Article

Chemical and Aroma Profiles of Yuzu (Citrus junos) Peel Oils of Different Cultivars

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Abstract

The essential oils of six different yuzu cultivars, Kumon (KUM), Nagano (NAG), Yasu (YAS), Jimoto (JIM), Komatsu Sadao (KOS) and Komatsu Koichi (KOK), were extracted by cold-pressing method. A total of 69 compounds of the six samples were identified. Application of GC-olfactometry and aroma extraction dilution analysis technique in three-fold stepwise dilution of the neat oil for all samples indicated eight odourants with the highest flavour dilution (FD) values. Those were limonene, α-pinene, α- and β-phellandrene, myrcene, γ-terpinene, (E)-β-farnesene and linalool. ‘KOS’ was differentiated from the other oil samples by showing the highest number of components having yuzu-like odour notes and also from the PCA analysis of the FD-factor values. This is the first time the aroma characteristics of yuzu essential oils of specified cultivars were investigated.

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... Comparatively, there are fewer studies about the Citrus volatile and semi-volatile fraction using GC-O as compared to GC-MS. Up to date, GC-O has been used for the analysis of peel oil of the following species: C. sinensis (Högnadóttir and Rouseff, 2003;Qiao et al., 2008), C. reticulata (Buettner et al., 2003;Chisholm et al., 2003a;Miyazaki et al., 2012), C. grandis (Cheong et al., 2011a;Chung et al., 2012;Li et al., 2016), C. aurantium (Song et al., 2000a), C. paradisi (Lin and Rouseff, 2001), C. aurantifolia (Chisholm et al., 2003b), C. limon (Cannon et al., 2015), C. bergamia , C. junos (Song et al., 2000b;Lan Phi et al., 2009;Miyazawa et al., 2009;Miyazato et al., 2012Miyazato et al., , 2013Tomiyama et al., 2012), and the minor species C. tamurana Hort. ex Tanaka (Choi et al., 2001;Tao et al., 2014), C. flaviculpus Hort. ...
... Monoterpene compounds are named in many occasions according to the structure of p-menthane (Supplementary Figure S1A). This is the case of pseudolimonene (Lan Phi et al., 2009;Sun et al., 2014b), α-terpineol (Lota et al., 2002;Cheong et al., 2011b;Liu et al., 2012;Sun et al., 2014a), α-terpinyl acetate (Lota et al., 2002) (also α-terpenyl acetate) (Verzera et al., 2004), 4-terpinenol Liu et al., 2012) and dihydrocarveol (Njoroge et al., 2005a) (also dehydrocarveol) (Shen et al., 2002), which have also been named as p-mentha-1(7),8-diene FIGURE 1 | Relative frequency of each group of compounds present in the 10 most common Citrus species. Left, all the compounds described; right outer circle, compounds up to date detected in only one species (one-species only); right inner circle, compounds detected in all 10 species (common). ...
... One of the most relevant features of C. grandis volatile profile is the absence of some compounds that are typical of other common species of Citrus, mainly some sesquiterpene compounds. This is the case of the sesquiterpene (E)α-bergamotene, which has never been reported in C. grandis peel but frequently identified in all the other common Citrus species studied (Mondello et al., 2003;Lan Phi et al., 2009;Aliberti et al., 2016;Petretto et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2017). As far as we know, neither the compound thymol has been reported in C. grandis nor C. paradisi nor C. bergamia peel and neither (E)-2-decenal had been reported in C. grandis nor C. aurantifolia, but in the rest of the species reviewed. ...
Article
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The essential oil fraction obtained from the rind of Citrus spp. is rich in chemical compounds of interest for the food and perfume industries, and therefore has been extensively studied during the last decades. In this manuscript, we provide a comprehensive review of the volatile composition of this oil fraction and rind extracts for the 10 most studied Citrus species: C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. reticulata (mandarin), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. grandis (pummelo), C. limon (lemon), C. medica (citron), C. aurantifolia (lime), C. aurantium (bitter orange), C. bergamia (bergamot orange), and C. junos (yuzu). Forty-nine volatile organic compounds have been reported in all 10 species, most of them terpenoid (90%), although about half of the volatile compounds identified in Citrus peel are non-terpenoid. Over 400 volatiles of different chemical nature have been exclusively described in only one of these species and some of them could be useful as species biomarkers. A hierarchical cluster analysis based on volatile composition arranges these Citrus species in three clusters which essentially mirrors those obtained with genetic information. The first cluster is comprised by C. reticulata, C. grandis, C. sinensis, C. paradisi and C. aurantium, and is mainly characterized by the presence of a larger abundance of non-terpenoid ester and aldehyde compounds than in the other species reviewed. The second cluster is comprised by C. junos, C. medica, C. aurantifolia, and C. bergamia, and is characterized by the prevalence of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Finally, C. limon shows a particular volatile profile with some sulfur monoterpenoids and non-terpenoid esters and aldehydes as part of its main differential peculiarities. A systematic description of the rind volatile composition in each of the species is provided together with a general comparison with those in leaves and blossoms. Additionally, the most widely used techniques for the extraction and analysis of volatile Citrus compounds are also described.
... Previous reports have focused on the identification of key characteristic aroma compounds that contribute to the specific flavor [19][20][21][22][23]. In these reports, valencene was taken as a characteristic aromatic compound in sweet orange fruit [23], cisand trans-linalool oxides and β-myrcene were the main characteristic aromatic compounds in C. mangshanensis fruit [21], β-pinene, γ-terpinene, linalyl acetate, and linalool contributed to the characteristic aroma of lemon fruit [22], β-citronellal, nerol acetate, and geranyl acetate were mainly responsible for the characteristic aroma of lime fruit [20,22], and linalool and its derivatives can largely reconstruct the sweet and fragrant aroma of the Miyamoto satsuma mandarin (C. ...
... Previous reports have focused on the identification of key characteristic aroma compounds that contribute to the specific flavor [19][20][21][22][23]. In these reports, valencene was taken as a characteristic aromatic compound in sweet orange fruit [23], cisand trans-linalool oxides and β-myrcene were the main characteristic aromatic compounds in C. mangshanensis fruit [21], β-pinene, γ-terpinene, linalyl acetate, and linalool contributed to the characteristic aroma of lemon fruit [22], β-citronellal, nerol acetate, and geranyl acetate were mainly responsible for the characteristic aroma of lime fruit [20,22], and linalool and its derivatives can largely reconstruct the sweet and fragrant aroma of the Miyamoto satsuma mandarin (C. reticulata) [19]. ...
... Lots of reports have mainly focused on the determination of volatile compounds and the comparison of the number and content of them in a few citrus germplasms [8,13,21,[24][25][26][27]. As different citrus species may have a unique aroma, the profiles of volatiles have been used to study citrus chemotaxonomy [8,24,25]. In addition, some researchers have identified the characteristic aroma compounds in citrus germplasms with specific aroma traits, such as C. mangshanensis, sweet orange, lemon, and lime [19][20][21][22][23]. ...
Article
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The aroma quality of citrus fruit is determined by volatile compounds, which bring about different notes to allow discrimination among different citrus species. However, the volatiles with various aromatic traits specific to different citrus species have not been identified. In this study, volatile profiles in the fruit peels of four citrus species collected from our previous studies were subjected to various analyses to mine volatile biomarkers. Principal component analysis results indicated that different citrus species could almost completely be separated. Thirty volatiles were identified as potential biomarkers in discriminating loose-skin mandarin, sweet orange, pomelo, and lemon, while 17 were identified as effective biomarkers in discriminating clementine mandarins from the other loose-skin mandarins and sweet oranges. Finally, 30 citrus germplasms were used to verify the classification based on β-elemene, valencene, nootkatone, and limettin as biomarkers. The accuracy values were 90.0%, 96.7%, 96.7%, and 100%, respectively. This research may provide a novel and effective alternative approach to identifying citrus genetic resources.
... Compared to other citrus fruits, yuzu has a strong characteristic aroma and is well known for the pleasant fragrance of its outer rind. Therefore, yuzu is used industrially in the production of sweets, beverages, cosmetics, perfumes, and aromatherapy products [2,3]. Important bioactive components present in yuzu fruits include vitamin C, -carotene, flavonoids, limonoids, and dietary fiber. ...
... The linear RIs were determined for all constituents using a homologous series of n-alkanes (C8-C24), injected under the same chromatographic conditions as the samples. The odoractivity of all yuzu oil compounds was evaluated based on their flavor dilution (FD) factor values obtained using GColfactometry and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) by Lan-Phi et al. [3]. ...
... The dilution of odor-active compound was performed until no odor was detected in the most diluted sample. The highest dilution at which an individual component could be detected was defined as the FD factor for that odorant [3,19]. Thus, volatile compounds with high FD values contribute to the yuzu flavor. ...
Article
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Citrus junos Tanaka (yuzu) has a strong characteristic aroma and thus its juice is used in various Japanese foods.Herein, we evaluate the volatile compounds in yuzu juice to investigate whether underwater shockwave pretreatment affects its scent. A shockwave pretreatment at increased discharge and energy of 3.5 kV and 4.9 kJ, respectively, increased the content of aroma-active compounds. Moreover, the underwater shockwave pretreatment afforded an approximate tenfold increase in the scent intensity of yuzu juice cultivated in Rikuzentakata.The proposed treatment method exhibited reliable and good performance for the extraction of volatile and aroma-active compounds from the yuzu fruit.The broad applicability and high reliability of this technique for improving the scent of yuzu fruit juice were demonstrated, confirming its potential for application to a wide range of food extraction processes.
... All results are based on fresh weight per sample (5 g). Odour descriptions mentioned in Fig.1 and Tab.3 to Tab.6 derive from Mosciano (1989;1990a,b;1991a,b,c,d;1992a,b;1993a,b;1995a,b,c;1996a,b,;1997a,b;1998;2000;2001a,b;2009 via the good scents company) as well as Surburg and Panten (2006), Nozaki et al. (1997), Hui (2010), Lan-Phi et al. (2009). The aim of the present research was not a precise quantification of aroma compounds, but rather to study and identify the main factors involved in aroma formation in fruit pulps of Theobroma cacao L.. ...
... A: Major compounds with peak areas < 7,0E+09; B: Major compounds with peak areas < 1,0E+09; C: Minor compounds with peak areas < 5,0E+08 Odour descriptions mentioned in Fig.1 and Tab.3 to Tab.6 derive from Mosciano (1989;1990a,b;1991a,b,c,d;1992a,b;1993a,b;1995a,b,c;1996a,b,;1997a,b;1998;2000;2001a,b;2009 via the good scents company) as well as Surburg and Panten (2006) Minor compounds with peak areas < 1,0E+08; E: Minor compounds with peak areas < 5,0E+07; F: Minor compounds with peak areas < 1,0E+07; G: Minor compounds with peak areas < 5,0E+06 Odour descriptions mentioned in Fig.1 and Tab.3 to Tab.6 derive from Mosciano (1989;1990a,b;1991a,b,c,d;1992a,b;1993a,b;1995a,b,c;1996a,b,;1997a,b;1998;2000;2001a,b;2009 via the good scents company) as well as Surburg and Panten (2006), Nozaki et al. (1997), Hui (2010), Lan-Phi et al. (2009). ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD test for unequal N, with α = 0.05 and p < 0.01. ...
... ,Nozaki et al. (1997),Hui (2010),Lan-Phi et al. (2009). ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD test for unequal N, with α = 0.05 and p < 0.01.x: the volatile component was detected in relatively high amounts in this genotype (exact data available inHegmann, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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In this research the aroma potential of six new cocoa genotypes (CATIE-R1, CATIE-R4, CATIE-R6, PMCT-58, ICS-95 (T1) and CC-137) selected at CATIE, Costa Rica, was studied. Since 2007, these high-yielding and disease resistant cocoa clones are cultivated by cocoa farmers and cooperatives throughout Central-America, however, detailed information on the individual aroma potential is lacking. The main factors which interact and define the aroma characteristics of the traded product "raw cocoa" are genotype, post-harvest management, cultivation site and climatic conditions. Cocoa liquors produced from "Fine or Flavour"-Cocoa are characterized by chocolate aroma and additional fine aroma notes described as e.g. fruity, floral or nutty. These aroma compounds originate from plant secondary metabolites and their derivatives, such as terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, methyl ketones, with most of them being formed or stored in the fruit pulp. Apparently, these aromas migrate into the seed during fermentation and contribute to the organoleptic character of the cocoa bean. The aim of this study was to determine whether the new cocoa selections from CATIE have a "Fine or Flavour"-potential and which post-harvest treatment can be advised to exploit the full aroma potential of these clones. Monoclonal fermentations and fruit pulp analytics were carried out in Costa Rica and at the University of Hamburg, resp., in order to study and identify the main components involved in aroma formation of these new resistant varieties. The results demonstrate that fermentation procedure and-duration have to be adjusted to the clonal material and environmental conditions, because both highly influence the fermentation processes. The analyzed clonal fruit pulps of the CATIE-Selections displayed a basic content of the two dominating esters 2-pentanol acetate and 2-heptanol acetate, combined with a distinctive mixture of various minor compounds which form the genotype-specific fine aroma. Thus, the individual aroma bouquet is defined by rather minor compounds of lower concentrations. Furthermore, the results show that fruit pulp's aroma composition and aroma intensity vary with the prevailing climate in the phase of cocoa pod ripening, as well as the ripening status of the pods.
... Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used to discover dissimilarity/similarity of foods according to their sensory and chemical data (Lan-Phi et al. 2009;Mahattanatawee and Rouseff 2014). In our study, the data get from SPME-GC-MS determination and OAV calculation will be applied to PCA in order to investigate dissimilarity/similarity of SAV samples. ...
... Although enough analytical data were got from the SPME-GC-MS determination and ion chromatography analysis, it is still hard to investigate sensory quality of SAV samples and compare dissimilarities/similarities among the SAV samples. This reason is that the content of volatile compounds did not always consist with their contribution to the whole aroma profile (Pang et al. 2012), and the variables are too much and need reduction before classification (Lan-Phi et al. 2009). Therefore, the odor activity values of each volatile compound were calculated, and the Baroma wheel^was plotted in order to investigate the sensory quality of SAV samples. ...
Article
A solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed to determine the volatile compounds in Shanxi aged vinegar. The optimal extraction conditions were: 50 °C for 20 min with a PDMS/DVB fiber. This analytical method was validated and showed satisfactory repeatability (0.5 %<RSD<12 %), reproducibility (2.5 %<RSD<15.6 %), accuracy and linearity in analysis of volatile compounds. According to the calculation of odor activity value, 19 volatile compounds were identified as aroma-active compounds. Among them, propanoic acid, acetic acid, trimethyl-oxazole, butanoic acid, acetoin, 3-methylbutanoic acid and furfural were the most powerful odorants. The aroma wheel of Shanxi aged vinegar showed that the classes of sensory descriptors are first fatty and roasty, next woody and nutty and minor fruity and floral. Principal component analysis enabled us to investigate dissimilarity/similarity of Shanxi aged vinegar sample of different raw material and ageing time.
... ex Tanaka (Yuzu) is a very sour fruit widely cultivated in China, Japan and Korea. The fruit is used for culinary purposes, in making vinegar, marmalade, jelly, beverages, cosmetics, perfumery, and aromatherapy (Lan-Phi et al., 2009). From a medicinal point of view, the fruit has significant antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities (Yoo et al., 2004;Sawamura et al., 2005). ...
... The contents of the oxygenated compounds, which are considered to be responsible for the characteristic aroma of the Citrus fruits, were in good agreement to the previously reported data (Tomiyama et al., 2012). Also in agreement with this present study (Table 1), limonene, γ-terpinene (9), linalool (10), β-myrcene (11), trans-β-farnesene (12), α-pinene (13), β-pinene (14), and trans-β-ocimene (15) (Fig. 3) have been reported as the most abundant volatile components of C. junos (Lan-Phi et al., 2009;Tomiyama et al., 2012). With linalool, a typical monoterpene alcohol, widely used in detergents, shampoos and soaps, and also known to have insecticidal activities (Christensson et al., 2009;Lopez et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Introduction: Citrus fruits are known to have characteristic enantiomeric key compounds biosynthesised by highly stereoselective enzymatic mechanisms. In the past, evaluation of the enantiomeric ratios of chiral compounds in fruits has been applied as an effective indicator of adulteration by the addition of synthetic compounds or natural components of different botanical origin. Objective: To analyse the volatile flavour compounds of Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (yuzu), Citrus limon BURM. f. (lemon) and Citrus aurantifolia Christm. Swingle (lime), and determine the enantiomeric ratios of their chiral compounds for discrimination and authentication of extracted oils. Methodology: Volatile flavour compounds of the fruits of the three Citrus species were extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The enantiomeric composition (ee%) of chiral camphene, sabinene, limonene and β-phellandrene was analysed by heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Sixty-seven (C. junos), 77 (C. limon) and 110 (C. aurantifolia) volatile compounds were identified with limonene, γ-terpinene and linalool as the major compounds. Stereochemical analysis (ee%) revealed 1S,4R-(-) camphene (94.74, 98.67, 98.82), R-(+)-limonene (90.53, 92.97, 99.85) and S-(+)-β-phellandrene (98.69, 97.15, 92.13) in oil samples from all three species; R-(+)-sabinene (88.08) in C. junos; and S-(-)-sabinene (81.99, 79.74) in C. limon and C. aurantifolia, respectively. Conclusion: The enantiomeric composition and excess ratios of the chiral compounds could be used as reliable indicators of genuineness and quality assurance of the oils derived from the Citrus fruit species. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... The human nose is used as the detector along with GC to identify whether an aroma compound renders an odor or not as it emerges from the GC sniffing port. Simultaneously, a correlated description of the odor quality of each odor-revealed compound is recorded (Lan Phi et al. 2009). The aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) is typically coupled along with the GC/O method to confirm the different flavor dilution (FD) values for each characteristic odorant (Grosch 1994). ...
... The majority of odorants identified in the peel oil were terpenes and aldehydes such as α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, linalool, α-terpineol, citronellal, decanal, and perilla aldehyde. Monoterpenes such as α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, and γ-terpinene have been extensively reported as major constituents and aroma-active compounds in the peel oil of a variety of citrus fruits (Dharmawan et al. 2009;Lan Phi et al. 2009;Miyazawa et al. 2009Miyazawa et al. , 2010. Among all the detected aldehydes, decanal was predominant in the peel oil extract. ...
Article
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IntroductionThe main purposes of this study were to identity major peel oil odorants and determine which aroma compounds are primarily responsible for the overall aroma profile of a recently developed Huanglongbing (HLB)-tolerant mandarin hybrid. Methods The aroma-active compounds present in the recently developed mandarin hybrid peel oil were extracted by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). ResultsThirty odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2 to 256 have been identified. On the basis of high FD factors, α-pinene, limonene, β-myrcene, linalool, and β-caryophyllene were characterized as the most essential aroma compounds at a FD factor ≥ 128, followed by γ-terpinene, β-pinene, terpinolene, p-dimethylstyrene, (E)-linalool oxide, decanal, β-cubebene, α-terpineol, and perilla aldehyde at a FD factor ≥ 16. Among all the detected aroma compounds, limonene was the most abundant compound (86.5 ± 2.8%), followed by γ-terpinene (5.3 ± 0.1%), β-myrcene (2.4 ± 0.1%), and α-pinene (1.2 ± 0.0%). Conclusions The compounds including α-pinene, limonene, β-myrcene, linalool, and β-caryophyllene were characterized as the most essential aromas. The sensory evaluation results indicated that the major attributes (FD ≥ 2) such as floral, lemon, peel-like, green, mint, and sweet were comparable to that of natural mandarin peel oil. ImplicationsBased on the human perception, olfactometry and AEDA were used to determine the aroma-active compounds in the peel oil. Human perception also involved in aroma reconstitution to compare the re-engineering solution containing the essential aroma compounds with the natural mandarin oil.
... In addition, extractions and analysis were carried out under the same conditions. Since technical and envi- ronmental effects are negligible, the main source of variance is associ- ated to the species [19,20]. ...
... Feijoa cultivars can be roughly divided according to their ripening season. Previous studies have reported the diversity of the compound composition as well as the aroma experience in the essential oils from different plant cultivars [20,21]. In addition, the components of essential oils could also serve as biomarkers for the identification of different cultivars [22]. ...
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Feijoa is an aromatic fruit and the essential oil from feijoa peel could be a valuable by-product in the juicing industry. An initial comparison of the essential oil extraction methods, steam-distillation and hydro-distillation, was conducted. The volatile compounds in the essential oils from four feijoa cultivars were identified and semi-quantified by GC-MS and the aroma active compounds in each essential oil were characterized using SPME-GC-O-MS. Hydro-distillation, with a material to water ratio of 1:4 and an extraction time of 90 min, was the optimized extraction method for feijoa essential oil. The Wiki Tu cultivar produced the highest essential oil yield among the four selected cultivars. A total of 160 compounds were detected, among which 90 compounds were reported for the first time in feijoa essential oils. Terpenes and esters were dominant compounds in feijoa essential oil composition and were also major contributors to feijoa essential oil aroma. Key aroma active compounds in feijoa essential oils were α-terpineol, ethyl benzoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate, linalool, (E)-geraniol, 2-undecanone, 3-octanone, α-cubebene, and germacrene D. This is the first report on the optimization of the extraction method and the establishment of the aroma profile of feijoa essential oils, with a comparison of four New Zealand grown cultivars.
... Identification of odor-active constituents AEDA is a GC-O method commonly used for the ranking and identification of characteristic aroma compounds [18][19][20] In this study, the extract was serially diluted in a 1:4 ratio. FD factors and odor descriptors are listed in Table 1. ...
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Odor-active compounds of Wuliangye liquors with markedly different aging years were identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and gas chromatography−olfactometry (GC-O). A total of 62 aroma compounds were identified in three Wuliangye liquors and 45 odorants were further screened out and quantified as the important odorants according to FD values. They were selected as specific compounds correlated to sensory attributes by the Pearson coefficient. The correlation results showed that ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutyrate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, pentanoic acid, ethyl octanoate, furfural, 4-methylphenol, hexanoic acid, isovaleric acid and 1,1-diethoxyethane were related to the characteristic aroma of Wuliangye liquors. It will be helpful for the improvement of characteristic aroma of Wuliangye liquors through adjusting fermentation parameters or compensating typical aroma compounds after alcoholic fermentation.
... 8 β-Citronellal, nerol acetate, and geranyl acetate contribute to the characteristic aroma of lime fruit. 9 Linalool and its derivatives are mainly responsible for the sweet and fragrant aroma of Miyamoto Satsuma mandarin (C. reticulata). ...
... Among perceived odorants there were some compounds that have a typical spicy connotation: cinnamic aldehyde, methoxy cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamyl acetate, eugenol and cinnamyl alcohol. The identification of a large number of odorants, some of which found in trace and others such as cinnamaldehyde and methoxy cinnamaldehyde that made up to approximately 90% of the oil, confirm AEDA as a powerful technique to analyze the olfactory profile of complex mixtures [17][18][19]. ...
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The volatiles of a commercial sample of Cinnamomum cassia (Nees and T. Nees) J. Presl. essential oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identification of the components was confirmed by Kovats retention index and their quantities were established using internal standard. These analyses had led to the identification of 72 chemicals and quantification of 41 of them. The majority of volatiles identified belongs to oxygenated compounds (e.g., aldehydes) while non oxygenated terpenes represent about 18% of the oil. The odor quality of cassia essential oil was assessed by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). Among the 26 components identified with GC-O, AEDA (Aroma Extract Dilution Analysis) has allowed to establish a number of components with high dilution factor (strongly odorous) such as cinnamaldehyde, 3-phenylpropanal, guaiacol and 2-phenylethanol.
... Moreover, some past research studies have indicated that limonene, α-pinene, myrcene, γ-terpinene, and linalool have the highest flavor dilution values. Among them, linalool, α-terpineol, and decanal are odor-active compounds [29]. ...
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As local varieties of citrus fruit in Taiwan, Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Tankan (C. tankan Hayata), and Murcott (C. reticulate x C. sinensis) face substantial competition on the market. In this study, we used carbon dioxide supercritical technology to extract oleoresin from the peels of the three citrus varieties, adding alcohol as a solvent assistant to enhance the extraction rate. The supercritical fluid extraction was fractionated with lower terpene compounds in order to improve the oxygenated amounts of the volatile resins. The contents of oleoresin from the three varieties of citrus peels were then analyzed with GC/MS in order to identify 33 volatile compounds. In addition, the analysis results indicated that the non-volatile oleoresin extracted from the samples contains polymethoxyflavones (86.2-259.5 mg/g), limonoids (111.7-406.2 mg/g), and phytosterols (686.1-1316.4 μg/g). The DPPH (1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS [2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] scavenging and inhibition of lipid oxidation, which test the oleoresin from the three kinds of citrus, exhibited significant antioxidant capacity. The component polymethoxyflavones contributed the greatest share of the overall antioxidant capacity, while the limonoid and phytosterol components effectively coordinated with its effects.
... 12,13 Citrus oils also contain sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, which are responsible for the characteristic flavors of these oils. 12 Table 4 lists the chemical compositions of cold-pressed, 6,7,[11][12][13][14][15][16] hydrodistilled, 17-21 lyophilization/vacuum distillation, 9 and steam-distilled 22 peel oils sorted by citrus plant species; Table 5 presents the typical levels of 5-MOP found in some of the oils; and Table 6 provides the levels of major coumarins and furocoumarins in lemon and lime oil. Table 7 lists citrus constituents that are established contact allergens, according the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety. ...
Article
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 14 citrus-derived peel oil ingredients and concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetic products when finished products, excluding rinse-off products, do not contain more than 0.0015% (15 ppm) 5-methoxypsoralen, and when formulated to be nonsensitizing and nonirritating. The citrus-derived peel oil ingredients are most frequently reported to function in cosmetics as fragrances and/or skin conditioning agents. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each containing the same constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these constituents and to avoid reaching levels that may be hazardous to consumers. Industry should use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities that could be present in botanical ingredients.
... For the analysis of odour potentials, dilution methods such as aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA) are often used to determine the flavour dilution (FD) factors of each aroma-active compound. Compounds with higher FD factors generally contribute more strongly to the overall aroma of the sample (3,4). While GC-MS/FID is more commonly used due to its low cost and established protocols, the use of GC-QTOF/MS in flavour analysis has been increasing as the QTOF detector offers higher sensitivity and improved resolution compared to the conventional MS/FID. ...
Article
Twenty-six key odourants were found in Hongxin and Shatian pomelo peel oils using aroma extraction dilution analysis (AEDA). trans-2-Dodecenal was identified to be the most potent key odourant, with a flavour dilution value of 100000 in Hongxin and 10000 in Shatian. Hongxin peel oil was found to be more floral while Shatian was green and peely. Gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-QTOF/MS) revealed 22 volatiles that were undetected by the less sensitive GC-MS detector. Non-volatile compounds in the peel oils were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography (LC)-QTOF/MS. Besides organic acids, naringin and bergamottin were, concentration-wise, the dominant non-volatile compounds identified in the juices and peel oils, respectively. Pomelo juices had higher antioxidant capacities than their peel oils, and Shatian pomelos possessed higher antioxidant activities than Hongxin. The use of high-resolution detectors allowed for improved compound detection and identification in citrus, and may be applied to other complex natural products.
... However, the reason is unknown. Geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene and contributes to the characteristic floral aroma and flavor in many fruits including Citrus, Vitis vinifera, and Litchi chinesis [16][17][18]. It is also an important floral aroma contributor in tea [14]. ...
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... It is interesting to see how the change in monoterpenes alters fruity aroma quality in the wine in matrix 3. Linalool has been associated with fruity aromas in white wines, 43 citronellol with lemon aromas, 44 and nerol with citrus aroma. 45 However, their aroma quality is unknown when in mixtures. It appears that linalool is not having a large impact on fruity perception as profile 1 which contains no linalool and profile 9 which contains linalool, linalool oxide, and limonene have the same odor quality (Figure 2). ...
... • Decreases total mood disturbance and tension-anxiety [13,35] Palestinian or Indian sweet lime ...
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... phitrantha × P. cauliflora) presented the smaller C2 comprising three compounds: α-muurolene, β-patchoulene, 3,6-dimethyl-4h-furo[3,2-c]pyran-4-one (Table S2), the sesquiterpene α-muurolene are the only one with aromatic notes described in the literature. The 'woody-like' aroma of this compound is widely emitted by fruits and, mainly, by flowers of different species [23][24][25][26][27]. It has also been identified in fig species, and in Ficus racemosa, characterized by being one of the volatiles emitted during the daytime, with the function of attracting pollinating wasps [28,29]. ...
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The jabuticaba is a native Brazilian fruit that has aroused worldwide interest in terms of its nutritional composition and biological activity. However, research on the profile of volatile compounds (VOCs) emitted by these fruits is rare. This study presents the first identification of VOCs from four jabuticaba species. The aim of the study was to characterize the aromatic profile of the following species: 'Sabará' (Plinia jaboticaba), 'Escarlate' (Plinia phitrantha × Plinia cauliflora), 'Otto Andersen' (Plinia cauliflora), and 'Esalq' (Plinia phitrantha). The analysis was performed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Multivariate analysis techniques applying the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and heatmap were used to compare the results. Fruit quality parameters were determined in terms of fresh mass (g), skin color, soluble solids, and titratable acidity. A total of 117 VOCs was identified including terpenoids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, alkanes, ketones, and carboxylic acids, with 36 VOCs common to all four species. Terpenes were the majority for all jabuticabas with smaller contributions from other volatile classes, especially β-cubebene, β-elemene, and D-limonene for the 'Otto Andersen' jabuticaba.
... Table III shows the main volatile organic compounds in each spice. [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] On the basis of the chemical species, spices are roughly categorized into three groups as shown in Fig. 4(a). Among these groups, group II is composed of spices containing mainly terpenes and terpenoids in their vapors. ...
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... (Rutaceae) (Aurantioideae) Citrus, Fortunella, Poncirus (Nicolosi, 2007;Penjor , 2013 Table 2). (Kang, 1990;Lan-Phi , 2009). CVEV 1,500 (Guoqing , 1996). ...
... The compounds were tentatively identified by comparing their mass spectra with those in the data system library (NIST08). Quantitative analysis was carried out using the internal standard method as described by Lan-Phi, Shimamura, Ukeda, and Sawamura (2009). The concentrations of volatile components were expressed as lg/g FW. ...
... ex Tanaka) is an upright evergreen tree 2-7 m tall and has been traditionally grown in South Korea, China and Japan [1]. The fruits were variously used for their refreshing fragrance, to make tea, seasoning, side dishes and for medicinal purposes, and contain a wide range of active ingredients, high amount of antioxidants and volatile oils [2][3][4][5][6]. Yuzu trees annually require higher amounts of sunshine (up to 2400 h) and water than other temperate fruit trees during the growing season [1,7]. ...
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... The peel of Citrus junos Tanaka, which is rich in active compounds such as phenolic compounds (e.g., limonene, rutin, naringin, narirutin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin), is mainly used as a dried product for herbal medicine, tea, or beverages [7,[13][14][15][16]. The various functions of these compounds have been reported such as immune and inflammation regulation [14,[17][18][19][20][21]. In particular, naringin has been reported in several studies, showing a key protective effect against oxidative stress [17,22]. ...
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Particulate matter (PM) 10 refers to fine dust with a diameter of less than 10 µm and induces apoptosis and inflammatory responses through oxidative stress. Citrus junos Tanaka is a citrus fruit and contains bioactive flavonoids including naringin. In the present study, we aimed to identify the preventive effect of Citrus junos Tanaka peel extract (CPE) against PM10-induced lung injury. As a proof of concept, NCI-H460 cells were treated with CPE (800 μg/mL, 12 h) in conjunction with PM10 to examine intracellular antioxidative capacity in the pulmonary system. In an in vivo model, male BALB/c mice (n = 8/group) were randomly assigned into five groups: NEG (saline-treated), POS (PM10 only), NAR (PM10 + naringin, 100 mg/kg), CPL (PM10 + CPE low, 100 mg/kg), and CPH (PM10 + CPE high, 400 mg/kg). Intervention groups received dietary supplementations for 7 days followed by PM10 exposure (100 mg/kg, intranasal instillation). Compared to the NEG, the CPE decreased to 22% of the ROS generation and significantly increased cell viability in vitro. The histological assessments confirmed that pulmonary damages were alleviated in the PM10 + CPL group compared to the POS. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB/apoptosis signaling-related markers were decreased in the PM10 + CPL group compared to the POS. These results indicated that CPE showed promising efficacy in preventing pulmonary injuries in vivo. Such protection can be explained by the anti-oxidative capacity of CPE, likely due to its bioactives, including naringin (7.74 mg/g CPE). Follow-up human intervention, as well as population-level studies, will further shed light on the preventive efficacy of CPE against pulmonary damage in humans.
... These phytochemicals and anti-carcinogenic properties have been shown to be higher in the peel than in the flesh of the fruit (13). Several studies have examined methods to remove pesticide residues from fruits (14-17) including washing, peeling, ozone treatment, cooking, etc. (18)(19)(20)(21)(22). ...
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... As economically important fruits, Citrus are rich in volatile terpenoids. Among these compounds, monoterpenes are major components of flavorrelated volatiles (Lan-Phi et al., 2009). E-geraniol is an acyclic monoterpene alcohol released from many plants, including roses and herbs (Charles and Simon, 1992;Antonelli et al., 1997;Rao et al., 2000;Iijima et al., 2004), and is used in cosmetics and flavor industries due to its pleasant rose-like smell. ...
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The unique flavor of Citrus fruit depends on complex combinations of soluble sugars, organic acids, and volatile compounds. The monoterpene E-geraniol is an important volatile, contributing to flavor in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). Moreover, antifungal activity of E-geraniol has also been observed. However, the terpene synthase (TPS) responsible for its synthesis has not been identified in sweet orange. Terpene synthase 16 (CitTPS16) was shown to catalyze synthesis of E-geraniol in vitro, and transient overexpression of CitTPS16 in fruits and leaves of Newhall sweet orange resulted in E-geraniol accumulation in vivo. Having identified the responsible enzyme, we next examined transcriptional regulation of CitTPS16 in the fruit. Among cloned members of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family, CitERF71 showed a similar expression pattern to CitTPS16. Moreover, CitERF71 was able to activate the CitTPS16 promoter based on results from transient dual-luciferase assays and yeast one-hybrid assays. EMSAs showed that CitERF71 directly binds to ACCCGCC and GGCGGG motifs in the CitTPS16 promoter. These results indicate an important role for CitERF71 in transcriptional regulation of CitTP16 and, therefore, in controlling production of E-geraniol in Citrus fruit.
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This study was conducted to confirm the usefulness of essential oil components in yuzu and kumquat cultivated in Korea for comparison with those in lemon and lime. The volatile flavor compounds in citrus fruits (yuzu, kumquat, lemon and lime) were extracted for 3 h with 100 mL redistilled n-pentane/diethylether (1:1, v/v) mixture, using a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction apparatus (SDE). The volatile flavor compositions of the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The aroma compounds analyzed were 104 (3,713.02 mg/kg) in yuzu, 87 (621.71 mg/kg) in kumquat 103 (3,024.69 mg/kg) in lemon and 106 (2,209.16 mg/kg) in lime. Limonene was a major volatile flavor compound in four citrus fruits. The peak area of limonene was 35.03% in yuzu, 63.82% in kumquat, 40.35% in lemon, and 25.06% in lime. In addition to limonene, the major volatile flavor compounds were γ-terpinene, linalool, β-myrcene, (E)-β-farnesene, α-pinene and β-pinene in yuzu, and β-myrcene, α-pinene, (Z)-limonene oxide, (E)-limonene oxide, geranyl acetate and limonen-10-yl acetate in kumquat. Furthermore, γ-terpinene, β-pinene, β-myrcene, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate and (Z)-β-bisabolene in lemon and γ-terpinene, β-pinene, (Z)-β-bisabolene, neral, geranial and neryl acetate in lime were also detected. As a result, it was confirmed that the composition of volatile flavor compounds in four citrus fruits was different. Also, yuzu and kumquat are judged to be worthy of use alternatives for lemon and lime widely used in the fragrance industry.
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In the present investigation, extraction of antioxidants and flavonoids from the peels of yuzu fruit using a single factor experiment and a response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design was studied. Four independent variables were evaluated at five levels with total 29 experimental runs, including ethanol concentration (EtOH), ratio of liquid to material (L/S), extraction temperature (T), and extraction time (t). The total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), two indicators of antioxidant capacity (FRAP and DPPH), and three individual major flavonoids in yuzu (hesperidin, naringin, and phloretin) served as the response functions. Quadratic polynomial equations were obtained by multiple regression analysis to predict the optimal extraction conditions. The regression analysis showed that >95 % of variations were explained by the models of different responses considered. The responses were significantly influenced by all studied factors. The Multiresponse optimized conditions targeted at maximizing all the responses were found to be EtOH = 65.550 %; T = 43.864 °C; t = 119.673 min; and L/S = 37.168 ml/g, with a desirability of 0.950. At the optimized conditions, the experimental values of FRAP (964.9 ± 23.1 mgTE/g DW), DPPH (453.0 ± 5.2 mgTE/g DW), TPC (1161.2 ± 25.2 mgGAE/g DW), (TFC393.4 ± mgQE/g DW), hesperidin (337.2 ± 4.0 mg/g DW), naringin (244.9 ± 1.1 mg/g DW), and phloretin (43.9 mg/g DW) were in a reasonable agreement with the predicted values. The extraction method was applied successfully to extract antioxidants and flavonoids from yuzu peels. It also allows a fast and cost-saving process for extraction of the studied phytochemicals, in addition to improvement of the quantity of the targeted extract.
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Aldehydes are key aroma contributors of citrus essential oils. White Guanxi honey pummelo essential oil (WPEO) was investigated in its aldehydes constituents and their transformations induced by UV irradiation and air exposure by GC-MS, GC-O, and sensory evaluation. Nine aldehydes, i.e., octanal, nonanal, citronellal, decanal, trans-citral, cis-citral, perilla aldehyde, dodecanal, and dodecenal were detected in WPEO. After treatment, the content of citronellal increased, but the concentrations of other aldehydes decreased. The aliphatic aldehydes were transformed to organic acids. Citral was transformed to neric acid, geranic acid and cyclocitral. Aldehyde transformation caused a remarkable decrease in the minty, herbaceous and lemon notes of WPEO. In fresh WPEO, β-myrcene, d-limonene, octanal, decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal had highest odour dilution folds. After the treatment, the dilution folds of decanal, cis-citral, trans-citral, and dodecenal decreased dramatically. This result provides information for the production and storage of aldehydes-containing products.
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We carried out comprehensive technological innovation to resolve problems related to post-squeezing yuzu waste. The concepts underpinning this project are effective utilization of agricultural waste ; preservation of the environment ; and recycling of resources toward eco-consciousness. We developed a steam-distillation extractor, equipped with an ultrasonic generator, to recover high quality pure essential oil from post-squeezing yuzu waste more effectively than by the conventional method. We also developed a new bio-system including specific facilities for the purification of the resultant wastewater and for the generation of compost from the post-distillation yuzu waste residue.
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Bio-based multi-functional epoxides (1) such as bis-, tri-, and tetra-epoxides were synthesized by ene-thiol reactions between limonene oxide and polyhydric thiols. A cross-linking reaction of 1 with branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) afforded the corresponding network polymers 2 with relatively high thermal resistance in high yields
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d-Limonene is a fragrant chemical that widely exists in aromatic products. Isotopic labelling of water molecules plus GC-MS and GC-PCI-Q-TOF analyses were used to investigate the influence of water molecules on chemical transformation of d-limonene induced by UV irradiation and air exposure. The results showed that the synergistic effect of UV irradiation, air exposure and water presence could facilitate d-limonene transformation into the limonene oxides: p-mentha-2,8-dienols, hydroperoxides, carveols, l-carvone and carvone oxide. UV irradiation, air exposure, or water alone, however, caused negligible d-limonene transformation. With the aid of isotopic labelling of water and oxygen molecules, it was found that water molecules were split into hydrogen radicals and hydroxyl radicals, and the hydrogen radicals, in particular, promoted the transformation reactions. This study has elucidated the mechanism and factors that influence the transformation of d-limonene, which will benefit industries involved in production and storage of d-limonene-containing products.
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‘Shiikuu’ (Citrus sp.) is cultivated on Kikai Island located in the Amami Islands, Japan, and the skin of its fruits has an aroma that is almost the same as that of ‘Bergamot’ (C. bergamia Risso et Piet.). A similar type of local citrus grows only in the northern part of the Amami Islands. In this study, the aroma of ‘Shiikuu’ was compared with that of ‘Bergamot’ and ‘Tanaka Bergamot’ (C. balotina Poit. et Turp.). Three major components were common in the three citrus accessions: “linalyl acetate”, “linalool”, and “d-limonene”, and they comprised 77–91% of the total in each aromatic constitution. The concentration of the phototoxic compounds, furocoumarins, was much lower in ‘Shiikuu’ than in ‘Bergamot’, despite the similarity of their aromas. Water distillation was suggested to be a suitable method for ‘Shiikuu’ essential oil extraction because of its small fruit with a thin flavedo. The results of a sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) analysis confirmed that ‘Shiikuu’ differs from ‘Bergamot’. ‘Shiikuu’ probably arose as a local Citrus accession derived from an incidentally dispersed seedling growing in the northern part of the Amami Islands.
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Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) is a very specific citrus variety mostly produced in Japan and South Korea. In recent years, it received considerable interest from the flavour and fragrance industry, and many studies devoted to the characterization of its volatile constituents have been published, often leading to somewhat contradictory results. This comprehensive review aims at giving a general view of the volatile components and the putative key odorants of Yuzu peel oil. The published data on the volatile constituents of Yuzu (Cirtus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) is critically reviewed to give an exhaustive view of the fragrant components and the putative key odorants of this highly esteemed fruit.
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Ichang lemon is a citrus fruit whose rind gives off a delicious and much appreciated fragrance and flavor. The volatile components of the fruit peel of Ichang lemon were investigated by GC-MS and GC-O (AEDA method). Simultaneously, its genetic origin was identified by using diagnostic SNP markers specific to ancestral species and multiallelic SSR and InDel markers. Ichang lemon combines three ancestral genomes (Citrus maxima, Citrus ichangensis, and Citrus reticulata) and may be a pummelo × Yuzu hybrid. Although the major compounds of the Ichang lemon aromatic profile were present in Citrus junos, a few pummelo-specific compounds were also detected, such as indole and nootkatone, in agreement with its maternal lineage. 3-Methyl-3-sulfanylbutyl acetate, reported to occur in passion fruit and brewed coffee, was identified by GC-MS, GC-QTOF-MS, and GC-FTIR for the first time in citrus. This odor-active compound has a sulfurous, tropical fruity, green note.
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Polymer materials prepared using renewable resources such as agricultural and food wastes would lead to a sustainable society. Our target was a synthesis of fiber‐reinforced network polymer derived from citrus oil and wine pomace. Lignocellulose nanofiber (LCNF) was successfully prepared from wine pomace by mechanical fibrillation using disk mill grinder under wet condition, followed by freeze‐drying. The resultant LCNF with coarse powder‐like (the untreated LCNF) enabled to reinforce bio‐based network polymer derived from limonene oxide even though heterogeneously dispersed LCNF was observed in the polymer matrix. Polymer/LCNF composite material with almost homogeneously dispersed LCNF was obtained using LCNF prepared from alcohol‐exchange process prior to freeze‐drying (the alcohol‐exchanged LCNF). Tensile strength of the network polymer reinforced by 2% of alcohol‐exchanged LCNF was around 3.2 times higher than that of the polymer without any LCNF. Dynamic mechanical analysis measurement exhibited that cross‐link density of the network polymer reinforced by 2% of alcohol‐exchanged LCNF was around 1.4 times higher than that of the neat polymer. It is noted that the cross‐linker for bio‐based network polymer, branched polyethyleneimine, likely acted as a dispersing agent for LCNF. Lignocellulose nanofiber (LCNF) derived from wine pomace enabled to reinforce citrus‐oil‐based network polymer.
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Ichang lemon is a citrus fruit whose rind gives off a delicious and much appreciated fragrance and flavor. The volatile components of the fruit peel of Ichang lemon were investigated by GC-MS and GC-O (AEDA method). Simultaneously, its genetic origin was identified by using diagnostic SNP markers specific to ancestral species and multiallelic SSR and InDel markers. Ichang lemon combines three ancestral genomes (Citrus maxima, Citrus ichangensis, and Citrus reticulata) and may be a pummelo × Yuzu hybrid. Although the major compounds of the Ichang lemon aromatic profile were present in Citrus junos, a few pummelo-specific compounds were also detected, such as indole and nootkatone, in agreement with its maternal lineage. 3-Methyl-3-sulfanylbutyl acetate, reported to occur in passion fruit and brewed coffee, was identified by GC-MS, GC-QTOF-MS, and GC-FTIR for the first time in citrus. This odor-active compound has a sulfurous, tropical fruity, green note.
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Eastern prickly pear (Opuntia humifusa) is a medicinal plant containing multiple biological functions such as antioxidant, antidiabetic and immunological activities. However, it has been rarely used in food industry due to high viscosity as well as its own distinct flavor and bitter taste. This study was performed to enhance functional and sensory properties of O. humifusa by fermentation with yuza (Citrus junos) peel and guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaf. Changes in characteristics of three O. humifusa extracts fermented from different ingredients (O: O. humifusa; O-Y: O. humifusa+yuza peel; O-YG: O. humifusa+yuza peel+guava leaf) were investigated during traditional lactic acid fermentation at 25°C. During the initial 3 d of fermentation, pH of O. humifusa extracts dropped to 3.6 and its viable cell number reached to 10⁷ CFU/mL. The contents of isorhamnetin, quercetin, total polyphenols and total flavonoids increased in all O. humifusa extracts with fermentation time while the hesperidin and naringin contents decreased during 15 d of fermentation. O-YG fermented for 15 d was highest in the contents of total polyphenol, total flavonoid, quercetin, naringin and hesperidin while the isorhamnetin content was highest in O. Antioxidant activity and α-glucosidase inhibition activity were elevated in all extracts along with fermentation time. O-YG was highest in overall sensory acceptability and its DPPH radical scavenging activity was about 3 times higher than O and O-Y. The glycemic index value of O-YG from a glucose tolerance test was significantly lower than that of a commercial O. humifusa extract.
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A study was conducted to investigate the distribution of volatile compounds (VCs) in the juices from three mandarin cultivars 'Minneola', 'King' and 'Tangerina' hold on-tree and stored in the cold. The VCs were analyzed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 116 VCs were identified in mandarins. The VCs α-pinene (0.48-1.58%), β-myrcene (1.42-3.57%), limonene (41.68-78.55%), γ-terpinene (0.13-11.58%), linalool (1.57-17.00%), terpinene-4-ol (0.62-5.03%) and α-terpineol (1.29-8.98%) were the most abundant compounds found in mandarin juice. There were twenty-eight VCs (α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, β-thujene, γ-terpinene, β-ocimene, p-cymene, α-terpinolene, octanal, tebacon, nonanal, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, E-2-octenal, dehydro-p-cymene, decanal, linalool, 1-octanol, terpinene-4-ol, β-terpineol, γ-elemene, α-terpineol, isoborneol, isoledene, carvone, cis-gereniol, γ-muurolene, perilla aldehyde, trans-geraniol) common to all three mandarin cultivars. The hold on-tree resulted in an increase in β-myrcene and γ-terpinene and a decrease in α-terpineol, as compared to the cold storage and the first harvest. At the cold storage, there was observed a significant increase in δ-elemene, β-elemene, γ-elemene and germacrene D for 'Minneola' mandarine juice, and in linalool, octanol and ethanol for 'King' and 'Tangerina' mandarin juices and also decrease in limonene for all mandarin juices. VCs β-cyclocitral, lavandulyl acetate, β-citronellol, α-cyclocitral, L-fenchone, α-sinensal and Z-3-hexenol were identified in 'Tangerina' juice only. Aromadendrene was found in 'Minneola' only. The number of volatile compounds identified and also alcohol percentages were the greater in juices from mandarin stored at the cold than the harvest. This may indicate an increase in the anaerobic respiration due to the alcohol compounds production at high level which may enhance off-flavor development.
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(6Z,8E)-Undeca-6,8,10-trien-3-one (yuzunone) is reported to be one of the main olfactory contributors of the specific fruity-green-balsamic odor of yuzu peel oil. Using an original stereoselective synthesis, we prepared a pure sample of yuzunone, which was used as a reference compound to check its presence by GC-MS and GC-O in 5 commercial samples of yuzu and citrus essential oils. Surprisingly, we could not detect yuzunone by GC-MS in any of our samples. However, it could be detected by a small part of the panelists involved in GC-O/AEDA experiments in a yuzu commercial oil, but its olfactory contribution proved to be very limited.
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The thiol‐ene reaction between trans‐limonene oxide (trans‐LO) and ethane‐1,2‐dithiol in the presence of triethylborane affords a bio‐based bis‐functional epoxide (bis‐trans‐LO). The crosslinking reaction of bis‐trans‐LO with branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI; Mn = 600; BPEI600) at a feed ratio of bis‐trans‐LO/BPEI600 = 57/43 (wt/wt) yields the corresponding network polymer with Td10 (10% thermal decomposition temperature) of 304.7 °C in 98% yield. In contrast, negligible amounts of network polymer are obtained by the reaction of bis‐LO (bis‐functional epoxide derived from cis and trans‐LO) and BPEI600 regardless of the feed ratio. The mechanical strengths as measured by direct tensile tests of the network polymers derived from bis‐trans‐LO and BPEI600,1800 (Mn = 600 and 1800) were approximately 16 and 11 times higher than that of bis‐LO and BPEI1800, respectively. The tensile shear strengths of the metal‐to‐metal adhesive bonds induced by bis‐trans‐LO and BPEI600,1800 were 9.5 and 14.1 MPa, respectively. DMA revealed that the storage modulus of the network polymer derived from bis‐trans‐LO and BPEI1800 in the rubber region was higher than that of the material prepared from bis‐LO and BPEI1800, indicating higher crosslink density of the bis‐trans‐LO/BPEI1800 system. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2019 Bio‐based bis‐functional epoxide derived from trans‐limonene oxide (bis‐trans‐LO) was synthesized. Crosslinking reaction of bis‐trans‐LO with branched polyethyleneimine afforded the corresponding network polymer with excellent performances, including polymer yield, thermal resistance, and mechanical strength.
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While the chemical composition of leaf and stem bark essential oils of the Chinese cinnamon, Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, has been well investigated, little is known about the volatilom of its buds, which appeared recently on German markets. Soxhlet extracts of the commercial samples were prepared, fractionated using silica gel and characterised by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) for semi-quantification, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for identification and by GC-FID/olfactometry for sensory evaluation. Cinnamaldehyde was the most abundant compound with concentrations up to 40 mg/g sample. In total, 36 compounds were identified and 30 were semi-quantified. The extracts contained mostly phenylpropanoids, mono-and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated derivatives. Because of the high abundance of cinnamaldehyde, the aldehyde fraction was removed from the extracts by adding hydrogen sulphite to improve both the detection of trace compounds and column chromatography. The aldehyde fraction was analysed by GC-MS separately. The highest flavour dilution factor of 316 was calculated for cinnamaldehyde. Other main sensory contributors were 2-phenylethanol and cinnamyl alcohol. This report provides the first GC-olfactometry data of a plant part of a Cinnamomum species. The strongly lignified C. cassia buds combine a high abundance of cinnamaldehyde with comparably low coumarin concentrations (<0.48 mg/g), and provide a large cinnamaldehyde depot for slow release applications.
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The aroma fraction of fresh fruits is a key factor to evaluate quality and acceptance or resistance of customers. Due to the limited sensitivity of current analytical methods, many important aroma components are unidentified in most studies of fresh fruit. In this work, the aroma compounds in the fresh navel orange were studied by multidimensional gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry which can simultaneously achieve one-dimensional and comprehensive two-dimensional separation on only one instrument, with no need to change columns. As a result, a total of 97 volatile compounds were determined by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography while only 44 compounds were identified by one-dimensional gas chromatography. The identified compounds, which account for 98.30% of the volatile chemicals present in the orange, include 10 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 22 alcohols, 12 esters, 11 hydrocarbons and 34 terpenes. D-limonene was shown to be the predominant compound in fresh navel oranges. The results show that comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography provided reliable and comprehensive information on the aroma compounds in fresh navel oranges.
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In the present study, peel oils were extracted through hydrodistillation and cold pressing from three Citrus species (Valencia orange, Ponkan and Eureka lemon) to investigate their volatile constituents and antioxidant activities. A total of 47 volatile components were identified by GC–MS, and then grouped by principal component analysis. The extraction methods were found to have an obvious effect on the proportion of terpenes and oxygenated compounds in the six Citrus oils, especially for Eureka lemon oils. The major fractions in the Citrus oils were found to be monoterpenes (78.65–96.57%), with limonene occupying a dominant percentage (51.22–86.65%). Furthermore, γ-terpinene and terpinolene displayed strong DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging abilities and efficient inhibition of lipid peroxidation, while oxygenated compounds of α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol showed poor DPPH radical-scavenging abilities. Therefore, hydrodistillated Eureka lemon oil with high levels of α-terpineol (9.11%) and terpinen-4-ol (4.69%) presented low radical scavenging capability. Citral displayed a high pro-oxidant ability against thiobarbituric acid reactive species formation, which might lead to the decreased ability of the Eureka lemon oils in inhibition of lipid peroxidation, since citral was significantly high in Eureka lemon oils. This study facilitated the understanding of volatile constituents and antioxidant activities in different Citrus peel oils.
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Triterpenoids, tocopherols, and phytosterols presented in unsaponifiable fraction of grape seed oil have several beneficial effects comprising antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and antitumor capacities. In this study, the unsaponifiable fraction of three Tunisian grape seed varieties (Vitis vinifera L.), namely Merlot, Carignan, and Syrah, was investigated. The identified compounds were two triterpenic compounds (β‐ amyrin, lanosterol), six phytosterols (campesterol, Δ7‐avenasterol, stigmasterol, β‐sitosterol, β‐sitostanol, cholesterol), and three tocopherols (α, β, and γ tocopherols). The unsaponifiable fraction had significant protection against oxidative damage by modulating NO production and antioxidant activity. Statistical analysis showed the presence of three clusters of varieties associated to specific composition patterns. These results clearly demonstrated that unsaponifiable fraction profiles of grape species could be considered as a complementary.
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Aroma is one of the key factors in evaluating tea quality. However, the dominant aroma components of black teas with different aroma characteristics are still unknown. In this study, the key aroma compounds in black teas with floral aroma, sweet aroma, and sweet & floral aroma were systematically characterized by the combination of gas chromatography electronic nose (GC-E-Nose), gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS), and odor activity value (OAV) analysis. A satisfactory discrimination was obtained by using partial least squares-discriminant analysis, based on the volatile fingerprints from the GC-E-Nose and GC-IMS, with robustness model parameters (R2Y = 0.981, and Q2 = 0.967) and (R2Y = 0.893, and Q2 = 0.86), respectively. Among the 38 identified aroma compounds, 15 volatiles were simultaneously identified as important odorants with OAVs greater than 1 in three fragrant black teas, namely (E)-2-nonenal, linalool, nonanal, benzene acetaldehyde, octanal, benzaldehyde, oct-1-en-3-ol, heptanal, ethyl 2-methylpentanoate, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, (E)-3-penten-2-one, and butanal, with ethyl 2-methylpentanoate (176.44≤OAV≤1453.47), 3-methylbutanal (19.59≤OAV≤76.16), (E)-2-nonenal (37.43≤OAV≤56.46) and linalool (3.29≤OAV≤56.72) being the most notable. The results provide a theoretical support for flavor quality improvement and oriented processing of black tea.
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External color of citrus fruits is a key factor that affects consumer acceptability, and ethephon has been commonly used to the degreening of citrus fruits in the industry. In this study, the green-peeled ‘Eureka’ lemon fruits were treated with ethephon solution (1000 mg/L), and then stored at 20 °C (RH 85%) for 9 days. The fruit color, flavor and antioxidant capacity were investigated during the degreening process, and the qualities of ethephon-degreened fruits were compared to those of yellowish bagged fruits. The results showed that the postharvest ethephon treatment improved the external color, which was indicated by the increases in the citrus color index (CCI) and chroma (C*), and declines in hue angle (h°) and total chlorophylls. Titratable acidity (TA) was lower than that of bagged fruits after ethephon treatment. Soluble solids content (SSC), SSC/TA ratio and ascorbic acid were decreased slightly, but they were still higher than those of bagged fruits. Although individual organic acid and sugar fluctuated after ethephon treatment, no deleterious effects were observed. The taste-active amino acids increased slightly both in the fruit peel and pulp, and the volatile compounds in fruit peel were obviously increased about 1 time as compared to the untreated fresh fruits. Most interestingly, we found that the antioxidant capacity of the degreened fruits was increased by ethephon degreening treatment, and their DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP values of peels and/or pulps reached the highest at the end of storage. In corroboration this, our data also showed that the enhancement of antioxidant capacity was strongly associated with the increase of total phenolics (r>0.9). Taken together, our study shows that postharvest ethephon degreening treatment is an effective and economical approach to improve the peel color and potentially the internal quality of lemon fruits.
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Objective: To investigate effects of oxygen and heating on aromas and volatile components of pummelo essential oil (PEO). Method: The PEOs were analyzed by sensory evaluation, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and sensory reconstruction analysis. Results: The PEO co-treated by oxygen and heating exhibited significant differences in both aromas and volatile compositions from those of the fresh, the nitrogen-protected, the heated and the oxygen-exposed PEOs. The strong sweet and floral notes of the oxygen and heating co-treated PEO were attributed to high concentration of limonene oxides; the strong minty note was resulted from the increase of L-carvone. Conclusion: The results indicate that limonene oxides and L-carvone could significantly change the aroma of PEO co-treatment by oxygen and heating, providing valuable information for the production and storage of aromatic products of PEO.
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This review provides an overview of the emerging trends in analysis of essential oils and indicates future trends. Since early human history the essential oils have been used in folk medicine, food and cosmetic industries in various parts of the world. GC-FID is the traditional method for essential oils quantification while GC-MS is the most common analytical method for qualitative analysis. Chiral GC allowed the identification of a great number of chiral essential oil constituents. An alternative to GC analysis is HPLC chromatography. The use of hyphenated techniques, such as LC-MS-MS provides important information about the structure of essential oils constituents. However, only a comparatively small number of reports on essential oil analyses by HPLC can be found in the literature. Multidimensional chromatography is an approach capable of providing greater resolution.13C-NMR spectroscopy is a complementary tool for analysis of essential oils. Advantage of this method compared to mass spectrometry is identification of stereoisomers and thermally unstable compounds while its disadvantage is inability to identify the minor oils constituents. 1H-NMR as an online tool for GC analysis showed promising results but requires further research to be applied on the analysis of essential oils. The range of information obtained from essential oils analysis enables the application of chemometrics.
Article
Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) peel oils were extracted by cold-pressing. The flavour components of yuzu were quantitatively determined by use of two internal standards with GC and GC-MS. Characteristic flavour components of yuzu were examined by GC-olfactometry. The contents of hydrocarbons (34 compounds), alcohols (37 compounds) and aldehydes (16 compounds) in weight percent were about 96.55%, 2.03% and 0.1%, respectively. The terpenes were the major components of yuzu peel oil, but they contributed little to the characteristic flavour of yuzu. Methyltrisulfide, borneol, n-octanol, trans-undec-2-enal, (+)-p-mentha-1-en-9-ol, eugenol and carvacrol were found to be strongly involved in the characteristic flavour of yuzu, together with 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol and methyltrisulfide having the highest FD-factor. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The essential oils of"sumikan"(a cultivar of Citrus aurantium), "naoshichi"(C. tagumasudachi)and"yuzu"(C. junos)were analyzed by gas chromatography and GC-MS. The peak area percentages of the hydrocarbons and the oxygenated compound among the aroma constituents identified were as follows: 99.3% and 0.45% for"sumikan", 99.4% and 0.49% for "naoshichi", and 90.6% and 8.74% for "yuzu". It is suggested that it is the terpenic hydrocarbons that may largely contribute to the characteristic odour of "sumikan" and "naoshichi". Myrcene was especially predominant(24.3%)in"sumikan". The oxygenated compounds involved in"yuzu" oil much than in "sumikan" and "naoshichi" oils might deeply take part in the characteristic odour of "yuzu".
Article
To compare the difference of odor quality in peel oils of acid citrus, the essential il was prepared by solution extraction from five kinds of acid citrus; Lemon (Citrus limne), Lime (Citrus aurantifolia), Sudachi (Citrus sedate Hort ext Shirai), Yuzu (Citrus sunos Tanaka) and Kabosu (Citrus sphareeocarpa Tanaka). Each oil was separated into fractions of hydrocarbon and oxygenated compounds through a silica gel column, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry )GC-MS). As the volatiles, 72 components in Lemon, 76 components in Lime, 69 components in Sudachi, 71 components in Yuzu and 77 components in Kabosu were identified. As these oxygenated fractions had the characteristic aroma of the peel oils, odor quality of each fraction was estimated on the basis of a lograrithmic odor unit values (log Uo).
Article
A compilation of reported quantitative values for individual components of cold-pressed oils of sweet orange, grapefruit, mandarin, lemon, lime, bitter orange, bergamot, certain hybrid oils, and of distilled lime oil is presented. Different analytical methods used to determine these values are compared. Reasons for differences in quantitative values determined by gas chromatography (GLC) are ascribed to method of preliminary separation, method of calculating relative percent composition, type of column or detector used, decomposition during GLC separation, and sample history. Valid conclusions regarding chemotaxonomy of hybrids cannot be made from the available data because of variable sample histories and analytical techniques.
Article
Yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) peel oils were extracted by cold-pressing. The flavour components of yuzu were quantitatively determined by use of two internal standards with GC and GC–MS. Characteristic flavour components of yuzu were examined by GC–olfactometry. The contents of hydrocarbons (34 compounds), alcohols (37 compounds) and aldehydes (16 compounds) in weight percent were about 96.55%, 2.03% and 0.1%, respectively. The terpenes were the major components of yuzu peel oil, but they contributed little to the characteristic flavour of yuzu. Methyltrisulfide, borneol, n-octanol, trans-undec-2-enal, (+)-p-mentha-1-en-9-ol, eugenol and carvacrol were found to be strongly involved in the characteristic flavour of yuzu, together with 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol and methyltrisulfide having the highest FD-factor. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) fruit samples were obtained in November 1998 from the principal producing districts in Japan and Korea, areas which are similar with regard to latitude. Cold-pressed essential oils of the peels of the various yuzu fruits were simultaneously prepared and the chemical compositions of their volatile parts were quantitatively determined by capillary GC and GC–MS. The quantities, represented by weight percent, were examined statistically by analysis of variance followed by Duncan's multiple range test. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were found in higher concentration in the Japanese yuzu oils than in Korean ones except those from Kochi (Japanese), while the concentration of the oxygenated compounds was higher in one of the Korean samples. It was noted that there were significant differences in the concentration of limonene, β-phelladrene, linalol, (E)-β-farnesene, bicyclogermacrene, and (E)-nerolidol in the samples. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Leaf extracts of 27 ‘Yuzu’ and related acid citrus cultivars were analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for isozyme variation of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH). SDH yielded 12 different isozyme phenotypes and six cultivars were discriminated by this enzyme alone. GOT produced 10 different isozyme phenotypes and four cultivars were separated. When both enzyme systems were taken together, 16 cultivars (59%) were uniquely discriminated and the rest could be classified into four groups of 2–4 cultivars each. Mutation originated cultivars could not be discriminated. Differences between cultivars suggested that isozymes may provide useful markers for cultivar identification.
Article
The changes of 34 components constituting a relative 97.6% of the total volatiles of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) cold-pressed peel oil and the possible artifacts during storage at −21, 5, and 20 °C were investigated after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Major qualitative changes were found after 12 months at 20 °C. Total monoterpene hydrocarbons underwent a large decrease (from 93.3 to 37.7%), with major loses of limonene, γ-terpinene, myrcene, and α-pinene, while notable increases occurred in p-cymene as well as the monoterpene alcohols (from 2.1 to 13.2%). Bicyclogermacrene, the main sesquiterpene hydrocarbon of the fresh oil (1.0%), was virtually depleted. Sesquiterpene alcohols were formed as dominant artifacts (36.1%) and constituted the second most abundant volatile group of the oil after the monoterpene hydrocarbons. (−)-Spathulenol (decahydro-1,1,7-trimethyl-4-methylene-1H-cyclopropylazulen-7-ol) was the main artifact among the 14 identified. The alcohol constituted the second major component of the oil after limonene from the ninth month and accounted for more than 75% of the sesquiterpenic alcohols at 20 °C. The spathulenol was found for the first time to be an artifact in yuzu oil. The compound could be a useful index for monitoring the quality and freshness of yuzu flavor during storage. Keywords: Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka; cold-pressed oil; volatile component; storage time; storage temperature; relative composition; sesquiterpenes; artifact; spathulenol
Article
Yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) is a kind of sour orange, which originated in central China. The fruit has a pleasant and fresh odor and has been used widely as a raw material for vinegar and seasoning in Japan. In general, it is well-known that aldehyde components play an important role of odor in citrus essential oil because of their low odor threshold. Therefore, the aldehydes of yuzu peel oil were isolated and analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Twenty-two aldehydes in yuzu peel oil of yellow and green maturity were identified. Three of them, 6-methyloctanal, 8-methylnonanal, and 8-methyldecanal, have not been previously reported to occur in nature. The three novel aldehyhdes were synthesized and discussed in more detail. Further odor distinction between green maturity and yellow maturity is also discussed.
Article
The physicochemical indices, the enantiomeric distribution of some monoterpene hydrocarbons, the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile fraction and the oxygenated heterocyclic fraction of cold-pressed Mexican Dancy tangerine essential oils are reported. The volatile fraction is characterized by a higher content of limonene. -Terpinene, myrcene and -pinene are the other most abundant hydrocarbons. Linalool is the main oxygenated compound. The oxygen heterocyclic fraction contains five polymethoxylated flavones, tangeritin being the main of them. Very little difference in the chemical and physicochemical composition of Dancy tangerine oils of different geographical origin was detected. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The volatile components of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka) cold-pressed oil were analysed by capillary GC and GC–MS, without prior separation, and compared with those of lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f., cv. Lisbon) grown in Japan. p-Mentha-1,4,8-triene, was newly found among the seventy-seven components identified in the yuzu oil. In the lemon oil, one hundred and two components were identified, including limonene diol, caryophyllene epoxide, and limonene-8,9-epoxide. Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in both the yuzu and lemon oils (96%). The two oils were distinctively different in the composition of alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. In the yuzu oil, alcohols were the second major components (2.05%), while in lemon, aldehydes (2.10%) and esters (0.63%) were more dominant. Bicyclogermacrene and germacrene-D were significant sesquiterpene hydrocarbons of the yuzu, while α-bisabolene and γ-bergamotene were the main ones in the lemon oil. The components of the two oils are presented, and comparatively discussed, with regard to the flavour differences of the citrus oils.
Article
Pinot noir character varies significantly with vintage and with maturity within a given vintage. Our objective was to use a gas chromatography-olfactometry technique (Osme) to compare odor profiles of Pinot noir wines from grapes harvested at different maturities, during 1987 and 1988. Odor profiles of Pinot noir wines from those years were very different from each other with only 4 odor-active peaks common to both vintages. Wines made with grapes harvested at the end of the ripening period had more odor-active peaks than wines from earlier harvested fruit. The 1988 wines had more odor-active peaks than the 1987 wines.
Article
Essential oil of C. aurantifolia Persa (lime) from Vietnam was isolated by a cold-pressing method with a yield of 0.02% of the fresh fruit. The odour-active constituents were investigated by capillary GC, GC-MS, GCO and AEDA. Ninety-six compounds were detected and 92 compounds were identified in the lime oil. Limonene (73.5%) was the major component, followed by geranial (8.4%), neral (4.9%), myrcene (2.1%) and β-bisabolene (1.6%). Eight compounds, limonene, geranial, neral, myrcene, geranyl acetate, α-pinene, α-terpineol and β-bisabolene were evaluated as the odour-active compounds, showing high FD values (FD-factor >6). From the GC-sniffing results, neryl acetate, β-bisabolene, 1-carvone, geranyl acetate, α- and β-citronellol, cumin aldehyde, perillaldehyde, nerol, tridecanal, germacrene B, geraniol, dodecyl acetate, caryophyllene oxide and perillyl alcohol were suggested as contributors to the characteristic aroma of this Vietnamese lime.
Article
The potency of odourants in foods is determined by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and by the calculation of odour activity values (OAVs). The application of these methods to olive oil, butter, Swiss cheese, heated beef, bread, beer, green tea, dill herb and to the off-flavours formed in lemon oil, soybean oil and boiled trout is reviewed. The results allow the conclusion that only a small fraction of the complex mixture of volatiles causes the characteristic odour of a distinct food.
Article
Epidemiological studies suggest that a high consumption of fruits can reduce the risk of some cancers and cardiovascular disease, and this may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of vitamins and phenolic compounds. The present study investigated the variations in vitamin C, total phenolic, hesperidin, and naringin contents, and total antioxidant activity of yuzu (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka)-which is a popular citrus fruit in Korea and Japan-between cultivars and during maturity. The amounts of phenolics and vitamin C and the antioxidant activity in all tested yuzu cultivars were higher in peel than in flesh. Ripening increased the total antioxidant activity and vitamin C content in both peel and flesh of yuzu. However, the amounts of all total phenolics, hesperidin, and naringin in peel increased with ripening, whereas they decreased slightly in flesh. There was a highly linear relationship between the vitamin C content and the total antioxidant activity in both peel (r(2) = 1.000) and flesh (r(2) =0.998), suggesting that vitamin C plays a key role in the antioxidant activity of yuzu. In addition, the contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant activity of yuzu was determined using a 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assay and is expressed here in terms of the vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC). The means of vitamin C, naringin, and hesperidin in yuzu were 90.4, 63.8, and 65.7 mg/100 g fresh yuzu, respectively. The relative VCEAC values of these compounds were in the following order: vitamin C (1.00) > naringin (0.195) > hesperidin (0.162). Therefore, the estimated contribution of each antioxidant to the total antioxidant capacity of 100 g of fresh yuzus is as follows (in mg of VCEAC): vitamin C (90.36 mg) > naringin (12.44 mg) > hesperidin (10.64 mg). Our results indicate that mature yuzu contains higher amounts of vitamin C and phenolics than other citrus fruits and could therefore be used as a significant dietary source of antioxidants.
Article
The inhibitory effect of yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) essential oil on the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the presence of vegetables (31 species) or saliva was investigated by HPLC. Most vegetable extracts enhanced the formation of NDMA. However, the formation ratio of NDMA in vegetable extracts was decreased by yuzu oil in the range of 59 to 22%. In the presence of yuzu oil and saliva, its ratio ranged between 62 and 24%. These results indicated that yuzu oil inhibited the formation of NDMA even in vegetables and saliva. The contents of ascorbic acid, nitrate, and nitrite in the 31 vegetable species were 0.3-65 mg/100 g, 3-581 mg/100 g, and 10-750 microg/100 g, respectively. Ascorbic acid and nitrite had little effect on the inhibition or formation of NDMA at their intact levels. Nitrate accelerated the formation of NDMA, and the addition of saliva further enhanced it. The mechanism of inhibition of NDMA formation by alpha-terpinene was studied. It was assumed from the results of LC-MS that a new compound formed by the reaction of alpha-terpinene with nitrite would be a derivative of alpha-terpinene with dinitroso groups. The molecular weight of this compound was 194. It is suggested that terpene hydrocarbons in citrus essential oils would contribute to the decrease of NDMA formation.
Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (yuzu) fruit
  • Sawamura
Sawamura, M. (2005). Citrus junos Sieb. ex Tanaka (yuzu) fruit. In R. Dris (Ed.), Fruits. Growth, nutrition, and quality (pp. 1–24). Helsinki, Finland: WFL Publisher.
Table 3 Odour description of peaks having yuzu-like odour in the six cultivars of yuzu peel oils
  • N T Lan
Table 3 Odour description of peaks having yuzu-like odour in the six cultivars of yuzu peel oils. N.T. Lan-Phi et al. / Food Chemistry 115 (2009) 1042–1047