Conference PaperPDF Available

Whiteboard Animations for Flipped Classrooms in a Common Core Science General Education Course

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Whiteboard animation, an engaging tool for teaching and learning, consists of a series of hand-drawing illustrations with voice-over narration to explain complex and abstract ideas. Our team had produced four short whiteboard animations tailor-made for a common core science general education (GE) course. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of using these whiteboard animations for flipped classrooms in the common core science GE course. The pre-tutorial survey showed that students who watched the animations got significantly higher average marks in the quizzes at the beginning of the tutorials (p<0.001). The post-tutorial feedback survey indicated that the whiteboard animations attracted 67% of students to watch the animations. For students who watched the animations, over 86% of them reported that the animations raised their interest in the issues discussed in the tutorial classes, and learning materials in the form of whiteboard animation were more interesting than lecture videos; more than 90% of the students agreed the whiteboard animations were helpful in (i) understanding the assigned readings, (ii) clarifying the concepts of the discussed issues, and (iii) gaining the related knowledge before the tutorial. We concluded that whiteboard animation is an effective and engaging tool for flipped classrooms in the common core science GE course.
Whiteboard Animations for Flipped Classrooms in a Common
Core Science General Education Course
Ming Li, Chi Wai Lai, Wai Man Szeto
Office of University General Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong
Kong.
Abstract
Whiteboard animation, an engaging tool for teaching and learning, consists
of a series of hand-drawing illustrations with voice-over narration to explain
complex and abstract ideas. Our team had produced four short whiteboard
animations tailor-made for a common core science general education (GE)
course. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of using these
whiteboard animations for flipped classrooms in the common core science
GE course. The pre-tutorial survey showed that students who watched the
animations got significantly higher average marks in the quizzes at the
beginning of the tutorials (p<0.001). The post-tutorial feedback survey
indicated that the whiteboard animations attracted 67% of students to watch
the animations. For students who watched the animations, over 86% of them
reported that the animations raised their interest in the issues discussed in
the tutorial classes, and learning materials in the form of whiteboard
animation were more interesting than lecture videos; more than 90% of the
students agreed the whiteboard animations were helpful in (i) understanding
the assigned readings, (ii) clarifying the concepts of the discussed issues, and
(iii) gaining the related knowledge before the tutorial. We concluded that
whiteboard animation is an effective and engaging tool for flipped
classrooms in the common core science GE course.
Keywords: whiteboard animation; flipped classroom; common core; science
education; general education; In Dialogue with Nature.
5th International Conference on Higher Education Advances (HEAd’19)
Universitat Polit`
ecnica de Val`
encia, Val`
encia, 2019
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4995/HEAd19.2019.9250
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
Editorial Universitat Polit`
ecnica de Val`
encia 929
Whiteboard Animations for Flipped Classrooms in a Common Core Science General Education Course
1. Introduction
Whiteboard animation is an increasingly popular form of educational media. It consists of
step-by-step illustrations with voice-over narration to explain complicated concepts and
abstract ideas in an attractive and enjoyable way. The line drawings are visual design
elements which influence learnersemotions and foster learning (Um et al., 2012). For
instance, Türkay (2016) demonstrated that whiteboard animations have a significant
positive effect on retention, engagement, and enjoyment in conveying physics lessons.
Türkay and Moulton (2016) also found that whiteboard animation is beneficial for learning
in social science lessons in terms of learning and subjective experiences of enjoyment and
engagement. These studies support the usefulness of whiteboard animation in specific
disciplines but its effectiveness in common core courses, which students come from
different disciplines, remains unexplored. Hence, we would like to study how does
whiteboard animation help the teaching and learning in a common core course.
This project was carried out in the context of the common core science general education
(GE) course In Dialogue with Nature in The Chinese University of Hong Kong. This course
engages students in reflecting our understanding of the physical universe, the world of life,
and scientific and other worldviews through the reading of great books and stories of the
influential philosophers and scientists (Chan et al., 2016). Students are required to study the
assigned readings before attending interactive tutorials each week. Given that about 3,600
students from different disciplines enroll in the common core course each year, students’
diverse backgrounds lead to various pedagogical concerns. For instance, students without
science background have lower confidence in reading science-related texts in general
(Kiang et al., 2015). Lau et al. (2018) reported that science education in high school and
religious background contributed to the different views on the nature of science. Teaching
and learning this science classic-reading common core GE course is challenging. The lack
of prerequisite knowledge, misunderstanding of concepts, inadequate comprehension of
abstract ideas, and inability to connect different texts are the students’ common obstacles
for studying this course. Teachers need to sacrifice lots of time in the tutorial to deal with
these obstacles, which means the tutorials have less time for thoughtful discussion and less
productive than it could have been. Given this, we have explored the development of
whiteboard animation as an innovative teaching and learning tool for flipped classrooms (Li
et al., 2017). In this study, we would like to evaluate the effectiveness of using these
whiteboard animations for flipped classrooms in the common core science GE course. In
brief, the pre-tutorial and post-tutorial feedback surveys were used to evaluate the
effectiveness of the whiteboard animations in equipping students’ prerequisite knowledge
before and during tutorials. The engagement, motivation and habit of watching the
whiteboard animations are also studied in this paper.
930
Ming Li, Chi Wai Lai, Wai Man Szeto
2. Methodology
2.1. Implementation
Four whiteboard animations (“UGFN-animated”, 2018) were tailor-made to flip the
classrooms in the common core science GE course according to Li et al. (2017). Each
animation is about five minutes long in two languages (English and Chinese). The two
animations, “What is life?” (Figure 1) and “Does DNA determine you?”, are related to the
scientific inquiry of life and were designed to flip the classrooms of the tutorials discussing
James Watson’s DNA: The Secret of Life. The other two, “Where does our mind come
from?” and “Do we have free will?”, are related to the scientific inquiry of mind and were
designed for the tutorials discussing Eric Kandel’s In Search of Memory.
Figure 1. The whiteboard animation “What is life?” developed in this project. The left panel shows the drawing
process of the illustrations. The right panel shows the big-picture.
In this study, the animations were provided to the students of 15 tutorial classes (25
students in each tutorial) in the first semester of 2016-17. To flip the classrooms, we
encouraged students to watch the whiteboard animations at their own pace before attending
the tutorials. During the tutorials, when students discussed the topics related to the scientific
inquiries of life and mind, the big-pictures of the whiteboard animations were displayed to
aid the discussions when necessary.
2.2. Evaluation
Two surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the whiteboard animations. The aim
of the first survey, the pre-tutorial survey, is to evaluate the effectiveness of the animations
on equipping students with the prerequisite knowledge before the tutorials. It was
conducted in the form of quizzes at the beginning of the tutorials, and more than 280
students participated in it (Table 1). For each animation, two multiple-choice questions
about the prerequisite knowledge necessary for discussion in the tutorial were asked.
Students were also asked to indicate whether they did or did not watch the animations. The
marks of the students who did and did not watch the animations were compared using the
unpaired t-test. A sample question of the quiz is given below.
931
Whiteboard Animations for Flipped Classrooms in a Common Core Science General Education Course
Which of the followings about the process of DNA decoding is/are correct?
i. Understanding the mechanism of gene expression means understanding the process of
decoding the code of life;
ii. After transcription, the mRNA will leave the nucleus and then cut and processed;
iii. In translation, each coding unit contains two nucleotide bases.
(A) i only (B) i and ii only (C) ii and iii only (D) i and iii only (E) I do not know
The aims of the second survey, the post-tutorial feedback survey, are to collect students’
feedback on the reasons of watching (and not watching) the whiteboard animations, and to
evaluate to what extent these animations help them prepare the discussions in the tutorials.
Students were invited to fill in the survey after the tutorials and feedbacks from 333
respondents were included in this study.
Table 1. Comparison of the quiz performance in the pre-tutorial survey between students who
did and did not watch the four whiteboard animations before tutorials.
Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4
Animation What is life?
Does DNA determine
you? Where does our mind
come from? Do we have free
will?
Group
Watch
Not
Δ
Watch
Not
Δ
Not
Δ
Watch
Not
Δ
Student no.
177
127
50
169
138
31
104
77
176
104
72
Student (%)
58.2
41.8
16.4
55.0
45.0
10.1
36.5
27.0
62.9
37.1
25.7
0 marks (%)
54.8
72.4
-17.6
33.1
73.9
-40.8
72.1
-60.5
13.6
71.2
-57.5
1 mark (%)
35.6
23.6
12.0
34.3
21.7
12.6
22.1
-2.78
34.1
24.0
10.1
2 marks (%)
9.6
3.9
5.7
32.5
4.3
28.2
5.8
63.3
52.3
4.8
47.5
Average
mark
0.55
0.31
0.24*
0.99
0.30
0.69*
0.34
1.23*
1.39
0.34
1.05*
Δ: The difference between students who did and did not watch the animation (i.e. “Watch” minus “Not”).
*Statistical significance in the unpaired t-test with p-value <0.001.
3. Results and discussion
In this study, the effectiveness of using these whiteboard animations for flipped classrooms
in the common core science GE course was evaluated. The pre-tutorial survey showed that
55.0% to 63.5% students, with an average of 59.9%, watched the four whiteboard
animations before the tutorials (Table 1). In general, students who watched the animations
before the tutorials performed much better than those who did not. For example, less than
5.8% of the students who did not watch the animations got full mark (i.e. “2 marks”) in the
quizzes, while for those who watched the animations the percentages are much higher
932
Ming Li, Chi Wai Lai, Wai Man Szeto
(9.6%, 32.5%, 69.1% and 52.3% in the quizzes 1 to 4, respectively). More than 71.2% of
the students who did not watch the animations got “0 marks”, while for those who watched
the animations the percentages are much lower (54.8%, 33.1%, 11.6% and 13.6% in the
quizzes 1 to 4, respectively). For all the quizzes, students who watched the animations got
significantly higher average marks than those who did not (p<0.001, Table 1). These data
suggested a significant positive correlation between watching the animations and
understanding of prerequisite knowledge before tutorials. Then, the areas of how and to
what extent these animations helped students prepare the discussions in the tutorials were
investigated. In the post-tutorial feedback survey, 67.3% students reported that they had
watched the whiteboard animations. 92.1% of these students agreed in different degrees
(including “slightly agreed”, “agreed”, and “strongly agreed”) that the animations were
helpful in gaining the knowledge of life and mind before tutorials (Figure 2). 90.9% and
92.7% of the students agreed the animations were helpful in understanding the texts and in
clarifying the concepts of the discussed issues, respectively. All these findings indicated
that the animations helped equip students with the prerequisite knowledge before tutorials.
The next question asked was whether the whiteboard animations are helpful for discussion
during the tutorials. The feedback survey revealed that 86.8% of the students agreed these
animations were helpful for the tutorial discussions (Figure 2). This finding is in line with
the observations of the teachers that some students used the examples in the whiteboard
Whiteboard animation is more interesting than
lecture video.
These animations have raised your interest in the
discussed issues.
These animations are helpful for your understanding
of the texts.
These animations are helpful in clarifying the
concepts of the discussed issues.
These animations are helpful in gaining the
knowledge of life and mind before tutorials.
These animations are helpful for the discussion in
tutorials.
These animations are helpful for your reflections on
cross-text issues.
The level of difficulty of these animations is
appropriate.
In general, you are satisfied with these animations.
Figure 2. Views from the students who watched the whiteboard animations in the post-tutorial feedback
survey. A six-point Likert scale (from 1 strongly disagree” to 6 “strongly agree”) was used to indicate
the degree of agreement on the statements. The figures are in percentage.
933
Whiteboard Animations for Flipped Classrooms in a Common Core Science General Education Course
animations to support their arguments during the tutorial discussions. Some students
referred to the concepts in the whiteboard animations to refute their classmates’ arguments,
correct their mistakes, and clarify the concepts. Also, 80.8% of the students agreed that the
animations helped them reflect on issues across different texts. All these findings indicated
that the animations are useful for students to better prepare for and discuss in the tutorials.
Some of their comments in the feedback survey are shown below.
The content is interesting. The animations are lively and help me understand the content”;
The expression and explanation in the whiteboard animations are clear and concise. They
bring up questions for reflection.”;
The whiteboard animations are clear. They are helpful for understanding and learning,
especially for students who didn’t study biology [in high school]”.
These encouraging comments suggested that the animations were well received by the
students. In particular, students who did not have the science background may find this
course intimidating. Hoi et al. (2017) showed that 60-70% of students studying the
common core science GE course reported science anxiety and the anxiety situation varied
among faculties. This is one of the reasons to tailor-make the whiteboard animations to suit
the need of non-science students. With careful design of the storyboard, the whiteboard
animations can provide the prerequisite knowledge required by the course at an appropriate
level. In this project, 91.4% of the students thought that the level of difficulty of the four
animations is appropriate, and 94.3% of the students were satisfied with the animations in
general (Figure 2).
While effectiveness is one of the major concerns, how to engage the students is another key
issue worth studying. Overall, 87.4% of the students said that the animations had raised
their interest in the issues discussed in the tutorial classes and 86.2% of the students agreed
that learning materials in the form of whiteboard animation are more interesting than
lecture video (Figure 2). These data aligned with a recent report that our whiteboard
animations are more effective and interesting than studio recorded lectures and recorded
student discussion (Cheung et al., 2018). Although the animations had already attracted
more than two-thirds of the students, we would like to explore how to engage more students
by knowing their motivations and habits of watching the animations. Students were asked
to indicate why (or not) and when they watched the animations by checking one or more
options in the post-tutorial feedback survey.
For motivation, most of the students watched the animations due to their teachers
recommendation (89.2%, Table 2) which suggested that promotion by teachers is the most
important. 37.3% students said they wanted to learn from the animations. 50.9% and 42.7%
of the students watched the animations when reading the texts and studying the lecture
PowerPoint slides, respectively, and 15.1% students watched the animations 30 minutes
934
Ming Li, Chi Wai Lai, Wai Man Szeto
right before the tutorials. These data suggested that some students valued the animations as
study companions when studying the course materials and preparing for the tutorials.
27.9% and 22.1% of the students reported that they were interested in the topics and were
curious about the animations, respectively, which implied the content of the animations and
the new learning experience contributed to the motivation of watching. Among the 67.3%
students who watched the animations, most of them (84.1%) watched the animations for
one time, while 15.9% students watched them twice or more (Table 2). It is noted that the
students who did not watch the animations were mainly because of mere forgetfulness
(47.7%) and having no time to watch (55.7%). Ensuring students to watch the online
materials is challenging in flipped classroom practices which assume students’
responsibility for their own learning. Sending reminders, setting assignments and formal
quizzes may help. In this study, we have shown the effectiveness and engagingness of
whiteboard animations. We hope that understanding students’ motivations and habits of
watching can provide useful insights into the development of better whiteboard animations
to support teaching and learning.
935
Whiteboard Animations for Flipped Classrooms in a Common Core Science General Education Course
Table 2. Motivations and habits of watching and not watching the whiteboard animations
collected in the post-tutorial feedback survey.
Why did you
watch the
animations?
(can choose
multiple
options)
Option Recommended
by teacher
Recommended
by friends or
classmates
Interested
in the
topic
Out of
curiosity
Want to learn
from the
animations
Others
Student (%)
89.2
2.8
27.9
22.1
37.3
2.4
When did you
watch the
animations?
(can choose
multiple
options)
Option
When taking the
school bus When taking
other
transportation
When
studying
lecture
slides
When
reading
the texts
Within 30
minutes before
tutorials
Others
Student (%)
1.5
2.1
42.7
50.9
15.1
11.8
How many
times have
you watched
the animations
on average?
No. of time
One Two Three Four Five >Five
Student (%)
84.1
13.5
1.4
0.9
0.2
0
Why didn't you
watch the
animations
(can choose
multiple
options)
Option Didn't know
they exist Didn't have
time Not
interested
in the
topic
Forgot to
watch
Already good at
the topic Others
Student (%)
5.7
55.7
3.0
47.7
5.4
6.8
4. Limitations of the study
The pre-tutorial survey shows a correlation between watching the animations and
understanding of prerequisite knowledge before tutorials. One should note that it is a
significant positive correlation but does not necessarily imply causation. We cannot exclude
the possibility that students who watched the animations are more active, attentive,
hardworking, knowledgeable, and hence lead to better performance in the quizzes. Besides,
some students in this study may not have experienced learning using lecture videos. Their
response to the related question (“whiteboard animation is more interesting than lecture
video”) in the post-tutorial feedback survey may not be accurate. A rigorous study to
compare the effect of these two forms of teaching and learning materials using the same
content and under the same context would be the most insightful.
936
Ming Li, Chi Wai Lai, Wai Man Szeto
5. Conclusions
Technology advancement has assuredly benefited teaching and learning in this digital era.
This study showed that the tailor-made whiteboard animations helped students prepare
better before coming to class, raise students’ interest in the discussion topics, and deepened
their discussion and reflection in the tutorials. These animations are effective and engaging
tools for flipped classrooms in the common core science GE course. They provide a unique
learning experience for the students which make learning easy and fun.
Acknowledgments
We want to thank the Centre for eLearning and Innovation Technology of The Chinese
University of Hong Kong for their support. This project was funded by the Micro-module
Courseware Development Grant Scheme.
References
Chan, C. C., Szeto, W. M., & Wong, W. H. (Eds.). (2016). In Dialogue with Nature:
Textbook for General Education Foundation Programme. Hong Kong: Office of
University General Education.
Cheung, H. C. D., Ng, K. L. A, & Wong, K. T. I. (2018) Diversity in video learning: a
cost-effective comparison of four video types. Teaching and Learning Innovation Expo
2018. Retrieved from
https://www.elearning.cuhk.edu.hk/expo2018-talk/T9.
Hoi, W. H. S., Wong, W. H., & Pang, K. M. (2017). Confronting students’ science anxiety
through “In Dialogue with Nature.” The European Conference on Education 2017
(ECE2017). Retrieved from The IAFOR Research Archive. Retrieved from
https://papers.iafor.org/submission36285/.
Kiang, K. M., Chan, H., Ng, A. K., & Cheung, D. H. (2016). Effectiveness of micro-
modules in a science classics course. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(13),
917-926. doi: 10.12691/education-4-13-1.
Kiang, K. M., Ng, A. K., & Cheung, D. H. (2015). Teaching science to non-science
students with science classics. American Journal of Educational Research, 3(10), 1291-
1297. doi: 10.12691/education-3-10-13.
Lau, K. C., Li, M., & Liao, L. (2018). Assessment of students’ views of nature of science in
the context of the discovery of DNA structure. Proceedings of MAC 2018 in Prague,
196-216.
Li, M., Lai, C. W., & Szeto, W. M. (2017). Whiteboard animation: an innovative teaching
and learning tool for flipped classrooms. In C. Nygaard, A. Horsted, J. Branch, & P.
Bartholomew (Eds.), New Innovations in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education
(pp. 159-175). Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: Libri Publishing.
937
Whiteboard Animations for Flipped Classrooms in a Common Core Science General Education Course
Türkay, S. (2016). The effects of whiteboard animations on retention and subjective
experiences when learning advanced physics topics. Computers & Education, 98(1),
102-114.
Türkay, S., & Moulton, S. T. (2016). The educational impact of whiteboard animations: an
experiment using popular social science lessons. Proceedings from LINC 2016, 283-
291.
UGFN-animated. (2018). In Office of University General Education, CUHK. Retrieved Jan
30, 2019, from http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/oge/gef-animated/en/ugfn.html.
Um, E. R., Plass, J. L., Hayward, E. O., & Homer, B. D. (2012). Emotional design in
multimedia learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 104(2), 485-498. doi:
10.1037/a0026609.
938
... Although recent studies into the creation of whiteboard animations are interesting, Türkay (2016) argues that learner interactions with this form of animation are not appropriately understood. Li et al. (2019) noted that whiteboard animation, an enticing learning device, consists of a series of manual images with voice-over storytelling that convey complex and abstract concepts. From their research, it was concluded that the whiteboard animation is a powerful and stimulating resource for fluent teaching in the GE (General Education) course. ...
... Then, Karthigesu & Mohamad (2020) have shown that by engaging whiteboard integration allows teachers to modify their software to make learning a language more enjoyable, engaging and energetic. Furthermore, based on the students' perception on the research conducted by Li et al. (2019), the contents of whiteboard animation are interesting, animated and allowing the students to understand the details. ...
Article
Full-text available
Technology has big roles in this 4.0 era. It can be applied effectively in the teaching and learning process. This article examines the effect of applying whiteboard animation in project-based learning (PjBL) on English as a Foreign Llanguage (EFL) students’ English presentation skills, investigates whether the English presentation skills of EFL students who were taught by using whiteboard animation in PjBL differ significantly across creativity levels, and finds out whether there is interaction or not between the use of whiteboard animation and the students’ creativity levels on their English presentation skills. Fifty Indonesian vocational high school students from two intact classrooms were involved and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups by quasi-experimental design and factorial research design. The quantitative data were gathered from both groups through pre-test and post-test. The analysis showed that students who were taught through whiteboard animation in PjBL significantly outperformed those who were trained by using conventional media. It was also found that students’ creativity levels (little-c and mini-c) did not affect their English presentation skills. Then, there was no interaction between whiteboard animation in PjBL and students’ creativity levels on their English presentation skills. The findings of the study are expected to be useful for other English teachers especially those who want to apply the same method of teaching in order to achieve the students' capacity for critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity.
Article
Undergraduate liberal arts education often includes reading classic literature. In accordance to this philosophy, the Chinese University of Hong Kong launched two compulsory classics-reading courses for all students. One of these courses, In Dialogue with Nature, requires students to read science-related classics to cultivate scientific literacy. There were evidences that the course has been highly regarded by the students in general. However, students without science background have been reportedly encountering difficulty in studying this course even though the course objective is to teach only the method, characteristics and influence of science but not the scientific knowledge in detail. A set of micro-modules was developed to supplement these students with scientific concepts that are deemed to be fundamental to the understanding of the classics. This paper reports the statistical analysis of the effectiveness of the micro-modules by two measurement tools. First, students’ self-reported perceptions on their achievements in the course were collected by the entry and exit surveys. Second, academic grades of the students were also retrieved to measure the effectiveness objectively. The analysis shows strong signs of positive effects on the micro-modules to the users, as well as the entire class. This finding suggests the importance of supplementing basic scientific concepts to students with diversified background when cultivating the scientific literacy through the classics reading approach.
Article
In Dialogue with Nature is a compulsory course on reading science-related classic texts for all students in the Chinese University of Hong Kong. The course aims to provide an opportunity for students to be familiar with the nature of science and develop their critical thinking skills. As the students are from diversified academic background, this situation has provided both positive and negative effects on the pedagogical strategies in this general education foundation course. For instance, while the course has provided a cross-disciplinary environment to stimulate the students to think beyond their own academic specialty, it has been speculated that students without prior scientific knowledge in high school could be disadvantaged in their academic performance. The intention of this paper is to report the current situation of this course and investigate the effectiveness of providing supplementary materials specifically to the non-science students. The preliminary analysis shows positive indicators on the effect.
Article
Digital instructional tools develop rapidly, and they can create novel learning experiences. Still, adoption of new formats is often expensive, and their efficacy is untested. Whiteboard animations are an increasingly popular form of educational media. Although recent research in the development of whiteboard animations is rich, there is a lack of understanding of learner experiences with this type of animation. The purpose of this study is to provide concrete scientific evidence for the impact on retention and subjective experiences of enjoyment, engagement, and challenge. We recruited participants from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (N=621; 239 females). We used a between-subjects design with participants assigned randomly to one of four instructional conditions: whiteboard animation, electronic slideshow (i.e., sequential images with narration), audio (i.e., narration) only, and text only. For learning experiences, we also introduce a novel behavioral measure of engagement alongside participant self-reports by eliciting continuation values with diminishing compensation. Using repeated measure ANOVAs to test effect of lesson format on subjective experiences and one-way ANOVAs to test the effect of lesson format on retention, we found that whiteboard animations have a positive effect on retention, engagement and enjoyment, although we do not rule out the possibility that some of this result is due to novelty.
Article
Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: external mood induction (positive vs. neutral emotions) and emotional design induction (positive vs. neutral emotions). A computer-based lesson on the topic of immunization was used as multimedia learning material. Results indicate that applying emotional design principles to learning materials can induce positive emotions and that positive emotions in multimedia-based learning facilitate cognitive processes and learning. Controlling for the germane load of the materials, the internal induction of positive emotions through design of the materials increased comprehension and transfer, whereas the external induction of positive emotions through mood induction enhanced transfer but not comprehension. Positive emotions induced through mood induction significantly increased the amount of learners' reported mental effort, whereas positive emotional design reduced the perceived difficulty of the learning task. Positive emotions increased motivation, satisfaction, and perception toward the materials. Mediation analyses suggest that the effect of positive emotions induced externally was mediated by both motivation and mental effort but found no mediators for emotion induced via emotional design, suggesting that positive emotional design has a more direct impact on learning than externally induced emotions. The study suggests that emotions should be considered an important factor in the design of multimedia learning materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In Dialogue with Nature: Textbook for General Education Foundation Programme
  • C C Chan
  • W M Szeto
  • Wong
Chan, C. C., Szeto, W. M., & Wong, W. H. (Eds.). (2016). In Dialogue with Nature: Textbook for General Education Foundation Programme. Hong Kong: Office of University General Education.
Diversity in video learning: a cost-effective comparison of four video types. Teaching and Learning Innovation
  • H C D Cheung
  • K L A Ng
  • K T I Wong
Cheung, H. C. D., Ng, K. L. A, & Wong, K. T. I. (2018) Diversity in video learning: a cost-effective comparison of four video types. Teaching and Learning Innovation Expo 2018. Retrieved from https://www.elearning.cuhk.edu.hk/expo2018-talk/T9.
Confronting students' science anxiety through "In Dialogue with Nature
  • W H S Hoi
  • W H Wong
  • K M Pang
Hoi, W. H. S., Wong, W. H., & Pang, K. M. (2017). Confronting students' science anxiety through "In Dialogue with Nature." The European Conference on Education 2017 (ECE2017). Retrieved from The IAFOR Research Archive. Retrieved from https://papers.iafor.org/submission36285/.
Assessment of students' views of nature of science in the context of the discovery of DNA structure
  • K C Lau
  • M Li
  • L Liao
Lau, K. C., Li, M., & Liao, L. (2018). Assessment of students' views of nature of science in the context of the discovery of DNA structure. Proceedings of MAC 2018 in Prague, 196-216.
Whiteboard animation: an innovative teaching and learning tool for flipped classrooms
  • M Li
  • C W Lai
  • W M Szeto
Li, M., Lai, C. W., & Szeto, W. M. (2017). Whiteboard animation: an innovative teaching and learning tool for flipped classrooms. In C. Nygaard, A. Horsted, J. Branch, & P. Bartholomew (Eds.), New Innovations in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (pp. 159-175). Oxfordshire, United Kingdom: Libri Publishing.
The educational impact of whiteboard animations: an experiment using popular social science lessons
  • S Türkay
  • S T Moulton
Türkay, S., & Moulton, S. T. (2016). The educational impact of whiteboard animations: an experiment using popular social science lessons. Proceedings from LINC 2016, 283-291.