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Nota Técnica - Proposta de Lei Geral do Licenciamento Ambiental: Análise crítica e propositiva do projeto de lei à luz das boas práticas internacionais e da literatura científica

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O objetivo dessa Nota Técnica é analisar, crítica e construtivamente, a proposta da Lei Geral do Licenciamento Ambiental. Mais especificamente, objetiva-se analisar o texto-base do PL à luz das boas práticas internacionais e evidências empíricas da ciência, destacando questões críticas para serem consideradas em eventuais revisões e regulamentações legislativas.
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... O provável motivo para essa falta de novas resoluções é o esvaziamento das câmaras técnicas feito por meio de decreto em 2019, que alterou profundamente a forma de funcionamento dos conselhos e reduziu a participação pública das decisões, contrariando as recomendações internacionais de envolvimento popular na tomada de decisão (OIT, 1989). Diversos autores vêm destacando a pressão política e empresarial para revisar e simplificar as legislações ambientais e o processo de licenciamento (BRAGAGNOLO, 2017;FONSECA;RODRIGUES, 2017). Além dessas pressões, os próprios operadores dos sistemas de avaliação de impacto concordam com a necessidade de rever as legislações existentes. ...
... A seção não é clara e não aborda muitos possibilidades de procedimentos hoje adotados no País. Um ponto que pode ser de preocupação nessa seção é a falta de clareza quanto a vinculação do licenciamento ambiental à avaliação de impacto (FONSECA;SANCHEZ et al., 2019), especialmente para o licenciamento simplificado no que concerne aos sistemas de abastecimento de água e esgotamento sanitário. ...
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... Esse fenômeno está acontecendo em todo o mundo, mas é particularmente intenso no Brasil, onde tem circulado várias propostas de mudança nas regulamentações do licenciamento ambiental e da AIA (FONSECA; SÁNCHEZ; RIBEIRO, 2017). As propostas de alterações, frequentemente baseadas em fatos "alternativos" e infundados, são preocupantes e apresentam questões críticas para o futuro da AIA no Brasil (ATHAYDE et al., 2022;FONSECA et al., 2019). Por exemplo, em 2021, a Câmara dos Deputados aprovou uma versão da "Lei Geral do Licenciamento Ambiental" que, se aprovada no Senado e ratificada pela Presidência, terá implicações adversas para a prática da AIA no Brasil. ...
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Within the ample body of literature devoted to strategic environmental assessment (SEA) outcomes and the assessment of its effectiveness, it is accepted that the performance of SEA systems is influenced by contextual aspects. Procedural aspects, objectives, guidance, approach, timing, amongst others, are reported as key components of the different dimensions of SEA effectiveness but their linkage to SEA outcomes is yet to be adequately investigated. In this paper, contextual aspects and related outcomes of a non-mandatory SEA system were identified through systematic literature review and personal interviews with key actors of SEA, aiming at the identification of the influence of contextual factors on SEA effectiveness. The findings indicate three main aspects that may explain the lengthy process of introduction of SEA in plan- and policy-making in the country: (i) lack of proper SEA legislation, (ii) the influence of Environmental Impact Assessment practice and (iii) the influence of the environmental licensing culture. Nevertheless, SEA contributes to improving communication between stakeholders along the planning process and to providing a better level of information for lower tiers of decision-making. In spite of the minor influences on the nature of the strategic action, valuable lessons credited to SEA have been learnt.
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Empirical research dedicated to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is mostly grounded on SEA systems guided by legal requirements, clearly stated procedures and systematic use of SEA to policy- and plan-making. Nevertheless, a considerable parcel of SEA practice is currently occurring in countries with no specific legislation or guidance to be followed, i.e. non-regulated SEA systems. Therefore, it is important to understand how SEA is performing in these countries and to establish whether related SEA systems are subject to the same premises and perspectives of effectiveness that have been reported in literature so far. The paper provides a comprehensive analysis of the state-of-practice in Brazil, based on best practice analysis of SEA reports and interviews, reporting empirical evidence regarding the use of SEA and its related timing, procedural performance and key players involved. Main findings reveal an isolated instrument, embroidered in a disperse and unclear framework, poorly coordinated and highly sensitive to circumstances. Provision of a structured system, indicating clear purposes of SEA, systematic procedures and stakeholder’s responsibilities are suggested as potentially relevant measures to balance current system’s flexibility, thus fostering SEA effectiveness.
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IA regime design has evolved significantly over the past 50 years. Current thinking includes a package of next generation approaches such as the incorporation of requirements for regional and strategic IA, the consideration of cumulative effects and alternatives, and the inclusion of sustainability criteria and trade-off rules for decision makers. These suggested changes to IA design largely come from the recognition, through experience, of the weaknesses with current IA laws and regulations and needs to accommodate new understandings, for example about sustainability and complexity. Here, we reiterate the key generic components of next generation assessment that are broadly suitable for application in all jurisdictions with at least moderate assessment capacities, focusing on the necessary process requirements that could be captured in IA law, regulation and policy. Through an illustrative case example of Manitoba, Canada, we show how the components of next generation assessment might be implemented as a package in the context of an existing IA regime. Our application of these principles reveals the value of careful consideration of the current legislative frame as well as needs to cooperate with other jurisdictions. It shows, for example, the importance of experience with using streams of assessment and ensuring meaningful public participation. We conclude that many jurisdictions are likely to find moving consistently to this more comprehensive form of assessment to be a natural progression and that the greatest challenges will probably be in building interjurisdictional cooperation, ensuring good faith application of the sustainability criteria in decision making, and implementing regional and strategic assessments.