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The Arrival of Naqshabandi Order from Hijaz to the Malay World: 16th until the Early 19th Century



This historical study tells a chronology on the arrival of the Naqshabandi order from Hijaz to the Malay World throughout India and Central Asia.. Naqshabandi Order in the Malay World is identified came from the revival of Ahmad al-Sirhindi from India. His revival in the Naqshabandi Order called as the mujadidiyyah caused the order at the beginning in Mecca undergone major polemic during 16th until 17th century. However, later, it is a well-established in middle of 18th and 19th century with minor polemic by al-Sirhindi's late charismatic reputable legacies effort who migrated from India to Mecca. Their struggle is most welcomed by Malay scholars domiciling in the Mecca city for study and pilgrimage travelers. They are responsible spreading the Order directly from Mecca to their homeland in numerous provinces in the Malay World, particularly in the early 19th century, until now.
International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 4 No. 1; January 2013
The Arrival of Naqshabandi Order from Hijaz to the Malay World: 16th until the
Early 19th Century
Muhammad Khairi Mahyuddin
PhD Student
Department of Usuluddin & Philosophy
National University Malaysia
Bangi Selangor, Malaysia.
Professor Zakaria Stapa
Department of Usuluddin & Philosophy
National University Malaysia
Bangi Selangor, Malaysia.
Associated Prof Faudzinaim Badaruddin
Department of Usuluddin & Philosophy
National University Malaysia,
Bangi Selangor, Malaysia.
This historical study tells a chronology on the arrival of the Naqshabandi order from Hijaz to the Malay World
throughout India and Central Asia.. Naqshabandi Order in the Malay World is identified came from the revival of
Ahmad al-Sirhindi from India. His revival in the Naqshabandi Order called as the mujadidiyyah caused the order
at the beginning in Mecca undergone major polemic during 16th until 17th century. However, later, it is a well-
established in middle of 18th and 19th century with minor polemic by al-Sirhindi’s late charismatic reputable
legacies effort who migrated from India to Mecca. Their struggle is most welcomed by Malay scholars domiciling
in the Mecca city for study and pilgrimage travelers. They are responsible spreading the Order directly from
Mecca to their homeland in numerous provinces in the Malay World, particularly in the early 19th century, until
Key words: Naqshabandi , Ahmad al-Sirhindi, India, Malay world,.
Naqshabandi Order is a Sufi practice founded Muhammad Baha al-Din from al-Bukhara, a region in the Central
Asia. The word Naqshabandi ascribed to Baha al-Din consists of two Persian word meaning painting in the heart.
His heart was drawn with the word Allah. Figuratively it indicates his heart having perpetual presence to Allah.
From the impact of this accident, the word Naqshabandi is applied persistently until today, by his serial heirs over
the world. Naqshabandi's spiritual lineage ends to the Prophet Muhammad SAW via Abu Bakar al-Siddiq.
However, Naqshabandi order before Muhammad Baha al-Din had been established by Abdul Khaliq al-
Ghujadawani. He was a Chief of the Naqshabandi Order because he founded in it eleven principles with Persian
terminologies. The coming of the Naqshabandi Order from Central Asia to Hijaz at the early period started with
Baha al-Din, Muhammad Parsa, Abdul Rahman al-Jami, Ubaydullah Ahrar and the other outstanding masters
while performing the pilgrimage. At the time of pilgrimage, they initiated many disciples into the Order
(Weismann, 2007) . Hijaz is the region where Mecca and Medina, the Holy Cities are located. Both cities are also
noted as al-haramain (the sacred territory). Hijaz in the present day is known as the Kingdom of Saudia Arabia.
The Naqshabandi Order is identified not only diffused in Mecca by the Central Asia masters but also masters
from India. So, in the Holy cities, Naqshabandi adaption was mostly taught by masters from central Asia and
India. The development of the Naqshabandi Order in Hijaz appeared into two major lines; the non- mujaddidi and
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The first refers to the Naqshabandi Order spread by non-mujaddidi's masters like Muhammad Parsa, Ghudanfur
bin Jaafar, Tajuddin al-Hindi and the other masters before Ahmad al-Sirhindi or masters whom their spiritual
linage associated to Baha al-din without intersection with Ahmad al-Sirhindi. The second alludes to the
Naqshabandi Order revolutionized by Ahmad al-Sirhindi, and later diffused by his serial legacies. The word
mujaddidiyyah attributes to the Naqshabandi Order have a crucial message. It attributes to Ahmad al-Sirhindi as
he revitalized the Naqshabandi rite eighteen modes of muraqabah such as muraqabah ahadiyyah (contemplation
of the Oneness) until la tacayyun (non determination) known as maqamat al-mujadidiyyah, theory of ten lataif
(subtitles) and wahdah al-shuhud and strict shari’ah compliance. Due to his great contribution, he is cited as al-
Imam al-Rabbani and Mujaddid alf al-thani.
In early last 15th and early 16th, the arrival of Naqshabandi Order in Hijaz initiated with non- mujaddidi master,
Sibghatullah Baruji. He was an Indian scholar adopted the original Naqshabandi and Shatiri within Ibn Arabi's
teaching.. He arrived in Medina in 1596 and built spiritual lodge there. Several scholars such as Ahmad al-
Shinawi (d.1620), Ahmad al-Qushashi (d.1661) and Ibrahim al-Kurani (d. 1690) were initiated into the
Naqshabandi Order by him. Sibghatullah's effort to extent the Naqshabandi Order in Hijaz also associated by
another non- mujaddidi’s master from India, Tajuddin Zakaria al-uthmani (d. 1642). He was a contemporary
Ahmad al-Sirhindi learning Naqshabndi Order from similar instructor, Muhammad Baqi (1563-1603). Tajuddin
settled down in Mecca after his second pilgrimage in 1631. Scholars in Mecca and Medina such as Abdul Baqi
Mizjaji, Ahmad b Ibrahim Allan (d. 1642), Ahmad al-Nakhli participated in the Naqshabandi Order under his
instruction. He strengthened his position in Mecca by translating Persian Naqshabandi book such as al-uns by
Abdul Rahman Jami and Rashahat cain al-hayah of Ali Husain into Arabic word. He is an adherer to Ibn Arabi
teaching and in wahdah al-wujud. (Weismann 2007). Almost all Naqshabandi’s figures from non- mujaddidi in
Mecca at that time favorably viewed to wahdah al-wujud as presented by Ibn Arabi.
The mujaddidi’s line primarily comes to Hijaz through Adam al-Banuri (d. 1663) , a direct Ahmad al-Sirhindi’s
disciple in the 1642M. Adam Banuri translated selective of Maktubat and wrote many epistles exposing
mujaddidi’s thought such as kalimah al-macarif, khulasah al- macrifah and nikat al-asrar.. The controversy
toward mujaddidi's teaching arises on Adam Banuri’s explanation of the superiority of haqiqah al-kacbah to
haqiqah Muhammad. It invites intellectual dispute with Ahmad al-Qushashi. To help resolve this disputed issue,
Muhammad Masom sent his disciple, Ahmad Jarullah a-Jurjani, a Bukharian to Mecca. In 1656M, Muhammad
Macsum and his brothers Muhammad Said and Muhammad Yahya and their family as well as a large entourage
went to Mecca for pilgrimage. They later domiciled in Medina for three years. Muhammad Ma'som did his utmost
to appease Ahmad al-Qushasi and his associates, and his work is fruitfulness. To clarify mujaddidi’s teaching,
Muhammad Macsum followed his father’s work compiling letters known as maktubat macsumiyyah written in
Persian in three volumes contains 652 letters. Among the scholars who took a pledge oath to mujadidi’s line was
Isa b Muhammad al-Jacfari al-Thalibi al- Maghribi and Abu Salim Muhammad al-Ayyashi, the author of al-
Rihlah al-Ayyashiyyah.. The former took a pledge with Muhammad Ma’sum and was authorized to teach
mujaddidi’s order, dhikr and wahdah al-Shuhud. The second took an oath with Badruddin al-Hindi Due to the
highly positive reception of mujaddidi’s teaching, Muhammad Ma'som left his deputes, Ahmad Jarullah and
Badruddin al-Hindi in Haramain in order to teach numerous disciples, resident and pilgrimage in mujaddidi’s line.
Their efforts won the respect of the local scholars ( Weismann 2007; Mohd Nasir 2009).
However, the controversy on mujaddidi's thought became worse in 1682M. Some Indian scholars requested fatwa
from Sharif Mecca on the contentious mujaddidi’s teaching in his maktubat, and al-Mabdad wa al-Ma'ad. As a
result, Hijaz's scholars replied to them by bringing out fatwa in Arabic.. They highlighted on 32 issues in
Mujaddidi's ideas as against to the viewpoints of Ahl al-Sunnah wa Jama’ah such as maqam haqiqah al-ka’abah
is higher than haqiqah al-muhammadiyyah and others. A number of Hijaz’s scholars wrote treatises refuting
Mujaddidi’s teaching such as Muhammad bin Abd Rasul al- Barzanji wrote qadh al-zand wa qadah al-rand fi
radd jahalat ahl al-sirhind, al-nashirah al-najirah li al-firqah al-fajirah. Hasan b Ali also produced al-ansab al-
hindi li ittisal kufriyyat Ahmad Sirhindi (Friedman 1971: Mohd Nasir 2009)
This refutation in the form of Fatwa toward Mujaddi’s teaching countered by the learned mujaddidi’s scholar,
Muhammad Beg al-Uzbeki. He is proficient in both Persian and Arabic . He traveled from India to Haramain to
meet directly the scholars to clarify properly the allegation and to rectify the fatwa.
International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 4 No. 1; January 2013
He answered in a scholarly form to each 32 issues in his treatise catiyyah al-wahhab al-fasilah bayna al-khata´
wa al-sawab completed in 1094H. For example, Muhammad Beg rectified sentence and meaning of the haqiqah
al-kacbah afdal (the reality of Holy Kacbah is superior) to the haqiqah al-muhammadiyyah (the reality of
muhammad). It was interpreted that the Kacbah as the Holy material house is superior to the Prophet Muhammad
SAW. In fact, the real word is haqiqah al-kacbah fawq (above) the haqiqah al-Muhammadiyyah. It meant the
haqiqah al-kacbah (the reality of Ka'bah) refers to its immaterial form existence in the calam al-amr (world of
command) is above haqiqah al-muhammadiyyah in the calam al-khalq (world of creation). Another correction is
iradati billah muttasilah bila wasitah aw ay bila min gayr wasitah Muhammad (my will to Allah without
mediation or without the mediation of the Prophet SAW). He rectified it is wrong translation and fabricated from
its origin Persian word. The correct idea in true translation silsilatu iradati muttasilah billah min ghairi tawassut
ahad wayadi naib yadillah wain ittasalat bimuhammad sallallahucalaihiwasallam biwasait kathirah fi al-tariqah
al-naqshbandiyyah wa al-chistiyyah wal-qadiriyyah (my chain connet to Allah without intercession of one and
my hand is deputy to the hand of Allah even my chain connects to Muhammad within many intercession in
Naqshabandiyyah, Chistiyyah and Qadiriyyah) . The another issue Inna tariqi subhani (my path is a path of the
transcendence of Allah ), the word subhani’ is not similar to the word of Abi Yazid al-Bistami to glorify me in
the state of ecstasy, the ‘ya’ adjective, is not ya al-mutakallim but rather to indicate aspect of tanzih (transcendent)
of Allah in the state of sobriety it is associating in word but has distinctive meaning ( Muhammad Beg 1094H;
Friedman 1971).
Muhammad Beg viewed that the fatwa produced by Haramain scholar is authentic from the eyes of scholars that
may cause to the chaotic and misunderstand between the followers of Mujaddidi’s line over the muslim world and
exerted a huge negative impact to them and the image of Sirhindi as the renown scholar. For him, his action to
rectify immediately the fatwa is right and essential for that purpose. He concludes that the fatwa is unsound and
should be rectified as it is based on misleading Arabic translation of original Persian maktubat where it drive to
misinterpret actual meaning, terminology and sound sentence from the Persian original maktubat (Muhammad
Beg 1094H).His answer is amazing. He brought the actual text of the Persian citation of maktubat, and translated
it to the proper Arabic translation. Besides that he supported Ahmad al-Sirhindi’s teaching by the clarification of
the classical sufis literatures such as al-futuhat al- makiyyah, risalah al-quds, ihya culum al-din, Sharh al-Fusus,
Sharh al-caqaid and al-bahr al-maurud fi al-mawathiq wa al-cuhud, tafsir al-jalalain, tafsir al-baydawi and others
authentic books. His effort is backed by numeral scholars such as Hasan b Muhammad Murad al-Tunisi al-makki,
Ahmad al-Bishabishi al-Misri al-Shafie al-Azhari, Jalaluddin al-Bathi and Muhammad Farukh Shah (Friedman
Thus in the 17th century, as a result of the impact of this polemic, Abdul Samad al-Falimbani (d 1789M), a
disciple of Muhammad bin Abdul Kariim al-Saman al-madani and a great Malay Sufi scholar and prolific writer
in tasawwuf did not enlist Ahmad al-Sirhindi literatures such as al-maktubat and al-mabda’ wa al-macad to be
reviewed by a student in Sufism in his book, Siyar al-salikin. Even Mujadidi’s heirs and teaching existed in his
period, but he rather inserted Sufi’s literatures from non mujaddidis masters like Tajud al-Din, Ahmad Ibn Allan,
Ahmad al-Qushahi and Abdul Ghani al-Nablusi. It may be argued that he attempted to avoid the controversy
raised if maktubat misunderstood by the uninitiated students based on a misleading Arabic translation. It seemed
he wanted to maintain the unity of thought in Ibn Arabi’s school as held by almost all Mecca scholars. This occurs
because of no proper complete Arabic translation made by any reputable Mujaddidi’s scholars who are dominated
by non Arab scholars. No detailed studies are available on the development of Naqshabandi Mujaddidi in al-
Hijaz during this century . The polemic around Mujaddidi’s teaching and doctrine among scholars eventually
faded and decreased. This situation gave advantages to the legacy of non mujaddidi’s masters such as Ahmad al-
Qushashi and his followers in Madina. Ismail al-Uskuduri, the student of Muhammad Abu Tahir, son of Ibrahim
al-Kurani (d 1798M) and Muhammad Uthman al-Mirghani disseminated Naqshabandi to Sudan and Zabid
(Weismann 2007)
However, in the mid 18th and early of 19th century, the Naqshabandi from mujaddidi’s mainstream Haramain
gradually become assertive. Most of Naqshabandi’s admission came from the late mujaddidi’s outstanding heirs.
This is because of the restless efforts made by a number charismatic mujaddidi's heirs in dispersing its teaching
scholastically. Mecca in the late 19 century became a centre of many sufi orders to be initiated in such as
naqshabandi, qadiri, khulwati, shazili, sammani, shatiri and others. Many rituals and ceremonies like halaqah al-
dhikr ,haul, mawlid , burdah and spiritual places like zawiyah, khanaqah, and ribat were formed.
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The Malays initiated into sufi's orders were the students domiciled in Mecca for study various Islamic sciences.
Some of them were the Hujjaj (pilgrimage) from the outside got initiation into sufi Orders rapidly during the
pilgrimage period. Consequently, some of them were authorized as khalifah (deputy) to spread it in their local
home. Among the prerequisite required by Mecca scholars before participating sufi order was having preliminary
fundamental and satisfactory Islamic knowledge subjects such as usul ul-din and fiqh in order to make the
practice of sufi order fruitful (Snouck 1970). In the Mecca’s period, the Naqshabandi Order from the mujaddidi's
mainstream was divided into two main lines; Ahmad Said (1802-1871M) and Khalid bin Ahmad al-Shahazur
(1779M-1827M),. For the first, based on his effort, Naqshabandi is known as Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Ahmadi
and the second known as Naqshabandi Mujadidi Khalidi. Both are the imitators and preachers of mujaddidi's
thought and rites in the Naqshabandi Order.
Ahmad Said (1802M-1871M) played a progressive role in spreading Naqshabandi Mujaddi in al-Haramain. He
was a descendent of Ahmad Sirhindi. His effort was supported by his biological and non biological heirs. Ahmad
Said was a spiritual heir of Abdullah Dehlawi’ from Batallah, India. He also was contemporary with Khalid bin
Husain al-Sharuzi. Ahmad Said's name later put after the word mujadidi as ahmadi. It signified he maintained
Ahmad al-Sirhindi's legacy and descendent. He adept the practice khalwah fi al-jalwah and suhbah in his basic
training. He had three sons; the first was Abdul Rashid (d 1287H). The second was Muhammad Umar (1828-
1881) and the third was Muhammad Mazhar (b. 1831) (al-Bakini 1999)
Ahmad Said became a chief successor of Abdullah al Dihlawi (d.1834M) after his death in India. He led the
cloister of Shah Abdullah al-dihlawi and continued to expand the light of mujaddidi for 23 years. In 1857M, he
traveled from India to Mecca and settled down in Madinah. A hundreds of Arab and Turk pledged oaths to him.
Ahmad Said had many deputies. Some of them were his biological and non-biological deputies. The former was
Shah Abdu Rashid (1822-1878M), Shah Muhammad Umar (1828-1881M) and Shah Muhammad Mazhar (1832-
1884) . Whereas, the second was are Abdul Salam Wast, Dost Muhammad Qandahari, Irshad Husin and
Muhammad Jan al Makki. All of his non biological deputies initiate student in several parts of India like Delhi
and Rampur but Muhammad Jan al- Makki went to Mecca to initiate student there. Shah Abdul Rashid was the
eldest son of Ahmad Said. He moved to Mecca after the demise of Ahmad Said in Madina to guide his father’s
former disciples on the path of Mujaddi’s tradition. He then died in Mecca and buried in Jannah al-Macla. His
task continued by his son, Shah Muhammad Macsom. He had already established his own cloister known as
khanaqah Ma’sumiyyah at Rampur for 23 years. He left Rampur to Mecca for continuing Shah Abdul Rashid
position and later died in 1923M. Meanwhile, Shah Muhammad Umar, a second son of Ahmad Said (1244-
1298/1828-1881) took a position as his heir in Madina. However, after several years in Madina, he returned India
until he died there. In India, he appointed his son Shah Abu Khair al mujaddidi (1855-1923) to lead his cloister in
Delhi (al-Nadwi 1994).
In Madina before Shah Muhammad Umar returned to India, he appointed Muhammad Andakhawi al-Bukhari as
his spiritual heir. He domiciled in Mecca, and died in Ta´if. Wan Sulaiman bin Wan Sidik (1872M-1935M) , a
Malay scholar lodged in Mecca for 20 years from 1887M until 1906M for study . He initiated in Naqsahabndi
throughout Muhammad Andakhawi al-Bukhari in the Mountain Marwa, Mecca. Before Wan Sulaiman returned to
his homeland in Kedah, Muhammad Andakhawi appointed him as his 34th heir to reveal the order to the Malay
world particularly in Kedah. He disseminated the Naqshabandi Mujadddii Ahmadi order to his local people and
aristocratic class. He was appointed as the third Islam in Kedah in ruling Islamic administration and religious
affair in Kedah in 1920M until 1935M. The title of Shaykh Islam is the highest position and supreme executive in
Kedah Islamic department. Sultan Abdul Hamid a ruler of Kedah and his brother Tunku Mahmud, Reagent of
Kedah practicing the order under his initiation. Wan Sulaiman was the first Malay scholar learned the primary
translated Arabic al-maktubat by Muhammad Murad al-Quzani in Mecca with the first printing in 1899M. He was
identified the earliest Malay scholar who brought in a number of thought of Ahmad al-Sirhindi in the Malay
World. This is evident from his several concise works in Islamic creed, Naqshabandi's history and Ahmad al-
Sirhindi clarification on wahdah al-wujud in jawi script such as nur al-satic wa sayf qatic wa hujjah qawiyyah fi
bayan tariqah caliyyah naqshabandiyyah mujaddiyyah in 30 April 1927, ayyuha al-ikhwan ila dar al-ridwan
limardati al-rahman fi tashih caqacid al-Islam wa al-iman multaqah min maktub al-Imam al-rabbani al-mujaddid
Lialf al-thani in 11 December 1918 and hawd al-mawrud fi bayan wahdah al-wujud in 29 January 1916
(Muhammad Khairi 2010)
International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 4 No. 1; January 2013
Shah Muhammad Mazhar was the third son of Ahmad Said. He built three cloisters in Madina known as Rabat
Mazhari in 1873 situated between Bab al-nisa´ and Jannat al-baqic (al-Nadwi 1994: 324). He also continued
Ahmad Said's task in teaching Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Ahmadi. He wrote in Arabic about tasawwuf, Islamic
law's and tariqah in his book, maktubat mazhariyyah. He initiated many people in Mecca. Among his hears were
Abdul Hamid Shirwani, Muhammad Saleh al- Zawawi and Muhammad Murad al-Quzani (b 1272H). .
Muhammad Saleh al-Zawawi wrote in in the small treatise in Jawi script on Naqshabandi's rite as taught by
Muhammad Mazhar kayfiyyah al-dhikr cala tariqah naqshabandiyyah mujaddiyyah ahmadiyyah. His epistle
exerted great influence on his pupils in the Malay World . Among his disciple in the Malay world were Raja
Muhammad Yusuf al-Ahmadi, a 10th Yamtuan Muda, Riau Lingga Governments (Wan Mohd Shaghir 2000 ).
The word al-ahmadi here, perhaps signifies his spiritual ascription to Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Ahmadi
Abdullah al-Zawawi, a son of Muhammad Salleh al-Zawawi also played the pivotal role. He was posited to a high
position as a Mecca Mufti. Then he became a mufti in Pontianak government when he migrated to West
Kalimantan Indonesia. While he was in Mecca , sayyid Yusuf Ali al-Zawawi (his son) and Sayyid Abdul Rahman
b Sayyid Muhammad Idrus (1817-1917) also known as Tokku Paloh took the order from him. Tokku Paloh is the
author of Macarij al-lahfan ila haqa´iq al-cirfan. Tokku Paloh was the spiritual master initiating the order to
Abdul Rahman Limbong and Sultan Zainal Abidin III in Terengganu. Meanwhile, Muhammad Murad al-Quzani
also taught many Malay people in Pontianak, Indonesia such as Ismail Jabal, Sayyid Ja'far b. Muhammad al-
Saqqaf, Sayyid Ja'far bin Abdul Rahman al-Qadri and Haji Abdul Aziz. Whereas, Sayyid Abdul Azim al-Maduri,
an Indonesian domiciled in Mecca taking this order from Abdul Hamid al-Dagistani and Muhammad Salleh al-
Zawawi. He wrote an epistle in Malay Jawi script about the ritual of Naqshabandi, Inilah Kaifiyyah Berdhikir
Atas Tariqah Naqshabandi published by matbacah al-taraqqi al- majidiyyah al- uthmanniyyah bi makkah al-
mahmiyyah in 1322H. One of Abdul Azim's deputies in Mecca was Kiyai Haji Zainal Abidin Kwanjar, an
Indonesian, diffusing the order in Bengakalan, Madura, Indonesia. Later, his effort was extended by his heir
Sayyid Muhsin al-Hinduwan in Madura. (Wan Mohd Shaghir 2000:65-77 ; Mohd Nasir 2009:435-440).
Meanwhile, Muhammad Jan al-Makki (d.1852M) also non biological Ahmad Said’s deputy initiated Khalil
Helmi. Later, Ahmad Khatib al-Sambas domiciling in Mecca for study took lesson the Naqshabandi Mujaddidi
Ahmadi from Khalil Hilmi. Ahmad Khatib al-sambas reconciled the Naqshabandi and Qadiri Order as one
identity. The Qadiri ‘s rite is more dominated than Naqshabandi in his practice. His action made the both Sufi
orders famously called by the Malays as al-Naqshabandi wa al-Qadiri Order (Kharisudin 1998).
Among the Muhammad Mazhar’s outstanding heir was Muhammad Murad al-Quzani. He played a greater and
very important role in establishing the mujaddidi’s idea in Mecca. He translated maktubat into a proper Arabic.
After Muhammad Mazhari’s death, he got companionship with Abdul Hamid al-Dagistani and Muhammad Saleh
al-Zawawi. He was subsequently appointed by Muhammad Saleh al-Zawawi as his spiritual heir. He was a
learned disciples and proficiency in both Persian and Arabic. He obtained a deep teaching mujaddidi’s’ school of
thought from his masters orally and revision mujaddidi’s literatures such as al-maktubat al-macsumiyyah, al-
maqamat wa al-macmulat al-mazhariyyah, rasail Ahmad Said and Muhammad Mazhar, al- maqamat al-
dahdabiyyah, munaqib al-imam al-rabbani. Besides that, he deeply understood Ibn Arabi’s school by revision
futuhat al-makkiyyah, fusus al-hikam with numerous commentaries, shuruh al-ta´iyyah al-kubra, Sharh al-
Lumacat, lawa´ih al-Jami, sharh al-rubaciyyah and sharh al khumariyyat, and revising tafsir, hadith, siyar,
tarajim al-mashaikh wa al-culama’ and tawarikh al-umam (Mohd Nasir 2009). This indicates that in Mecca’s era
many late Mujaddidi’s student and teachers had an open stance to Ibn Arabi’s doctrine. They appreciate it as a
considerable sufi's treasure. Even in Sirhindi’s period occurred great polemic between wahdah al-shuhud and
wahdah al-wujud in India and also reverberated to Haramain for certain time.
Muhammad Murad al-Quzani’s translation to maktubat came from the order of Muhammad Salleh al-Zawawi. He
viewed the importance of the proper Arabic translation of maktubat for non Persian speaking students and
scholars as well in Mecca so that they can conceive the Mujaddidi’s teaching properly . Maktubat is regarded as
the magnum opus and premier reference to understanding mujadidi’s principle in the Naqshabandi Order. It is the
main medium for spreading Ahmad al-Sirhindi's thought in many aspects such as theology, fiqh, politic and
tassawwuf issues. Maktubat is serial collective letter sent by Sirhindi to his pupils and his contemporaries. It
contains three volumes. The first volume contains 313 letters is named al-durr al-macrifah complied by Yar
Muhammad Badakhshi Talqani..
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The second volume contains 99 letters is named nur al-khallaq compiled by Khawajh Abd al-Hayy, and the third
volume has 122 named macrifah al-haqaiq compiled by Muhammad Hashim Kashmi. Besides maktubat, he also
translated into Arabic, al-mabda’ wa al- macad of Sirhindi and rashahat cayn al-hayah of Ali Kashifi and writing
dhayl a-rashahat as continuing works of rashahat by Ali al-Kashifi exposing the rest Naqshabandi masters
beginning from Muhammad Zahid until Muhammad Salleh Zawawi. His Arabic maktubat translation also
composed some marginal of note and footnote and commentary such as tarjamah ahwal al-Imam al-rabbani,
kitab al-rahmah al-habitah fi tahqiq al-rabitah of Husain al-Dawsari, risalah al- mabda´ wa al-macad and
catiyyah al-wahhab al-fasilah bayan al-khata’ wa al-sawab of Muhammad Beg al-Uzbeki (Mohd Nasir 2009).
By Muhammad Murad al- Quzani’s effort, the mujadidi ‘s teaching regained it sound perception among the
Mecca scholars at that time. His Arabic translation named mua’rrab al maktubat al-sharifah al- marsum bi al-
durr al maknunat al-nafisah, and it’s cover page entitled al-maktubat li al-Imam al-Rabbani Ahmad Sirhindi
Mujaddid alf al-Thani was publishing and edition by matbacah al-Miriyyah al-kainah bimakkah al-mahmiyyah in
Whereas, Khalid bin Ahmad al-Shaharuzi (1779M-1827M), a heir of Abdullah al-Dihlawi also played a similar
role like his contemporary, Ahmad Said bin Abi Said. Khalid bin Ahmad elected the practice of khalwah al-
arbacian as his essential rite in the Naqshabandi Order and training his disciples by meal from vegetarian while in
seclusion as a temporal abstinence. This fact is found in majmucat al-rasail by Sulaiman al-Zuhdi. Thus, his
order is known as Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Khalidi. In Mecca, his order located on the Mount of Qubais headed by
his trusted representative Abdullah al-Zinjani al-Makki. He built his cloister in the mount of Qubais as
accommodation to perform seclusion and spiritual initiation. Among Khalid bin Husain's heirs engaging major
role in teaching the Malays into his Order were Ismail bin Abdullah al-Minangkabau, Sulaiman b. Hasan Qarimi,
Yahya al-Daghistani, Khalil Parsha, Ali Reda and Sulaiman al-Zuhdi b. Hasan al-Mikhaliji.. Those are
responsible chiefs dispersing the Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Khalidi to the Malay world throughout their Malay
representative such as Abdul Wahab al-Rokan, Ahmad b. Muhammad Baqir, Muhammad Tayyib b. Abdullah and
Muhammad Hashim Buayan. (Abdul Manam 2003). These Malay figures engaged great effort in spreading
Naqshabandi Mujadidi Khalidi in many parts of Malay World, including Indonesia.. Their main reference in
Naqsahabandi’s rite was majmucat al-rasa’il written in a collective form by Sulaiman al-Zuhdi.
Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Khalidi taught by Khalid bin Ahmad’s deputies began to be critiqued by some scholars.
Salim b Abdullah b Sumar in Singapore in 1850M and Sayyid Uthman b Abdullah in Batavia in 1880M criticized
the order. Both are Arab from al-Alawi’s family. Abdullah b Sumair criticized Ismail b Abdullah al-Minangkabau
as spreading false teaching but did not accuse the Order. The second directed his critic to Sulaiman al-zuhdi as he
welcomed disciples of all sort of people who had insufficient Islamic fundamental knowledge, teaching the
summary training of Naqshabandi rite at his cloister and gave numerous Indonesia pilgrimage Ijazas and
appointing khalifa to many parts of the archipelago. ( Brunession 1999). The critic toward the Naqshabandi
Mujaddidi khalidi became worse in the early of 19th in Mecca and Indonesia. Ahmad Khatib al-Minangkabau
(1852-1915), an Indonesian scholar in Mecca criticized the rite of the late Naqshabandi’ Mujaddidi Khalidi in his
epistle idhar zaghl al-kazibin fi tashabuhihim bi al-sadiqin , al-ayat al-baiyinat li munsifin fi iddah khurafat bacd
al-mutacasibin and al-sayf al-battar fi muhiq kalimah bacd ahl al-iqhtirar. The critic circulates in major
Naqshabandi ritual such as rabitah , khatam al-khwajakan, khalwah (Seclusion), sanad (spiritual genealogy) ,
temporal abstinence of meal manufactured from animal while in seclusion, dhikr lata’if, and al-nafi wa al-
isthbat. His epistle got immediate intention from Muhammad Saad Mungka in his epistles such as irgah al-unufi
mutacanitin fi inkarihim rabitah al-wasilin and tanbih al-awwam ala taqrirat bacd al-anam (Sulaiman, 2002;
Wan Mohd Shagir, 2009). Such critics never stop the Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Khalidi’s mainstream from
spreading to the Malay World. The order then is shortened to Naqshabandi Khalidi. The word al-mujaddidi is
dispelled as it is infrequently used.. However, nothing critic appears to Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Ahmadi taught by
Ahmad Said even he sharing similar fundamental and ritual with Khalid bin Ahmad with some distinction. The
Naqshabandi taught by Ahmad Said does not practice khalwah al-arbacinat (physical forties seclusion) and no
prohibition of eating a meal made from animal stuff while seclusion. He emphasizes much to khalwah fi al-
jalwah, suhbah and moderation in meal without any abstinent in taking meal manufactured from animal.
In summary, in the early 19th , the Naqshabandi order carried out by Malay society comes from the impact of
Ahmad al-Sirhindi’s revival and the effort of his serial outstanding heirs.
International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 4 No. 1; January 2013
Thus, the Naqshabandi order is founded in the Malay World transmitted from India, to Mecca and then arrive in
the Malay World taught by Malay adherents. They learn it during their domicile in Mecca for study and in
pilgrimage. In the Malay World, Naqshabandi Mujaddidi is identified dominated by two major line; the first from
Khalid bin Ahmad and the second from Ahmad Said bin Abi Said. Both are the late Ahmad Sirhindi’s legacies
successfully established the Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Order to be the most prominently by the Malays in the early
19th century until now.
Abdul Manam..Mohammad .(2003). Tarekat Naqsahabndiyyah Khalidiyyah Pimpinan Tuan Ishaq bin
Muhammad Arif: Analisis Kritis ritsie Terhadap Doktrin, Amalan dan Pengaruh Penyebarannya di
Malaysia Ph.D. thesis. UKM. Bangi. pp 55-60
Al-Bakini, Shuib Idris . (1999). Tabaqat al-Khawjakan al-Naqshabandiyyah wa sadat al-Mashaikh al-Khalidiyyah
al-Mahmudiyyah. Dimasq: Dar al-Nucman li al-culum . pp 303-308
Bruinessen Van Martin. (2007). Controversies And Polemic Involving The Sufi Order In Twentieth-Century
Indonesia. Edited by Jong & B. Radtke. Islamic Mysticism Contested: Thirteen Centuries Of
Controversies And Polemic .Leiden: Brill.pp 705-728
Friedman Yohanan. ( 1971); Sheikh Ahmad Sirhinidi: An outline of his thought and a study of his images in the
eye of posterity: Canada : McGill Islamic Studies. pp 97-100
Hurgronje .C. Snouck . ( 1970). Mekka; In The Latter Part Of The 19th Century: Daily Life, Custom And
Learning of the Muslims of the East India Archipelago. Translated by J.H .Monahan . Leiden : E. J.Brill .
pp 47-67,204,289
Kharisudin Aqib.(1998).al-Hikmah Memahami Teosofi Tarekat Qadiriyah wa Naqsyabandiah Surabaya: Pt. Bina
Ilm. pp 7-15
Mohd Nasir Mohd Tap. (2009). Mencarik Ilusi Mengapai Reality; Wacana Tasawwuf ,Tarekat & Pemikiran
Kalam Imam Ahmad al-Sirhindi. Kajang : Kolej Dar al-Hikmah. pp 4,148-155, 165-170
Muhammad Beg (1094H). cAtiyyah al-Wahhab al-fasilah Bayna al-Khata´ wa al-sawab. Marginal in al-Maktubat
li al-Imam al-Rabbani al-mujadid lialf al-thani Ahmad al-Faruqi al-Sirhindi ; Siraj Kitabevi: Istanbul. pp
2-5,9, 50-53
Muhammad Khairi Mahyuddin & Etl. (2010). Wan Sulaiman B Wan Siddik Dan Sumbangannya Dalam
Perkembangan Dakwah Islamiah Di Negeri Kedah. Kolokium Siswazah Pengajian Islam UKM, Peringkat
Kebangsaan 26 Dicember 2010, Fakulti Pengajian Islam. UKM: Selangor. pp7-15
Al-Nadwi, Abu al-Hasan Ali .(1984). Saviours Of Islamic Spirit .Lucknow :Academy of Islamic Research and
Publications. 323-326
Sulaiman Ibrahim .(2002). al-Turuq al-taswwuf fi Maliziyya wa Atharuhuha cala al-dacwah al- Islamiyyah.
N.Sembilan: Dar Ifta biwilayah Negeri Sembilan. pp 357
Wan Mohd Shaqir Wan Abdullah. (2000) .Penyebaran Thariqah-Thariqah Shufiyyah Muktbarah Di Malaysia.
Kuala Lumpur ;Khazanah Fathaniyah. pp 4,148
__________. (2009). Koleksi Islam Nusantra (jilid 2). Kuala Lumpur; Khazanah Fathaniyah. pp 23
Weismann Itzchak .(2007). the Naqshabandiyya Orthodoxy and activism in worwid Sufi Tradition. New York :
Routledge. pp 69-71,71-73
Full-text available
The Naqshabandi Order's lineages in the Malay world are identified as aspiring from Ahmad al-Sirhindi's revival. In 19 th century, it is transmitted from Central Asia to the Malay world throughout India and Mecca by the Malay adherents who domiciled in Mecca and pilgrimage travellers. Ahmad al-Sirhindi's late legacies in the 19th century in the Malay world are discovered coming from Khalid b. Ahmad and Ahmad Sa c id b Abi Sa c id's lines. Even both are sharing similar fundamental in the Naqshabandi Mujaddidi's rite, but the Malay adherents of both lines exercise dissimilar stations of muraqabah known as al-maqamat al-mujaddidiyyah taught by Ahmad al-Sirhindi. The history and content study are utilized to scrutinize the practice of muraqabah's stations and to identify the factor compels to the different applications. The study focuses basically on Wan Sulaiman Wan Siddik, a 19th century Malay scholar as his intellectual vicinity to Ahmad al-Sirhindi is noticed from his spiritual lineage consisting of his late biological descendent and his Malay Jawi scripts transmitting al-Sirhindi's notion. At the end, the study singles out that al-maqamat al-mujaddidiyyah are still being adept by the Malay adherents of both lines in some diverse applications, but the difference only lies in the summarization and terminologies.
Full-text available
The article by the material of biographical, hagiographical and encyclopedic works of the XIX - the beginning of the XX century examines the chains of spiritual continuity of two generations of the Sufi sheikhs from Kiikov dynasty, analyzes internal psychological and social motives to enter the brotherhoods, the mechanisms and theological justification of finding and changing the Sufi mentor. The author considers the Sufi initiations from sheikhs residing in Holy Land as one of the forms of intercultural communication in the traditional society.
Full-text available
The controversies and polemics that will be discussed in this chapter all took place in the context of the larger ongoing process of Islamic reform, the struggle against local custom and other alleged bid`a in belief and practice. This does not mean, however, that Sufis and reformists at any one time constituted two opposed blocks. In many of the cases under review, we shall find Sufi shaykhs pitted not against anti-Sufi reformists but against other Sufis; some of the fiercest debates, as we shall see below, in fact were internal to one of the orders, the Naqshbandiyya.
The Naqshbandiyya is one of the most widespread and influential Sufi orders in the Muslim world. Having its origins in the Great Masters tradition of Central Asia almost a millennium ago, it played a significant role in the pre-modern history of the Indian subcontinent and the Ottoman Empire, and is still spreading today. This volume seeks to present a broad picture of the evolution of the ideas and organizational forms of the Naqshbandi order throughout its history. It combines a synthesis of the vast literature on the order with original research, and shall be an important contribution for those interested in Sufism, Islamic history and Muslim-Christian relations.
An outline of his thought and a study of his images in the eye of posterity: Canada : McGill Islamic Studies
  • Ahmad Sheikh
  • Sirhinidi
Sheikh Ahmad Sirhinidi: An outline of his thought and a study of his images in the eye of posterity: Canada : McGill Islamic Studies. pp 97-100
Saviours Of Islamic Spirit
  • Al-Nadwi
Al-Nadwi, Abu al-Hasan Ali.(1984). Saviours Of Islamic Spirit.Lucknow :Academy of Islamic Research and Publications. 323-326
al-Turuq al-taswwuf fi Maliziyya wa Atharuhuha c ala al-da c wah al-Islamiyyah. N.Sembilan: Dar Ifta biwilayah Negeri Sembilan
  • Sulaiman Ibrahim
Sulaiman Ibrahim.(2002). al-Turuq al-taswwuf fi Maliziyya wa Atharuhuha c ala al-da c wah al-Islamiyyah. N.Sembilan: Dar Ifta biwilayah Negeri Sembilan. pp 357
Such critics never stop the Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Khalidi's mainstream from spreading to the Malay World. The order then is shortened to Naqshabandi Khalidi. The word al-mujaddidi is dispelled as it is infrequently used
  • Wan Mohd Shagir
Wan Mohd Shagir, 2009). Such critics never stop the Naqshabandi Mujaddidi Khalidi's mainstream from spreading to the Malay World. The order then is shortened to Naqshabandi Khalidi. The word al-mujaddidi is dispelled as it is infrequently used..