudev 139883 (CALI!).
Notes: Manudev et al. (2015) recently reported
this species from India. Gouda and Gusman
(1999) described var. liubaense based on the plants
grown from the corms received from Michael
Hoog (Dutch Gardener), which was originally
supplied by Carla Teune, who collected it from
Liuba (China) in 1981. Though collected from a
Dutch nursery, in the protologue, authors cited
the location and collection date as near Liuba,
area of Mt. Minya Konka (Gonga Shan) Szechuan
(Sichuan) Province, China, at 3600 m elevation
on 15.09.1981. The information on the type
specimen also reiterates the same. Dr. Kanchi
N. Gandhi (Nomenclatural Registrar, Harvard
University, personal communication) opined that
the collection details provided in the protologue by
Gouda & Gusman (l.c.) had to be claried since the
type specimens were actually raised in the author’s
garden.
Arisaema ciliatum var. liubaense is closely related to
A. consanguineum in general morphological features
but can be distinguished by stoloniferous corms
and purple-brown or carmine spathe limb with
conspicuous white to greenish-white stripes along
the veins ending in an anastomosis as opposed to a
proliferous corm and usually greenish spathe limb
without white stripes. This variety is also allied to
A. erubescens but can be readily distinguished by an
erect fruiting peduncle and a pink spathe limb that
is shorter than the tube, with an acuminate apex
without a long drooping tail.
Arisaema concinnum Schott, Bonplandia 7: 27
(1859), Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 50. 1860; Oliv., Curtis’s
Bot. Mag. 97: t. 5914. 1871; Engl. in A.DC &
C.DC, Monogr. Phan. 2: 555. 1879; Hook.f., Fl.
Brit. India 6: 505. 1894; N.E.Br., J. Linn. Soc., Bot.
18: 254. 1881; Chatterjee, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal
8: 122. 1955; H.Hara, Fl. East. Himal. 350. 1971;
A.S.Rao & D.M.Verma, Bull. Bot. Surv. India
18: 17. 1976(1979); Gusman & L.Gusman, Gen.
Arisaema ed. 2. 365. 2006. Type: INDIA, Sikkim,
6000-10000 ft, s.d., J.D. Hooker s.n. (K000203005
digital image!; iso CAL!).
A aneSchott, Bonplandia 7: 27. 1859; Prodr. Syst.
Aroid. 51. 1860. A. concinnum var. ane (Schott)
Engl. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 557.
1879. Lectotype (designated here): INDIA, Sikkim,
6000-10000 ft, s.d., J.D. Hooker s.n. (K000203008
digital image! excluding the pistils).
A.alienatumSchott, Bonplandia 7: 26. 1859, Prodr. Syst.
Aroid. 45. 1860. A.concinnumvar.alienatum(Schott)
Engl., Panzenr., IV, 23F: 178 (1920). Lectotype
(designated here): INDIA, Uttarakhand, Garwahl,
June 1845, T. Thompson s.n. (K000203002A digital
image!) Figs. 8–11
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
c. 95 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm,
depressed globose-subglobose, 2–5.4 cm diam.,
1–3.5 cm tall, smooth or wrinkled, cream-white or
brownish, stoloniferous. Roots many, pale brown
to rose, from the upper side of the tuber. Cataphylls
3 or 4, acute or obtuse at apex, mucronate; outer
c. 2.5–7.5 cm long, pale to white often blushed
with rose; middle 5.5–15 cm long, pale brown to
pale rose, faintly mottled; inner 16–30 cm long,
enclosing the pseudostem, pale rose, pale to dark
brown, faintly mottled, sometimes cylindric below;
often an outer pale-hyaline cataphyll 1–3 cm long
also seen. Leaf solitary, radiatisect, usually unfolds
completely before the emergence of inorescence
or together; petiole 38–95 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm
thick, pale green to greenish white above, rose
to brown tinged below, not mottled; leaets 5–8,
sessile, elliptic-oblanceolate, 15.5–28.5 cm long,
3–6.8 cm wide, long-acuminate, margins entire,
often wavy or undulate, dark green ventrally, pale
dorsally. Pseudostem 13.5–29 cm long, 1.5–2.5 cm
wide, wrapped by cataphylls, pale to dark green.
Inorescence held below the level of leaf; peduncle
29–63 cm long, light green, pale green, not mottled,
exserted by 13–15.5 cm long from the pseudostem;
Spathe 16–24.5 cm long; tube of spathe cylindric,
funnel-shaped towards the mouth, 6–8.5 cm long,
1.5–2 cm wide, pale green-green, or pale purple
with white-pale stripes along the veins; margins of
the mouth slightly dilated to a revolute auricular
135
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 8. Arisaema concinnum Schott.: a & b. Habit; c. Corm. d–j. Inflorescences showing variations in their colour
136 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 9. Arisaema concinnum Schott: a–f. Spathes (a,c, e back view; b,d,f front view); g–j. Male spadices; k–m. Male spadices; n. Female
floriferous region; o. Neuters; p. Male floriferous region; q. Male flowers-enlarged view; r. Female flowers-enlarged view.
137
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 10. Lectotype of Arisaema affine Schott [J.D. Hooker s.n. (K000203008)] © The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
138 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 11. Lectotype of Arisaema alienatum Schott [T. Thompson s.n. (K000203002)] © The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
B
A
139
K.M. Manudev et al.
extension; limb, ovate-lanceolate, 10–16 cm long,
3.3–5.2 cm wide, acuminate with a long tail 5–9
cm long, green, purple to dark brown all over with
white to pale greenish white stripes along the veins,
arched over and drooping. Female spadix sessile, c.
10 cm long, 0.3–0.4 cm thick, slender, unevenly
angled with a fertile region of 2–4 cm at the base,
followed by a few neuters; pistils many, sessile,
compactly arranged, globose, sometimes angled
owing to the compact arrangement, green; ovules
3–5; style short; stigma papillate, stellate, peltate;
neuters subulate, a few, 0.5–1.5 cm long, scattered,
upcurved, green; appendix decidedly stipitate
with a slight thickening at the base after neuters,
reaching the mouth of the tube or just exceeding,
slender and gradually tapering, green to light green,
apex blunt-truncate, often subcapitate-capitate and
purplish-dark brown. Male spadix sessile, similar to
female, 4.5–7 cm long, 0.3–0.4 cm thick; fertile
region narrow, 1.5–2.5 cm long; neuters usually
absent or very few, as small protuberance; male
owers scattered over or crowded at the base and
distant above, sessile or stipitate, 2–4-androus;
anthers sessile, purple, dehisce by an apical pore.
Fruiting spike cylindrical, c. 8.5 cm long, 3–4
cm wide, borne on an upright peduncle; berries
compactly arranged, rounded at apex; receptacle
cream, 3–5 seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: May–September.
Habitat: In evergreen and semi-evergreen forests,
among pine woods at an elevation above 1500 m,
associated with Arisaema galeatum, A. speciosum
and A. tortuosum.
Distribution: India, China, Bhutan and Nepal.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Aruanchal Pradesh,
Lohit district, Hayuliang, along Dalai river,
14.01.1970, J. Joseph 48945 (ASSAM!). Upper
Dibang Valley district, s.loc., 1700 m, 15.04.2001,
M. Bhaumik 3817 (CAL!); Mayudia to Anini,
1865 m, 09.05.2015, Arunkumar & Salim 144847
(CALI!); Roing-Mayudia, 1125 m, 09.05.2015,
Arunkumar & Salim 144834 (CALI!). West Kameng
district, Bomdila, Thungri Nalla, 13.10.2015,
in fruiting, Arunkumar & Salim 144941, 144942
(CALI!). Manipur, Senapati district, Kujeree
Forest, Maram Side, 18.04.2006, A.A. Mao &
R. Gogoi 111178 (ASSAM!). Meghalaya, East
Khasi Hills district, Cherrapunjee, Mowsmai
Cave, 1300 m, 10.05.2013, Manudev & Santhosh
Nampy 135225 (CALI!); ibid., 22.07.2014, in
fruiting, Manudev 139895 (CALI!); Mowmluh
Cave, 4500 ft., 22.04.1943, N.L. Bor 187, 188
(BSD!); Shillong peak, 6000 ft, 23.05.1943, N.L.
Bor 17346 (BSD!). Nagaland, Kohima district,
Dzuko Valley, 03.06.2005, A.A. Mao 109039,
109040 (ASSAM!). Sikkim, East Sikkim district,
Baluwakhani, Gangtok, 1800 m, 25.04.1980, P.
Chakrabarthy 135 (BSHC!); Chandmari, Nathula
Road, Gangtok, 2100 m, 07.05.2014, Manudev
138870 (CAL!); Fambong la Rest House to
Kawlakhola, 17.07.1992, S.K. Rai 20853 (BSHC!);
Hanuman Tok, 07.05.2014, 2200 m, 138865,
Manudev & Syam Radh 138865 (CALI!); Meriang,
way to Bhusuk Basty, 09.05.1984, S. Singh 2956
(BSHC!); Pangthang, near Spices Board, way to
Mangan, 1900 m, 04.05.2014, Manudev & Syam
Radh 138848 (CALI!); near Pangthang, 1951 m,
04.05.2014, Manudev & Syam Radh 138857 (CALI!);
Raj Bhavan Compound, Gangtok, 24.04.1984,
D. Banerjee 2906 (BSHC!); ibid., 25.04.1980, P.
Chakrabarthy 134 (BSHC!); Rangtang to Sangtang,
1800 m, 04.05.2014, Manudev & Syam Radh
138854 (CALI!); Sangthang, near waterfall, way
to Mangan, 1900 m, 04.05.2014, Manudev, Syam
Radh & Prashob 138850 (CALI!). North Sikkim
district, Kabi Sacred groves, 11.06.1997, S.S. Dash
& S.K. Rai 17225 (BSHC!); ibid., 15.06.1999, S.S.
Dash 20760 (BSHC!); Singhik towards Mangan,
24.04.1988, R. Seshagiri Rao 92 (ASSAM!). South
Sikkim district, Sada, on the way, 11.05.1991,
R.C. Srivastava 13188 (BSHC!); Tendong R.F.,
07.06.2000, B.K. Shukla 23527 (BSHC!). West
Sikkim district, Khecheopalri Lake surroundings,
11.05.1986., S.K. Rai 5420, 5421 (BSHC!); ibid.,
1875 m, 14.05.1994, G.P. Sinha 16087 (BSHC!);
ibid., 18.05.2002, D. Maity & N. Pradhan 23469
(BSHC!); Varsey to Okhrey, 03.06.2004, S.K. Rai
14277 (BSHC!); Yuksom, 19.05.2002, D. Maity &
N. Pradhan 23489, 23492 (BSHC!). Uttarakhand,
Almora district, Daa Dhura, 01.08.1972, C.M.
Arora 49546 (BSD!). Chamoli district, Anusuya
Devi temple, 1750–2000 m, s.d., B.D. Naithani
44036 (BSD!); Dewalikhal to Karanprayag,
24.06.1979, B.D. Naithani 68077 (BSD!); Kachula
Khark, above Mandal, Chamoli, 26.06.1993,
H.B. Naithani 1860 (BSD!). Pithoragarh district,
Bogdiyar, on the way, 06.1986, Bipin Balodi 77549
(BSD!); Dhani Kholta, 12.09.1983, fruiting, Bipin
140 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Balodi 75042 (BSD!); Rungling forest, 2000-2800
m, 17.06.1960, T.A. Rao 11929 (BSD!). Tehri-
Garhwal district, Gohna-Ramun, Garhwal, 2500m,
10.06.1959, M.A. Rau 10086 (BSD!); Govana,
1400 m, 29.05.1979, A.K. Goel 67727 (BSD!);
Urni-Jhala, Tehri, 28.09.2000, fruiting, Uniyal &
Pundir 96983 (BSD!). Kumaon, 4000 m (12000 ft.),
Strachy 13 (CAL!). Uttar Pradesh, Sitapur district,
Sitapur, 1600 m, 22.05.1972, B.D. Naithani 47928
(BSD!). West Bengal, Darjeeling district, Algarh,
near Balwagani, way to Lava, 1761 m, 30.04.2014,
Manudev 138830 (CALI!); ibid., 1700 m, 30.04.2014,
Manudev & Syam Radh 138825 (CALI!); Darjeeling,
s.d., Talbot 3339 (BSI!); ibid., 1875, 7000 ft, J.S.
Gamble 1276B, 1276D (BSD!); ibid., 05.1880, J.S.
Gamble 8074 (BSD!); ibid., 05.1882, J.S. Gamble
10324 (BSD!); ibid., 10.05.1895, Talbot 3363 (BSI!);
Jorebungalaw, 2 km towards Sonada, 26.04.2014,
Manudev 138812 (CALI!); Lava, 02.06.13, Manudev
02061311(CALI!); way to Lava, 02.06.13, Manudev
02061302; Maneybhanjang to Sundekphu,
04.05.2015, Arunkumar 144806 (CALI!); Mirik,
1900 m, 30.04.2014, Manudev & Syam Radh
138833 (CALI!); Rangiroom, near Forest Beat
Oce, 1650 m, 16.07.2014, in fruiting, Manudev
& Abdul Kabeer 139850 (CALI!); Rungiroom to
Mungpoo, 1617 m, 16.07.2014, Manudev 139853
(CALI!); Rishap, near Lava, 2211 m, 30.04.2014,
Manudev 138840 (CALI!).
Notes: This species is closely related to A. leschenaultii
Blume in having greenish to purple spathe and
stoloniferous tuber but can be dierentiated by
more slender spadix appendix with a rugose,
subtruncate to sub-capitate tip. It was Schott
(1859) who described this species along with A.
ane Schott and A. alienatum Schott from the
collections of Hooker from Sikkim. Both A. ane
and A. alienatum were subsequently synonymised
under this taxon by later workers (Hooker, 1893;
Engler, 1920).
Typication: Schott (1859) described A. ane
based on the collections of Hooker from Sikkim.
There are two sheets at Kew (K000203007 and
K000203008), both marked as type specimen
by Schott. However, both of these sheets are part
of dierent collections that are evident from the
altitude shown in the eld tickets. Since a proper
type was not designated, the sheet no. K000203008
is chosen here as the lectotype conforming to the
latest code, excluding the pistils at the left.
Schott (1859) described A. alientaum from the
collections of Thompson from Garwhal and Grith
from Bhutan. There are two sheets collected by
Grith, one each at K (Grith 2630, K000203003)
and BM (Grith 2629, BM000958547) and one
sheet collected by Thompson from Garwhal at K
(Thompson s.n., K000203002). The sheets at K were
mentioned by Schott as the type and therefore a
lectotype must be selected. The sheet by Grith has
a single plant mounted on it but with a deformed
spathe and the sheet by Thompson has two plants
with intact spathes. The sheet K000203002, has
two specimens which is marked here as A and B.
Among them, A is the best representative of the
name and selected here as the lectotype.
Arisaema consanguineumSchott, Bonplandia 7:
27. 1859, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 52. 1860; N.E.Br., J.
Linn., Bot. 18: 242. 1880; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6:
505. 1893; Engl. in Diels, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. (36)82:
11. 1905; Pamp., Boll. Soc. Bot. Ital. 9: 289. 1911;
Craib, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 10: 397. 1912;
Dunn & Tutcher, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew, Addit.
Ser. 10: 288. 1912; Engl. in Diels, Notes Roy.
Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 6: 276. 1912; Engl. et al. in
Limpricht, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni. Veg. 12: 313.
1912; Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 5: 241. 1915;
Engl., Panzenr. IV.23F(73): 175. 1920; Hand.-
Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7: 1365. 1936; Gagnep., Fl. Indo-
Chine 6(9):1188. 1942; Chatterjee, Bull. Bot. Soc.
Bengal 8: 122. 1955; H.Hara, Fl. E. Himalaya, Sec.
Rep., Bull. 348. 1971; J.C.Wang, Bot. Bull. Acad.
Sin. 37(1): 77. 1996; Gusman, Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl.
Belg. 67: 221. 1999; Gusman & L.Gusman, Gen.
Arisaema, ed. 2. 371. 2006. A. erubescens (Wall.)
Schott var.consanguineum(Schott) Engl. in A.DC.
& C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 558. 1879. Lectotype
(designated by Manudev & Nampy, 2016): INDIA,
Sikkim, s.d., J.D.Hooker s.n. (CAL0000001307!).
A. tatarinowii Schott, Bonplandia 7: 27. 1859,
Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 53. 1860; Engl. in A.DC. &
C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 559. 1879; Engl., Bot.
Jahrb. Syst. 29: 236. 1901. Type: Not seen.
A. vituperatum Schott, Bonplandia 7: 28. 1859,
Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 54. 1860. A.erubescens(Wall.)
Schott var. vituperatum (Schott) Engl. in A.DC.
& C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 558. 1879. Type:
NEPAL, s.loc., s.d., Wallich Cat. No. 8915
141
K.M. Manudev et al.
A.giraldiiBaroni, Boll. Soc. Bot. Ital. 1893: 515.
1893. Type: Not seen.
A. davidianumEngl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 25: 27. 1898.
A. consanguineum var. davidianum (Engl.) Engl.,
Panzenr., IV, 23F: 177. 1928. Type: Not seen.
A. tatarinowii Schott f. latisecta Engl., Bot. Jahrb.
Syst. 29: 236. 1901. A. consanguineum Schott
f.latisectum(Engl.) Engl., Panzenr., IV, 23 F: 176.
1920. Type: Not seen.
A. brevipesEngl., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 36(82): 11. 1905.
Type: Not seen.
A.consanguineumSchott var.giganteumPamp., Bull.
Soc. Tosc. Ortic. 16(7): 227. 1911. Type: Not seen.
A. consanguineum Schott f. alpestre K.Krause,
Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 313.
1922. Type: CHINA, Sichuan, on top of Wan fu
Ding, Limpricht (?)
A.undulatumK.Krause, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni
Veg. Beih. 12: 313. 1922. Type: Not seen
A.kerriiGagnep., Notul. Syst. 9: 125. 1941, nom.
illeg.
A. erubescens auct. Ma & H.Li, Aroideana 40(3): 120.
2017. non Schott 1832. Fig. 12
Deciduous, dioecious or very rarely monoecious,
succulent, perennial herbs, c. 1 m tall. Subterranean
stem a tuberous corm, globose to subglobose, 3–6
cm diam., 2–4 cm tall, cream-white; tuberlets
often present in mature corms, a few, surrounding
the pseudostem. Roots many, from the upper side
of the corm, white. Cataphylls 2 or 3, obtuse-
orbicular at apex, mucronate; outer c. 2 cm long,
pale to white; middle 5.5–12 cm long, pale to
pink, pale to dark brown mottled; inner 9–20 cm
long, pale green to brown, with faint or dark rose-
pink to brownish mottling. Leaves 1 or rarely 2,
radiatisect, usually unfolds with the emergence
of inorescence; petiole 22–110 cm long, 0.3–1.5
cm thick, pale to dark green, not mottled; leaets
9–21, sessile, narrow, linear to oblong, 7.5–23 cm
long, 1.6–5.2 cm wide, long acuminate at apex
and prolonged in to a greenish to brown tail, base
gradually cuneate, margins entire, often wavy
or undulate, pale-dark green ventrally, glaucous
dorsally. Pseudostem 20–45 cm long, 1–2.5 cm
thick, wrapped by cataphylls, mottled as in petiole.
Inorescence held below the leaves; peduncle
16–55 cm long, shorter than petiole, green, pale to
dark brownish green or purple, exserted by 7–10
cm long from the pseudostem. Spathe 7–20 cm
long with a long tail up to 25 cm long; tube of
spathe cylindric, slightly funnel-shaped towards
the mouth, 5–9 cm long, 2–3.5 cm wide, pale green
to green or rarely purple stained, sometimes with
faint inconspicuous lines along veins; margins of
the mouth dilated to a revolute auricular extension;
limb ovate, 6–10 cm long, 3.2–5.5 cm wide, wider
than tube, acute-acuminate and prolonged in
to a slender tail, 10–25 cm long, green all over,
sometimes purple blotched, arched over and
curved down. Female spadix sessile, 8–10.2 cm
long, 0.4–0.8 cm thick; fertile region 2.7–3.7 cm
long, followed by few neuters along c. 0.5 cm;
pistils many, sessile, compactly arranged, ovoid or
bottle-shaped, green; ovules 4–6, white; style short;
stigma papillate, stellate, sessile; neuters subulate,
a few, 0.3–0.5 cm long, scattered, curved, green;
appendix cylindric, decidedly stipitate with a slight
constriction at the base after neuters, reaching the
mouth of the tube or just exceeding, cylindric,
rounded and smooth at apex, green to light green.
Male spadix sessile, similar to female, slender, 5.5–
6.2 cm long, 0.3–0.5 cm thick; fertile region c.
1.5–2 cm long, pale green to green; neuters usually
absent; male owers scattered over or crowded
at the base and distant above, sessile or decidedly
stipitate, 2–4-androus; anthers cream, dehisce by
an apical round to oblong pore. Fruiting spike
cylindric, 4–6 cm long, 2.5–4 cm wide, borne on a
nodding peduncle; receptacle cream; berries ovoid
compactly arranged, 4–6 seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: April–June.
Habitat: In evergreen and semi-evergreen forests,
grasslands, under pine woods at an elevation
above 1300 m, associated with A. concinnum and
A. tortuousum.
Distribution: India, Bhutan, China, Nepal,
Myanmar and Thailand.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Arunachal Pradesh,
Lower Dibang Valey district, Athunli, 960 m,
01.05.1998, M. Bhaumik 1518 (CAL!); West
Kameng district, Dum, on the bank of river
Dirang, fruiting plant, 24.09.1964, J. Joseph 40292
(ASSAM!). Manipur, Senapati district, Mao (Mao
to Kegwing), c. 1830 m (6000 ft), 02.05.1882,
142 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 12. Arisaema consanguineum Schott: a. Habit; b. Leaf emergence; c. Corm; d. Inflorescence; e. Spathe-back view; f. Spathe-front view;
g. Male spadix; h. Bisexual spadix; i. Female spadix; j. Stamens-enlarged view; k. Pistils; l. Pistils-enlarged view; m. Fruiting spike.
143
K.M. Manudev et al.
G. Watt 6861 (CAL!). Meghalaya, East Khasia
Hills district, Dumpep, 30.05.1911, I.H. Burkill
& S.C. Banerjee 34249 (CAL!); ibid., 16.04.1969,
A.S. Rao 47420 (ASSAM); ibid., c. 1920 m (6300
ft), 30.05.1911, I.H. Burkill & S.C. Banerjee 34258
(CAL!); Jowai, 07.05.1961, D.B. Deb 24425
(ASSAM!); Laitlyngkot, fruiting plant, 16.07.1946,
G.K. Deka 22262; Mawphalang, sacred forest,
31.05.1973, P.K. Hajra 51932 (ASSAM!, CAL!),
51933 (ASSAM!); Mukhla, near Jowai, 14.05.2013,
Manudev & Santhosh Nampy 135247 (CALI!);
Mylliem towards north, 29.05.1911, I.H. Burkill &
S.C. Banerjee 104 (CAL!); Nongstoin, 10.05.2013,
Alfred & Manudev 135231 (CAL!); Nongstoin to
Shillong, 10.05.2013, Alfred & Manudev 135232
(CAL!); Sangpung-Raliang, on the way from
Jowai to Barapani, 23.05.1965, A.S. Rao 42539
(ASSAM!, CAL!); Shillong, c. 1530 m (5000 ft),
01.06.1885, C.B. Clarke 38224 (CAL!); ibid., c. 1500
m (4900 ft), 26.05.1911, I.H. Burkill & S.C. Banerjee
37 (CAL!): ibid., 27.05.1911, I.H. Burkill & S.C.
Banerjee 68 (CAL!); ibid., 29.05.1911, I.H. Burkill &
S.C. Banerjee 51 (CAL!); ibid., 05.1918, H.G. Carter
826, 840 (CAL!); Shillong, woodlands Camp (new
colony), 04.06.1960, V.N. Naik 18181 (ASSAM!,
CAL!); Shillong near Cantonement, 10.05.2013,
Manudev & Santhosh Nampy 135214; Shillong, BSI
woodlands, fruiting plant, 02.08.1967, D.M. Verma
35667; Shillong Peak, 17.06.1967, D.M. Verma
35638 (ASSAM!); ibid., 1800 m, 17.06.1956, R.S.
Rao 2741 (CAL!); Khasia hills, 06.1876, s.coll. 280
(CAL496077!); ibid., s.d., J.D. Hooker & T. Thomson s.n.
(CAL496093!); ibid., s.d., Grith s.n. (CAL496091!).
Nagaland, Mokokchung district, Mokokchung,
Naga Hills, 05.1895, s.coll. 11696 (CAL!). Sikkim,
North Sikkim District, Singhik, 14.05.1945, Dr.
K. Biswas 6802 (CAL!); Chungthang, 15.05.1945,
Dr. K. Biswas 6825 (CAL!). s.loc., s.d., R. Seshagiri
Rao 342 (CAL!). Uttarakhand, Pithoragarh
district, Pangu, Kumaon, 1800 m, 10.06.1960,
T.A. Rao 11710 (CAL!). West Bengal, Darjeeling
district, Darjeeling, c. 2130 m (7000 ft), 04.1882,
J.S. Gamble 10327 (CAL!); Rangbee, 12.05.1877,
Grith 5975 (CAL!); ibid., 12.05.1877, J.L. Lister
s.n. (CAL496067!); Senchal, 05.1878, G. King s.n.
(CAL!); Senchal WLS, 26.05.2007, A.K. Ghosh
41623A (CAL!); Batasia to Palmajura, 08.05.1956,
D. Chatterjee 44 (CAL!).
Notes: This species is close to A. fraternum but
can be easily identied by its linear-oblong
leaets with a long tailed apex and spathe with an
acuminate tip extending in a long tail as opposed
to oblong-lanceolate leaets without a tail at apex,
and strongly drooping spathe limb without a tail.
Arisaema echinatum (Wall.) Schott in Schott &
Endl., Melet. Bot. 17. 1832; Blume, Rumphia 1:
94. 1836; Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3: 16. 1841; Schott,
Syn. Aroid. 1: 30. 1856; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 49.
1960; Engl. in A.DC. & C.DC., Monogr. Phan.
2: 555. 1879; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 596. 1893;
Engl., Panzenr. IV.23F(73): 181. 1920; Hand.-
Mazz., Symb. Sin. 7: 1361. 1936; Chatterjee, Bull.
Bot. Soc. Bengal 8: 124. 1955; H.Hara, Fl. East.
Himalaya, Sec. Rep. 351. 1971; U.C.Pradhan,
Himal. Cobra Lilies 90. 1990; Hajra & D.M.Verma,
Fl. Sikkim Monocot. 1: 188. 1996; Sasikala &
Vajravelu, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 98(3): 495.
2001; Gusman & L.Gusman, Gen. Arisaema, ed.
2. 374. 2006. Arum echinatum Wall., Pl. Asiat. Rar.
2: 30. t. 136. 1831. Lectoype (Step I. designated
by Chatterjee 1955: 124; Step II. designated by
Manudev & Nampy, 2017): NEPAL, Sheopore?,
June 1821, Wallich 8916 (K001131834, excluding
the Arisaema species at lower right corner and
the Typhonium plant at the base; iso K000203000,
K000950293, K001131831 excluding plants of
Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Mart. and A. exile
Schott). Epitype (designated by Manudev &
Nampy, 2017): Icone of Arum echinatum Wall. (Pl.
Asiat. Rar. 2: t. 136. 1831) Fig. 13
Deciduous, dioecious, perennial herbs, c. 70 cm
tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm, globose,
4 –7 cm diam., 2–4.5 cm tall, proliferating. Roots
many, from the upperside of the corm, branched.
Cataphylls 3, obtuse at apex, green or red. Leaves 1,
rarely 2, radiatisect, emerges with the inorescence;
petioles 15–60 cm long, light green or purple,
elongates after the spathe unfolds; leaets 7–11,
subsessile, broadly ovate, base cuneate, margins
slightly serrate and undulate, apex mucronate, green
above, glaucous beneath. Sheathing pseudostem c.
10 cm long, green, wrapped by cataphylls, mottled
as in petiole. Inorescence held near the ground
level; peduncle much shorter than the petiole, 5–10
cm long, green; spathe c. 27 cm long including the
apical tail; tube of the spathe cylindric, slightly
funnel-shaped towards mouth, 3–5 cm long, 2–2.5
cm wide, outside green or purple with white stripes
along the veins, inside with purple dotted stripes,
144 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
constricted near the mouth; margins recurved;
spathe limb lanceolate-ovate, 3–7 cm long, 3–5 cm
wide, bright green outside, carmine inside, margins
carmine, acuminate at apex, prolonged in to a long
tail, tail 5–15 cm long, green or carmine. Female
spadix 4–5 cm long, 0.4–0.6 cm thick, cylindrical,
slightly exserted from the tube; fertile region
1–2 cm long; pistils compactly arranged, ovoid,
angular, green; style short; stigma cream; neuters
absent; appendix cylindrical, 3–4 cm long, 0.4–0.6
cm thick, stipitate, stipe c. 0.7 cm long, white with
purple dotted, longitudinal lines, rugose and pale
green or purple distally, apex orbicular, covered
with thin, white and short prickly hairs; Male spadix
slender, similar to female; male owers scattered,
stipitate, 3–4-androus; anthers purple, dehisce by
a rounded or oblong pore, pollens white. Fruiting
spike cylindrical, 5–5.5 cm long, 2.5–3 cm wide,
borne on an upright peduncle; berries vermilion
red, at and lobulate at apex, 3-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: May–October.
Habitat: In forests, among Rhododendrons, above
2400 m.
Distribution: India, Bhutan, China and Nepal.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Sikkim, North
Sikkim district, Lachen, 3000 m, 07.06.1999, D.
Maity 21328 (BSHC!); Tallom surroundings,
25.07.1986, DCS Raju & S. Singh 6214 (BSHC!);
Zemu Valley, c. 2438 m (8000 ft.), 09.07.1909,
Smith & Cave 1011 (CAL!).
Notes: This species is near to A. echinoides, a Chinese
species, from which it can be distinguished by a
stoloniferous subterranean stem and spathe limbs
dark carmine inside with a few greenish white
veins, anastomosing near the margin.
Arisaema scheri Manudev & Nampy, sp. nov.
Closely allied to Arisaema barnesi C.E.C.Fisch.,
from which it can be distinguished by cylindrical
and smooth spadix appendix with a curved apex as
opposed to a narrowly fusiform appendix, widest
in the middle, tapering to a short tail with a small
minutely warted apical knob and a ridged basal
portion in the latter.
Type: INDIA, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram district,
Agasthyamala Biosphere reserve, Athirumala to
Pongalappara, in owering, 05.06.2014, Manudev &
Arunkumar 138933 (holo CALI!, iso MH!) Fig.14
Deciduous, dioecious, perennial herbs, c. 1 m tall.
Subterranean stem a tuberous corm, globose to
depressed globose, 2.5–6.5 cm diam., 1.5–4.5 cm
tall, greenish-yellowish inside, producing elongate
cormlets upon maturity. Roots many, arising from
the upper side of corm. Cataphylls 3, rarely 4,
purplish to brownish green or pale white, sometimes
purple mottled, acute to obtuse at apex, wrapping
the pseudostem; outer 2–4 cm long, usually pale
white, or brownish green towards apex; middle
4.5–14 cm long; innermost dark coloured, 16–37
cm long, sometimes an outer fourth cataphyll c.
1–2 cm present. Leaf single, rarely 2, radiatisect,
unfolding with the inorescence; petioles 43–101
cm long, 0.5–1.6 cm thick, purplish to brownish
green or pale green to whitish green, often mottled
with purple or brown, sometimes glaucous; leaets
7–9, petiolulate, elliptic to oblong-obovate, 15–
31 cm long, 3.5–8.5 cm wide, cuneate at base,
gradually tapering or narrowly acuminate at apex,
margins slightly undulate, dark green above, pale
beneath, sometimes glaucous. Pseudostem 21–62
cm long, 1–3.5 cm thick, coloured as in petiole.
Figure 13. Arisaema echinatum (Wall.) Schott: a. Habit (Image, Guy
Gusman, Belgium).
145
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 14. Arisaema fischeri Manudev & Nampy sp. nov: a & b. Habit; c. Corm; d & e. Inflorescences; f. Spathe-front view; g. Spathe-back view;
h–j. Female spadices; k & l. Male spadices; m. Female floriferous region; n. Male floriferous region; o. Male flowers; p. Fruiting spike.
146 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Inorescence held below the leaf; peduncle 37–
88.5 cm long, 0.4–1.4 thick, pale-brownish green,
faintly mottled, exserted by 12–40 cm long from
the sheathing pseudostem. Spathe 13–17 cm long;
tube of spathe cylindric, funnel-shaped towards
the mouth, 6–9.5 cm long, 1.2–2.2 cm wide,
purple-greenish outside, dark purple inside, white
striped along the veins; mouth margins straight
or slighty recurved; spathe limb ovate, 4–9.5 cm
long, 3–3.5 cm wide, usually shorter than the tube,
gradually tapering in to a tail c. 3–5 cm long at
the apex, green or yellowish-green, white striped
at the base, turns yellow after anthesis, erect or
horizontal, sometimes arching forward. Female
spadix 9–13 cm long, cylindric, sessile; female
oriferous region conical, 2–3.5 cm long, 0.7–1.3
cm wide; pistils compactly arranged, green; style
absent; stigma papilose, white; ovules 2–5; neuters
subulate, 0.5–0.8 cm long, upcurved, scattered
along 3–4.5 cm along the base of appendix,
purplish to green; appendix sessile, cylindric or
terete, gradually tapering to a blunt, curved apex,
purplish basally, green distally, exserted from the
tube. Male spadix similar to female, slender, 7–7.5
cm long; oriferous region conical below, cylindric
above; male owers sessile, densely arranged
below and scattered above, 2–6-androus; anthers
reniform, purple, sessile, dehisce through an apical
oblong pore; neuters usually absent, rarely very
few, subulate. Fruiting spike cylindrical, c. 6 cm
long, 2–3 cm wide, borne on an erect peduncle;
receptacle cream; berries obovoid, 2–5-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: May–October.
Habitat: In evergreen forests, shola margins and
under bamboo reeds, in humus rich soil and
rock crevices. A total of 65 plants in owering
were observed in 2014, along the trek path from
Athirumala to Pongalappara at an elevation above
1200 m, in association with A. tortuosum and A.
leschenaultii.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Etymology: This taxon is named after Cecil Ernest
Claude Fischer (1874–1950), British Botanist who
described several species of Arisaema from southern
India and completed Flora of Presidency of Madras
after the demise of J.S. Gamble.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Kerala,
Thiruvananthapuram district, Agasthyamala
Biosphere reserve, Athirumala to Pongalappara,
in owering, 11.06.2011, Manudev & Santhosh
Nampy 4448 (CALI!).
Notes: This species is also close to A. attenuatum
in having a sessile and cylindric spadix appendix.
However, the latter can be distinguished by a short
triangular spathe limb with large roundish white
patch at the base with radiating stellate arms.
Arisaema fraternum Schott, Bonplandia
(Hannover) 7: 26. 1859; Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 45.
1860; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 507. 1893; Engl.,
Panzenr. IV.23F(73): 178. 1920; Chatterjee,
Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 8: 118. 1955; A.S.Rao &
D.M.Verma, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 18: 17. 1976
(1979); Gusman & L.Gusman, Gen. Arisaema
ed. 2. 387. 2006. Lectoype (designated here):
INDIA, Meghalaya, Khasia Hills, s.d., Grith 11
( K 0 0 04 0 0 6 15 d i g it a l i ma g e ! ).
A. leschenaultii auct. Engl. in A.DC. & C.DC.,
Monogr. Phan. 2: 552. 1879, non Blume 1836, pro
parte. Figs. 15 & 16
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
up to 56 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous
corm, depressed globose to subglobose, 2–4.5 cm
diam., 2–2.8 cm tall, cream-white, stoloniferous.
Roots many, from the upper side of the corm,
white to pink. Cataphylls 2 or 3, obtuse-orbicular at
apex, mucronate; outer c. 2 cm long, pale to white;
middle 5.5–12 cm long, pale green to brownish
green, pale rose to dark brown mottled; inner 9–21
cm long, enclosing the pseudostem, pale green to
greenish brown, with faint or dark rose-purple
to brownish mottling. Leaf solitary, radiatisect,
usually unfolds completely after the emergence of
inorescence; petiole 27.5–133 cm long, 0.3–1.5
cm thick, dark green, purplish to brownish green,
often mottled; leaets 7–11, sessile, elliptic to
lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 7.5–23 cm long,
1.6–5.2 cm wide, acute at apex, base cuneate,
margins entire, often wavy or undulate, dark green
ventrally, glaucous dorsally. Pseudostem 9–30
cm long, 1–2.5 cm thick, wrapped by cataphylls,
mottled as in petiole. Inorescence matures after
the emergence of leaf, held below or at the level
of leaf; peduncle 16–42 cm long, green, pale to
dark brownish green or purple mottled, exserted
by 7–12 cm long from the pseudostem. Spathe
147
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 15. Arisaema fraternum Schott.: a & b. Habit; c. Corm; d–h. Spathes (d & h. front view; e & g. back view; f. Side view); j. Male spadix;
k. Female spadix; l. Male floriferous region; m. Male flowers-enlarged view; n. Female flowers-enlarged view; o. Neuters; p. Pistil; q. Fruiting spike.
148 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 16. Lectotype of Arisaema fraternum Schott [Griffith s.n. (K000400615)] © The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
149
K.M. Manudev et al.
7–16 cm long; tube of spathe cylindric, slightly
funnel-shaped towards the mouth, 3.5–4 cm long,
1–2 cm wide, pale green to green, sometimes with
faint inconspicuous lines along veins; margins of
the mouth dilated to a revolute auricular extension,
0.7–1.5 cm wide; limb ovate, oblong-ovate, widely
ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 6–9.5 cm long, 3.2–6.2
cm wide, acute-acuminate, green all over, arched
over and strongly curved down. Female spadix
sessile, 8–10.2 cm long, 0.4–0.8 cm thick, reaching
the mouth of the tube or just exceeding; fertile
region 2.7–3.7 cm long, followed by few neuters
along c. 0.5 cm; pistils many, sessile, compactly
arranged, rhomboid, 5 or 6-angled owing to its
compact arrangement, green; ovules 4–6, white;
stigma papillate, stellate, sessile; appendix cylindric,
decidedly stipitate with a slight constriction at
the base after neuters, blunt at apex, sometimes
decidedly attened, green to light green; neuters
subulate, a few, 0.3–0.5 cm long, scattered,
upcurved, green. Male spadix sessile, similar to
female, slender, 5.5–6.2 cm long, 0.3–0.5 cm thick;
male fertile region 1.5–2 cm long, pale green to
green; male owers scattered over or crowded
at the base and distant above, sessile or decidedly
stipitate, 1 or 2-androus; anthers cream, dehisce
by an apical oblong pore; neuters absent. Fruiting
spike cylindrical, c. 5 cm long, c. 2.5 cm wide,
borne on an upright peduncle; berries compactly
arranged, rhomboid, 5 or 6-angled, green when
young, turns red upon maturity, 5–6-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: April–June.
Habitat: In evergreen and semi-evergreen forests,
near grasslands, riverbanks at an elevation above
1300 m, associated with A. album, A. concinnum and
A. tortuousum.
Distribution: India (North-East India), endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Meghalaya, Khasia
& Jaintia hills district, Cherrapunjee, 10.05.1940,
G.K. Deka 22309 (ASSAM!); Mowsmai, near
cave, plant, 10.05.2013, Manudev & Santhosh
Nampy 135226 (CALI!). Pyrunusula, 29.04.1940,
R.N. Dr. 21864 (ASSAM!); Tissy Jarwa, way
to Nongthymmai, Cherrapunjee, 10.05.2013,
Manudev 135219 (CALI!); Nongthymmai, on river
banks, 10.05.2013, Manudev & Santhosh Nampy
135222 (CALI!); Nohsngithiang, Forest patch
before Seven Sister Falls, 10.05.2013, Manudev &
Santhosh Nampy 135229 (CALI!).
Notes: It is close to A. consanguineum, but can be
easily dierentiated by its oblong-lanceolate leaets,
glaucous on the ventral side, and completely green,
ovate-widely ovate, acute and strongly drooping
spathe limb as opposed to linear, long caudate
leaets without a glaucous base and green-purple,
ovate-lanceolate, long caudate spathe limb.
Typication: Schott (1859) while describing A.
fraternum cited Khasia hills in Meghalaya as the
locality but without mentioning the collector.
Subsequently, in his Prodromus Systematis
Aroidearum (1860), he gave the details of collector
as “Khasia-Grith- v.s in Herb. Hooker” indicating
that he based his descriptions on collections of
Grith from Khasia that are deposited in Hooker’s
herbarium (now K). There are two sheets by
Grith at K (K000400614 & K000400615).
The specimen K000400614 was collected from
Cherrapunjee and the date of collection is written
March 1831 on the eld ticket appended. There is
a Kew distribution label attached to the right side
of the sheet indicating the name of the collector
as Grith with the eld number as 5978. The
other sheet (K000400615) does not have a Kew
distribution label but has a eld ticket attached to
the lower part of the sheet with a number (No.11).
There is no indication of the date of collection and
locality except for an annotation “Assam, Grith”
and the locality is corrected later as Khasia, striking
o ‘Assam’. So technically these two sheets serve as
the syntypes of this species. Hence, K000400615
with a determination slip attached by Schott on
this sheet indicating it as the type specimen, is
selected here as the lectotype.
Arisaema leschenaultii Blume, Rumphia 1: 93.
1836; Kunth, Enum. Plant. 3: 16. 1841; Schott,
Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 51. 1860; Engl. in A.DC. &
C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 2: 552. 1879, excl. syn.
A. fraternum Schott; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 507.
1894; Hook.f. in Trimen, Handb. Fl. Ceylon 4:
352. 1898; Woodrow, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc.
13(3): 427. 1901; T.Cooke, Fl. Bombay 1: 821.
1903; Fyson, Fl. Nilgiri Pulney Hill-tops 1: 426, t.
271. 1915; Engl., Panzenr. IV.23F(73): 162. 1920;
C.E.C.Fisch. in Gamble, Fl. Madras 3: 1585. 1931;
Blatt. & McCann, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 35:
19. 1931; Chatterjee, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 8: 127.
1955; K.M.Matthew, Ill. Fl. Tamil Nadu Carnat.
150 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
t. 765. 1982; Sivad. & Nicolson in K.M.Matthew,
Fl. Tamil Nadu Carnat. 3(2): 1688. 1983; P.V.Bole
& M.R.Almeida, J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 83(3):
596. 1986; Manilal, Fl. Silent Valley 332. 1988;
Nicolson in Dassan. & Fosberg, Rev. Handb. Fl.
Ceylon 6: 71. 1988; K.M.Matthew, Fl. Palni Hills
1369. 1999; Sivad. in Manoharan et al., Silent
Valley-Whispers of Reason. 235, gs. 9, 10. 1999;
N.Mohanan & Sivad. Fl. Agasthyamala 756. 2002;
Gusman & L.Gusman, Arisaema ed. 2. 392. 2006,
pro parte. Lectotype (Step I. designated by Nicolson,
1988: 71; Step II. designated by Manudev &
Nampy, 2017): INDIA, Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris (as
Nelligerry), s.d., Leschenault 69 (P00390539 digital
i m a g e ! ; i s o l e c t o t y p e P 0 0 3 9 0 5 3 8 d i g i t a l i m a g e ! )
A. huegelli Schott, Syn. Aroid. 27. 1856. Type: Not
seen.
A. papillosum Steud. ex Schott, Syn. Aroid., 31.
1856, Prodr. Syst. Aroid. 46. 1860; Thwaites,
Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 335. 1864; Hook., Bot. Mag.
91: t. 5496. Lectoype (designated here): INDIA,
Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris (in montibus Nilagiri),
Althikarhattii, June, Hohenacker 1300 (P1750545
digital image!).
A. pulchrum N.E.Br., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18: 252. 1881;
Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 505. 1894; C.E.C.Fisch.
in Gamble, Fl. Pres. Madras 3: 1585. 1931. Type:
INDIA, Sispara Ghats, West Nilgiris (sent by R.H.
Beddome, cultivated in Kew), 03.1878, W. Bull s.n.
(K000499493 digital image!) Figs. 17 & 18
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
c. 62 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm,
depressed globose to subglobose, 2–7 cm diam.,
1–5 cm tall, wrinkled, cream-white, tuberlets often
present in mature corms, a few, surrounding the
pseudostem, often stoloniferous. Roots many, from
the upper side of the corm. Cataphylls 3 or 4, acute
or obtuse-orbicular at apex, mucronate; outer c.
1–4.5 cm long, pale to white often blushed with
rose; middle 5.5–12 cm long, pale white-green
or purple, pale rose to greenish brown mottled;
inner 14.5–44 cm long, enclosing the pseudostem,
pale green to greenish brown, with faint or dark
rose, purple to brownish mottling, sometimes
cylindrical below; often an outer pale-hyaline
cataphyll c. 1–3 cm long can be seen. Leaf solitary,
rarely 2, radiatisect, usually unfolds completely
after the emergence of inorescence; petiole 35–
90 cm long, 0.5–1.3 cm thick, light green to dark
brownish green, pale-brown to purplish-brown
mottled; leaets 6–11, sessile, elliptic-obovate
or oblanceolate, 9–30 cm long, 3–10 cm wide,
cuneate at base, acute-acuminate, margins entire,
often wavy or undulate, dark green ventrally,
pale dorsally. Pseudostem 17–54 cm long, 1–2
cm thick, wrapped by cataphylls, mottled as
in petiole. Inorescence held below the leaves;
peduncle 29–69 cm long, light green, pale to dark
brown or purple mottled, always greenish distally,
sometimes green all over without any mottling,
exserted by 10–25 cm long from the pseudostem.
Spathe 11–20 cm long; tube of spathe cylindrical,
slightly funnel-shaped towards the mouth, 5–8 cm
long, 1.5–2 cm thick, greenish white, pale green-
green, greenish brown or pale purple with white-
pale stripes along the veins; margins of the mouth
slightly dilated to a revolute-auricular extension;
limb ovate-lanceolate, 6.5–14 cm long, 3–6 wide,
acute-acuminate, light to dark green, purplish
or greenish brown all over with white to pale
stripes along the veins, arched over and drooping.
Female spadix sessile, 7–10.5 cm long, 0.4–0.8 cm
thick; fertile region 2–3 long, followed by few
neuters; pistils many, sessile, compactly arranged,
globose, green; ovules 3–5, white; stigma papillate,
stellate, sessile-subsessile, often with a dark blue
neck; neuters subulate, few, 0.5–1 cm long,
scattered, upcurved, green, sometimes bulbous
based; appendix cylindrical, decidedly stipitate
with a slight constriction at the base after neuters,
reaching the mouth of the tube or just exceeding,
cylindric and gradually tapering with a blunt apex,
sometimes attened, green to light green. Male
spadix sessile, similar to female, slender, 5–8 cm
long, 0.3–0.5 cm thick; fertile region 2–2.5 cm
long; male owers scattered over or crowded at the
base and distant above, sessile or decidedly stipitate,
3–4-androus; anthers sessile, purple, dehisce by an
apical pore; neuters very few or usually absent,
subulate, 1–2 cm long, pale green. Fruiting spike
cylindrical, c. 8 cm long, 4–5 cm wide; borne on
an upright peduncle; berries globose, compactly
arranged, green, 3–5-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: April–October.
Habitat: In evergreen and semi-evergreen forests,
near grasslands and shola forests at an elevation
above 1000 m, associated with A. attenuatum, A.
151
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 17. Arisaema leschenaultii Blume: a & b. Habit; c & d. Corm; e–i. Inflorescences; j–o. Spathe (j, l, n. front view; k, m, o. back view);
p–s. Female spadix; t & u. Male spadix; v. Male floriferous region; w. Male flowers-enlarged view; x. Female flowers and neuters.
152 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 18. Lectotype of Arisaema papillosum Steud. ex Schott [Hohenacker 1300 (P1750545)] © Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
153
K.M. Manudev et al.
barnesii, A. peltatum, A. tuberculatum, A. tylophorum
and A. tortuosum.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats) and
Sri Lanka.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki
district, Chunduvarrai to Mannavan Shola,
12.04.2013, Manudev & Robi 135202, 135204
(CALI!); Eravikulam National Park, 19.07.1997, V.
Abdul Jaleel & Bobby Thomas 109 (CALI!); Kundala
Dam to Mannavan Shola, 23.05.2015, Manudev
138962 (CALI!); Mannavan Shola, 23.05.2015,
Manudev & Syam Radh 138968 (CALI!); Munnar-
Poopara road, 03.09.2010, Manudev 4129 (CALI!);
Peerumedu, 24.05.1997, V. Abdul Jaleel & Bobby
Thomas 60 (CALI!); Vallakadavu, Periyar Tiger
Reserve, 17.11.1998, A. Johny 17955 (CALI!).
Palakkad district, Kaikatty, Nelliyampathy,
07.05.1997, V. Abdul Jaleel & Bobby Thomas 41
(CALI!); Minnampara, Nelliyampathy, 14.08.1977,
V. Abdul Jaleel & Bobby Thomas 120 (CALI!);
Silent Valley, 01.06.1977, M. Sivadasan CU19182
(CALI!); Vengoli peak, south to Thunakkadavu
dam, 28.04.1976, M. Sivadasan CU13149 (CALI!).
Thiruvananthapuram district, Attayar, way to
Athirumala, 07.06.2014, Manudev & Arunkumar
138943 (CALI!); Agasthyamala, way to Athirumala,
11.06.2011, Manudev 4457; ibid., 07.06.2014,
Manudev & Arunkumar 138945 (CALI!); way to
Pongalappara, Agasthyamala, 11.06.2011, Manudev
4466 (CALI!); Chemungi, 18.05.1979, ±900 m, M.
Mohanan 61854 (CAL!). Tamilnadu, Dindigul
district, Pulneys, banks of mountain streams,
1858, Beddome 115 (CAL!). Kanyakumari district,
Muthukuzhivayal, 1450 m, 27.07.1977, A.N. Henry
49417 (CAL!); Nilgiris, s.loc., s.d., Perottett 1813
(P017050544); ibid., 06.1883, J.S. Gamble 11996
(CAL!); Nilgiris district, Coonoore, 31.07.1878, G.
King s.n. (CAL!); Naduvattom, 06.1884, J.S. Gamble
14549 (DD!); Naduvattom, way to Ooty, near
T.R. Bazar, 1795 m, 22.07.2012, Manudev 5277;
Naduvattom to Ooty road, 2000 m, 22.07.2012,
Manudev & Santhosh Nampy 5279 (CALI!); Ooty,
summit of Doddabeta peak, 12.05.2011, Manudev
4418 (CALI!); Rockland, Kundah-Coonoor road,
1885 m, 22.07.2012, Manudev & Renab 5285
(CALI!); T.R. Bazar, near Naduvattom, Ooty,
12.05.2011, Manudev 4419 (CALI!); Yellakandy,
Ooty-Avalanche road, 2104 m, 22.07.2012,
Manudev 5284 (CALI!); Ootacamund (Ooty),
12.09.1878, G. King s.n. (DD!); ibid., 05.1883, J.S.
Gamble 11456 (CAL!); ibid., 06.1897, Bourdillon s.n.
(CAL!). Telangana, Rangareddy district, Rudaram
R.F., 21.08.1994, M. Silar Mohammed 12716
(SKU!).
Typication: Schott (1856) published A. huegelli
Schott, based on the collections of Huegel
possibly from southern India. He also published
another species A. papillosum Steudel ex Schott, by
validating the name by Steudel. Both the species,
characterized by a cylindric to clavate appendix,
found to be conspecic and were recognized
as synonyms of A. leschenaultii Blume by Engler
(1879), in his treatment of Araceae in de Candolle’s
Monographiae Phanerogamarum.
Arisaema papillosum was legitimately published by
Schott (1856) in his Synopsis Aroidearum, based on
the specimens from Steudel’s personal herbarium.
In fact, Schott wrote “A. papillosum Steudel (in
Schedula)” means he had seen this name on the
label of a sheet in Steudel’s Herbarium. Schott did
not cite any other details of the specimens in his
protologue except for the type locality as “India
Orientalis”. Later he gave details of the specimens in
the account of this taxa in his Prodromous Systematis
Aroidearum as “Montes Nilaghirenses- Steudel- V.
Specim. authentica” indicating the precise locality of
the type as Mountains of Nilgiris in South India.
Ernest Gottleib von Steudel (1783–1856) was a
German botanist and physician who collected only
few plants himself and the majority of the plants
in his herbarium were collected by others. There
is no evidence that Steudel visited South India but
he sometimes identied specimens for series of
exsiccatae distributed by R.F. Hohenacker (German
missionary, botanist and plant collector, 1798–
1874) who explored South India and collected
plants for sale in Europe. There are four sheets
of Hohenacker under two collection numbers
[No.1300 (3 sheets) and one sheet of No.1301] at
Paris Herbarium (P). All these sheets are part of
Steudel’s herbarium as indicated in the eld ticket
attached in red ink. A lectotype is selected here
(Hohenacker 1300, P1750545) conforming to the
latest code of nomenclature (Turland et al., 2018)
Arisaema madhuanum Nampy & Manudev,
Edinburgh J. Bot. 71 (2): 269–273. 2014. Type:
INDIA, Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore District,
154 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Valparai, Oosimala Top, 1344 m, 10°18.546 N
76°59.987 E, 10.07.2012, Manudev & Santhosh
Nampy 5092 (holo CALI!; iso MH!). Fig. 19
Deciduous, dioecious, perennial herbs, c. 115 cm
tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm, depressed
globose or subglobose, 3–4.5 cm diam., 2–3 cm
tall, brownish, wrinkled, cream inside; osets c.
8, surrounding the pseudostem, purplish or dark
brown-black, globose, sometimes one or two
below the roots slightly elongated. Roots many,
on top of the corm surrounding the pseudostem,
rose-tinged. Cataphylls 3, rarely 4 (fourth one
usually disintegrated); outer 1.8–3 cm long, pale
brown, apex acute-obtuse, mucronulate, slightly
keeled; middle 12–16 cm long, brown-purple
with greenish-white or cream mottling/lesions,
apex obtuse or orbicular, mucronate; inner 30–
39 cm long, brown-purple with greenish white
or cream mottling, obtuse or orbicular at apex,
mucronate. Leaf single, radiatisect, probably
emergin with or after the inorescence; petiole
38–50 cm long, 0.5–2 cm thick, pale green with
brown mottling formed of vertical streaks; leaets
7–10, sessile, obovate-spathulate, 13–40 cm long,
2.2–11 cm wide, subequal, gradually cuneate at
base, acuminate at apex, margins entire, undulate,
bright green above, pale beneath, lateral veins
up to 25 pairs, intra-marginal vein c. 0.5 cm
apart from the margins. Pseudostem 35.5–50 cm
long, pale green with brown mottling, ligule not
prominent. Inorescence held below the leaf;
peduncle 33.5–66 cm long, 0.5–0.7 cm thick,
mottled as in petiole, pale purple towards the distal
end, exserted by 5–17 cm from the pseudostem.
Spathe 18–20 cm long including the limb portion;
tube of spathe cylindric, funnel-shaped towards
the mouth, 8–9 cm long, 1–2.5 cm wide, pale
to purple basally, greenish distally, dark purplish
within, with white longitudinal stripes along the
veins; mouth open, wide, margins dilated into a
prominent auricular extension about 1 cm wide,
margins of auricle slightly revolute, c. 4.5 cm wide
in the mouth region and suddenly narrowing into
the limb; limb oblong-lanceolate, 10–11 cm long,
2–2.5 cm wide, yellowish-green with 5 white to
hyaline longitudinal stripes along the veins, two
paler stripes anking three larger stripes in the
middle, margins curved back at the base of the
limb forming a neck-like constriction immediately
after the mouth, apex acuminate with a slightly
swollen tip, erect and arching forward at the distal
end. Female spadix not seen. Male spadix sessile,
just reaching the mouth, 8–9 cm long, slender,
terete; fertile region 2.5–3.3 cm long at the base;
male owers sessile or shortly stipitate towards the
distal end of the fertile zone, 2–9-androus; stipe
to c. 1 mm long; anthers reniform, purple, dehisce
through an apical pore; neuters 8–9, subulate, 2–6
mm long, scattered along the basal 1–1.5 cm of
the appendix, curved down, often paired from the
base, purplish-green; appendix sessile, base slightly
thickened, c. 0.3–0.5 cm wide, gradually tapering
to a liform often curved distal portion, purplish
basally and greenish distally to a liform apex.
Fruiting spike cylindrical, 4–6 cm long, 2.5–3.5
cm wide, borne on an upright peduncle; berries
ovoid to globose, compactly arranged, green when
young, 2-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: Probably from the onset of
monsoon; owers and young fruits observed in
July.
Habitat: Grows along the margins of evergreen
forests near tea plantations at Oosimala Top, above
1300 m. A population of 31 plants was observed
at the type locality, including two fruiting female
plants. One of the infructescences had remnants of
the spathe tube as well as a dried liform appendix
at the apex. The female plants were robust and
larger than the male plants.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimen examined: Kerala, Idukki district,
Eravikulam National Park, 18.07.1997, V. Abdul
Jaleel & Bobby Thomas 107 (CALI!).
Notes: Arisaema madhuanum is morphologically
close to A. attenuatum and A. tylophorum, both
endemic to the southern Western Ghats, in having
a slender to almost liform appendix. However, the
new species can be easily distinguished from both
of them by having a wide-mouthed spathe tube,
and by the erect to arching limb with a narrow
base.
Arisaema nilamburense Sivad. in Sivad. &
Nicolson, Aroideana 6: 37. 1983; Manilal, Fl.
Silent Valley 332. 1988; Sivarajan & Mathew,
Fl. Nilambur 753. 1997; Sivad., in Manoharan et
al., Silent Valley- Whispers of Reason 237. 1999;
155
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 19. Arisaema madhuanum Nampy & Manudev: a. Habit; b. Corm with cormlets; c. Male inflorescence-front view; d–e. Male inflorescence-
side views; f. Mouth of the spathe tube; g–h. Spathe; I. Male spadix; j. Neuters; k. Male fertile region; l & m. Male flowers. n. Fruiting spike.
156 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Gusman & L.Gusman, Gen. Arisaema, ed. 2. 395.
2006. A. auriculatum E.Barnes, Kew Bull. 1946:
44. 1946; Chatterjee, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 8:
121. 1959, non Buchet (1911), non Smith 1914, non
Kishida 1931. Lectotype (designated by Sivadasan &
Nicolson, 1983): INDIA, Kerala, Nilambur Ghat,
Nilgiri, Wayanad, 2500 ft, July 1940, Barnes 2285
(K000499459 digital image!). Fig. 20
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
50–90 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous
corm, globose-subglobose 3.5–5 cm diam., 2–3
cm wide, white-cream, wrinkled, stoloniferous.
Roots arising from the upper side of the corm,
white to esh coloured. Cataphylls 3 or 4, rarely
5: outer 4.5–5 cm long, acute-obtuse at apex,
slightly mucronate, rose coloured; middle 9.5–13
cm long, rose to esh coloured; inner 20–27 cm
long, rose-brown, with white or awful white
dots, almost reaching to the length of pseudostem;
often a forth outer cataphyll may also present, c.
2 cm, rose to pale coloured and sometimes with
a fth degenerated one. Leaf solitary, radiatisect,
emerging after the inorescence; petiole slender, c.
90 cm long, green with rose to brownish patches,
often glaucous; leaets sessile, 5–7 or rarely
3 in vegetative plants, obovate-oblanceolate,
sometimes elliptic, 13.5–25 cm long, 4–10 cm
wide, cuneate at base, acute-acuminate or caudate,
margins minutely praemorse, with a white or
hyaline dorsal border, dark green ventrally,
glaucous beneath, lateral veins 15–20 pairs.
Inorescence not exceeding the height of the
leaf, usually held below; peduncle slender, 30–45
cm long, exserted by c. 8 cm from the sheathing
pseudostem, light green-greenish white, often
glaucous. Spathe 14–16 cm long; tube of spathe
cylindric at base, slightly funnel-shaped towards
the mouth region, 6.5–8 cm long, 1.2–1.5 cm
wide, white with purplish-brown bands along
the length of the tube, bands are lighter outside,
darker inside; margins of the mouth dilated in
to a notably revolute, rounded auricle; limb,
slightly cucullate at the base, obovate or widely
obovate, 7–8.5 cm long, 3–5 cm wide, narrowly
acuminate or caudate at apex, brownish green
with basal white bands; nerves brown to purplish,
anastomosing, with an intra marginal vein; margin
slightly undulate with a purple band; distal half
of the limb arched over and drooping. Female
spadix sessile, c. 9 cm long, c. 1 cm thick; female
fertile region c. 3 cm long, followed by neuters;
pistils many, compactly arranged along c. 2.5 cm
long, subglobose, green; ovules 2 or 3, stigma
papillate, stellate, nearly sessile; neuters echinate,
few, 2–3 mm long, scattered over a distance of c.
1 cm, upcurved, white or purplish bu often with
purplish spots; appendix stipitate with a swollen
base after neuters, tapering to distal end and just
reaching the mouth of the tube, arching forward
at the apex, green with purplish discontinuous
bands or dots, smooth or glabrous except the
rugose, distal curved portion with purple spots.
Male spadix stipitate, similar to female but
slender, 7–7.5 cm long, 0.4–0.7 cm thick, naked
or sometimes with few short echinate neuters;
owers scattered over or crowded at the base and
distant above, sessile or decidedly stipitate, 2 or
3-androus; anthers purple-bluish, dehisce by an
apical pore. Fruiting spike cylindric or conical, c.
9 cm long, c. 4 cm wide, borne on an upright
peduncle; berries ovoid compactly arranged,
green when young, orange to bright red upon
maturity, 2 or 3-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: May–June.
Habitat: In grasslands, shola forests and evergreen
forests, between 500–1200 m, usually found in
clumps, as well as in soil pockets of wet rocks near
the streams.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Kerala, Kozhikode
district, Muthappanpuzha, way to Olichuchattom,
08.05.2011, Manudev & Santhosh Nampy 4414
(CALI!). Malappuram district, Karimpuzha,
06.08.1983, Philip Mathew 34206 (CALI!). Palakkad
district, Silent Valley, Dam site, 26.05.1982,
Sathish Kumar 10587 (CALI!). Kottayam district,
Vagamon, Kurisumala, 17.08.2013, in fruiting,
Manudev & Robi Jose 135330 (CALI!). Wayanad
district, Kurichiarmala, 28.10.2013, in fruiting,
Arunkumar & Santhosh Nampy 142284 (CALI!);
ibid., 27.11.2014, in fruiting, Santhosh Nampy &
Manudev 139982 (CALI!); Vythiri, Thalamala,
29.05.2011, Manudev & Santhosh Nampy
4441(CALI!).
Notes: This species was rst described by Barnes
in 1946 under the name A. auriculatum owing to
the auriculate nature of spathe, a character found
157
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 20. Arisaema nilamburense Sivad.: a–c. Habit; d. Corm; e. Stolon; f & g. Inflorescences; h–k. Spathe (h & k. front view; i & j. back view);
l & m. Male spadices; n. Female spadix; o. Female floriferous region; p. Fruiting spike borne on an erect peduncle.
158 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
in many species of Arisaema, which was served
as the basis for naming as many as three taxa
previously (2 from China and 1 from Japan). Since
the epithet ‘auriculatum’ was preoccupied, Sivadasan
and Nicolson (1983) renamed this species as A.
nilamburense Sivad., after the type locality, Nilambur.
A lectotype was also selected from the collections of
Barnes from Nilambur Ghats (Barnes 2285).
Arisaema peerumedense J.Mathew, Ann. Bot.
Fennici 54: 29. 2017. Type: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki
district, Peerumedu, tract to Parunthumpara, 1350
m, 14.06.2015, J. Mathew 4824 (holo TBGT; iso
SESH). Fig. 21
Dioecious, perennial herbs, to 1.75 m tall. Corms
globose to subglobose, 3 –5 diam., 2–2.5 cm tall,
cream-white, stoloniferous. Cataphylls 3 or 4:
outer c. 3.5 cm long, acute-obtuse at apex, pale rose
to white coloured; middle 8–10 cm long, rose to
esh coloured; inner 19–20 cm long, rose-brown,
with white or purplish dots, almost reaching to the
length of pseudostem; often a forth outer cataphyll
may also present, c. 1.5 cm, rose to pale coloured.
Figure 21. Arisaema peerumedense J.Mathew: a. Habit; b. Inflorescences; c–e. Spathe (c & d. front view; e. back view); f. Male spadix; g. Female
spadix; h. Male floriferous region; i. Female floriferous region.
159
K.M. Manudev et al.
Leaf solitary, rarely 2; petiole c. 125 cm long, petiole
slender, c. 125 cm long, 1–2.5 cm thick, brownish
green mottled with pink; leaets radiatisect, 8–12,
22–35 cm long, 5–9 cm wide, lanceolate, base
cuneate, narrowly acuminate, margins entire,
wavy, bright green above, pale beneath, margins
greenish to hyaline, lateral veins up to 25 pairs, intra
marginal vein c. 0.5 cm apart from the margins.
Spadix dioecious, not exceeding the height of the
leaf; peduncle slender, 100–142 cm long, 1.5–3.5
cm long thick, exserted by 7–18 cm from the
sheathing pseudostem, greenish purple. Spathe
20–30 cm long; tube of spathe cylindric towards
base, funnel-shaped distally, 5–11 cm long, 1.5–
2.5 cm broad, light purple towards the base, pale
purple distally, dark purple within with greenish-
white bands over the veins; margins of the mouth
auriculate, dilates in to a prominent auricular
extension c. 2.5 cm wide; limb oblong-lanceolate,
purple with greenish white bands, 24–26 × 8–9
cm, narrowly acuminate at apex, tapering in to a
slender tail, arching forward, thus reaching the tip
almost to the base of the tube. Female spadix sessile,
c. 11.5–15 cm long, 1–2 cm wide; fertile region of
3.5–4 cm, followed by neuters along c. 2 cm; pistils
many, sessile, compactly arranged, globose, green;
ovules 3–5, white; stigma papillate, stellate, sessile-
subsessile, often with a dark neck; neuters subulate,
few, 0.5–1 cm long, scattered, upcurved, white to
purple, appendix, cylindric-fusiform, broader at
middle, tapering to both sides, reaching the mouth
of the tube or just exceeding, blunt at apex, slightly
curved distally, green to light green, purplish below.
Male spadix sessile, similar to female, slender, c. 13
cm long, 1–1.5 cm thick; fertile region c. 4 cm long,
male owers scattered over or crowded at the base
and distant above, sessile, 3–5-androus; anthers
sessile, purple, dehisce by an apical pore; neuters
few, subulate, c. 1 cm long, purplish. Fruiting spike
cylindrical, borne on an upright peduncle; berries
globose, compactly arranged, c. 3-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: June–July.
Habitat: Grows in shola evergreen forests, under
shaded conditions at an elevation above 1350 m.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimen examined: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki district,
Peerumedu, 30.06.2016, Arunkumar 149282 (CALI!).
Notes: A. peerumedense is closely related to A.
leschenaultii Blume but can be distinguished by its
sessile, distally curved, cylindric-fusiform spadix
appendix. The authors have also encountered
intermediates between these two taxa in southern
Western Ghats which render the identication of
these two taxa dubious.
Arisaema peltatum C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inf.
Royal Gard. Kew 1936(4): 277. 1936; Chatterjee,
Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 8: 130. 1955; Manudev
& Nampy, ENVIS News Lett. 20(1): 4. 2015.
Type: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki district, Munnar,
12.06.1935, E. Barnes 1147 (K000203012 digital
image!).
A. leschenaultii auct. Gusman & L. Gusman, Arisaema
ed. 2. 392. 2006, pro parte, non Blume 1836. Fig. 22
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
38–130 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous
corm, globose, 2.5–4.5 cm diam., 1–2 cm wide,
smooth or wrinkled, stoloniferous. Cataphylls 2
or 3, acute-obtuse at apex; outer 2–6.5 cm long,
pale coloured, often mottled with brownish streaks
in mature plants; middle 6–13.6 cm long, mottled
with brownish patches or streaks; inner 17–45
cm long, strongly mottled, darker. Leaf solitary,
radiatisect, emerging after the inorescence;
petiole slender, 38–65 cm long, 0.8–1 cm thick,
light green mottled with brownish streaks; leaets
5–10, oblong-oblanceolate, 15–34 cm long, 2–10
cm wide, cuneate at base, narrowly acute to
acuminate, margins greenish to hyaline, praemorse,
strongly undulate (appears to be serrate), darker
above, glaucous or whitish beneath, lateral veins
up to 26 pairs, intra marginal vein 0.4–0.6 cm apart
from the margins. Inorescence not exceeding the
height of the leaf; peduncle slender, 25–90 cm long,
1.5–3.5 cm long, exerted by 8–14 cm from the
sheathing pseudostem, light green with purplish
mottling towards the distal portion. Spathe 13–30
cm long, glossy in texture; tube of spathe cylindric
towards base, funnel-shaped distally, 5–11 cm
long, c. 2.5 cm broad, purple to brownish towards
the base, greenish distally with white bands over
the veins; margins of the mouth revolute; limb
ovate-lanceolate, 8.5–19 cm long, 3–6 cm wide,
greenish with white bands; bands wider towards
the base and narrower towards the apex, narrowly
acuminate at apex, tapering in to a slender tail,
arching forward and upcurved with erect tip or
160 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 22. Arisaema peltatum C.E.C.Fisch.: a. Habit; b. Corm; c–f. Inflorescences (c & d. Purple form; e & f. Green form); g & h. Mouth of the
tube with straight margins; i–k. Male spadices..
161
K.M. Manudev et al.
often drooping (probably after anthesis), thus
reaching the tip almost to the base of the tube.
Female spadix sessile, c. 12.6 cm long, 0.6–0.7 cm
thick; female fertile region c. 4 cm long, followed
by neuters along c. 4 cm; pistils many, compactly
arranged, green; ovules up to 5, white; stigma
papillose, stellate, sessile; neuters subulate, many,
0.7–1.2 cm long, scattered, upcurved, pale to
purplish; appendix cylindric, reaching the mouth
of the tube or just exceeding, blunt at apex, slightly
curved distally, green to light green, purplish
below. Male spadix sessile, slender, slightly tapering
to a blunt tip, 4.5–6.5 cm long, not exceeding the
tube or just reaching the mouth; appendix sessile,
slightly thickened at the base and appears to be
stipitate, 2.5–3.5 cm long; male owers scattered
over 2–3 cm along the spadix, sessile or subsessile,
3 –4-androus; anthers, purple, dehisce by an apical
pore; neuters absent. Fruiting spike not seen.
Flowering: May–July.
Habitat: In grass lands and shola forests at an
elevation above 1200 m above sea level.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki
district, Munnar-Poopara road, 23.05.2011,
Manudev & Santhosh Nampy 4432 (DEV!); Kundala
to Mannavan Shola, on the way, 23.05.2015,
Manudev & Syam Radh 138961; Munnar-Pallivasal,
12.05.1935, E. Barnes 1146 (K digital image!,
CALI!); Mannavan Shola National Park, on the
way to Kanthallur, 23.05.2015, Manudev & Syam
Radh 138964, 138967 (CALI!); Travancore, few
miles above Munnar, s.d., E. Barnes 1115(3) (K
paratype, digital image!).
Notes: This species is recently rediscovered by
Manudev and Nampy (2015) and is characterized
by radiate leaets, agellate-caudate limb and
rounded clavate spadix appendix, often with
neuters at the base. However this species shows
some deviation from the typical characters of the
Sect. Sinarisaema-spadix appendage being slender
and slightly tapering towards the apex, neuters
present along the half way of appendix. Gusman
and Gusman (2006) assigned this species as a
synonym of A. leschenaultii Blume along with few
other species from southern India and Sri Lanka,
considering the latter as a polymorphic species.
However, this species is quite distinct and can be
distinguished from the latter by its sessile, narrow
leaets with strong wavy margins and glaucous
underneath; hyaline to white-striped, yellowish-
green limb tapering into a slender tail and sessile,
slender, spadix appendix with neuters along half
the length.
Arisaema psittacus E.Barnes, Hooker’s Icon.
Pl. 35: t. 3405. 1940; Chatterjee, Bull. Bot. Soc.
Bengal 8: 131. 1955; Gusman & L.Gusman, Gen.
Arisaema, ed. 2. 397. 2006. Type: INDIA, Kerala,
Idukki district, Mannavan Shola, 1937, E. Barnes
1576 (K000499328 digital image!) Fig. 23
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs, c.
1 m tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm, 2.5–5
cm diam., 2–2.5 cm tall, stoloniferous, greenish
yellow inside. Roots many, from the upper side
of the corm, white to pale pink. Cataphylls 2 or 3
rarely 4, obtuse-orbicular at apex; outer c. 1–2 cm
long, pale to white; middle 3–28 cm long, purplish
to greenish brown, dark brown mottled with
longitudinal streaks, sometimes pale white without
any mottling; inner 7–69 cm long, enclosing the
pseudostem, purplish to greenish brown, dark
brown mottled with longitudinal streaks, sometimes
pale white without any mottling, cylindric below.
Leaf solitary, radiatisect, usually unfolds with the
emergence of inorescence; petiole 22–56 cm
long, 0.3–1.2 cm wide, dark green, brownish
green, dark brown mottled with longitudinal
streaks, sometimes pale white to green without
any mottling; leaets 7–13, sessile, obovate, 7–35
cm long, 2–8 cm wide, base cuneate, acute at apex,
margins serrulate, often wavy or undulate, dark
green ventrally, pale dorsally. Pseudostem 8–77.5
cm long, 1–2.5 cm thick, wrapped by cataphylls,
mottled as in petiole. Inorescence held below
the leaf; peduncle 21–92 cm long, mottled as in
petiole, exserted by 12-14 cm from the sheathing
pseudostem. Spathe 13–28 cm long; tube of the
spathe funnel-shaped, 3-angled, 5.5–9 cm long,
1.2–3 cm, green, pale green or brownish green
with white stripes along the veins; mouth margins
staright or slightly recurved; limb cucullate, 7.5–
19 cm long, 2.5–5.5 cm wide, green or brownish
green with c. 5 wide, translucent or white stripes,
gradually acuminate apex ending in a tail 4–10
cm long, drooping downward and curved like a
parrot beak. Female spadix sessile, 8–10.5 cm long,
162 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 23. Arisaema psittacus C.E.C.Fisch. a & b. Habit; c. Corm with stolon; d–f. Inflorescences; g. Spathe-front view; h. Spathe-back view;
i. Male spadix; j. Female spadix; k. Male floriferous region; l. Male flower-enlarged view; m. Female floriferous region; n. Female flower-enlarged view;
o. Fruiting spike borne on an erect peduncle.
163
K.M. Manudev et al.
0.9–1.5 cm thick; female fertile region 2.2–2.7 cm
long, followed by few neuters; pistils many, sessile,
compactly arranged, bottle-shaped, green; stigma
papillose and white with black neck; neuters
few, subulate, 0.5–1 cm long, upcurved, green;
appendix cylindric, slightly longer than the tube,
inserted inside the spathe, 8–8.5 cm long, 0.5–1 cm
thick, greenish-yellow, constricted in the middle,
ending in a knobby ovoid, verruculose, and yellow
apex. Male spadix sessile, similar to female, slender,
6.5–8 cm long; fertile region narrow, 2–2.5 cm
long, green-yellow; male owers scattered over
or crowded at the base and distant above, shortly
stipitate with 3–4-androus; anthers purplish,
deshisce by an elliptic pore; neuters absent. Fruiting
spike cylindric to conical, c. 13.5 cm long, 3.5–5
cm wide, borne on an upright peduncle; berries
orange-red, compactly arranged, 3–6-seeded.
Flowering & frtuiting: May–September.
Habitat: Grows under shades in wet evergreen
forests, in moist humus rich soil.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki
district, Mannavan Shola, 05.1937, E. Barnes 1579,
1680 (MH!); ibid., 23.05.2015, Manudev & Syam
Radh 138963 (CALI!); ibid., towards Kanthallur,
23.05.2015, Manudev & Syam Radh 138966
(CALI!).
Notes: This species is is close to A. leschenaultii
from which it can be easily distinguished by its
cucullate spathe with a curved tail, dialated ovoid,
verruculose spadix appendix with a constriction in
the middle.
Arisaema sarracenioides E.Barnes &
C.E.C.Fisch., Hooker’s Icon. Pl. 34: t. 3307. 1936;
Chatterjee, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 8: 135. 1955;
Gusman & L.Gusman, Gen. Arisaema, ed. 2.
398. 2006. Type: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki district,
Munnar, Naimakad gap, c. 6500 ft, E. Barnes 1092
(K000400314 digital image!) Fig. 24
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs,
c. 70 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm,
depressed globose to subglobose, 2.5–4 cm diam.,
2–3 cm tall, yellow to greenish yellow inside,
osets often present in mature corms, a few,
surrounding the pseudostem. Roots many, from
the upper side of the corm. Cataphylls 3, acute or
obtuse-orbicular at apex, mucronate; outer 1.5–2.5
cm long, pale to white often blushed with rose;
middle c. 7 cm long, pale white-green or brownish,
faintly brown mottled; inner 15–16 cm long,
enclosing the pseudostem, pale green to greenish
brown, with faint or dark rose, purple to brownish
mottling. Leaf solitary, radiatisect, usually unfolds
completely after the emergence of inorescence;
petiole 40–70 cm long, 0.5–1.3 cm thick, light
green to dark brownish green, pale-brown to
purplish-brown mottled; leaets 5–7, petiolulate,
elliptic-obovate or oblanceolate, 14–30 cm long,
4–9 cm wide, cuneate at base with a petiolules
1–1.5 cm long, acute-acuminate at apex, margins
entire, undulate, serrulate, dark green ventrally,
pale dorsally. Pseudostem 17–19 cm long, 1–2
cm wide, wrapped by cataphylls, mottled as in
petiole. Inorescence held below the leaf; peduncle
22–26 cm long, much shorter than petiole, light
green, pale to dark brown or purple mottled,
always greenish distally, sometimes green all over
without any mottling, exserted by 5–9 cm long
from the pseudostem. Spathe 18–22 cm long; tube
of spathe cylindric below, funnel-shaped towards
the mouth, 6–8 cm long, 1.5–3 cm wide, white
with longitudinal purple stripes along the veins;
margins of the mouth recurved; limb cucullate,
with a narrow opening, 6–8 cm long, c. 4 cm wide,
white purple stripes, ending in a terminal, ovate,
hanging lobe; lobe green outside with purple
veins, dull purple or green and purple inside, c.
6.5 cm long, 5–6 cm wide, ending in a short tail.
Female spadix sessile, 10.5–11.5 cm long, 0.8–1 cm
thick, conical with a narrow fertile region of 2–2.5
cm at the base, followed by few neuters; appendix
stipitate, 8–9 cm long, cylindric, exserted from the
spathe tube, fusiform with 0.5–0.8 cm thick at base
and gradually tapering to a verrucose apex, white
or white with purple markings; neuters subulate,
few, 0.5–1 cm long, upcurved, white; pistils
many, sessile, compactly arranged, globose, green;
ovules 3–5, white; stigma papillose, white, sessile-
subsessile, often with a dark blue neck. Male spadix
sessile, similar to female, slender, 8–10 cm long;
fertile region c. 2.5 cm long; male owers scattered
over or crowded at the base and distant above,
stipitate, 4–6-androus; anthers sessile, purple,
dehisce by an elliptic pore; neuters absent. Fruiting
spike cylindric, borne on an erect peduncle; berries
164 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
Figure 24. Arisaema sarracenioides E.Barnes & C.E.C.Fisch.: a & b. Habit; c. Corm; d–f. Inflorescences; g. Spathe-back view; h. Spathe-front view;
i. Male spadix; j. Female spadix; k. Male floriferous region; l. Female floriferous region.
165
K.M. Manudev et al.
globose, compactly arranged, red, 2–4-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: May–October.
Habitat: In evergreen forests, shola margins, among
bushes, in humus rich soil at an elevation above
1500 m, in association with A. attenuatum, A.
psittacus and A. leschenaultii.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Notes: This species is close to A. translucens in its
cucullate spathe limb from which it can be easily
distinguished by the presence of a terminal hanging
ovate lobe at the spathe apex.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Kerala, Idukki district,
Devikulam, Lockhart gap, 23.05.2011, Manudev
& Santhosh Nampy 4433 (CALI!); Eravikulam
National Park, Nymakad, 20.07.1997, V. Abdul
Jaleel & Bobby Thomas 112 (CALI!); Mathikettan
Shola National Park, Chekpost to Onnamthodu,
22.05.2015, Manudev & Syam Radh 138958
(CALI!); Choondal, Mathikettan, 23.04.2016,
Syam Radh & Arunkumar 149114, 149115, 149116,
149118, 149119 (CALI!); Sivan Para, on the way
to Mathikettan, 26.06.2016, Syam Radh 149160
(CALI!).
Arisaema siangense Gusman, Syst. Geogr. Pl.
76: 229. 2006. Type: INDIA, Arunachal Pradesh,
Siang District, c. 1300 m, July 1997, Gusman
GG97144 (holo BR849801 digital image!; iso
CAL! & BM!). Fig. 25.
Deciduous, dioecious, perennial herb, to 1.85
m tall. Subterranean stem an annulate tuberous
corm, subglobose or elongated, c. 6–12 cm diam.,
5–14 cm tall, brown outside, osets elongate and
pyriform. Roots thick, pink to white. Cataphylls
usually 3, 5–50 cm long, similar in colour to the
pseudostem. Leaf solitary, radiatisect, emerging
with the inorescence; petiole 50–60 cm long,
1.5–2 cm thick, smooth, olive-green with carmine
stripes; leaets to 11, elliptic–obovate, 25–40 cm
long, 7–9 cm wide, base cuneate or decurrent,
subsessile or with a green petiolule, up to 10 mm
long, apex long acuminate, margins undulate,
green, entire or serrate, shiny green with deeply
impressed veins above, underside glaucous with
strongly prominent veins. Pseudostem 30–60
cm long, 3–4 cm wide, olive-green or pale red-
brown with transverse vermillion markings and/
or carmine stripes. Inorescence held below the
foliage; peduncle shorter than the petiole, 5–20 cm
long, c. 6–1 cm thick, red-brown, with a mottling
Figure 25. Arisaema siangense Gusman: a. Habit; b. Corm; c. Male spadix; d. Female spadix; e. Male floriferous region (Images, Guy Gusman, Belgium).
166 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
similar to the pseudostem. Spathe 18–33 cm long
including tail; tube of spathe subcylindrical, 6–10
cm long, c. 1.5 cm wide above, narrowing in the
upper third, c. 0.8 cm across, then aring again at
mouth, dark pink outside with faint paler stripes
becoming olive-green near the spathe mouth,
white-yellow inside with dotted purple stripes
mainly in the lower half; mouth-margins straight to
slightly recurved and olive-green; limb horizontal,
ovate-lanceolate, 4–8 cm long (not counting the
tip); 3–5 cm wide, shorter than the tube, outside
and inside dull orange-yellow with pale pink
stripes; acuminate at apex, prolonged into a tail,
8–15 cm long, olive-green turning pink at the
end. Female spadix 6–10 cm long; pistils densely
arranged; pistils many, bottle-shaped, sessile
yellow-green; style short or absent; stigma white
and penicillate; appendix subcylindrical, usually
hardly exserted from the spathe tube, erect, 4–7
cm long, exceptionally extremely short, ending in
a clavate, knobbly and light carmine apex, middle
part white-yellow with pink stripes, smooth,
0.2–0.4 cm wide, lower part white-yellow, pink
striped; neuters sti, short and upcurved, 1–3 mm
long, white-yellow, few in number; male fertile
zone slightly conical, 1.5–3 cm long and 7–10 mm
wide; male owers loosely arranged, 2–4-androus;
anthers pink, subsessile, dehisce through an
elongated pore; pollens cream; neuters absent.
Fruiting spike conical, 7–14 cm long and 3–6 cm
wide, borne on an upright peduncle; receptacle
cream-coloured; berries rounded, upper part at,
densely packed, bright red 1–3-seeded.
Flowering & fruiting: May–December.
Habitat: Grows at the base of deciduous trees,
among bamboos and ferns, in clay, near streamlets
and in bogs, at c. 1300 m elevation. A. siangense
thrives along roads, often near riverbanks and
among shrubs. Some specimens were over 1.80
m tall and this species might be the tallest in Sect.
Sinarisaema.
Distribution: India (North-East Himalayas),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Arunachal Pradesh,
Upper Siang district, Yingkyong, 3 km east on
Hills, 12.03.2004, Ritesh Kumar Choudhary 16242
(ARUN!). Upper Dibang Valley district, Amboli,
08.05.1999, M. Bhaumik 2310 (CAL!); Punli,
30.04.1998, M. Bhaumik 1502 (CAL!).
Notes: This species is close to A. concinnum and
one can easily misidentify this species when dried.
However, it can be distinguished by its huge
annulate corms, spathe tubes narrowed at middle,
orange coloured spathe limbs and spadix appendix
not knobbed as in the former.
Arisaema subulatum Manudev & Nampy, sp. nov.
Closely similar to A. leschenaultii Blume, from
which it is distinguished by petiolulate leaets and
sessile, cylindric spadix appendix, rugulose at apex,
with subulate, upcurved neuters, scattered along
the base.
Type: INDIA, Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram
District, Athirumala, on slopes, Agasthyamala,
06.06.2014, Manudev & Arunkumar 138939 (holo
CALI!; iso MH). Fig. 26
Deciduous, dioecious, perennial, succulent herbs,
c. 1.3 m tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm,
globose-depressed globose, 4.5–8 cm diam., 3–5.5
cm tall, greenish inside. Cataphylls 3, rarely 4,
pale or purplish to esh coloured or rose, greenish
towards apex, rose-pinkish mottled, obtuse at apex,
mucronulate; outer 3–8 cm long, esh coloured
or rose; middle 6–16 cm long, pale coloured with
rose mottling, slightly greenish towards distal end;
inner 20–46 cm long, green in colour with rose
or pinkish mottling, wrapping the pseudostem;
sometimes an outer fourth cataphyll 2–2.5 cm
present. Leaf single, radiatisect, unfolding with the
inorescence; petiole c. 130 cm long, 1.3–3.5 cm
thick, green with purplish or rose coloured spots;
leaets 6–10, petiolulate, obovate-spathulate; 26–
40 cm long, 7–11 cm wide, cuneate at base, acute
to acuminate at apex, margins slightly undulate,
dark green above, pale beneath. Pseudostem c. 75
cm long, 2–3.5 cm thick, mottled as in petiole.
Inorescence emerges with and held below the
leaf; peduncle c. 90 cm long, 1.5–2 cm thick, green,
faintly mottled with purple, exserted by c. 14 cm
long from the sheathing pseudostem. Spathe 16–30
cm long; tube of spathe cylindric, slightly funnel-
shaped towards the mouth, 6–11 cm long, 2–2.5 cm
wide, purple-greenish outside, dark purple inside,
white striped along the veins; mouth margins
auriculate, recurved; spathe limb ovate-lanceolate,
9–11 cm long, 5–6 cm wide, gradually tapering in
to tail 3–9 cm long at the apex, margins slightly
167
K.M. Manudev et al.
Figure 26. Arisaema subulatum Manudev & Nampy: a & b. Habit; c. Corm; d & e. Inflorescences; f. Spathe-front view; g. Spathe-back view;
h & i. Female spadix; j. Male spadix; k. Neuters with aborted anthers; l. Female floriferous region; m & n. Male flowers-enlarged view.
168 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
revolute, yellowish-green, hyaline to white striped,
erect and arching forward to a horizontal position,
drooping downwards after anthesis. Female spadix
10–13 cm long, cylindric, sessile; female oriferous
region conical 3–4 cm long; pistils compactly
arranged, globose, green; style absent; stigma
papilose, white; ovules 5; neuters subulate, 0.6–
1.2 cm long, upcurved, scattered, 2–5 cm along
the base of appendix, pale to green or purplish;
appendix sessile, cylindric or terete, c. 9 cm long,
0.6–0.7 cm thick, green, purplish towards base,
yellow-green at apex, slightly curved, rugulose
and blunt at apex, exserted c. 1.5 cm from the tube.
Male spadix similar to female, slender, 5.5–6 cm
long; oriferous region cylindric, 2–2.5 cm long, c.
0.5 cm wide; male owers sessile, densely arranged
below and scattered above, 4–7-androus; anthers
reniform, purple, sessile, dehisce through an apical
oblong pore; neuters usually absent, rarely very
few, subulate. Fruiting spike not seen.
Flowering & fruiting: May–October.
Habitat: In evergreen forests and shola margins, in
humus rich soil and rock crevices.
Etymology: This taxon is named after the subulate
neuters scattered along c. 5 cm at the base of spadix
appendix.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimen examined: INDIA, Kerala, Thrissur
Dist., Sholayar to Malakkapara road, 09.07.2012,
Manudev 5085 (CALI!).
Notes: This species is very close to A. leschenaultii
Blume, and is likely to get confused as a variant of
the latter. However, it can be distinguished by its
sessile spadix appendix which is rugulose at apex
(vs. stipitate spadix appendix with smooth apex)
with subulate upcurved neuters, scattered along
the base (vs. neuters restricted below the stipe). It is
also close to A. peerumedense from which it can be
distinguished by the presence of petiolulate leaets
(vs. sessile leaets), yellowish greenish spathe limb
(vs. pale to dark purple limb) and a cylindric or
terete spadix appendix with rugulose apex (vs.
cylindric-fusiform appendix with smooth apex).
Arisaema translucens C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc.
Inf., Kew 1933 (7): 344. 1933; in Gamble, Fl. Pres.
Madras 3(11): 1891. 1936; Chatterjee, Bull. Bot.
Soc. Bengal 8: 136. 1955; Gusman & L.Gusman,
Gen. Arisaema ed. 2. 409. 2006; Prabhukumar et
al., Phytotaxa 306: 85. 2017. Type: INDIA, Tamil
Nadu, Nilgiris district, Carrington Tea Estate, near
Thia shola, 1820 m, E. Barnes AR.4 (K000499314
digital image!; iso MH!)
Deciduous, dioecious, perennial herbs, c. 35 cm tall.
Subterranean stem a tuberous corm, subglobose,
1–5 cm. diam., white. Roots many from the
upper side of the corm. Cataphylls 3, c. 9 cm
long, rounded at apex, pinkish-purple, outermost
becoming chay. Leaf solitary, radiatisect; petiole c.
35 cm. long, pinkish-purple with brown and pink
markings or pink with brown and white markings;
leaets 9–11, sessile, narrowly elliptic-oblanceolate,
9–14 cm long, 1.7–3 cm wide, cuneate at base,
nely acuminate, margins revolute, erose, dull
velvety green above, slightly glossy below, midrib
and numerous primary lateral nerves prominent
below. Inorescence held below the leaf; peduncle
c. 20 cm long, slender, resembling the upper part
of the petiole. Spathe c. 7 cm long; tube of spathe
cylindric, slightly widened to the mouth, 3.5–4.3
cm long, 1–1.3 cm wide, green and purple with a
few white stripes; limb cucullate, c. 2.5 cm. long,
leaving a narrowly obcordate, opening from the
apex of which depends a liform tail 2.5–3 cm
long with an upcurved tip, purple with broad
translucent bands. Female spadix nearly cylindric,
4–5.4 cm long; oriferous region narrow, 1–1.5
cm long; pistils crowded, subglobose, 1.5–2 mm
diam.; style very short; stigma minutely papillose;
ovules 4; neuters a few, scattered, subulate, c. 5
mm long, rarely with an aborted anther at the
tip; appendix narrowly clavate, slightly narrowed
and rounded at the apex, green with faint purple
stripes, the apical quarter white. Male spadix similar
to female, slender; oriferous region narrow, c. 2
cm long; male owers scattered, shortly stipitate,
2–6-androus; anthers purple, dehisce by an elliptic
pore; neuters absent. Fruiting spike not seen.
Flowering: June.
Habitat: In grasslands, under pine woods at an
elevation above 1300 m above sea level.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Tamil Nadu. Nilgiris
district, Pykara, under shade, 05.1889, J.S. Gamble
169
K.M. Manudev et al.
20514 (CAL!); Thaishola, beyond Carrington
estate, towards Kakamalai, 10.06.1933, E. Barnes
333 (MH!); ibid., Kakkamalai, 10.06.1933, E. Barnes
336 (MH!).
Notes: Fischer (1933) described this narrow
endemic species from the collections of Barnes
from Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu. Closest ally of this
taxon is A. agasthyanum, another narrow endemic
species from southern Western Ghats. Both species
are smaller in size and a purple, cucullate or almost
galeate spathe limb with translucent–whitish bands
are peculiar in this species. Recently Prabhu Kumar
et al. (2017) rediscovered this taxon from its type
locality.
Arisaema tuberculatum C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc.
Inform., Kew 1935(1): 66. 1935; in Gamble, Fl.
Madras 3(11): 1890. 1935; Chatterjee, Bull. Bot.
Soc. Bengal 8: 137. 1955; Sivad. in Manoharan et
al., Silent Valley-Whispers of Reason 236. 1999;
V.S.Ramach. & Paulraj, J. Bomabay Nat. Hist.
Soc. 105(2): 228. 2008; Gusman & L.Gusman,
Gen. Arisaema, ed. 2. 398. 2006; Prabhukumar et
al., Phytotaxa 306: 89. 2017. Arisaema convolutum
C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1934(4):
167. 1934, non Nakai 1929. Type: INDIA, Tamil
Nadu, Nilgiris district, Pennant Shola, Parson’s
Valley, 2133–2286 m (7000–7500 ft), May-June, E.
Barnes AR7(a-h) (K digital images!). Fig. 27
Deciduous, dioecious, succulent, perennial herbs, up
to 95 cm tall. Subterranean stem a tuberous corm,
depressed globose to subglobose, 2–5.4 cm diam.,
1–3.5 cm tall, cream-white or brownish, osets
often present in mature corms, a few, surrounding
the pseudostem. Roots many, pale brown to rose,
from the upper side of the corm. Cataphylls 3 or 4,
acute or obtuse at apex, mucronate; outer c. 2.5–7.5
cm long, pale to white often blushed with rose;
middle 5.5–15 cm long, pale brown to pale rose,
faintly mottled; inner 16–30 cm long, enclosing the
pseudostem, pale rose, pale to dark brown, faintly
mottled, sometimes cylindric below; often an outer
pale-hyaline cataphyll c. 1–3 cm long also seen.
Leaf solitary, radiatisect, usually unfolds completely
before the emergence of inorescence or together;
petiole 38–95 cm long, 0.5–1.5 cm thick, pale green
to greenish white above, rose to brown tinged
below, not mottled; leaets 5–8, sessile, elliptic-
oblanceolate, 15.5–28.5 cm long, 3–6.8 cm wide,
long-acuminate, margins entire, often wavy or
undulate, dark green above, pale below. Pseudostem
13.5–29 cm long, 1.5–2.5 cm thick, wrapped by
cataphylls, pale to dark green. Inorescence matures
before the emergence of leaf in male plants often
over and decomposing by the time leaf has fully
expanded; peduncle 29–63 cm long, light green,
pale green, not mottled, exserted by 13–15.5 cm
long from the pseudostem. Spathe 16–24.5 cm long;
tube of spathe cylindric, funnel-shaped towards the
mouth, 6–8.5 cm long, 1.5–2 cm wide, pale-green to
green, or pale-purple with white-pale stripes along
the veins; margins of the mouth slightly dilated to a
revolute auricular extension; limb ovate-lanceolate,
Figure 27. Arisaema tuberculatum C.E.C.Fisch.: a. Habit; b. Inflorescence-side view; c. Inflorescence-front view; d. Male spadix (Images A.J. Robi).
170 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
10–16 cm long, 3.3–5.2 cm wide, acuminate with
a long tail, 5–9 cm long, green, purple to dark
brown all over with white to pale greenish white
stripes along the veins, arched over and drooping.
Female spadix sessile, c. 10 cm long, 0.3–0.4 cm
thick; fertile region 2–4 cm long, followed by a few
neuters; pistils many, sessile, globose, compactly
arranged, sometimes angled owing to the compact
arrangement, green; ovules 3–5, white; style short;
stigma papillate, stellate, peltate; neuters subulate, a
few, 0.5–1.5 cm long, scattered, upcurved, green;
appendix decidedly stipitate with a slight thickening
at the base after neuters, unevenly angled, reaching
the mouth of the tube or just exceeding, slender
and gradually tapering, green to light green, apex
blunt-truncate, subcapitate-capitate and purplish-
dark brown. Male spadix sessile, similar to female,
c. 4.5 cm long, 0.3–0.4 cm thick; fertile region
narrow, c. 1.6 cm long; male owers scattered over
or crowded at the base and distant above, sessile or
shortly stipitate, 2–4-androus; anthers sessile, purple,
dehisce by an apical pore; neuters usually absent or
very few, as small protruberance. Fruiting spike not
seen.
Flowering: May–June.
Habitat: In evergreen forests, growing in leaf
mould, also on horizontal branches, in forks and
on the roots of trees.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Tamil Nadu,
Nilgiris district, Pennant Shola, Parson’s Valley,
20.05.1933, E. Barnes 677 (MH!). Kerala, Palakkad
district, Sispara, Silent Valley National park, c. 2250
m, 09.03.2016, Robi Jose 22335 (KFRI).
Notes: This species is closely allied to A. leschenaultii
but can be distinguished by long-caudate spathe
limb and spadix appendix with a convolute apex.
Conservation status: Arisaema tuberculatum is
endemic to Tamil Nadu. The species is very rare
and collected from the wild only once after its
description (Ramachandran & Paulraj, 2008). This
species has been spotted recently from Sispara in
Silent Valley (Palakkad district of Kerala) with
an unusual owering period. However these
two collections are from localities within 100
km diameter from the type locality. Based on the
‘Extent of Occurrence’ (EOO<100 km2; Criterion
B1) and ‘Area of Occupancy’ [Criterion B2:
AOO<10 km2 with number of location = 1 (sub-
criterion ‘a’), projected decline in area and extent
and/or quality of habitat [sub-criterion ‘b (iii)’], A.
tuberculatum may be considered as ‘CRITICALLY
ENDANGERED’ [CR: B1, B2a, b(iii)] according
to IUCN’s guidelines (IUCN SPS, 2017).
Arisaema tylophorum C.E.C.Fisch., Bull. Misc.
Inform., Kew 1933(7): 346. 1933; in Gamble, Fl.
Pres. Madras 3(11): 1891. 1936; Chatterjee, Bull.
Bot. Soc. Bengal 8: 137. 1955; Sivad. in Manoharan
et al., Silent Valley-Whispers of reason 241. 1999.
Type: INDIA, Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris district,
Thaishola, 1828 m, 16.06.1932, E. Barnes AR6c
(K000950304 digital image!).
A. barnesii auct. Gusman & L. Gusman, Arisaema
ed. 2. 357. 2006, pro parte, non Fischer 193.
Fig. 28.
Deciduous, dioecious, perennial herbs, c. 30 cm tall.
Subterranean stem a tuberous corm, globose, 1–2
cm diam.. Roots many, from the upper side of the
corms, red. Cataphylls 3, apex rounded, innermost
up to 13 cm long, mottled with brown, becoming
chay. Leaf solitary, radiatisect; petiole 19–26 cm
sheathing below the middle, light-green marbled
with brown and pink; leaets 5–7, petiolulate,
elliptic-lanceolate to elliptic-oblanceolate, 5.3–
26 cm long, 1.6–9 cm wide, cuneate at base,
acuminate or caudate-acuminate at apex, margin
erose, dark-green above with a waxy lustre, bright
green and very glossy below; petiolules 1–1.8 cm
long. Inorecence held below the leaf; peduncle
slender, c. 18 cm long, coloured as the petiole.
Spathe 5–7 cm long; tube of spathe cylindric or
very narrowly funnel-shaped, 2.5–4.5 cm long,
1–1.2 cm wide at the mouth, white with vertical
purple stripes within; limb ovate, slightly galeate,
abruptly caudate, 1.5–2.5 cm long, bright-green,
overarching, the lamentous tail 0.8–2 cm long,
upcurved at the apex and terminated by a distinct
small spherical or clavate knob. Female spadix
4.5–6.5 cm long; oriferous region 0.8–2 cm long;
pistils ovoid, compactly arranged, sometimes lax
with a few anthers between, green; ovules 4–6;
style short; stigma minutely papillose; neuters a
few, subulate, c. 0.5 cm long, rarely forked, green
or white; appendix nearly cylindrical or slightly
171
K.M. Manudev et al.
angled, slender, narrowed and curved near the
apex, terminating in a distinct, minutely-warted
knob. Male spadix similar to female, 4–5.5 cm long;
oriferous region narrow conical, 1.2–1.7 cm long;
male owers laxly arranged, sessile, 2–4-androus;
anthers purple, sessile, dehisce through an oblong
pore, sometimes with few pistils below; neuters
usually absent, sometimes few above the male
owers, subulate. Fruiting spike not seen.
Flowering: May–June.
Habitat: In wet shola forests and in cinchona
plantations at an elevation above 1800 m.
Distribution: India (southern Western Ghats),
endemic.
Specimens examined: INDIA, Tamil Nadu, Nilgiris
district, Thiashola, near Carrington estate, c. 2185
m, 03.06.2019, Manudev & Arunkumar 144888,
144892 (CALI!); Avalanche, way side, c. 2100
m, 04.06.2019, Manudev & Arunkumar 144893,
144894 (CALI!).
Notes: This species is one of the smallest species
occurring in southern Western Ghats. Gusman
and Gusman (2006) treated it as conspecic to A.
barnesii C.E.C.Fisch. but it can be easily identied
by its slightly galeate spathe limb with abruptly
caudate apex terminating to a small knob. This
species also similar to A. attenuatum C.E.C.Fisch.,
in its shorter spathe limb with a whitish spot at
the base and a slender spadix appendix but can be
Figure 28. Arisaema tylophorum C.E.C.Fisch.: a. Habit; b. Corm; c & d. Inflorescences; e. Mouth with knobbed spadix appendix; f. Spathe-front
view; g. Spathe-back view; h. Spathe-side view; i. Female spadix; j. Male spadix with pistils at base and neuters above; k. male spadix.
172 Taxonomic revision of Arisaema sect. Sinarisaema in India
distinguished by the presence of a distinct knob
at the tip of the caudate spathe limb and spadix
appendix.
Conservation status: Arisaema tylophorum is very
rare and collected from the wild only once after
its description (Sivadasan, 1999). Based on ‘Extent
of Occurrence’ (EOO<100 km2; Criterion B1)
and ‘Area of Occupancy’ [Criterion B2: AOO<10
km2 with number of location = 1 (sub-criterion
‘a’), projected decline in area and extent and/
or quality of habitat [sub-criterion ‘b (iii)’], A.
tylophorum may be considered as ‘CRITICALLY
ENDANGERED’ [CR: B1, B2a, b(iii)] according
to IUCN’s guidelines (IUCN SPS, 2017).
Acknowledgements
Authors are thankful to the Directors/in-charges
and Curators of ASSAM, BLAT, BSD, BSI, CAL,
CALI, DD, DEV, JCB, MH, RHT, & TBGT
for permission to consult the herbarium; forest
departments of Arunachal Pradesh, Karnataka,
Kerala, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Sikkim, and
Tamil Nadu for permissions; Pascal Bruggeman
(Netherlands) for providing the literature input,
photographs and discussions on various Arisaemas
in his personal collection; Dr. K.N. Gandhi
(Registrar, Harvard University) for discussions on
nomenclature; Guy Gusman (Universite Libre
de Bruxelles) and Dr. A.P. Das (Rajiv Gandhi
University, Arunachal Pradesh), Dr. Robi Jose, BAM
College, Pathanamthitta for photographs. Authors
are also thankful to SERB for nancial assistance.
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