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Factors influencing the frequency of erotic dreams: an online study

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Abstract

Erotic topics are common in dreams. This study’s objective was to find and explain factors influencing the frequency of these erotic dreams using an online survey in a German sample with a broad age range. 2907 participants estimated what percentage of their recalled dreams contained erotic motifs and provided both demographic and dream related information. On average, participants estimated that 18 percent of their dreams are erotic-related. This mean value was higher than the figures of previous diary studies. While men’s dreams contain erotic themes more often than women’s and a younger age increased erotic dream frequency, the education of the participants had no influence on the percentage of erotic dreams. Referring to the continuity hypothesis, gender differences can be explained with the amount of time spent with sexual thoughts and fantasies in waking life and increased with the participant’s age, suggesting a cohort effect. Future research should investigate the relationship between erotic dreaming and variables like personality, psychopathology, and physiological measures like testosterone.

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... The retrospectively measured percentage of work-related dreams of about 18% indicates that this dream topic is more prominent that topics like sports [37], politics [37], music [38] or media [14], with mean percentages ranging from 4% to 6.5%. Interestingly, the frequency of erotic dreams, which was also about 18% [39], is comparable, highlighting the notion that work is a major part of adult human life. Interestingly, the emotional tone of work-related dreams was slightly but significantly more negative compared to the participants' general emotional dream tone. ...
... Interestingly, the emotional tone of work-related dreams was slightly but significantly more negative compared to the participants' general emotional dream tone. In dreams including leisure time activities like sports, music and erotic activities, the emotional tone was more positive than the general dream tone [37,39,40], indicating that work-related dreams might reflect the stressful aspects of work (see below). ...
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Professional work is an integral part of modern life. According to the continuity hypothesis of dreaming, which states that dreams reflect waking life, work-related dreams should be quite common. As most dream content analytic studies are carried out in student samples, the topic of work in dreams is understudied. A few small studies indicate that the stress levels associated with the job are especially reflected in work-related dreams. Here, a total of 1695 people (960 women, 735 men) completed an online survey that included questions about the estimated percentage of work-related dreams, the overall emotional tone of work-related dreams, and waking-life experiences related to their current job situation (working or not working). The findings indicate that every fifth dream is related to current or previous work. Individuals who are working dreamed more often about work, with jobs that are experienced as being more stressful being more likely to affect dream content. The emotional tone of work-related dreams was related to stress and the emotions related to work in waking life. Overall, the findings demonstrate that professional life has a profound effect on dreaming in many individuals-even after years. The next steps would be to study the dream content of work-related dreams and relate these contents to specific characteristics about the jobs, e.g., professional field, hierarchical position and autonomy, etc.
... Inconsistent with our research, according to an extensive study, there is a negative correlation between age and sexual dreams. Although the age span (16-92 years old) was large, the study did not conduct subgroup analyses of different ages (Schredl et al., 2019). Most of the participants in our study were young college students or graduates, who sexual experiences gradually increased with age. ...
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Background Dreams can be affected by recent life events and long-term life experiences. Previous evidence has shown that childhood adverse experiences are associated with sleep quality and dream experiences. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood adverse experiences and dream content in adults. Participants and Setting A total of 163 participants without current or past physical or mental disorders aged between 18 and 35 were screened in the hospital. Among them, 120 subjects who completed a dream content record at home and whose anxiety and depression levels and sleep quality were within the normal range were included in the data analysis. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from June 2017 to December 2019. Dream content for 10 consecutive days was recorded by the participants and coded by the Hall and Van de Castle coding system. Childhood adversity was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). In the end, 719 dreams out of 626 nights for 120 participants (44 female) were included in the data analysis, gender differences between groups were analyzed using t -tests or U tests, and Spearman’s partial correlation and multiple linear regression were used to investigate the relationship between childhood trauma and dream content. Results Childhood adversity was associated with characters, friendly interactions, and objects in dream content. Regression models of childhood adversity predicting characters and objects in dream content were constructed. There were no gender differences in general demographic data, sleep quality, emotional state, childhood adversity, dream recall frequency, or dream content. Conclusion Childhood adversity is associated with adult dream content.
... Even in the area of mobile phones, many individuals use clocks, e.g., in the sample (N = 3084) of Montag et al. [3], 45% of the participants regularly wore a wristwatch and 67% had an alarm clock for waking up in the morning. According to the continuity hypothesis of dreaming [4,5], we dream about topics that are important to us, e.g., family members [6], spouses [7], sexuality [8], our own children [9], pets [10] and work [11]. Given that punctuality and timekeeping is important (see above), the question arises as to how often clocks for measuring time occur in dreams. ...
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Many dream content analytic studies focus on dream characters, animals, social interactions and so on, but they rarely analyze the frequency of everyday objects in dreams. In the present paper, the frequency and phenomenology of clock dreams in a dream series of 12,476 dreams of a single male dreamer was analyzed. The clock dreams (0.74% of all dreams) show a variety of contexts not only related to the time management of the dreamer within the dream. Interestingly, clocks that belong to the dreamer in waking life occurred very rarely in his dreams. Given that keeping time schedules and appointments in waking life is of importance to almost everyone, the low frequency of clock dreams might be explained by novelty, that is, waking-life experiences that repeat themselves regularly do not show up in dreams that often. Thus, studying everyday objects such as clocks in dreams might help refine the current models describing the continuity between waking and dreaming.
... Schredl and Hofmann (2003) noted that emotional involvement may moderate the incorporation of waking-life experiences into dreams. Altogether, studies reported that dream experience represents a powerful linkage to affective processes in individuals (Scarpelli, Bartolacci, D'Atri, Gorgoni, & De Gennaro, 2019;Schredl, Geißler, & Göritz, 2019). Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the roles of NA and SPH in the prediction of sleep quality and dreams using the structural modeling equation (SEM) in outpatient adults with GAD. ...
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Two samples of dreams collected from college students in 1950 and 1980 under similar conditions were analyzed using some of the Hall-Van de Castle scales. It was found that there has been little change over a period of 30 years in what college students dream about. Moreover, the sex differences in the 1980 dreams are the same as those in the 1950 dreams.
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Although the variability of dream content is large, typical dream themes that occur quite often and are reported by many people can be identified (e.g., being chased, falling, flying, failing an examination, being unable to find a toilet or restroom). The present study is an investigation of the stability of the rank order of the dream themes and of gender differences in the content of dreams. The authors administered A. L. Zadra and T. A. Nielsen's (1997) Typical Dream Questionnaire to 444 participants. The findings indicated that most of the 55 dream themes occurred at least once in most of the participants' lifetimes. In addition, the correlation coefficients for the rank order of the themes were very high; that is, the relative frequencies were stable. The gender differences in the present study were in line with content analytic findings; for example, men reported dreams about physical aggression more often than did women. Overall, previous research and the present data indicate that available research results of the measurement of typical dream themes are reliable and valid. The question of the meaning of these themes or the relationship between typical dream contents and waking life experiences, however, has not yet been answered and is open to future research.
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This book presents a new neurocognitive theory of dreams that documents the similarities of dreaming to waking thought, demonstrates that personal psychological meaning can be found in a majority of dream reports, has a strong developmental dimension based on excellent longitudinal and cross-sectional studies carried out in sleep labs with children ages 3–15, locates the neural substrate for dreaming in the same brain network active during mind-wandering and daydreaming, and marshals the evidence that shows it is very unlikely that dreaming has any adaptive function. These claims are based on five different sets of descriptive empirical findings that were developed between the late 1950s and the first sixteen years of the twenty-first century. All of these findings were unanticipated by scientific dream researchers and then resisted to varying degrees by dream theorists for a variety of reasons. The first five chapters spell out the theory and the evidence for it without any discussion or criticism of past theories. The next two chapters present detailed criticisms of two major alternative theories. The penultimate chapter presents evidence that it is very unlikely that dreaming has any adaptive function in the evolutionary sense of the term, although humans have invented uses for dreams in religious and healing rituals. In that regard, dreaming has an emergent function in culture that was invented in the course of history due to human cognitive capacities. The final chapter presents a general agenda for future research using new methodologies to test all of the neurocognitive hypotheses.
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What can be gleaned from the study of our dreams? With research methods in mind-including the shortcomings and strengths of various strategies-the book presents a comprehensive introduction to the research obtained so far. Topics include the factors of dream recall; the continuity hypothesis of dreaming; the relationship between physiology and dream content; etiology and therapy of nightmares; and lucid dreaming. The book not only presents a comprehensive introduction to the research obtained so far but also provide the tools to carry our scientific dream studies-including the shortcomings and strengths of various approaches.
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As expressed in anecdotal reports, dreams have provided inspiration to both classical and popular musicians. According to the continuity hypothesis, engaging in music activities in the daytime should be related to the occurrence of music dreams. One-hundred and 44 participants (mostly psychology students, music students, and choir members) were asked to complete questionnaires about music-related waking-life activities and music in dreams. As expected, the amount of time invested in music activities during the day is directly related to the percentage of music dreams, thereby confirming the continuity hypothesis. Also, composing music in waking-life is related to a higher frequency of dreams with new music. Due to possible recall biases regarding retrospective measures for eliciting the percentage of music dreams, future research should follow up this study by using dream diaries in larger samples.
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Despite numerous anecdotal accounts of music dreams, empirical research in this area is scarce. The present online study (N = 2929) found a prevalence of about 6% of all dreams include some element of music. Age was negatively related to the frequency of music dreams, whereas dream recall frequency, the overall emotional tone of the dreams, and the attitude towards dreams showed positive correlations. Future studies are needed to investigate factors that might affect the frequency of music dreams like time spent during the day with music (e.g., music students, musicians) and/or the involvement in music (e.g., listening to background music vs. performing in front of a huge crowd). It would also be interesting to study the effect of music dreams on the mood and creativity of the next day as they tend to be positively toned and stimulating.
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Although dreaming is a genuinely subjective experience occurring in the inner world of the person while sleeping there are quite a few aspects regarding dreaming that are worth being measured and investigated. Over the years several dream questionnaires have been developed but not often used very widely. The present questionnaire was designed to elicit some form of dream history including dream recall, nightmares, lucid dreaming, attitude towards dreams, and the effects of dreams on waking life. Using an online questionnaire, a retest study was performed. The findings regarding the psychometric properties of the MADRE questionnaire seem very promising. One of the next steps will be to evaluate the English version of the MADRE and its application in different samples (e.g., nightmare sufferers, patients with sleep disorders and/or mental disorders) and different contexts (e.g., personality research) by research groups all over the world would be the best way to demonstrate the usefulness of this comprehensive dream questionnaire.
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In the field of sports there is anecdotal evidence for the incorporation of athletic activity in subsequent dreams. The present study investigated dreams of sport students and psychology students with regard to sport related dream content. The findings support the continuity between frequent involvement of sport activities during the day and active participation in sport or sport themes in dreams. These findings will be discussed in the context of motor learning and REM sleep. In future research, the correlation between different performance levels for different sport activities during wakefulness and dream content should be studied in a more detailed way to generate a clearer understanding of the process of sleep-related learning.
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The ten commentaries to my discussion with J. Allan Hobson about the continuity and discontinuity between waking and dreaming (Hobson & Schredl, 2011) are very stimulating and I would like to thank all contributors. This reply will focus on four aspects: Defining continuity and discontinuity, how does the relationship between waking and dreaming work, possible functions of dreaming, and how to study the continuity (or lack of) between waking and dreaming empirically. Even though the question about possible functions is the most interesting one, I believe that much research is needed before this enigma can be solved. As dream research is such a small field, it is necessary that researchers discuss their theories openly and replicate each other’s findings, applying different methodological approaches for studying the same phenomena.
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Despite the large number of studies addressing gender differences in dream recall and dream content, research regarding whether these differences might be affected by sex role orientation is rather scarce. The present online-survey included a large sample of most recent dreams. The results clearly indicate that sex role orientation (femininity/expressivity and masculinity/instrumentality) affect the same dream characteristics that show marked gender differences (e.g., sexual dream content, physical aggression). Whereas the effect of sex role orientation on dream content support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming, the effect of biological sex on dream content does not exclude that other variables (such as, for example, the amount of sexual fantasies during waking) have an effect on dream content in addition to sex role orientation. Thus, future studies have to elicit more waking-life variables in order to model the varying daytime experiences of men and women in order to investigate whether these daytime differences sufficiently explain gender differences in dreaming or whether biological factors are also of importance.
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Past research shows there are more similarities than differences in the dream content of college students in several industrialized democracies. This study uses new results from dreams collected in Germany to support this past finding and suggest that dreams are more similar than different because they dramatize people's conceptions and concerns in relation to personal issues, which probably do not vary as much from country to country as culture does. It is further argued that this continuity between dream content and waking concerns, when combined with other parallels between dreaming and waking cognition, can be used to develop a cognitive theory of dreams. In addition, suggestions for future research with college students in Germany, the United States, and other countries are presented as a way to link personal conceptions and cultural changes.
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The present study investigated the prevalence profile and frequencies of typical dream themes experienced by Chinese people. The Typical Dreams Questionnaire was administered to 348 university students in Hong Kong. The results demonstrated that the prevalence profile of the typical dream themes for the Chinese participants resembled those profiles previously reported by Western studies. In addition, the present study found large positive correlations between the rank-ordered prevalence and frequency scores of the typical dream themes. This implied that the most prevalent themes were also more likely to be the most recurrent themes and vice versa. Therefore, typical dream themes not only are shared by many people but also tend to be repeatedly experienced within a person. This result supports the postulation that typical dreams are distinguished by both their universality and recurrence.
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Los sueños sexuales son bastante comunes y muchos estudios indican que los varones refieren mayor frecuencia de sueños eróticos que las mujeres. Un exploración sistemática en cuanto a si la frecuencia de los sueños eróticos se relaciona con el comportamiento sexual o la fantasia en el estado de vigilia – como se predijo por la hipótesis de la continuidad de sonar – aún no ha sido llevada a cabo. En total, 70 estudiantes respondieron a un cuestionario sobre el comportamiento en estado de vigilia y el contenido del sueño. Los resultados indican que la frecuencia de los sueños eróticos se relaciona con la cantidad de tiempo gastado con las fantasias sexuales en la vida de vigilia, pero no con el coito ni la masturbación. De nuevo, el varón refiere mayor número de sueños eróticos que la mujer, pero esto no se explica únicamente por una mayor cantidad de tiempo dedicado a actividades sexuales en el estado de vigilia. Si estudios retrospectivos son mas válidos para evaluar la frecuencia de los sueños eróticos en comparación con un enfoque analítico del contenido de los sueños, deberían estudiarse en en el futuro.
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Many researchers are advocating the so-called "continuity hypothesis" of dreaming which simply states that dreams reflect waking-life experiences. For deriving specific hypotheses, Schredl (2003) formulated a mathematical model that specifies factors that affect the probability that certain waking-life experiences are incorporated into subsequent dreams. The findings of the present diary study indicate that emotional intensity but not emotional tone of the waking-life events affects the incorporation into subsequent dreams. It seems very promising to investigate factors that affect the continuity between waking and dreaming with different methodological paradigms in order to arrive at a comprehensive, empirically tested, and precise continuity hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The so-called continuity hypothesis of dreaming states that waking experiences are reflected in dreams. The formulation of the continuity hypothesis is very broad and vague, however, so that it seems necessary to investigate factors which might affect the incorporation rate of waking-life experiences. A review of the different research paradigms, e. g. assessing temporal references of dream elements, studying the effects of the pre-sleep situation on dreams, will be presented. Various methodological issues which limit the generalizability of the findings in this area will also be addressed. After this overview, several factors such as (a) the time interval between waking-life experience and dream occurrence, (b) emotional involvement, (c) the type of waking-life experience, (d) personality traits and (e) the time of the night (time interval between sleep onset and dream onset) for which empirical data indicates an influence on incorporation rates of waking-life experiences will be listed. A mathematical model is proposed which should enable researchers to identify influencing factors and their interactions making a more precise formulation of the continuity hypothesis possible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Eighty semester dream diaries were content analyzed and compared to the Hall and Van de Castle (1966) norms. The structural differences between recognizable and anonymous images were defined and described. Gender undifferentiated scripts including potential mate, food sharing, and competition were identified and described. Gender differentiated scripts including wedding, shopping, pregnancy, male bonding, multiple self-representation, religion/philosophy, and animal were identified and described. The results are interpreted in biosociological and evolutionary perspectives. Genders appear closer to one another than in the past with respect to sex and companionship. Power and familial issues are the largest contributors to current gender differences. Biosociological variables are the biggest unifying force. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The question whether personality dimensions explain the interindividual differences in dream recall frequency has often been investigated by dream researchers. The present findings confirm previous research which has shown that traits such as openness-to-experience and thin boundaries correlate substantially with dream recall frequency. However, correlation coefficients are small and are much larger if attitude towards dreams or a scale measuring different aspects of dream recall are considered. Thus, future studies should consider the differentiation between items measuring dream recall and related aspects and items measuring attitudes towards dreams. Schonbar''s life-style hypothesis should be revised slightly: not dream recall frequency but attitude towards dreams and the way to deal with dreams are part of a broader life style.
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Dream questionnaires are widely used in dream research to measure dream recall frequency and various aspects of dream life. The present study has investigated the intercorrelation between questionnaire and diary measures. 285 participants completed a dream questionnaire and kept a dream diary over a two-week period. Results indicate that keeping a dream diary increased dream recall in low and medium dream recallers but decreased dream recall in high dream recallers. The correlation coefficients between questionnaire items measuring aspects of dream content and diary data were large, except for a more complex scale (realism/bizarreness). In the low recall group, however, considerably lower coefficients were found indicating that recall and sampling processes affect the response to global items measuring dream content. Using the example of testing gender differences, the findings of the present study clearly indicate that the measurement technique affects the results. Whereas sufficient internal consistency and retest reliability have been demonstrated for various dream questionnaires, future research should focus on the aspects of validity by comparing questionnaire data to dream content analysis of at least 20 dreams per person.
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The present article briefly reviews the literature on gender differences in dream content. The results confirm earlier findings that men dream more often about men, physical aggression and sexuality than women. Women's dreams, on the other hand, contain an equal proportion of male and female characters, more aggression turned inwardly and themes of depression. In regard to formal features, e.g., dream realism, dream length, occurrence of verbal and physical interaction, dreams of men and women are quite similar. These findings are related to meta-analyses compiling studies of gender differences in waking-life. Since men, for example, were found to be more aggressive in waking-life and women tend to be more vulnerable to depression, the assumption of continuity between waking-life and dreaming is supported.
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The dream reports of an adult population obtained by a survey questionnaire revealed the preoccupations of the population and are different in some aspects from the early memories of the same population. Dream reports contain equal frequencies of aggressive and friendly social interactions, tend to be more negative as to mood and event outcome, have more anxiety than hostility, and refer mainly to the family. Early memories have more familiar settings, oral incorporation, castration anxiety, and overt hostility.
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Recent research in the neurobiology of dreaming sleep provides new evidence for possible structural and functional substrates of formal aspects of the dream process. The data suggest that dreaming sleep is physiologically determined and shaped by a brain stem neuronal mechanism that can be modeled physiologically and mathematically. Formal features of the generator processes with strong implications for dream theory include periodicity and automaticity of forebrain activation, suggesting a preprogrammed neural basis for dream mentation in sleep; intense and sporadic activation of brain stem sensorimotor circuits including reticular, oculomotor, and vestibular neurons, possibly determining spatiotemporal aspects of dream imagery; and shifts in transmitter ratios, possibly accounting for dream amnesia. The authors suggest that the automatically activated forebrain synthesizes the dream by comparing information generated in specific brain stem circuits with information stored in memory.
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Sexual interest and behavior of 100 white men and 102 white women ranging in age from 80-102 were studied using an anonymous 117-item questionnaire. Subjects were healthy and upper middle-class, and living in residential retirement facilities; 14% of the women and 29% of the men were presently married. For both men and women, the most common activity was touching and caressing without sexual intercourse, followed by masturbation, followed by sexual intercourse. Of these activities, only touching and caressing showed a significant decline from the 80s to the 90s, with further analyses revealing a significant decline in this activity for men but not for women. Except for past enjoyment of sexual intercourse and of touching and caressing without sexual intercourse, all analyses revealed sex differences reflecting more activity and enjoyment by men. Current income and past guilt over sexual feelings showed very low but significant correlations with some frequency and enjoyment measures, and marital status, extramarital sex, and church attendance were significantly associated with continuing to perform and enjoy some sexual behaviors. Past importance of sex was significantly correlated with present frequency and enjoyment of both sexual intercourse and touching and caressing without sexual intercourse. Correlations between past and present frequency of sexual behaviors were substantial and significant for all but frequency of sexual intercourse, suggesting that current physical and social factors play an overriding role in this area.
Article
Twelve young-adult males spent two nonconsecutive nights at the laboratory (L) and two at home (H), six in the order LHHL and six in the order HLLH. Dreams were collected under uniform sampling conditions in both settings: S was awakened by an alarm clock at 6:30 a.m. and reported any dreams he could remember into a tape recorder. Twenty dream reports were collected in the laboratory, and 18 at home. Dream reports were rated by two judges on the six dimensions isolated by Hauri et al.'s factor analysis of dream ratings. Results showed no significant differences between home and laboratory in percentage of recall, median dream word counts, and dream ratings for Vivid Fantasy, Unpleasantness, Active Participation, and Sex. Home dreams were judged to contain more Verbal Aggression (p < .02) and Physical Aggression (p < .08). It was concluded that, although impulse-related content may be more likely to occur in home dreams than in laboratory dreams, the basic dream processes of imagination, distortion, dramatization, etc., are the same in both settings.
Article
Empirical studies largely support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming. Despite of previous research efforts, the exact formulation of the continuity hypothesis remains vague. The present paper focuses on two aspects: (1) the differential incorporation rate of different waking-life activities and (2) the magnitude of which interindividual differences in waking-life activities are reflected in corresponding differences in dream content. Using a correlational design, a positive, non-zero correlation coefficient will support the continuity hypothesis. Although many researchers stress the importance of emotional involvement on the incorporation rate of waking-life experiences into dreams, formulated the hypothesis that highly focused cognitive processes such as reading, writing, etc. are rarely found in dreams due to the cholinergic activation of the brain during dreaming. The present findings based on dream diaries and the exact measurement of waking activities replicated two recent questionnaire studies. These findings indicate that it will be necessary to specify the continuity hypothesis more fully and include factors (e.g., type of waking-life experience, emotional involvement) which modulate the incorporation rate of waking-life experiences into dreams. Whether the cholinergic state of the brain during REM sleep or other alterations of brain physiology (e.g., down-regulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) are the underlying factors of the rare occurrence of highly focused cognitive processes in dreaming remains an open question. Although continuity between waking life and dreaming has been demonstrated, i.e., interindividual differences in the amount of time spent with specific waking-life activities are reflected in dream content, methodological issues (averaging over a two-week period, small number of dreams) have limited the capacity for detecting substantial relationships in all areas. Nevertheless, it might be concluded that the continuity hypothesis in its present general form is not valid and should be elaborated and tested in a more specific way.
Article
Nightmares are common, occurring weekly in 4%-10% of the population, and are associated with female gender, younger age, increased stress, psychopathology, and dispositional traits. Nightmare pathogenesis remains unexplained, as do differences between nontraumatic and posttraumatic nightmares (for those with or without posttraumatic stress disorder) and relations with waking functioning. No models adequately explain nightmares nor have they been reconciled with recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, fear acquisition, and emotional memory. The authors review the recent literature and propose a conceptual framework for understanding a spectrum of dysphoric dreaming. Central to this is the notion that variations in nightmare prevalence, frequency, severity, and psychopathological comorbidity reflect the influence of both affect load, a consequence of daily variations in emotional pressure, and affect distress, a disposition to experience events with distressing, highly reactive emotions. In a cross-state, multilevel model of dream function and nightmare production, the authors integrate findings on emotional memory structures and the brain correlates of emotion.
Article
The continuity hypothesis in its general form states that dreams reflect waking life: concerns, thoughts, and experiences (G. W. Domhoff, 1996; M. Schredl, 1999; I. Strauch & B. Meier, 1996). For example, athletes and sport students dream about sports more often than do psychology students, presumably reflecting their engagement in sport activities and sport theory (D. Erlacher & M. Schredl, 2004). In the present study, the authors tested the previously unexamined hypothesis that differences in dream content would directly reflect individuals' differing amounts of waking sport activities. As expected, the amount of time that individuals spent engaged in an activity (sports or reading) was directly related to their percentage of corresponding dreams. Also, individuals reported reading dreams less frequently than they did sport dreams, although reading was more prominent in their waking lives than were sport activities. The findings also indicated that other factors such as emotional involvement and associated worries might be of importance in explaining the relation between waking activities and dream events. Future studies using longitudinal designs would shed more light on this relation and would help derive a more precise formulation of the continuity hypothesis.
The individual and his dreams
  • C S Hall
  • V J Nordby
Hall, C. S., & Nordby, V. J. (1972). The individual and his dreams. New York: New American Library.
Gender diffenences in sexuality: A meta-analysis
  • M B Oliver
  • J S Hyde
Oliver, M. B., & Hyde, J. S. (1993). Gender diffenences in sexuality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 29-51.
Sexual content of men and women's dreams
  • A Zadra
  • J Gervais
Zadra, A., & Gervais, J. (2011). Sexual content of men and women's dreams. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 9(4), 372.