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A Survey Paper of Lightweight Block Ciphers Based on Their Different Design Architectures and Performance Metrics


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Now-a-days, Security in communication over Internet has turned out to be complex as technology becomes faster and more efficient rapidly especially for resources limited devices like embedded devices, wireless sensors, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags, Internet of Things (IoT) devices. Lightweight cryptographic algorithms provide security for these devices to protect data from intruders. A thorough understanding of lightweight cryptography will help people develop better ways to protect valuable information as technology develops faster. But as time passes, the cryptanalyst (the science of discovering weaknesses in cryptosystems and breaking them if possible) breaks the ciphers which were known as unbreakable. This paper represents a survey of recent lightweight block cipher algorithms with performance analysis for different evaluation metrics like RAM size, Execution Cycles as well as provides modern advances in the said field and finding scopes for future research.
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International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology
VOL. 11, NO. 6, June 2019, 119129
Available online at:
E-ISSN 2412-8856 (Online)
A Survey Paper of Lightweight Block Ciphers Based on Their Different
Design Architectures and Performance Metrics
Sohel Rana1, Md. Anwar Hussen Wadud2, Ali Azgar3 and Dr. Mohammod Abul Kashem4
1, 2, 3 Lecturer, Department of CSE, Bangladesh University of Business & Technology (BUBT), Mirpur-2, Dhaka-1216,
4 Professor, Department of CSE, Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET), Gazipur, Dhaka-1707,
Now-a-days, Security in communication over Internet has turned
out to be complex as technology becomes faster and more
efficient rapidly especially for resources limited devices like
embedded devices, wireless sensors, RFID (Radio Frequency
Identification) tags, Internet of Things (IoT) devices.
Lightweight cryptographic algorithms provide security for these
devices to protect data from intruders. A thorough understanding
of lightweight cryptography will help people develop better
ways to protect valuable information as technology develops
faster. But as time passes, the cryptanalyst (the science of
discovering weaknesses in cryptosystems and breaking them if
possible) breaks the ciphers which were known as unbreakable.
This paper represents a survey of recent lightweight block cipher
algorithms with performance analysis for different evaluation
metrics like RAM size, Execution Cycles as well as provides
modern advances in the said field and finding scopes for future
Keywords: Lightweight, Small-Computing-Devices, IoT,
Block-cipher, Performance-Metrics, Feistel, SPN,
Lightweight cryptography [1] is a sub-category in the
field of cryptography that intends to provide security
solutions for resource-constrained devices. Cryptography
means “secret writing”. In computer communication we
want to encrypt our information so that no unwanted
entity but the expected one can decipher the information.
At the core of lightweight cryptography there is a trade-
off between security and light-weightiness: that is how we
can achieve a good level of security in small computing
devices? Recently, academic communities have been
doing a significant amount of work related to lightweight
cryptography; to implement conventional cryptography
standards efficiently, and to design and analyze new
lightweight algorithms and protocols [1].
The widespread utilization of small computing devices
such as sensors nodes, Radio-Frequency Identification
(RFID) tags, industrial controllers and smart cards
indicates there have been massive changes in our lives.
Also, technology has made our life easier and convenient
with innovations. Using Internet we are connecting our
devices. Smart locks are protecting our houses. Smart
phones, smart TVs, video game consoles, personal
computers, laptops, tablets even the refrigerator and air
conditioners have gained the capability to communicate
over Internet. This trend is expected to grow even
exponentially and by the year 2020 it is estimated that,
there will be over 50 billion objects connected to the
Internet. According to that estimation each person on the
earth shall have 6.6 objects online. Millions of sensors
will be all around us collecting information from physical
phenomena and will upload it to the Internet. Some
suggestion has been made that application of IoT is yet in
the early stage but is beginning to ubiquitous rapidly. IoT
can be used in building automation system. Various
industries are becoming more and more interested in
integration of IoT.
IoT has brought in improvement opportunities in health-
care. Health-care solutions through IoT can decrease
costs, improve the outcome of treatment. Doctors can
make informed judgment and monitor patient real time
before things get of hand. It also enhances patient
experience when they see improved accuracy in
diagnosis, timely intervention by the physicians.
Resource constrained devices contribute in many areas.
These make mining production safer and productive.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology (IJCEIT), Volume 11, Issue 6, June 2019
S. Rana et. al
More accurate forecasting in weather and disaster will be
possible. They are transforming transportation systems
and automobile services. Transportation companies will
be able to track and monitor their vehicles from origin to
destination. If those are equipped with sensors and RFID
tags [8]. Logistics industries and courier services are
heavily dependent on goods tracking devices.
With so many applications looking forward to adapt the
technology with the purposes to help in economy growth,
transportation, healthcare facility and a better life style for
the general masses, adequate security to their data is vital
to encourage the adaptation process. New security and
privacy considerations arise as we shift from desktop
computer to small computing devices like IoT, RFID tags
etc. It is challenging to implement heavyweight
cryptographic standards to small devices [1], [7]. Many
conventional cryptographic algorithms, was optimized for
desktop and server environments. Optimization in terms
of security, performance and resource requirements
makes those algorithms difficult or impossible to
implement in resource-constrained devices. Even if they
can be implemented, they thwart the performance on the
small devices. If we want the most strong and secure
system we must equip our system with powerful
But conventional cryptographic algorithms like RSA
inherently perform well in these powerful devices;
therefore lightweight algorithms are not necessary for
them. Embedded systems, RFID devices and sensors
networks have very limited processing capabilities and
memory. Hence, Lightweight cryptography like DES [2],
PRESENT [12] etc. is principally motivated for those.
Lightweight block ciphers use different design
architectures to ensure enough security in Resource
limited devices while keeping execution cycles as
minimum as possible.
Most of the ciphers are designed by using Feistel
Architecture like SIMON [6], SIT [7], TEA [17],
Blowfish [11], RC5 [20], etc. or by SPN (Substitution-
Permutation Network) [16] like AES [3][4], PRESENT
[12], KLAIN [9] etc. or by using both Architecture like
DES [2], SIMON [6] to provide enough Shannon’s
confusion and diffusion properties in cipher text. On the
other hand, Authors of some ciphers used ARX (Addition
Rotation and XOR) architecture like SPECK [6]. Each of
these architectures have some Special features like
Invertible (Encryption and Decryption are almost same),
Round function, Security and less energy consumption
Entire security of the ciphers depends on secret keys that
are used in every round in the block ciphers. For that
reason key scheduling in the block ciphers is performed in
a secure way. In SIT algorithm [7], Authors used SP
Network and 4x4 matrices to generate secret round keys
in order to keep safe cipher text from unauthorized access.
1.1 Motivation
Cryptography itself is a challenging and interesting
subject to study and especially to research on. We cannot
think of secure data communication without
cryptography. In history people won wars using
cryptography as a weapon. It involves mathematics,
algorithm, programming, understanding in data
communication, etc. With the widespread use of small
low powered devices, lightweight cryptography will play
a vital role in future. A survey by HP states that more than
70% of resource-constrained devices are vulnerable [5]. It
is necessary to make a balance between the security and
Different structures [14] for various ciphers have been
used to provide the efficient security for thousands of
2.1 Feistel Architecture
It is a symmetric structure to create sufficient confusion
and diffusion of information for the purpose of preventing
cipher text from the attacks. It was first designed by a
cryptographer named Horst Feistel who did research
while working for IBM [1]. The encryption and
decryption method of this architecture are similar. Feistel
Network [9] is a repetitive architecture. Each loop is
called a round. Steps that cover a loop in Feistel Network
are as below:
Input is divided equally into two parts (Left part
and Right part).
Right part remains unchanged and also is
transformed by the round function f which
receives a sub-key.
Left part is formed by combining with the
transformed input from right part using XOR
Right part and Left part are switched to obtain
input for next round
Repeat again for next round.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology (IJCEIT), Volume 11, Issue 6, June 2019
S. Rana et. al
Fig. 1. Feistel Network
Feistel architecture is invertible [1] i.e., Encryption
process and Decryption process are almost the same just
reverse in order. This feature reduces the code size of
block ciphers. Also, the F-function of this architecture is
open for authors to design. It can be S-Box or P-Box or
others which must be invertible also.
2.2 Substitution-Permutation Network (SPN)
SP network [1] stands for substitution and permutation
network that are responsible for confusion and diffusion
properties to secure the cipher text. In the SP network,
substitution shows the non-linear transformation property
and is called S boxes. Permutation provides the linear
transformation and is called P boxes. In general, the SP
network [1], [16] is used as a round function for a block
cipher to achieve high security.
Let us consider an input data for S-Box is 110110. So,
the corresponding output after transformed by the S-Box
can be calculated as follows. The middle 4 bits of input
data (110110) indicates the corresponding column of S-
Box and Outer two bits (10) are for identifying the
corresponding row of S-Box. Therefore, the input data
corresponds to the column no of 1011 i.e., B and 10 i.e.,
3rd row of S-Box. Hence, the output of S-Box is 9 i.e.,
Fig. 2. Substitution Box.
On the other hand, P-Box just generates a different
combination from the given input pattern of bits. For
example, as in figure below (010000111000000) output
for a binary input (1000011000010000) can be a different
combination of given binary bits.
Fig. 3. Permutation Box.
Fig. 4. Substitution-Permutation Network.
2.3 Hybrid Architecture
To avail the advantage of both SPN and Feistel
architectures, some authors proposed the algorithms
which are designed by using both architectures like DES
(Data Encryption Standard) [2], Blowfish [11] and SIT
(Secure Internet-Of-Things)[7] etc.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology (IJCEIT), Volume 11, Issue 6, June 2019
S. Rana et. al
1. Popular lightweight block ciphers
This section illustrates the basic of some popular and
recently proposed lightweight cryptographic algorithms.
Lucifer/ DES (Data Encryption Standard)
DES [2] is seemed to be the first cryptographic well-
known symmetric-key block cipher which was developed
at IBM in 1970 based on Feistel architecture.
Fig. 5. One round of DES algorithm
Also, the F-function of DES algorithm consists of both S-
Box(Substitution) and P-Box(Permutation). Authors of
DES propose 64 bits block size, 56 bits of secret key size
and 16 repeated rounds. Although Security of primary
DES can easily be broken by Brute Force attack, some
later version of DES like Triple-DES, G-DES and DES-X
[9] etc. had become popular for providing sufficient
security for small computing devices.
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)
AES [3], [4] is now the most widely used symmetric
cipher and most secure algorithm to date. DES was not
secure anymore, therefore a replacement was needed, thus
the advent of AES. As it uses a 128-bit key, it would take
a billion years to crack a message.
Fig. 6. AES for block size of 128 bits
It has the following attributes:
128-bit block size.
128, 192, or 256-bit key size. It has 9, 11 or 13
rounds depending on the size of the key.
An iterative rather than a Feistel cipher.
Treats data as 4 groups of 4 bytes.
Each round consists of:
o A byte substitution step (1 S-Box sued
on every byte).
o A shift rows step (shuffle the bytes
between groups).
o A mix columns step (matrix
multiplication of groups with each
o An add-round key step.
All operations can be combined into XOR and
table lookups - hence implementation can be
very fast and efficient.
Although AES ensures enough security it hinders the
performance of resource-limited devices.
It is a popular symmetric block cipher that was designed
by Bruce Schneier in 1993. It divides the plaintext into
fixed size blocks of 64 bits each. It supports the key
variable size lengths that range from 32 bits to 448 bits.
To implement each round of blowfish algorithm [11], S
boxes and P boxes are used in F-function. P boxes are 32
bits in size and are 18 in total.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology (IJCEIT), Volume 11, Issue 6, June 2019
S. Rana et. al
Fig. 7. Blowfish Algorithm
PRESENT [12] is a popular block cipher that was
designed for resource-constrained environments. It takes
variable key length that is either 80 bits or 128 bits. The
plaintext is divided into fixed blocks of 64 bits sized.
Standard SP (Substitution and Permutation) networks are
used for implementing every round function. It consists of
32 rounds, each of which includes an XOR operation
between key bits and plaintext, an SP network for
performing linear and non-linear transformations. The key
register is rotated to update the key schedule for the next
Fig. 8. PRESENT Algorithm
It is a popular symmetric key cryptographic algorithm that
divides plaintext into fixed sized blocks of 64 bits each. It
supports 128 bits key length. The encryption process of
HIGHT [13] includes Initial Transformation, Round
function and Final Transformation. The Key Schedule
provides the functionality to generate Whitening keys
(WK) and Sub-keys(SK). There are eight Whitening keys
(WK7--WK0) for Initial and Final transformation. In total,
128 sub keys (SK127- -SK0) are used for round functions
and four Sub keys per round.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology (IJCEIT), Volume 11, Issue 6, June 2019
S. Rana et. al
Fig. 9. HIGHT Algorithm
The typical Substitution-Permutation Network (SPN) is
used to build KLEIN [9] structure. In KLEIN 80, the
number of the round is 16. It generates a series of sub-
keys from a master key. However, the complexity of the
key generation must be adequate because the security
depends on it. To save memory and increase performance,
KLEIN generates sub-keys as transitions occur from one
round to the next round.
Fig. 10. KLEIN Algorithm
TEA [17] is a symmetric key cryptographic algorithm that
was designed by Roger Needham and David Wheeler at
the Computer Laboratory of Cambridge University. It
supports 128 bits key length and 64 bits data block. It uses
Feistel Network to implement the round functions but it
uses Addition and Subtraction as reversible operators
rather than XOR. Key scheduling uses the addition and
the number Delta, derived from the golden number is used
where . A multiple of the delta is
used in each round so that no bit of the multiple will not
change frequently.
Fig. 11. Tiny Encryption Algorithm
KATAN [15] uses 80 bits key for all types of its
KATAN32, KATAN48, and KATAN64. This structure
uses a counter to count the number of rounds. Also for the
purpose of clocking, it uses the feedback
polynomial .
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology (IJCEIT), Volume 11, Issue 6, June 2019
S. Rana et. al
Fig. 12. KATAN Algorithm Structure
RC5 [20] is a popular block cipher with variable
parameters of the block size of 32, 64, 128 bits, secret key
size ranging from 0 to 2048 bits and number of rounds(1
to 255). Authors of RC5 used Feistel like network with
some arithmetic and logic operators like XOR, Rotate and
Addition. Although up to 12 rounds of RC5 for a block
size of 64 bits is vulnerable to a differential attack. The
successor of RC5 like RC6 [20], Akelarre is secure
Fig. 13. One round of RC5 for 64 bits of block size
Simon [6] is a recently released block cipher which was
published by the NSA (National Security Agency) in June
Fig. 14. One round of Simon for 64 bits of block size
Authors proposed the cipher with variable parameters of
the block size of 32, 48, 64, 96 or 128 bits, the secret key
size of 64, 72, 96, 128,144,192 or 256 bits and number of
rounds (32 to 72). They used a balanced Feistel
Architecture. Each of the repeated rounds of the cipher
consists of some bit-wise and logic operators like XOR,
Rotate, etc. Although the security of the cipher up to 46
rounds for the block size of 128 bits can be broken by
differential attack, It is optimally efficient for the
performance in hardware implementations.
The authors of Speck proposed varieties size of the data
block (multiple of 8 bits), key size and number of rounds
same as like Simon cipher. It was also published by the
NSA (National Security Agency) in June 2013. The
cipher is designed with ARX (Addition, Rotation, and
XOR) architecture. It is optimized for the performance in
software implementations.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology (IJCEIT), Volume 11, Issue 6, June 2019
S. Rana et. al
Fig. 15. One round of Speck cipher for 64 bits of block size
SIT (Secure Internet Of Things)
In 2017, the authors of SIT [3] proposed a symmetric key
block cipher that uses 64-bit key over 64-bit data. Block
ciphers such as AES uses a substitution-permutation (SP)
network in order to integrate Shannon’s confusion and
diffusion properties. Other ciphers such as Blowfish and
DES use Feistel architecture using the advantage of
having almost the same encryption and decryption
operation. Their proposal is a combination of both Feistel
and SP networks using properties of the both to provide
substantial security but keeping the computation
complexities as minimum as possible. The algorithm has
two parts: key expansion and encryption. A 64-bit key is
taken as input by the user, divided into 4 blocks, supplied
into F-functions, arranged in 4X4 matrices and new five
unique keys are generated using some linear and non-
linear transformations. The encryption process consists of
logical operations, shifting, and substitutions. Although
other cipher uses 10 to 20 rounds, it uses the Feistel
network of 5 rounds that use the five unique generated
keys but provides enough confusion and diffusion.
Fig. 16. One round of SIT for 64 bits of block size
In order to measure execution cycles and memory usage a
benchmark tool called FELICS (Fair Evaluation of
Lightweight Cryptographic Systems) [10] is used. It can
evaluate performance on different platforms (such as
AVR, MSP, ARM, and PC) and various performance
matrices. It can measure execution cycles, RAM footprint,
and binary code size on a specific platform. The tool is
available to be downloaded. It runs on Linux Ubuntu. A
virtual machine file incorporates both Linux Ubuntu and
FELICS that saves us from installing all prerequisites. We
use the virtual machine file and works excellently.
In this section, Five performance metrics [8] i.e., Size of
RAM to execute ciphers, the Code size of ciphers, Cycles
to generate rounds keys, Cycles for encryption and
decryption are considered to evaluate the performance of
different block ciphers.
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology (IJCEIT), Volume 11, Issue 6, June 2019
S. Rana et. al
Block Size
in bits
Key Size
in bits
Code Size
in Byte
RAM Size
in Byte
Cycles in
Cycles in
Cycles in
Table 1: Data table for the comparison of different Lightweight
Algorithms on AVR architecture
Fig. 4.1. Comparison on Code Size of different Ciphers
The code size of ciphers affects the performance on the
light-weight device. Now-a-days, most of the height-
weight devices like embedded devices, microcontroller
chips, RFID tags, etc. have enough ROM in range of MB
to store cryptographic algorithm. Above figure shows the
maximum code size of cipher like RC5 is 15KB. On the
other-hand, ciphers like KATAN, TEA, and SIT have less
code size as shown in the above figure.
Fig. 4.2. Comparison between RAM and program data size used
by different Ciphers
On the other-hand, used RAM size of the ciphers is very
important for performance of a light-weight device
because RAM of those devices is very limited. So the
ciphers which used minimum RAM while executing is the
efficient one. Like SIT, Simon, KATAN and TEA.
Another case is that some of the ciphers have little code
size while these ciphers waste too much physical memory
to perform encryption and decryption. Because these
ciphers have higher number of round. Typically, the
round of a light-weight cipher should be in between 5 to
20. In above graph, DES has little code size while it
requires Maximum RAM. On the other-hand, AES needs
less RAM while its code size is too high. Since Energy
consumption is directly related to size of used RAM while
executing instructions. So, AES is better than DES due to
using less physical memory. There is an issue that
security strength of a cipher depends on complexity of
computations. In general, higher rounds ensure high
security. But there is a trade-of between security and
complexity. In light-weight devices, ciphers of heavy
computation hinder the performance for the sake of
limitation of resources. So, it is not feasible to implement
the heavy ciphers on light-weight devices. On the other-
hand, ciphers of light-weight computation are easy to
International Journal of Computer Engineering and Information Technology (IJCEIT), Volume 11, Issue 6, June 2019
S. Rana et. al
Fig. 4.3. Comparison of execution cycles for Key generation,
Encryption and Decryption among different block ciphers
The above figure demonstrates that Execution cycles
require for key generation, encryption and decryption.
The execution cycle of ciphers is directly related to
Energy consumption. Since the resource-limited devices
are low powered battery operated. Hence, Energy
consumption should be as less as possible while the
strength of security for ciphers should be up to the
security level. In short, there is a trade-off between light-
weightiness and security. The entire security of a cipher
directly depends on keys are used to encrypt and decrypt
each block of message. So, generation of keys should be
enough complex. Once keys are generated then these keys
can be used for all blocks of data as well as all round of
cipher. Hence, Complex computation of key generation
doesn’t effect on the performance of devices like
Encryption and Decryption phases of ciphers. In the
above chart, SIT has enough secured key distribution
technique to ensure the security of keys. For that reason,
SIT requires more cycles than that of HIGHT, Speck, etc.
For KLEIN, PRESENT, and AES has less key scheduling
cycles than Encryption and decryption cycles. On the
other hand, KATAN has low execution for key
scheduling cycles but Encryption and decryption are high.
So, on average Simon, Speck, SIT, DES are more energy
Scope of research on block ciphers:
Most of the block ciphers developed up to the
day ensures security based on the complexity of
number theory or different logic operation. The
neural network [18] is a good choice for
designing a security cipher.
Architecture used in block ciphers is either SP
Network (e.g., AES, PRESENT) or Feistel
Architecture like DES, Simon, etc. or both (
Blowfish, SIT, etc. ). Some features of
GAs(Genetic Algorithms) like Crossover
operators and Mutation [19] are the good option
to design the architecture of block ciphers.
Entire Security of the ciphers depends on keys.
So key scheduling should be designed not only
based on number theory rather than it can be
designed by applying advanced theories like Gas
[19], neural network [18], etc.
In the era of internet, the light-weight cryptographic
algorithm has become essential to ensure security for
resource-constrained devices like wireless Network
sensors, RFID tags, and embedded device, etc. The
collected data table for performance evaluation is tested
on AVR architecture by FELICS (A Benchmark to
evaluate block ciphers on different metrics). In the near
future, these ciphers will be tested on more architectures
on more performance metrics. Besides the performance of
ciphers, the strength of security should be up to the mark.
So for further improvement and analysis, these ciphers
will be tested on different security aspects like Entropy,
Co-relation, etc.
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... RBFK ciphers are memory efficient as these ciphers require a fewer amount of RAM to run. Since at present, the ROM of resource-limited devices is large enough in size, the cipher with a slightly large code size disturbs the performance less (Rana et al. 2019). However, a device's physical memory e.g., RAM is used mostly while running the algorithms and so the usage of RAM for a cipher should be as little as possible. ...
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Internet security has become a major concern with the growing use of the Internet of Things (IoT) and edge computing technologies. Even though data processing is handled by the edge server, sensitive data is generated and stored by the IoT devices, which are subject to attack. Since most IoT devices have limited resources, standard security algorithms such as AES, DES, and RSA hamper their ability to run properly. In this paper, a lightweight symmetric key cipher termed randomized butterfly architecture of fast Fourier transform for key (RBFK) cipher is proposed for resource-constrained IoT devices in the edge computing environment. The butterfly architecture is used in the key scheduling system to produce strong round keys for five rounds of the encryption method. The RBFK cipher has two key sizes: 64 and 128 bits, with a block size of 64 bits. The RBFK ciphers have a larger avalanche effect due to the butterfly architecture ensuring strong security. The proposed cipher satisfies the Shannon characteristics of confusion and diffusion. The memory usage and execution cycle of the RBFK cipher are assessed using the fair evaluation of the lightweight cryptographic systems (FELICS) tool. The proposed ciphers were also implemented using MATLAB 2021a to test key sensitivity by analyzing the histogram, correlation graph, and entropy of encrypted and decrypted images. Since the RBFK ciphers with minimal computational complexity provide better security than recently proposed competing ciphers, these are suitable for IoT devices in an edge computing environment.
... Traditional encryption solutions are not applicable to healthcare IoT applications. It is important to adopt encryption techniques with low computational complexity, less weight, and minimal user authentication requirements, to ensure consumer confidentiality on the IoT now, by relying on lightweight algorithms [14]. ...
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The internet of things (IoT) is a rapidly developing area that consists of a globally linked network architecture based on the Internet. The internet of healthcare things (IoHT) is a subset of IoT that comprises of smart healthcare devices that are critical in monitoring, processing, storing, and transferring sensitive data. It is confronted with new issues in terms of data privacy protection. To safeguard healthcare information, this work proposes hybrid lightweight ciphers (PRESENT and TEA) that leverage elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in the key generation phase. The proposed system evaluated using the main network evaluation parameters as throughput in Kbps, delay in ms, packet loss rate (%). The proposed approach provides secure data transmission of IoT devices based on the used lightweight security algorithms, in addition it provides conserving network performance, improving channel resource usage, network latency is increased due to the security level added by PRESENT and TEA with ECC, and decrease number of loss packets compared without security case study.
... In the past work of Sohel et al. [31], the study of the lightweight block cipher algorithms with the execution of investigations for different evaluation performance, such as RAM size, Execution Periods. ...
... Both have key sizes of 128 bits and block sizes of 128 bits [12]. Table 1 shows a comparison using different metrics among available lightweight block ciphers [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]. RELATED WORKS. ...
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Today, all smartphones, notebooks, or other communication devices could connect to the cloud, so the data are accessible everywhere. When these devices are interconnected through the internet, they make an Internet of Things (IoT) network that exchanges data among network nodes and other services. IoT has a broad application area from smart applications to various industrial usages. However, the high volume of data transferred in the IoT network makes it crucial to implement mechanisms to transfer the data safe and secure. Enciphering is one of the best techniques to offer end-to-end security. Considering an IoT network, nodes have restricted resources, and applying classical cryptography methods are costly and not efficient, so lightweight block ciphers are one of the sophisticated solutions to overcome security drawbacks in this scope. In this paper, ten lightweight algorithms involve AES, PRESENT, LBlock, Skipjack, SIMON, XTEA, PRINCE, Piccolo, HIGHT, RECTANGLE tested to evaluate their performance for key factors such as memory usage (RAM and ROM), energy consumption, throughput, and execution time for both encryption and decryption modes over cloud transmission. We have done simulations using Raspberry Pi 3 and Arduino Mega 2560 as the leading devices in the IoT scope. As a result, this paper will help IoT developers to choose the right platform and enciphering algorithm to set up a secure network due to multiple factors like energy and memory usage, especially for software platforms.
... Consequently, securing images transmitted via digital communication systems to keep them away from modification, partial or total removal of their contents, and addition of fake information has become a vital research problem to scholars. Hence, various image ciphering techniques have been proposed to secure transmitted digital images [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. One of the most important challenges in cybersecurity applications and cloud data storage is the requirement of security and authenticity of the data being uploaded, downloaded, and stored, and the need of securing this data from unlicensed and illegal admission and access. ...
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Recently, massive research works have been accomplished for augmenting privacy and security requirements for cybersecurity applications in wireless communication networks. This is attributed to the fact that conventional security processes are not appropriate for robust, efficient, and reliable multimedia streaming over unsecure media. Therefore, this paper presents an efficient color image cryptosystem based on RC6 with different modes of operation. The proposed cryptosystem is composed of two phases: encryption and decryption. The encryption phase starts by decomposing the color plainimage with few details into its RGB components, which in turn are segmented into 128-bit blocks. These blocks are then enciphered with RC6 with an appropriate mode of operation. After that, the corresponding enciphered blocks of RGB components are multiplexed for constructing the final cipherimage. This scenario is reversed in the decryption phase. The performance of the proposed cryptosystem is gauged via simulation using a set of encryption quality metrics. The simulation results reveal that the proposed cryptosystem with cipher block chaining (CBC), cipher feedback (CFB), and output feedback (OFB) modes can efficiently and effectively hide all information of the color images with few details even in the presence of some input blocks with similar data. On the other hand, the results show that the electronic codebook (ECB) mode is not effective at all in hiding all details of images. Finally, the obtained results ensure the applicability of the proposed cryptosystem and its efficiency in encrypting images in terms of security, encryption quality, and noise immunity.
Conference Paper
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The goal of any cryptographic system is the exchange of information among the intended users without any leakage of information to others who may have unauthorized access to it. This paper presents a new approach based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) for data security in electronic communication. Neural cryptography is much simpler than the commonly used algorithms which are mainly based on number theory and have small time and memory complexities. Two identical dynamical systems (neural networks), starting from different initial conditions, can be synchronized by a common external signal which is coupled to the two systems. Two neural networks that are trained on their mutual output synchronize to an identical time dependent weight vector. This phenomenon has been applied to cryptography as well. This concept of synchronization by mutual learning can be applied to a secret key exchange protocol over a public channel. The generation of secret key over a public channel has been studied and the generated key is used for encrypting and decrypting the given message using AES[1].
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The Internet of Things (IoT) being a promising technology of the future is expected to connect billions of devices. The increased number of communication is expected to generate mountains of data and the security of data can be a threat. The devices in the architecture are essentially smaller in size and low powered. Conventional encryption algorithms are generally computationally expensive due to their complexity and requires many rounds to encrypt, essentially wasting the constrained energy of the gadgets. Less complex algorithm, however, may compromise the desired integrity. In this paper we propose a lightweight encryption algorithm named as Secure IoT (SIT). It is a 64-bit block cipher and requires 64-bit key to encrypt the data. The architecture of the algorithm is a mixture of feistel and a uniform substitution-permutation network. Simulations result shows the algorithm provides substantial security in just five encryption rounds. The hardware implementation of the algorithm is done on a low cost 8-bit micro-controller and the results of code size, memory utilization and encryption/decryption execution cycles are compared with benchmark encryption algo-rithms. The MATLAB code for relevant simulations is available online at
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In today's computer world security, integrity, confidentiality of the organization's data is the most important issue. This paper deals with the confidentiality of electronic data which is transmitted over the internet. Data encryption is widely used to ensure security of the data. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are a class of optimization algorithms. Many problems can be solved using genetic algorithms through modeling a simplified version of genetic processes. In our approach we are using the concept of genetic algorithms with pseudorandom function to encrypt and decrypt data stream. The encryption process is applied over a binary file so that the algorithm can be applied over any type of txt as well as multimedia data.
Conference Paper
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With the advent of low cost Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA's), building special purpose hardware for computationally intensive applications has now become possible. Cryptanalysis of block ciphers involves massive computations which are independent of each other and can be instantiated simultaneously so that the solution space is explored at a faster rate. This paper presents the design for Hardware implementation of Data Encryption Standard (DES) cryptanalysis on FPGA using exhaustive key search. Two architectures viz. Iterative and Loop unrolled DES architecture are implemented. The aim of this work is to make cryptanalysis faster and better.
Conference Paper
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With the fast evolution of the networks technology, the security becomes an important research axis. Many types of communication require the transmission of digital images. This transmission must be safe especially in applications that require a fairly high level of security such as military applications, spying, radars, and biometrics applications. Mechanisms for authentication, confidentiality, and integrity must be implemented within their community. For this reason, several cryptographic algorithms have been developed to ensure the safety and reliability of this transmission. In this paper, we investigate the encryption efficiency of RC5 and RC6 block cipher applied to digital images by including a statistical and differential analysis then, and also we investigate those two block ciphers against errors in ambient noise. The security analysis shows that RC6 algorithm is more secure than RC5. However, using RC6 to encrypt images in rough environment (low signal to noise ratio) leads to more errors (almost double of RC5) and may increase energy consumption by retransmitting erroneous packets. A compromise security/energy must be taken into account for the good choice of encryption algorithm.
The Simon and Speck families of block cIPhers were designed specifically to offer security on constrained devices, where simplicity of design is crucial. However, the intended use cases are diverse and demand flexibility in implementation. Simplicity, security, and flexibility are ever-present yet conflicting goals in cryptographic design. This paper outlines how these goals were balanced in the design of Simon and Speck.