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Contemporary Language Motivation Theory: 60 Years Since Gardner and Lambert (1959)

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Abstract

This book brings together contributions from the leaders of the language learning motivation field. The varied chapters demonstrate how Gardner's work remains integral to a diverse range of contemporary theoretical issues underlying the psychology of language, even today, 60 years after the publication of Gardner and Lambert's seminal 1959 paper. The chapters cover a wide selection of topics related to applied linguistics, second language acquisition, social psychology, sociology, methodology and historical issues. The book advances thinking on cutting-edge topics in these diverse areas, providing a wealth of information for both students and established scholars that show the continuing and future importance of Gardner and Lambert's ideas.
Contemporary Language Motivation Theory:
60 Years Since Gardner and Lambert (1959)
Edited by
Ali H. Al-Hoorie
Peter D. MacIntyre
Cite as:
Al-Hoorie, A. H., & MacIntyre, P. D. (Eds.). (2020). Contemporary language motivation theory:
60 years since Gardner and Lambert (1959). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
A true test of any theoretical formulation is not only its ability to explain and account for
phenomena which have been demonstrated, but also its ability to provide suggestions for further
investigations, to raise new questions, to promote further developments and open new horizons.
This model has those capabilities and, hopefully as a result of the account given here, they will
be realized.
(Gardner, 1985, p. 166)
Table of Contents
Preface
Zoltán Dörnyei
Integrative Motivation: Sixty Years and Counting
Ali H. Al-Hoorie and Peter D. MacIntyre
Looking Back and Looking Forward
Robert C. Gardner
Part I: Second Language Development / Applied Linguistics
Chapter 1: Extending Gardner’s Socio-Educational Model to Learner Well-being: Research
Propositions Linking Integrative Motivation and the PERMA Framework
Tammy Gregersen, Peter D. MacIntyre and Jessica Ross
Chapter 2: Teachers’ and Learners’ Motivation in Multilingual Classrooms
Mercè Bernaus
Chapter 3: The Emotional Underpinnings of Gardner’s Attitudes and Motivation Test Battery
Peter D. MacIntyre, Jean-Marc Dewaele, Nicole MacMillan and Chengchen Li
Chapter 4: Perezhivanie: The CognitiveEmotional Dialectic Within the Social Situation of
Development
James P. Lantolf and Merrill Swain
Part II: Social Psychology / Sociology
Chapter 5: Identity, Adaptation and Social Harmony: A Legacy of the Socio-Educational Model
Sara Rubenfeld and Richard Clément
Chapter 6: Whats in a Name? Motivations for Baby-naming in Multicultural Contexts
Jorida Cila and Richard N. Lalonde
Chapter 7: Motivation, Identity, and Investment: A Journey with Robert Gardner
Bonny Norton
Part III: Historical / Methodological Issues
Chapter 8: Snapshots in Time: Time in Gardner’s Theory and Gardner’s Theory across Time
Rebecca L. Oxford
Chapter 9: Researching L2 Motivation: Re-evaluating the Role of Qualitative Inquiry, or the
‘Wine and Conversation’ Approach
Ema Ushioda
Chapter 10: Quantitative Methods in Second Language Learning Motivation Research:
Gardner’s Contributions and Some New Developments
Paul F. Tremblay
Chapter 11: Identification with External and Internal Referents: Integrativeness and the Ideal L2
Self
Jennifer Claro
Chapter 12: History, Philosophy and the Social Psychology of Language
John Edwards
Part IV: Discussants
Chapter 13: Motivation: It is a Relational System
Phil Hiver and Diane Larsen-Freeman
Chapter 14: How Robert C. Gardner’s Pioneering Social-Psychological Research Raised New
Applied Questions about Second Language Acquisition
Elaine Horwitz
Epilogue
Howard Giles
External Reviewers
Matthew T. Apple
Ritsumeikan University, Japan
Temple University, USA
Phil Benson
Macquarie University, Australia
Vera Busse
University of Vechta, Germany
Peter I. De Costa
Michigan State University, USA
Alastair Henry
University West, Sweden
Tae-Young Kim
Chung-Ang University, South Korea
Martin Lamb
University of Leeds, UK
Tim Murphey
Kanda University of International Studies, Japan
Amy S. Thompson
West Virginia University, USA
List of Contributors
Ali H. Al-Hoorie is an assistant professor at the English Language Institute, Education Sector,
Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Saudi Arabia. He completed his PhD degree at the
University of Nottingham under the supervision of Professors Zoltán Dörnyei and Norbert
Schmitt. He also holds an MA in Social Science Data Analysis from Essex University. His
research interests include motivation theory, research methodology, and complexity. His
publications have appeared in a number of journals including Language Learning, The Modern
Language Journal, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ELT J, Language Teaching
Research, and Learning and Individual Differences. He is also the co-author (with Phil Hiver) of
the book Research Methods for Complexity in Applied Linguistics.
Mercè Bernaus is emeritus professor of the Autonomous University of Barcelona. She
coordinated plurilingualism/culturalism projects at the European Centre for Modern Languages
like ConBaT+ and Language Educator Awareness (LEA). The Council of Europe and the ECML
published the materials produced by those projects. Recently, she is engaged in the ECML
Training and Consultancy program for member states. She is collaborating in workshops dealing
with “Supporting Multilingual Classrooms”. Since 2007, she has been involved in the Pestalozzi
program of the Council of Europe. She does teacher training courses for teachers in Caucasian
countries sponsored by the Council of Europe. She published articles on multilingualism, and
also on motivation and second language learning as a co-author of R. C. Gardner.
Jorida Cila is a doctoral candidate in the Social and Personality Psychology program at York
University. Jorida’s research focuses on issues of culture and identity, and her dissertation
research examines cultural influences on baby-naming choices and preferences among bicultural
individuals. Some of her other work examines consequences of ethnic names in mainstream
cultural contexts, and the influence of multiple social identifications on well-being among
minorities. Jorida has also published on the topics of interfaith dating, language brokering, and
culture and preferred mate attributes.
Jennifer Claro is a lecturer at the Kitami Institute of Technology in Hokkaido, Japan and a
Ph.D. candidate at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. Her
current research interests include L2 motivation, identification and identity, intercultural contact,
and Japanese culture, society, and history.
Richard Clément is a Professor of psychology at the University of Ottawa. His current research
interests include issues related to bilingualism, second language acquisition and identity change
and adjustment in the acculturative process, topics on which he has published extensively in both
French and English, in America, Asia and Europe. He is an elected Fellow of both the Canadian
and the American Psychological Associations as well as of the Royal Society of Canada. As
well, he has recently been made a Knight of the Order of the Academic Palms by the Republic of
France.
Jean-Marc Dewaele is Professor of Applied Linguistics and Multilingualism at Birkbeck,
University of London. He is a keen walker and karate-ka. He authored of Emotions in Multiple
Languages (2010) and co-authored Raising multilingual children (2017). He is President of the
International Association of Multilingualism (2016-2018) and former president of the European
Second Language Association (20072011). He is General Editor of the International Journal of
Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. He won the Equality and Diversity Research Award from
the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (2013) and the Robert Gardner
Award for Excellence in Second Language and Bilingualism Research (2016) from the
International Association of Language and Social Psychology.
Zoltán Dörnyei is Professor of Psycholinguistics at the School of English, University of
Nottingham. He has published extensively on various aspects of language learner characteristics
and second language acquisition, and he is the author of over 25 books, including Motivational
Strategies in the Language Classroom (2001, Cambridge University Press), Research Methods in
Applied Linguistics ( 2007, Oxford University Press), Motivating Learners, Motivating
Teachers: Building Vision in the Language Classroom (2014, Cambridge University Press, with
M. Kubanyiova), The Psychology of The Language Learner Revisited (2015, Routledge, with S.
Ryan) and Motivational Currents in Language Learning: Frameworks for Focused Interventions
(2016, Routledge, with A. Henry and C. Muir).
John Edwards was born in England, educated there and in Canada, and received his PhD from
McGill University. He is a Senior Research Professor at St Francis Xavier University
(Antigonish), Adjunct Professor, Graduate Studies, at Dalhousie University (Halifax), and
Visiting Professor at Minzu University (Beijing). His main research interest is with the
establishment, maintenance and continuity of group identity, with particular reference to
language in both its communicative and symbolic aspects. Edwards is the editor of the Journal
of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (published by Routledge), and of the
Multilingual Matters book series. Recent books include Challenges in the Social Life of
Language (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2011), Multilingualism: Understanding Linguistic Diversity
(Continuum / Bloomsbury, 2012) and Sociolinguistics: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford,
2013). Edwards is a fellow of the British Psychological Society, the Canadian Psychological
Association, and the Royal Society of Canada.
Robert C. Gardner obtained his Ph.D. in psychology from McGill University in 1960 under the
direction of Wallace E. Lambert. He spent his last year of residency studying and working with
John B. Carroll at the Graduate School of Education, Harvard University. He joined the
Department of Psychology at the University of Western Ontario as a lecturer in 1961, and was
promoted to Assistant Professor in 1962, Associate professor in 1966, and Professor in 1970. In
July 2000, he was appointed Professor Emeritus of Psychology at the University of Western
Ontario, where he is continuing his research.
Howard Giles is Distinguished Research Professor of Communication at the University of
California, Santa Barbara, USA and Honorary Professor of Psychology at The University of
Queensland, Australia. He is founding Editor of the Journal of Language and Social
Psychology and the Journal of Asian Pacific Communication. Giles was past President of the
International Communication Association and the International Association of Language and
Social Psychology. His research interests encompass interpersonal and intergroup
communication processes in intergenerational, police-civilian, and other intergroup settings, and
he is co-editor of the two-volume, Oxford encyclopedia of intergroup communication (2018).
Tammy Gregersen received her MA in Education and PhD in Linguistics in Chile, where she
also began her academic career. She is currently teaching and researching at the American
University of Sharjah where she also coordinates their Masters in TESOL program. She is the
co-author, with Peter MacIntyre, of Capitalizing on Language Learner Individuality and
Optimizing Language Learners’ Nonverbal Communication in the Language Classroom. She is
also a co-editor with Peter and Sarah Mercer of Positive Psychology in SLA (all published by
Multilingual Matters) and Innovations in Language Teacher Education. She has published
extensively in peer reviewed journals and contributed several chapters in applied linguistics
anthologies on individual differences, teacher education, language teaching methodology and
nonverbal communication in language classrooms. Tammy is passionate about traveling and has
presented at conferences and taught in graduate programs across the globe.
Phil Hiver is assistant professor of Foreign and Second Language Education in the College of
Education at Florida State University. His research examines the role of psycho-social factors in
second language development and pedagogy with an explicit focus on context, temporal change,
and complex causality. He has also written on research methodology and the contribution of
complexity theory (CDST) to applied linguistics research. His published work has appeared in
journals such as Applied Linguistics, Studies in Second Language Acquisition, the Modern
Language Journal, Learning and Individual Differences, Language Teacher Research, and
the Journal of Second Language Writing.
Elaine Horwitz is Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Texas at Austin,
USA. She is known for her pioneering research on language anxiety and beliefs about language
learning. Her article Preliminary Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of a Foreign Language
Anxiety Scale was recently recognized in the 50th Anniversary Volume of the TESOL
Quarterly as one of the most influential articles published in the journal during its 50-year
history. She is the author of Becoming a Language Teacher: A Practical Guide to Second
Language Learning and Teaching and co-editor of Language Anxiety: From Theory and
Practice to Classroom Implications.
Richard Lalonde is a Professor of Psychology at York University in Toronto. His MA and PhD
supervisor was Bob Gardner at the University of Western Ontario. The majority of Richard’s
research has focussed on issues of identity and culture that play out in the Canadian multicultural
context. Bob Gardner mentored him to pursue ideas that had practical resonance and that fell out
of the mainstream. Bob also demonstrated by example that teaching was just as important as
research.
James P. Lantolf is the Greer Professor in Language Acquisition and Applied Linguistics at The
Pennsylvania State University and is Director of the Center for Language Acquisition. He is also
Changjiang (Yangtze River) Scholar in Applied Linguistics in the School of Foreign Studies at
Xi’an JiaoTong University. He served as co-editor of Applied Linguistics, is founding editor of
Language and Sociocultural Theory, and received the Distinguished Scholarship and Service
Award of AAAL (2016). His research focuses on sociocultural theory and classroom second
language development.
Diane-Larsen Freeman is Professor Emerita of Education and Linguistics, Research Scientist
Emerita, and former Director of the English Language Institute at the University of
Michigan. She is also Professor Emerita at the Graduate SIT Institute in Brattleboro, Vermont
and a Visiting Senior Fellow at the University of Pennsylvania. Her recent books are Complex
Systems and Applied Linguistics (2008, with L. Cameron), winner of the MLA’s Kenneth
Mildenberger Book Prize, the third edition of Techniques and Principles (2011, with M.
Anderson), and the third edition of The Grammar Book, Form, Meaning, and Use for English
Language Teachers (2015, with M. Celce-Murcia).
Chengchen Li is a PhD student in the Department of Foreign Languages Education, College of
Foreign Languages and Cultures at Xiamen University, Xiamen, China. She is also an affiliate
PhD student at Birkbeck, University of London, UK, sponsored by the China Scholarship
Council (2017-2018). Her research interests include positive psychology of foreign language
learning and foreign language teacher education.
Peter MacIntyre received his PhD. in psychology from the University of Western Ontario (now
Western university) in 1992 with R. C. Gardner and is now a professor of Psychology at Cape
Breton University. His research examines emotion, motivation and cognition across a variety of
types of behavior, including interpersonal communication, public speaking, dynamic systems,
and learning. The majority of Peter’s research examines the psychology of communication, with
a particular emphasis on second language acquisition and communication. He has published
several books including Capitalizing on Language Learners’ Individuality, Motivational
Dynamics in Language Learning, Positive Psychology in SLA, and Optimizing Language
Learners’ Nonverbal Behavior.
Nicole Macmillan is a second-year graduate student at the University of Calgary, studying
School and Applied Child Psychology. Her current research focuses on the emotional work of
teachers, burnout, and the connection to lack of preparedness in the diverse classroom. Aside
from educational psychology and burnout literature, other research interests for Nicole include
positive psychology, emotion research, anxiety disorder research, as well as eating disorder
research, all primarily within children and adolescent populations.
Bonny Norton, FRSC, is a Professor and Distinguished University Scholar in the Department of
Language and Literacy Education, UBC. Her primary research interests are identity and language
learning, critical literacy, and international development. Recent publications include a 2017
special issue on language teacher identity (MLJ) and a 2013 second edition of Identity and
Language Learning (Multilingual Matters). A Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and the
American Educational Research Association, she has a 2010 AERA Senior Research Leadership
Award, and was a 2016 co-recipient of the TESOL Distinguished Research Award. Her current
project is Storybooks Canada (http://www.storybookscanada.ca/) and her website is:
http://faculty.educ.ubc.ca/norton/
Rebecca Oxford, Distinguished Scholar-Teacher / Professor Emerita, University of Maryland,
holds degrees in languages and psychology. Of her 15 books, nine concern language learning,
teaching, and motivation. Best known are Teaching and Researching Language Learning
Strategies: Self-Regulation in Context; Language Learning Strategies and Individual Learner
Characteristics: Situating Strategy Use in Diverse Contexts (Oxford & Amerstorfer);
and Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. Six others involve
peacebuilding and transformation: Understanding Peace Cultures; The Language of Peace:
Communicating to Create Harmony; Peacebuilding in Language Education: Innovations in
Theory and Practice(Oxford, Olivero, & Gregersen, forthcoming); Toward a Spiritual Research
Paradigm: Exploring New Ways of Knowing, Researching, and Being (Lin, Oxford, &
Culham); Re-envisioning Higher Education: Embodied Paths to Wisdom and Social
Transformation (Lin, Oxford, & Brantmeier); and Transformative Eco-Education for Human and
Planetary Survival (Oxford & Lin). She has published approximately 260 articles and has
presented research in 43 countries.
Jessica Ross received her Bachelor of Arts Honours in psychology from Cape Breton
University. She is currently pursuing her PhD. in social psychology at the University of
Waterloo. She is primarily interested in motivation, self-regulation, and emotion, with a
secondary interest in positive psychology and second language acquisition. The majority of
Jessica’s current research involves examining the concept of metamotivation, including
individual differences and performance outcomes.
Sara Rubenfeld is a Defence Scientist with the Department of National Defence in Canada. Her
work centres on culture and leadership and its relevance to operational and organizational
dynamics within the Canadian Armed Forces. In particular, her research focuses on second
language learning and use; intercultural competence; and sex- and gender-based misconduct.
Sara completed a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the University of Ottawa under the
supervision of Richard Clément. Her academic research examined the relationship between
second language learning and intergroup dynamics.
Merrill Swain is Professor Emerita at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the
University of Toronto. She has researched and published extensively in the fields of second
language learning, teaching and testing. Her recent interests include immersion education,
languaging and the inseparability of cognition and emotion. She was President of AAAL and
Vice President of AILA. She received the Distinguished Scholarship and Service Award of
AAAL (2004) and received an Honorary Doctorate from the University of Vaasa in Finland in
2011.
Paul F. Tremblay is an Assistant Professor at Western University (Canada) in the Psychology
Department, where he teaches graduate courses in statistics, structural equation and multilevel
modeling, and qualitative methods. Most of his current research involves collaborations with
graduate students applying advanced modelling techniques to their own research, whether
individual differences in psychology, education and second language learning, or health sciences.
Ema Ushioda is a Professor and Director of the Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of
Warwick, where she has been working since 2002. Ema is internationally well-known for her
work on motivation and autonomy in language learning, particularly for promoting qualitative
approaches to researching motivation, and she has published widely in these areas. Recent books
include International perspectives on motivation: Language learning and professional
challenges (2013), Teaching and researching motivation (co-authored by Dörnyei, 2011), and
Motivation, language identity and the L2 self (co-edited by Dörnyei, 2009). She has also co-
edited with Dörnyei a special issue of the Modern Language Journal (Fall 2017) on ‘Beyond
global English: Motivation to learn languages in a multicultural world’. Ema is currently
working on a monograph addressing ethical perspectives on language learning motivation
research.
Preface
Zoltán Dörnyei
The shelf life of journal articles in the field of Psychology and Applied Linguistics is relatively
short only in exceptional cases do we cite anything older than twenty years. There is, however,
a small and elite group of seminal papers that keep being quoted long after this ‘best before’ date
because they delivered something genuinely special, something that contributed to the field in a
unique and powerful way. This type of contribution has most often been either the proposal of a
new theoretical construct or the initiation of a novel research direction, and Gardner and Lambert
(1959) actually offered both. Every contemporary scholar interested in language learning
motivation would point to that paper as the “official” starting point of modern scientific research
on L2 motivation, and every contemporary scholar of L2 motivation is aware of the significance
of the two notions of “integrativeness” and “instrumentality” introduced in the paper. No wonder
therefore, that this classic 1959 article has achieved something that, to my knowledge, hardly any
other articles did: it inspired a whole anthology to remember it six decades after its publication!
As I have recently stated elsewhere (Dörnyei, in press), I am from a generation of L2
motivation researchers which grew up on Robert Gardner’s work. I became fascinated with the
Gardnerian theory (Gardner, 1979, 1985, 2010) as a PhD student in the second half of the 1980s,
because the Socio-Educational Model provided confirmation to my intuitive belief that the
psychological dimension of second language acquisition was a pronounced aspect of language
learning success. I was also impressed by the rigorous scientific nature of Gardner’s motivation
paradigm, and in fact my later interest in questionnaires and more generally in research
methodology goes back to this initial influence. My original purpose of embarking on PhD
studies was to add a professional research layer to my evolving language teacher identity, and the
world of L2 motivation that I discovered helped me to realise this desire fully. Therefore, in
order to acknowledge my debt to Professor Gardner, I sent him a copy of my very first published
English-language paper on L2 motivation (Dörnyei, 1990) with words of thanks, and although I
am sure that Bob does not remember it, he did answer to me in a kind letter at that time we
were still writing letters! and that correspondence was a great source of encouragement for me.
There was one marked difference between the motivation lab run by Professor Gardner
and the new generation of researchers that I was a member of, namely our academic background.
Gardner and his associates were first and foremost psychologists who were interested in second
language acquisition for various social reasons. I am one of a group of scholars (e.g. Crookes,
Julkunen, Oxford, Schmidt, Skehan, Ushioda, Williams) who are second language acquisition
specialists (and often also language teachers), interested in psychology because they realised its
significance for understanding the life of language classrooms. This difference had obvious
implications for the directions into which we tried to move the field, but quite remarkably, the
ties with the original theoretical centre prevailed even after decades. As mentioned by several
authors in this anthology, the current framework of my thinking about L2 motivation the L2
Motivational Self System directly evolved from Gardner’s theory of integrative motivation. In
a recent special issue in the Modern Language Journal on motivation to learn languages other
than English (LOTEs), I found myself going back again to the foundations of Gardner’s theory.
In a co-authored paper with one of the Editors of the current anthology, Ali Al-Hoorie (Dörnyei
& Al-Hoorie, 2017), we argued that the concept of integrative motivation has lost some of its
influence because its link to the learners’ attitudes towards the L2 community became
problematic when it came to the learning of Global English, which is associated with “a non-
specific global community of English language users” (Ushioda & Dörnyei, 2009, p. 3).
However, at the same time, we underlined the fact that this shift “also incurred costs” (Dörnyei
& Al-Hoorie, 2017, p. 459). While the L2-community-independent perspective taken by the L2
Motivational Self System may have been useful for studying Global English, it “did not favour
LOTEs, as the latter can usually be associated with a specific community that speaks (or
esteems) the L2 and can thus be considered the ‘owner’ of that language” (ibid).
Thus, the type of identification adopted in the L2 Motivational Self System
identification with a projected future image within the person’s self-concept, rather than
identification with an external reference group such as the L2 community as was the case with
the notion integrativeness can serve certain purposes well but it may not do equal justice to
other areas. I am therefore in agreement with Jennifer Claro’s (this volume) evaluation:
Integrativeness (Gardner) and the ideal L2 self (Dörnyei) are complementary forms of
identification that differ in locus of identification. Integrativeness represents
identification with an external locus (role models and reference groups), while the ideal
L2 self represents identification with an internal locus.
This being the case, it is appropriate also to cite Claro’s conclusion immediately preceding the
above quote, namely that “the ideal L2 self cannot replace integrativeness” (ibid).
It is partly because of this recognition that I was glad to receive the invitation from Peter
and Ali to write a Preface to the current anthology. I wanted to pay tribute to the fact that Robert
Gardner’s work is not only important because it was a historical milestone and offered fertile
ground in which subsequent research could grow, but also because it is still relevant. Gardner
and Lambert (1959) put their finger on one of the core aspects of L2 motivation, the process of
identification, and Gardner’s notion of integrativeness represents one fundamental type of this
process that simply cannot be ignored in contemporary theory building. This relevance explains
the large amount of empirical evidence that has accumulated over the decades linking the
integrative motive to various aspects of L2 learning behaviours and achievement. This relevance
also explains why even 60 years after the introduction of the Gardnerian paradigm a sterling
group of scholars have been keen to bear witness in this Anthology to the fact that Gardner’s
work can be related to a wide range of contemporary theoretical issues underlying the language
psychology. In their Introduction, the Editors write that “there might be a need for anthologies at
the 70th, 80th, 90th, and even the 100th anniversary of Gardner and Lambert (1959)” (Al-Hoorie &
MacIntyre, this volume), and I do indeed look forward to seeing how this seminal work will keep
generating “renewed vibrancy.”
References
Al-Hoorie, A., & MacIntyre, P. D. (this volume). Integrative Motivation: Sixty Years and
Counting.
Claro, J. (this volume) Identification with external and internal referents: Integrativeness and the
Ideal L2 Self.
Dörnyei, Z. (1990). Conceptualizing motivation in foreign language learning. Language
Learning, 40, 46-78.
Dörnyei, Z. (in press). From integrative motivation to directed motivational currents: The
evolution of the understanding of L2 motivation over three decades. In M. Lamb, K. Csizér,
A. Henry & S. Ryan (Eds.), Palgrave Macmillan handbook of motivation for language
learning. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Dörnyei, Z., & Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2017). The motivational foundation of learning languages other
than global English: Theoretical issues and research directions. Modern Language Journal,
101(3), 455-468.
Gardner, R. C. (1979). Social psychological aspects of second language acquisition. In H. Giles
& R. St. Clair (Eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 193-220). Oxford: Blackwell.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning: The role of attitudes
and motivation. London: Edward Arnold.
Gardner, R. C. (2010). Motivation and second language acquisition: The Socio-educational
Model. New York: Peter Lang.
Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1959). Motivational variables in second language acquisition.
Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 266-272.
Ushioda, E., & Dörnyei, Z. (2009). Motivation, language identities and the L2 self: A theoretical
overview. In Z. Dörnyei & E. Ushioda (Eds.), Motivation, language identity and the L2 self
(pp. 1-8). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Integrative Motivation: Sixty Years and Counting
Ali H. Al-Hoorie and Peter D. MacIntyre
Individual difference research, in fact, pre-dated the onset
of mainstream SLA, as a rich tradition investigating such
constructs as language aptitude and motivation was already
in existence well before the 1960s…
(Ellis, 2008, p. xix)
Some 60 years ago, Gardner and Lambert’s (1959) seminal paper “Motivational Variables in
Second Language Acquisition” was published in the Canadian Journal of Psychology. The
article totaled 7 pages with 20 references, yet its impact on the study of motivation in second
language learning has been immeasurable. The 1959 paper represents the beginning of the work
on the socio-educational model and its centerpiece, the integrate motive. In introducing this
festschrift, we pause to reflect on the contributions the work has inspired and its place in the
body of motivation research. This volume also stands as a tribute to Robert (Bob) C. Gardner
the father of language motivationas a teacher, researcher and scholar of language. Few
scholars in the area can match the intensity of his research productivity over six decades.
Gardner and Lambert’s (1959) paper launched innumerable studies of the social
psychology of second language acquisition. For decades now, it has been almost unimaginable to
ignore the impact of other people and the context in which learning occurs when discussing
motivation for second language acquisition. Why has this research program had such an impact?
MacIntyre (2010) offers three significant ways in which Gardner’s work influenced the field:
First, Gardner & Lambert (1959) showed that attitudes and motivation MATTER in
second language acquisition, taking their place alongside aptitude and intelligence as
factors contributing to language learning success, and setting the stage for the social
psychological approach to studying second language acquisition. Second, the research
tradition has combined affective and cognitive factors in a single motivational frame,
describing a uniquely human motive. The model developed at moments in history when
animal learning models (e.g., instincts) or ‘cold cognition’ (i.e., without contribution
from emotion) dominated discussions of motivation in psychology. By considering the
multiple social, cognitive, and affective forces that produce both linguistic and non-
linguistic outcomes, which feedback on each other, the socio-educational model could
plausibly be proposed in the current zeitgeist as a brand new way to do research. Third,
the research tradition initiated by Gardner & Lambert (1959) employed cutting edge
statistical analysis, including regression techniques and structural equation modeling that
have become widely used in our field. (p. 375)
With the 60th anniversary of the Gardner and Lambert (1959) paper upon us, this festschrift both
celebrates these contributions and extends the model into new territory. We also celebrate
Gardner’s contribution as a teacher over five decades at the University of Western Ontario (now
Western University).
Generations of psychology students, as well as some brave souls from other disciplines,
took Gardner’s course in Research Design at Western. As might be gleaned from his
publications, Gardner is gifted in statistical analysis. Students will fondly recall his energetic
description of the general linear model and its applications from simple t-tests to complex
multiple regression, his derivation of various types of correlation from a single equation, or Bob
defying gravity by stretching out from a corner of the room to demonstrate the third dimension in
a factor analysis.
Bob’s enthusiasm for the measurement and data analytic side of research produced the
Attitudes and Motivation Test Battery, which set a gold standard for test design, reliability and
validity. Future generations of researchers would do well to emulate the concern for
measurement. This has not always been the case in our field and we can note with more than
passing concern that when the quality of measurement is sacrificed for convenience, research
invariably suffers. Gardner’s work showed that the deft application of powerful data analysis
techniques, including his pioneering work with factor analysis and structural equation modelling,
could coax a meaningful story out of a reluctant data set. Again, future generations of researchers
would do well to emulate the concern for finding powerful analytic techniques that dig deep into
the available data.
In preparing this anthology, we invited contributions from Gardner’s colleagues and
former students, along with their current students. To our delight as editors, everyone we
approached agreed to write something. In addition to the written text, we proposed three
seminars to major conferences: American Association of Applied Linguistics in Chicago,
Psychology of Language Learning in Tokyo, and International Conference on Language and
Social Psychology in Edmonton. To our delight as conveners, all proposed symposia were
accepted and the sessions well attended. The resulting talks and chapters reflect both a vibrant
research area and continuing contributions in the Gardnerian tradition. Although some authors
have presented Gardner’s work as limited to a specific period (e.g., 1990s: see Dörnyei, 2005) or
a specific place (e.g., Canada: Crookes & Schmidt, 1991), the work continues to advance. Across
the chapters in this present volume readers will find dozens of new research ideas waiting to be
explored.
Some 10 years ago, MacIntyre (2010) noted that the 50th anniversary of Gardner and
Lambert’s paper provided an “… opportunity to reflect on the work it continues to inspire, and
the ways in which language learning attitudes and motivation interact with individual, social,
cultural, and historical trends” (p. 376). But with the 60th anniversary, a renewed vibrancy has
developed. With so much left to learn about the social psychology of language, the motivation
process, and how people think about themselves within the larger frame of language, culture and
relationships, there might be a need for anthologies at the 70th, 80th, 90th, and even the 100th
anniversary of Gardner and Lambert (1959).
A Note on the Review Process
As editors, we strongly believe in the need for clarity relating to the review process of edited
anthologies. Therefore, we wish to outline the steps we have taken in this manuscript, prior to
submission to the publisher for external peer review: First, invitations were sent to researchers
with an established research record and/or possessing expertise in a particular topic relevant to
the present anthology. Second, we developed a systematic review process that was applied to all
chapters (except those originally invited to serve as discussants). The chapters were then
reviewed by three reviewers as follows:
1) one external double-blind peer reviewer,
2) one internal (i.e., another chapter author) or a second external peer reviewer, and
3) one of the editors.
Double-blinding was observed as much as possible, though in some cases (especially for
chapters with a self-reflective nature), it was not difficult to guess the authorwhich attests to
the authority and stature of the author(s). The authors received the three anonymized reviews and
revised their contributions accordingly; by the end of the process, all of the chapters were
accepted. External reviewers received a copy of the book in return for their effort.
Acknowledgements
We are forever grateful to the authors and the external reviewers featured in this anthology for
joining us in both paying tribute to Bob Gardner’s career and to extending his research in
exciting new directions. We would also like to thank the contributors who volunteered to
participate in the review process: Jorida Cila, Jean-Marc Dewaele, Paul Tremblay, Phil Hiver,
and Tammy Gregerson. We also thank Ali Dincer, Dayuma Vargas Lascano, Kathryn E.
Chaffee, and Nigel Mantou Lou for their contribution to the review process, as well as a
publisher-commissioned external reviewer for their helpful feedback. We are especially grateful
to Bob himself for contributing a chapter that looks back on the development of the socio-
educational model and its underlying rationale, as well as looking forward at potential research
directions. At the end of the book, three discussant chapters reflect on Gardner’s contributions
from various perspectives. Phil Hiver and Diane Larsen-Freeman contemplate on the relational
nature of language learning motivation vis-à-vis complexity theory. Elaine Horwitz takes the
discussion to a different direction, highlighting some of the applied questions Gardner’s work
has inspired. Howard Giles ends this volume with an epilogue that takes the discussion to social
psychology, Gardner’s original field. We hope that readers enjoy the chapters that follow as
much as we did.
Motivation has been a staple of research in language learning for a long time. As one of
the most extensively studied individual difference factors, much has been learned about
motivation for language learning, but given its complexity much remains to be learned as well.
In preparing this anthology and offering it to readers around the world, we echo the sentiment
expressed by Gardner and Tremblay (1994) that “(t)he socio-educational model of second
language acquisition is not a static formulation. It is continually undergoing change and
development, as new relevant information is uncovered” (p. 524). Then, as now, new
information is emerging as the research process continues to unfold, with this anthology
hopefully being one of many contributions to that process.
References
Crookes, G., & Schmidt, R. W. (1991) Motivation: Reopening the research agenda. Language
Learning, 41(4) 469-512.
Dörnyei, Z. (2005). The psychology of the language learner: Individual differences in second
language acquisition. London: Earlbaum.
Ellis, R. (2008). The study of second language acquisition (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University
Press.
Gardner, R. C., & Lambert, W. E. (1959). Motivational variables in second language acquisition.
Canadian Journal of Psychology, 13, 266272
Gardner, R. C. (2009). Gardner & Lambert (1959): Fifty years and counting. Canadian
Association of Applied Linguistics Symposium presentation, Ottawa, ON, May 2009.
Retrieved from: http://publish.uwo.ca/~gardner/docs/CAALOttawa2009talkc.pdf March
3, 2019.
Gardner, R. C. & Tremblay, P. T. (1994). On motivation: Measurement and conceptual
considerations. Modern Language Journal, 78, 524 -527
MacIntyre, P. D. (2010). Perspectives on motivation for second language learning on the 50th
anniversary of Gardner & Lambert (1959). Language Teaching, 43, 374-377.
Looking Back and Looking Forward
Robert C. Gardner
Chapter Overview
This chapter presents an overview of the research conducted by Gardner and colleagues
on the role of attitudes and motivation in second (or foreign) language acquisition covering the
years of 1959 to 2019. The intent of this presentation is to describe how it developed from an
initial interest in correlates of language achievement, to the construction of the Attitude
Motivation Test Battery (the AMTB) assessing social psychological variables involved in the
learning of a language different from one`s own (dominant) language, and to the presentation of
a formal socio-educational model of second language acquisition. The program of research was
directed primarily toward individuals from unilingual families learning another language largely
in required language courses and was based on the assumption that such an experience could
have implications for one`s self-identity; hence the emphasis on social psychological variables.
Introduction
In 1959, who would have thought that the Gardner and Lambert article would eventuate
in the publication of an anthology referring to it and the research that can be associated with it; I
didn’t. It has been an interesting 60 years to be sure, and I am very grateful to those who
initiated this project and to those who have who contributed so extensively to it. I wasn’t
involved in any of that but I did take part in a symposium that Peter MacIntyre organized to
recognize the 50th anniversary. In my mind the current presentation is very impressive indeed,
drawing contributions from researchers who are active in research on second language
acquisition and related areas. The chapters are all very interesting and informative and devoted to
a wide array of specific research interests in addition to second language learning. The research
area is now more general than what was initiated in 1959.
Although I was the senior author on that article, my advisor, Wally Lambert was the main
contributor to many of the ideas reflected in it. Goodness knows, he had me do a lot of revisions.
I had a number of enjoyable years working with him and was continually aware of his influence.
Looking back, there has been a considerable amount of interest and research in second language
acquisition and factors that promote it. Initially, we investigated the correlations among
affective, ability, and language achievement variables, and the factor structure underlying these
correlations. Later we considered outcomes other than language achievement (such as classroom
behaviour, for example) that would help to clarify the underlying process linking affective
variables to language achievement. We also studied factors that might influence the affective
variables, and proposed possible models that would account for the findings obtained. At the
outset, we focused primarily on learning French as a second language in Canada and the U.S.A
(Gardner, 1985), but many years later we conducted studies on learning English as a foreign
language in a number of different countries (Gardner, 2010). In general, the studies demonstrated
that achievement in a second language was associated with two independent factors, Language
Aptitude and Motivation, and that Motivation was in turn influenced by three complex variables,
Integrativeness, Attitudes toward the Learning Situation and Language Anxiety.
As it developed our research was influenced by two researchers. One of the earliest
discussions of motivation to learn another language was presented by Dunkel (1948) who
proposed that there were two components, intensity and kind. Intensity referred to the nature of
the “approaching-the-goal” behaviour in terms of effort and persistence, etc. (which we
identified as motivational intensity), while kind referred to the reasons for learning the language.
There were many such reasons or goals but we distinguished between two general classes as
integrative vs. instrumental orientations. Reasons classified as integrative were considered to
have more drawing power because they focused on learning the language to communicate and/or
interact with the target community while instrumental referred to other goals with less focus on
the other language community. Initially we asked participants to select the orientation that was
most personally appropriate, referring to this as the Orientation Index and classified students as
integratively or instrumentally oriented. This measure was discarded later, and the two
orientations were treated as separate variables.
Our focus on social psychological variables was influenced by Mowrer’s (1950) model of
first language learning that attributed the motivation to identification with the parents. He
proposed that such identification developed due to the biological support and nurturance
provided by the parents as well as the affective relationship resulting from the socialization
within the family. We proposed that a similar process might apply to second language
acquisition which would require a social psychological link between the learning process and the
language learning context. It wasn’t long before we broadened the concept of motivation to
include three measured variables, Motivational Intensity, Desire to Learn French and Attitudes
toward Learning French. We also noted that there were other variables that correlated with
French Achievement and that they characterized three general constructs. These constructs and
the associated measures were Integrativeness (Integrative Orientation, Attitudes toward the
French, and Interest in Foreign Languages), Attitudes toward the Learning Situation (French
Teacher Evaluation and French Course Evaluation), and Language Anxiety (French Class
Anxiety and French Use Anxiety).
The learning situation for most of our research involved students learning a second
language required in their regular school curriculum, and not a special course intended for
students seeking to learn another language. Our first two studies focused on students in the
English School system in Montreal learning French which, though an official language in
Quebec, was often not spoken by many of the students. Our later studies followed a similar
format in that the language in question was essentially a school subject. Our choice of potential
correlates of achievement was based on the assumption that learning another language was not
equivalent to learning other subjects in school like arithmetic, or history, etc., because it involved
learning material that was characteristic of another language community, and this difference
could have pronounced effects on the individual’s motivation to learn the material. In turn, the
degree of motivation itself would be influenced or supported by individual difference
characteristics like reactions to the language community or other communities (Integrativeness),
and the classroom context (Attitudes toward the Learning Situation), as well as anxiety
associated with learning and using the language (Language Anxiety). That is, the focus was on a
process that could account for individual differences in learning another language, not simply on
correlations between a series of measures and achievement in the language.
Overview of the research program
When discussing the development of our research over the years I proposed that it could
be divided into three phases, Ancient History, Early History and Modern History (Gardner
(2010, pp. 3155). I consider our initial studies as ancient history. The first two studies involved
samples of English speaking high school students learning French in Montreal (Gardner &
Lambert 1959; Gardner, 1960). Follow-up studies were conducted of English speaking
American students learning French as a second language in Maine, Louisiana, and Connecticut,
and Franco-American students learning French in Maine and Louisiana. This research was
conducted in 1960 and 1961. A subsequent investigation of high school students learning
English was conducted in the Philippines in 1968, and all of these studies are published in
Gardner and Lambert (1972).
I characterize “early history” as beginning in 1972 when Padric Smythe and I formed the
Language Research Group in order to develop the AMTB and assess its reliability and validity.
This research focused on affective individual difference variables to determine their correlation
with measures of French achievement among English Canadians, the factor structure of these
measures for five different grade levels (i.e., 7 to 11), assessments of reliability, and
developmental differences associated with age and level of French study. The first study,
conducted in London, Ontario, focused on the applicability of these measures to these students,
while the second one used measures selected from it, but added measures of language aptitude as
well as objective French measures. This study demonstrated that both ability and social factors
accounted for individual differences in various measures of second language achievement.
Further research was conducted in 8 regions of Canada over a three-year period using the battery
of tests identified in the two initial studies. Students from Grades 7 to 11 were investigated in
most of the regions. Results of these studies are available in Gardner & Smythe (1974), Gardner,
Smythe, Clément and Gliksman (1976), and Lalonde and Gardner (1985).
I characterize “modern history” as beginning in the 1980’s when the language research
group was disbanded and our research focused on the AMTB and its application to the socio-
educational model of second language acquisition. This was a period when there were a number
of theories of second language acquisition and to understand the underlying processes, I
considered them as a series of “causal models” (Gardner, 1985). Each of them had motivational
implications. Some like the monitor model (Krashen, 1981), the conscious reinforcement model
(Carroll, 1981), and the strategy model (Bialystok, 1978) did not explicitly refer to the second
language community while others involved some association with the other group or groups.
Examples of these included the social psychological model of bilingualism (Lambert, 1974), the
social context model (Clément, 1980), the acculturation model, (Schumann, 1978) and the
intergroup model (Giles and Byrne, 1982).
Gardner (1979) proposed a process model that deals with the interplay of the cultural
context, individual difference variables, second language acquisition contexts and outcomes.
We hypothesized that cultural beliefs about the value of language learning and expectations of
ultimate success had a direct effect on the effectiveness of four classes of variables in the
learning process. It was proposed further that each of the classes of variables would play direct
roles in formal language training contexts but that motivation and situational anxiety would play
more of a role in informal contexts. It was expected too that both contexts would lead to
linguistic outcomes (as when some language material, skill, and/or knowledge is acquired) and
non-linguistic ones (when the experience resulted in the development of other features such as
attitudes, motivation, language anxiety, etc.). Thus, this model placed importance on the
characteristics of individual students as they relate to the social situation in which they live and
their reactions to their learning experiences which would result in differences in the outcomes
that are produced.
I view the modern age as beginning in the 1990’s (Gardner, 2010, pp. 5876), though
some might prefer to consider this still as part of the history. This was a period of considerable
activity and discussion about motivation in second language acquisition. It was spearheaded in
part by Crookes and Schmidt (1991) who stated that ``Discussion of the topic of motivation in
second (SL) learning contexts has been limited by the understanding the field of applied
linguistics have attached to it`` (p. 469). As a consequence they proposed that it was necessary to
reopen the research agenda. Similar comments had been made earlier resulting in interchanges
among researchers such as Oller and Perkins (1978) and Oller (1982) vs. Gardner and Gliksman
(1982), Au (1988) vs. Gardner (1988), and Dörnyei (1994a; 1994b), Oxford (1994) and Oxford
and Shearin (1994) vs. Gardner and Tremblay (1994; 1995). Somewhat later, Dörnyei (2005)
raised a number of criticisms such as “the model is relatively unmodified over time”, the term
“integrative is used three times” (e.g., integrative orientation, integrativeness, and integrative
motive) and that it is necessary “to reinterpret integrativenss”, among others.
There has also been greater interest in other factors that might account for individual
differences in achievement in another language, some of which focus on motivation in ways
similar to the socio-educational model of second language acquisition. Clément (1980) for
example used some elements of the socio-educational model but focused attention on minority
students learning the language of the majority (see also Clément, Gardner, & Smythe, 1977). He
proposed that Integrativeness should include fear of assimilation in such contexts, that frequency
and quality of contact would influence self-confidence with the language which in turn would
influence the individual’s motivation and resulting competence. Dörnyei (1990) conceptualized
motivation differently, assuming three levels. The language level distinguished between
integrative and instrument motivation; the learner level referred to a number of individual
difference characteristics such as need achievement; and the learning situation level referred to
specific motives associated with the classroom context. Thus, it involved variations of some of
the elements of the socio-educational model (i.e., integrative and instrumental orientations,
learning situation motivation) but from a different perspective in that our constructs involve
affective reactions in a motivational process, as opposed to different potential determinants of
language learning success. In a somewhat different vein, Dörnyei and Otto (1998) considered
motivation as varying over time based on goals, and hence is a cognitive approach to motivation.
They refer to three phases, pre-actional, (initial goal setting leading to intention formation, and
intention enactment), actional (subtasks to satisfy the goal and the evaluation of satisfying it) and
post-actional (once the goal has been achieved). Different motivational processes are assumed to
operate in the different phases.
Other models are based in part on research conducted in other areas. Noels (2001)
proposes a model based on Deci and Ryan’s (1985) self-determination theory in which there is a
continuum of orientations varying from non-self-determined to self-determined. They include
three general variables, amotivation, extrinsic orientation, and intrinsic orientation, with
associated subtypes. Amotivation is associated only with non-regulation. Extrinsic orientation
encompasses external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation and integrated
regulation reflecting increases in self-determination respectively. Intrinsic orientation is at the
high end of self-determination, and the three sub-types, knowledge, stimulation, and
accomplishment share the same level of self-determination. Another model focuses on
willingness to communicate (McCroskey & Baer, 1985) but applied to the second language
learning context (MacIntyre & Charos, 1996), and is much more complex in this context. Other
research has focused on aspects of this model (Yashima, 2002). More recently another model
proposed by Czizér and Dörnyei (2005) interprets integrativeness in terms of the perception of
the ideal self, which can be related to self-confidence and vitality of the second language
community. Dörnyei (2005) extended this paradigm to include three dimensions, the ideal L2
self, the ought-to L2 self, and the L2 learning experience (Dörnyei & Usioda, 2009). Still other
models list a number of variables that contribute to motivation in second language acquisition.
Williams and Burden (1997), for example distinguish between internal factors varying from
intrinsic interest to self-concept to external factors such as the learning environment and the
broader social context, while Norton (2013) focusses on a more instrumental construct associated
with investments in individual power. All of these models accept that motivation is important in
learning a second language, though they differ in their interpretation of some of the variables and
their influence, and whether or not motivation should be viewed as a single variable or a
complex one. They also differ in terms of whether they adopt an affective, cognitive, or
behavioral perspective, or a combination thereof. The socio-educational model focuses on
affective reactions of individuals.
A Structural Equation Model of the Process Underlying the Socio-educational Model
As indicated earlier, our research has investigated a number of hypotheses about the role
of motivation in second language acquisition. A basic assumption of our research is that learning
a second language in the classroom setting is very different from learning any other subject
because it involves acquiring material that is characteristic of another cultural community which
with time and increased proficiency could have implications for ones feeling of self-identity. As
a consequence, we proposed that the measures of motivation must reflect that difference. Our
approach therefore was directed at assessing a number of complex social psychological variables
that characterize the motivation in terms of the student’s affective reaction to the classroom
environment, the cultural influences on the learner’s reaction to acquiring attributes of the other
cultural community, anxiety reactions when called upon to use the language, and the effort,
persistence, and satisfaction associated with the process.
Most of the measures in the AMTB are based on questionnaires assessing individual
differences and thus the basic data are correlational in nature. It is common in psychology,
however, to hypothesize that some correlations can be interpreted as implying that some of the
individual difference measures have an influence on other individual difference measures. This
approach is often followed in multiple regression but it was expanded in the 1970’s leading to
the development of Structural Equation Modelling and computer programs like LISREL (cf.
Kline, 2011). That is, the raw data are correlational in nature, but hypotheses are proposed that
might explain potential functional relationships between the variables resulting in a model of a
process that could account for the correlations given all of the variables in the model. The socio-
educational model then provides a potential interpretation of the interplay of four complex
individual difference variables, Integrativeness, Attitudes toward the Learning Situation,
Language Anxiety, Language Aptitude, and Motivation as it pertains to students in their regular
school curriculum studying a language other than their own.
This model assumes a steady state with respect to other variables, though it is reasonable
to expect that changes in the basic structure could influence the patterns that develop. Language
aptitude is an ability variable largely dependent on skills in the home language that could
generalize to the acquisition of skills and knowledge about the second language. Simply put,
individuals with high levels of language aptitude will profit more from the training, other factors
held constant. From a Structural Equation Modelling point of view motivation and language
aptitude are viewed as two basic variables that contribute most of the variance in second
language achievement. The other affective variables are assumed to be important to the extent
that individual differences in them influence differences in motivation rather than directly in
achievement. This is a general model of the effects of the learning context on the individual, not
a description of what happens to each individual. At the individual level, personal experiences in
the learning situation, characteristics of the teacher, the nature of the curriculum, teaching
philosophy and presentation, pressure from external sources, etc., could influence the effects of
both motivation and language aptitude. It is conceivable that all of these variables could be
introduced into the socio-educational model but in all cases, they would represent latent variables
potentially influential on the effectiveness of motivation and/or ability.
Looking Forward
Judging from this Anthology and the existing research literature, one might well conclude
that there will continue to be active research into learning other languages, and the specifics will
vary in the years to come. The social context, the language environment, researchers,
methodological approaches, and popular theoretical orientations change over time. In reviewing
these chapters, I realize just how complex this research area has become. Sixty years ago, the
question we asked seemed quite simple. Did a series of social psychological variables relate to
the acquisition of French as a second language? Learning a language that is not the home
language could involve a student’s sense of ethnic or linguistic identity, especially if raised in a
uni-lingual family, though of course this was not true of all research participants. In our view,
individuals’ identification with their own family involves an affective and cognitive involvement
which potentially applies to their own ethnic community, and this can interfere with learning
another language. To be successful in acquiring another language then requires some form of
identification with, or acceptance of, the other community. We used the term second language
acquisition because the two languages, French and English, were official languages of Canada,
and French was often required as part of the school curriculum even in parts of Canada where it
was not commonly used. In the Montreal setting in which the first studies were conducted, for
example, the languages were often considered two solitudes.
Over the years, many researchers have considered motivational issues involved in second
language acquisition and the context has changed somewhat. Tucker (1981) noted, for example,
that there were many more bilinguals in the world than monolinguals and that individuals often
received instruction in a language other than their own. And with current migration this has
become common in many countries today. All of this has served to open up the context and
settings immensely, leading to a variety of studies, concepts, theoretical models, and wider
interests.
This is clearly demonstrated in the diversity of the chapters making up this anthology.
From my perspective, some of them deal with observations concerning the socio-educational
model (Ch. 5, 8, 14), alternative models (Ch. 7, 11) or methodological issues in assessing
motivation (Ch. 4, 9, 10). Others deal with more specific issues like the implications of ethnic
identity (Ch. 6), or the European perspective on teacher education and multiculturalism (Ch. 3).
The remaining chapters highlight the more general implications of the entire research area (Ch.
1, 2, 12, 13). It seems clear to me that the socio-educational model has implications for students
enrolled in required language courses, but it is conceivable that other variables might be
implicated in other contexts as well. As demonstrated in some of the chapters, the contexts can
have an influence on the ways in which the relevant attributes are defined and/or assessed
suggesting that there is a live interest in coming to grips with the nature of the process as it
applies in all contexts. Other chapters point out that there are far more general implications and
applications that involve related but different constructs, opening up a new social psychology of
language.
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Matters.
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(eds.) A Canadian Social Psychology of Ethnic Relations, Toronto, Methuen
Williams, M. & Burden, R. L. (1997). Psychology for Language Teachers: A Social Constructive
Approach. Cambridge, Eng: Cambridge University Press.
Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL
context. The Modern Language Journal, 86, 54-56.
Part I: Second Language Development / Applied Linguistics
Chapter 1: Extending Gardner’s Socio-Educational Model to
Learner Well-being: Research Propositions Linking Integrative
Motivation and the PERMA Framework
Tammy Gregersen, Peter D. MacIntyre and Jessica Ross
Chapter Overview
This chapter takes a theoretical approach to exploring connections between Gardner’s integrative
motivation and Seligman’s PERMA framework of well-being. The integrative motive is a well-
known approach to conceptualizing motivation in second language acquisition. PERMA,
encompassing Positive emotion, Engagement, Relationships, Meaning, and Accomplishment, is
also well known in the domain of positive psychology as a basis for understanding happiness and
well-being. Our analysis demonstrates that Gardner’s integrative motive and the PERMA
framework share at least three key attributes. The first notable attribute is that each theory
reflects a multidimensional collection of cohesive, mutually-reinforcing elements that function
together to create a unified and meaningful whole. Second, both place strong value on research
support and empirical testing of relationships. Finally, both are applied outside educational
contexts. We propose a testable hypothesis concerning the relative contributions of each PERMA
dimension to each of Integrativenss, Attitudes oward the Learning Situation, and Motivation.
The chapter concludes with three specific research propositions for empirically testing the
relationship between integrative motivation and PERMA.
Chapter 2: Teachers’ and Learners’ Motivation in Multilingual
Classrooms
Mercè Bernaus
Chapter overview
This chapter presents an overview on how teachers’ and learners’ motivation and attitudes are
key factors determining success or failure in any learning situation, especially in multilingual
classrooms where the affective and social factors play a crucial role. Some approaches to
language teaching and learning in multilingual classrooms are described, like the
Multilingualism Curriculum. Much of the material presented in the following pages is based on
research projects supported by the Council of Europe and the European Centre of Modern
Languages (ECML; http://www.ecml.at/) that are grounded in recent approaches to language
teaching and learning. This material can give learners and teachers the opportunity to innovate
and to increase their creativity. This may forge a link between language learning motivation as
conceived in Gardner’s socio-educational model of second language acquisition and language
classroom motivation. Several studies in Catalonia and the Basque Country presented in this
chapter show a relationship between students’ motivation, attitudes and language learning. In this
chapter, we also consider how teachers’ motivation can mainly influence learners’ motivation. It
is proposed that recently popularized approaches to language teaching such as project work and
content-based teaching can motivate teachers and learners.
Chapter 3: The Emotional Underpinnings of Gardner’s Attitudes
and Motivation Test Battery
Peter D. MacIntyre, Jean-Marc Dewaele, Nicole MacMillan and Chengchen Li
Chapter Overview
This chapter considers the affective dimension of Gardner’s socio-educational model and its
associated Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB). Like many psychometrically sound
instruments, the AMTB uses balanced item keying which requires reversing scores on negatively
worded items. Recent work on emotions, however, suggests that positive and negative emotions
are not necessarily opposite ends of the same continuum (as is implied by balanced item keying),
but two qualitatively different dimensions of experience with different functions and different
thoughtaction tendencies. We report two empirical studies examining correlations between
AMTB scales and a frequently used measure of positive and negative emotions (the PANAS).
Study 1 involved 157 Chinese learners of English studying in China. Study 2 used data from an
international web survey of 750 learners. The studies show considerable differences in AMTB
scale means. However, both studies show remarkably consistent correlations between AMTB
scales and individual emotions. Furthermore, regression analysis points to different patterns of
prediction, more often implicating negative emotions in the Chinese sample and positive
emotions in the International sample. The socio-educational model emphasizes attitudes as a
driving force in the motivation system. The present data suggest emotion processes may underlie
the attitudes that support motivation for language learning.
Chapter 4: Perezhivanie: The CognitiveEmotional Dialectic Within
the Social Situation of Development
James P. Lantolf and Merrill Swain
Chapter Overview
The pioneering work of Gardner and Lambert (1959) is responsible for drawing the attention of
applied linguistics and language educators to the relevance of non-cognitive factors in the second
language learning process. However, to this day, Al-Hoorie (2017) suggests that even though
emotions are an important component of the “affective dimension” of motivation, they have not
been given “adequate attention” in the research literature. In this chapter, we highlight the
affective dimension by expanding on Swain’s (2013) initial foray into Vygotsky’s theoretical
proposals regarding the inseparability of emotion and cognition, and we explore several
examples of how the theory can be more fully brought to bear on L2 development and language
instruction. To achieve our goal, we first clarify the terminology, particularly with regard to
perezhivanie, that Vygotsky used in his discussions and analysis of emotion. We then examine
how he brought the concept of emotion into his general theory of psychology. Finally, we
survey the existing L2 literature that draws on Vygotsky’s concept of perezhivanie. Here we
include studies that focus on L2 development, as well as a few studies that have addressed L2
teacher development. We supplement this discussion with our own (re)analysis of some cases
where the theory was not originally used but which we nevertheless believe illustrate its
relevance. We conclude the chapter with a brief discussion of how the theory might be able to
inform L2 research in general.
Part II: Social Psychology / Sociology
Chapter 5: Identity, adaptation and social harmony: A legacy of the
socio-educational model
Sara Rubenfeld and Richard Clément
Chapter Overview
Gardner has long posited that the orientation one has towards acquiring a new language will have
deep significance for language learning and subsequent relationships between members of the
two linguistic groups. He argued that this poses a particular risk for minority group members,
whose connection to their own social group may be tenuous. This theorizing has served as a
catalyst for a program of research spanning several decades that has examined the influence of
the macro-social context on second language acquisition as well as the linkage between this
acquisition and intergroup relations. This chapter summarizes much of this research, while also
unravelling many of the implications of language learning that extend beyond the language
classroom. It begins with a review of Clément’s (1980) socio-contextual model, which expanded
upon some of Gardner’s early ideas to explain the link between second language acquisition and
the social and structural characteristics of the new and first language communities. Following
this, the chapter provides a summary of the non-linguistic outcomes of second language learning,
specifically with regards to its impact on cognitive, affective, and behavioural outcomes such as
identity, psychological adjustment, cultural representations, prejudice, and discrimination.
Chapter 6: What’s in a name? Motivations for baby-naming in
multicultural contexts
Jorida Cila and Richard N. Lalonde
Chapter Overview
An increased diversity in the repertoire of first names has been one of the most visible, yet
under-researched, cultural products ensuing from increasing cultural diversity in the West. Given
the role that names play as markers of identity, a systematic examination of naming among
bicultural individuals can help shed light into some of the motivational factors that relate to
processes of acculturation and identity formation. The present chapter synthesizes our work on
the topic of baby-naming among bicultural individuals in Canada. One approach to
understanding the motivations underlying naming choices and preferences is through applying
Gardner and Lambert’s (1959) framework of second language acquisition, specifically, the role
of integrative and instrumental motives. Across a number of studies conducted with bicultural
past and prospective parents we find evidence that both integrative and instrumental motives
have a role to play in naming choices and preferences. Specifically, bicultural individuals
perceive ethnic names as a way of ensuring that their Canadian-born children identify with their
heritage cultural roots, as well as fostering a deeper sense of connection with one’s family and
ethnic community. Importantly, these integrative motivations toward one’s heritage culture and
language are underscored by a sense of ethnic pride and individual agency. We also observe an
integrative motivation toward mainstream Canadian culture, reflected in choices of mainstream
names as a way of embracing mainstream culture, but this motivation is weaker compared to the
integrativeness toward heritage culture. Lastly, we also found evidence of a more pragmatic, or
instrumental motivation in naming, with some bicultural individuals choosing mainstream names
in order to avoid any potential prejudice or discrimination associated with having an ethnic
name. We conclude the chapter by acknowledging the role of the context in which our research
has taken place, and point to future research directions.
Chapter 7: Motivation, Identity, and Investment: A journey with
Robert Gardner
Bonny Norton
Chapter Overview
This paper seeks to elucidate the complementary relationship between Bonny Norton’s construct
of investment (Norton Peirce, 1995; Norton, 2000/2013; Darvin and Norton 2015) and Robert
Gardner’s construct of motivation, as theorized since Gardner and Lambert’s (1959) socio-
educational model of second language acquisition. The central argument made is that both
scholars have an interest in the language learner’s relationship to the social world, particularly
with respect to questions of identity. As a psychological construct, however, Gardner’s research
on motivation includes a greater focus on measurement, particularly within educational contexts;
as a sociological construct, Norton’s research on investment is more centrally concerned with
issues of power, both within and beyond classrooms. Drawing on her research in diverse regions
of the world, Norton illustrates the ways in which language learners, teachers, and researchers
navigate frequently unequal relations of power in seeking to claim a wider range of identities
from which to speak and be heard. The paper concludes with an examination of Darvin and
Norton’s (2015) expanded model of investment, which locates investment at the intersection of
identity, capital and ideology. This critical framework provides for a systematic examination of
how power circulates at micro, meso, and macro levels, constructing modes of inclusion and
exclusion through and beyond language.
Part III: Historical / Methodological Issues
Chapter 8: Snapshots in Time: Time in Gardner’s Theory and
Gardner’s Theory across Time
Rebecca L. Oxford
Chapter Overview
Time and its ever-present twin, change, are very important to an understanding of Robert C.
Gardner’s work. He discussed time in the motivation processes of second language learners;
this is what I call the micro-perspective. Looking more broadly, Gardner traced the phases
in the development and use of his own socio-educational model1 across time (in my
terminology, the macro-view), and other scholars speculated on how his model fits into a
range of language motivation theories. This chapter presents seven snapshots of Gardner’s
work with an emphasis on the theme of time. I organized and ultimately interpreted the
snapshots for this chapter with the aim of theoretical comprehensibility and balance. Using
my experience as a teacher educator, I closed the chapter with a personal snapshot about
Gardner’s real-time influence on language teachers who encounter his work in university
courses.
Chapter 9: Researching L2 Motivation: Re-evaluating the Role of
Qualitative Inquiry, or the ‘Wine and Conversation’ Approach
Ema Ushioda
Chapter Overview
My own ‘entry’ into the L2 motivation field was in the early 1990s, when approaches to
researching and theorizing language learning motivation were largely defined by the influential
work of Robert Gardner and his associates. As Skehan (1989) observed, Gardner’s status in the
field was unique, and all other empirical work and writing on L2 motivation at the time served in
effect as a kind of commentary on the research agenda he had established. However, the early
1990s was also a period when the research momentum in this field of inquiry seemed to be
somewhat in decline, and when various critical voices began to emerge calling for new or
expanded theoretical frameworks and research agendas (notably, Crookes and Schmidt, 1991).
As a novice doctoral researcher keen to articulate my voice too at that time, I sought to promote
a qualitative approach to theorizing and researching L2 motivation, to counter the long-
established quantitative tradition of inquiry dominating the field. In the decades since then, of
course, the L2 motivation field has evolved and diversified significantly, and qualitative
approaches to researching motivation have now become firmly established and increasingly
popular. At the same time, my own thinking and understanding about L2 motivation have also
developed considerably since those graduate student days of my academic career. In this chapter,
from the vantage point of a more ‘mature’ perspective, I will revisit and re-evaluate the role and
contribution of qualitative inquiry in our field.
Chapter 10: Quantitative Methods in Second Language Learning
Motivation Research: Gardner’s Contributions and Some New
Developments
Paul F. Tremblay
Chapter Overview
R. C. Gardner’s research in the motivational aspects of second language learning is well known
in the literature. His socio-educational model has withstood the test of time and continues to
provide a foundation for many empirical studies. Many scholars may not be aware that Gardner
taught a graduate statistics course in psychology for over fifty years. In that period, he was a
pioneer in applying a wide range of quantitative methods that were innovative at the time to his
research. These include the psychometric measurement of individual differences in abilities,
attitudes, and motivation, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling. In this chapter, I
describe Gardner’s background and contributions to quantitative methods, including some key
ideas in his courses. I also discuss how factor analysis, psychometrics, structural equation
modeling, and multilevel modeling have had an impact on his program of research and how these
techniques are important in second language learning research. Some of these techniques open
the door to refinements in test construction and in the analysis of mediation, moderation, and
longitudinal designs. Focusing on the future, I discuss how the relatively newer statistical
procedures such as multilevel modeling and latent profile analysis provide exciting opportunities
to conceptualize and investigate profiles of motivational characteristics across individuals and
social contexts.
Chapter 11: Identification with External and Internal Referents:
Integrativeness and the Ideal L2 Self
Jennifer Claro
Chapter Overview
Gardner’s original concept of integrativeness was based on his conviction that one’s
identification with speakers of the L2 and desire to become similar to those speakers provides
motivation to learn that language. Later, Dörnyei proposed that the ideal L2 self, one’s idealized
model of oneself as a language speaker, should replace integrativeness as the prime motivator
and object of identification. This chapter argues that the ideal L2 self cannot replace
integrativeness for two reasons. First, the locus of identification differs. Integrativeness
represents identification with an external referent, traditionally a language group that one wishes
to enter, whereas the ideal L2 self represents identification with an internal referent. Second,
empirical results based on comparison of correlation with effort show that when corrected for
attenuation, Integrativeness-D&C (Dörnyei & Csizér’s 2002 version of integrativeness)
correlated significantly more strongly with Intended Learning Effort than did the Ideal L2 Self in
the studies that call for replacement. Advantages and disadvantages of using the Integrativeness-
D&C scale are identified and future directions for research are suggested. As well, a model of
identification incorporating aspects of both integrativeness and the ideal L2 self is presented, in
which identification with an external model is linked to identification with an internal model via
internalization in a complementary relationship.
Chapter 12: History, Philosophy and the Social Psychology of
Language
John Edwards
Chapter Overview
Since the late 1950s, the work of Robert Gardner and his colleagues has been central to our
understanding of the social psychology of language. Early research on the importance of attitude
and motivation soon led to both theoretical and methodological advances. These focused our
attention upon the underpinning role played by perceptions and, particularly, stereotypical ones
in language learning and, more broadly, in our reactions to speakers both within and without our
own speech communities. The consequence is that we now have detailed information about the
hierarchies of language status that arise from differential assessments of speakers. This information
has proved pivotal in virtually all investigations of the language-and-identity relationship, with its
many ramifications at all social-group levels.
This chapter attempts, above all, to situate the social psychology of language within a very
broad historical and philosophical context. It begins by illustrating the familiar point that much of
contemporary social psychology per se has suffered from its failure to properly embed itself in
that context, and goes on to provide evidence if any were really needed that the questions
central to its disciplinary obligations are of very long standing. I have paid particular attention, of
course, to recurring and continuing treatments of belief, attitude and value.
In the final pages here, I consider the emergence of the social psychology of language, an
emergence which given the centrality of language to human life has been a surprisingly late
arrival on the research stage. The fact that it has now firmly established itself as a recognised sub-
discipline and, indeed, has seen features of its focus extended to sociology, applied linguistics, and
other areas concerned with the linguistic markers of ‘groupness’, is due in no small part to the
efforts and insights of Gardner, his associates, and his intellectual descendants.
... In the context of buoyant research on second language acquisition (SLA), language learning motivation has remained one of the most active fields of inquiry for more than 60 years (Al-Hoorie & MacIntyre, 2019;Ushioda, 2019). Several books have approached this topic from a range of perspectives (e.g., Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2021;Lamb et al., 2019;MacIntyre & Al-Hoorie, 2020). However, the seemingly unceasing theoretical and methodological innovation in motivation research can be confusing, and it has become increasingly overwhelming to keep abreast of all the latest advancements in this burgeoning field. ...
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This study aimed to synthesize the structural relationships among willingness to communicate (WTC) and its high-evidence factors in second language (L2) learning contexts by adopting meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM). The MASEM approach is designed to construct a structural equation model (SEM) to explain correlations between variables by pooling correlation coefficients reported in previous literature. This study integrated 44 independent samples ( N = 12,094) and built a MASEM model to investigate the structural relations of WTC, its three high-evidence factors (learners’ perceived L2 competence, L2 motivation, and L2 anxiety), and frequency of learners’ L2 use. The results of meta-analysis successfully supported our proposed model of L2 WTC. Furthermore, among the three high-evidence factors, it was found that learners’ perceived L2 competence influenced L2 WTC the most. In addition, the results of the moderator analyses indicated that learners’ L2 proficiency and WTC contexts (inside vs. outside classrooms) significantly influenced the relationships between L2 WTC and its high-evidence factors. The implications of these results are discussed in further depth and detail.
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Abstract: Gardner's original concept of integrativeness was based on his conviction that one's identification with speakers of the L2 and desire to become similar to those speakers provides motivation to learn that language. Later, Dörnyei proposed that the ideal L2 self, one's idealized model of oneself as a language speaker, should replace integrativeness as the prime motivator and object of identification. This chapter argues that the ideal L2 self cannot replace integrativeness for two reasons. First, the locus of identification differs. Integrativeness represents identification with an external referent, traditionally a language group that one wishes to enter, whereas the ideal L2 self represents identification with an internal referent. Second, empirical results based on comparison of correlation with effort show that when corrected for attenuation, Integrativeness-D&C (Dörnyei & Csizér's 2002 version of integrativeness) correlated significantly more strongly with Intended Learning Effort than did the Ideal L2 Self in the studies that call for replacement. Advantages and disadvantages of using the Integrativeness-D&C scale are identified and future directions for research are suggested. As well, a model of identification incorporating aspects of both integrativeness and the ideal L2 self is presented, in which identification with an external model is linked to identification with an internal model via internalization in a complementary relationship.
Book
This collection of twelve papers demonstrates that the concepts developed within the Cognitive Linguistics movement afford an insightful perspective on several important areas of second language acquisition and pedagogy. In the first part of the book, three papers show how three Cognitive Linguistics constructs provide a useful theoretical frame within which second language acquisition data can be analyzed. First, Talmy's typology of motion events is argued to constitute the base relative to which acquisition discrepancies in motion events are most valuably investigated. Secondly, the notion of "construction" is invoked in order to account for systematic differences between the native and non-native speakers' use of the English verb get. Finally, frequency and similarity effects are shown to play a crucial part in the learning of prepositions in a second language. The second part of the book shows that the key concepts commonly invoked in Cognitive Linguistics analyses allow language teachers to insightfully structure the presentation of problematic material in the foreign language classroom. These concepts include among others polysemy, the figure/ground gestalt, the usage-based conception of grammar, the radial organization of categories, metaphors, and cultural scripts. The Cognitive Linguistics paradigm has already shown its viability to analyze a wide array of linguistic phenomena. This book establishes its relevance in the areas of second language acquisition and language pedagogy. Its intended public is composed of Cognitive Linguists, Second Language Acquisition specialists, as well as foreign language pedagogy researchers, instructors, and students. © Copyright 2004 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH and Co. KG, D-10785 Berlin. All rights reserved.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Article
Research results over the past decades have consistently demonstrated that a key reason why many second language learners fail--while some learners do better with less effort--lies in various learner attributes such as personality traits, motivation, or language aptitude. In psychology, these attributes have traditionally been called "individual differences." The scope of individual learner differences is broad--ranging from creativity to learner styles and anxiety--yet there is no current, comprehensive, and unified volume that provides an overview of the considerable amount of research conducted on various language learner differences, until now.
Article
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