ArticlePDF Available

Range extension of the Brazilian dwarf boa Tropidophis paucisquamis (Müller, 1901) (Serpentes, Tropidophiidae) and first record in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil


Abstract and Figures

Tropidophis paucisquamis is a rare small-sized snake, endemic to the Atlantic Forest and strongly associated with coastal mountain ranges with elevations above 500 m a.s.l. In this work, we provide the first record of this species in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, being the most continental record for the species and extending its distribution approximately 180 km from the closest known localities, and 465 km from its type locality. This finding fills a distribution gap between the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Brazil, and expands our understanding about T. paucisquamis geographic distribution.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Oecologia Australis
23(2):375-380, 2019
Leandro de Avelar Oliveira1*, Pedro Carvalho Rocha1,2, Jonas Ferrari Morais1,2 & Renato
Neves Feio1,2
1 Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Museu de Zoologia João Moojen, Laboratório de
Herpetologia, Vila Gianetti, 32, CEP 36570-900, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.
2 Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Animal,
Museu de Zoologia João Moojen, Laboratório de Herpetologia, Vila Gianetti, 32, CEP 36570-900, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.
E-mails: (*corresponding author);;;
Abstract: Tropidophis paucisquamis is a rare small-sized snake, endemic to the Atlantic Forest and strongly
associated with coastal mountain ranges with elevations above 500 m a.s.l. In this work, we provide the first
record of this species in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, being the most continental record for the species
and extending its distribution approximately 180 km from the closest known localities, and 465 km from
its type locality. This finding fills a distribution gap between the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo,
Brazil, and expands our understanding about T. paucisquamis geographic distribution.
Keywords: Atlantic Forest; defensive behavior; Serra do Brigadeiro; snake; Squamata.
The Brazilian dwarf boa, Tropidophis paucisquamis
(Müller, 1901) is a rare Tropidophiidae,
characterized by aglyphous dentition, rows of
dark spots around their bodies and diminutive
size, about 150 mm (Hedges 2002, Freitas 2003,
Barbo et al. 2011, Curcio et al. 2012). The species
is endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (sensu
IBGE & MMA 2004) and strongly associated with
coastal mountain ranges with elevation above 500
m a.s.l. (Curcio et al. 2012). Brazilian dwarf boas
often present arboreal habits and nocturnal activity
(Barbo et al. 2011). So far, this species has been
known from three mountain complexes restricted
to the states of Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São
Paulo and Paraná, in southeastern and southern
Brazil: 1) Serra do Mar; 2) Serra da Mantiqueira;
and 3) Planalto Paulistano-Paranaense (Capela
et al. 2017). Herein, we report a new locality for T.
paucisquamis, the first in the state of Minas Gerais
and the most continental record for the species,
in an area belonging to Serra da Mantiqueira
mountain range.
On 06 November 2017 (air tem perature 16°C), we
found a speci men of T. paucisquamis on the grou nd,
amongst the marginal vegetation of a temporary
pond commonly known as Lagoa das Bromélias,
at Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro (Serra
do Brigadeiro State Park; PESB), municipality of
Ervália, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil (Figure 1;
20°53’30” S, 42°31’41” W, datum WGS84; 1227 m
a.s.l.). The individual was a male (Figure 2a), 296
mm snout-vent length, 45 mm caudal length, 168
Oecol. Aust. 23(2):375-380, 2019
376 | Range extension of Tropidophis paucisquamis
ventral scales, 23 dorsal scales at midbody, and
lacking interparietal scales, characters within the
know range of T. paucisquamis (Curcio et al. 2012).
Whilst the specimen was manipulated
and photographed, it displayed the defensive
behaviors of coiling the body and hiding the head
(Figure 2b), well reported for the species (e.g.,
Antunes & Haddad 2009, Barbo et al. 2011, Tanaka
et al. 2018). The specimen was euthanized with an
injection of 10% lidocaine, fixed in 10% formalin,
preserved in 70% ethanol and is currently housed
at the herpetological collection of the Museu de
Zoologia João Moojen, Universidade Federal de
Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil (voucher
MZUFV 2495). In addition, tissue samples were
collected and will be integrated into the tissue
collection of Universidade Federa l do Mato Grosso
do Sul.
To provide an updated distribution map for
T. paucisquamis, we made a search of records
of this species in the scientific literature,
using the terms “Tropidophis paucisquamis”,
distribution” and “range extension” as keywords
in the electronic databases Google Schoolar and
SciELO. Additionally, we searched for records in
all volumes of the journal Herpetological Review,
which t raditiona lly publishes d istribution re cords.
Searches were made between April and May 2018.
From the papers found, eight presented
geographical coordinates and three presented
distribution maps of the species, which were
used as references to generate the map of this
work (Amaral 1930, Carvalho 1951, Levandeira-
Gonçalves et al. 2007, Forlani et al. 2010, Salles
& Silva-Soares 2010, Curcio et al. 2012, Capela et
al. 2017, Tanaka et al. 2018). During this search,
Figure 1. Previously known locality records and the new record of Tropidophis paucisquamis (Serpentes,
Tropidophiidae). Inset map: Brazil, detailing the area of the main map. ES = Espírito Santo; MG = Minas
Gerais; PR = Paraná; RJ = Rio de Janeiro; SP = São Paulo. See Table 1 for coordinates and record references.
Oliveira et al. | 377
Oecol. Aust. 23(2): 375-380, 2019
Table 1. Localities and coordinates from this study and the literature review of Tropidophis paucisquamis
(Serpentes, Tropidophiidae) occurrence in Brazil.
State Municipality Locality Latitude Longitude Reference
Minas Gerais Ervália Parque Estadual Serra
do Brigadeiro* -20.8868 -42.5243 This study
Espírito Santo Araguaia - -20.50 -40.78 Curcio et al.
Espírito Santo Santa Teresa - -19.93 -40.60 Curcio et al.
Espírito Santo Santa Teresa Reserva Biológica
Augusto Ruschi -19.836 -40.540 Curcio et al.
Rio de Janeiro Angra dos Reis Floresta -23.006 -44.318 Carvalho
Rio de Janeiro Barra Mansa Cotiara -22.566 -44.200 Curcio et al.
Rio de Janeiro Duque de Caxias --22.78 -43.31 Salles & Silva-
Soares (2010)
Table 1. Continued on next page...
Figure 2. (a) Individual of Tropidophis paucisquamis (Serpentes, Tropidophiidae) found at Parque Estadual
da Serra do Brigadeiro, municipality of Ervália, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. (b) Same
individual exhibiting defensive behaviour of head hiding. Photos by Leandro de Avelar Oliveira.
we found some incoherencies among provided
coordinates and their respective localities (e.g.,
Curcio et al. 2012: provided coordinates that
fall into a neighbor municipality instead of the
one mentioned in the text). In such cases, we
updated the coordinates using the centroid of the
municipality as a proxy for the species record.
When the authors provided specific localities for
a record, such as protected areas, we used the
coordinates of such specific places instead of the
centroid of the municipality (Figure 1; Table 1).
Our record extends the distribution of T.
paucisquamis about 465 km from its type locality
(municipality of Salesópolis, state of São Paulo),
and is the westernmost locality of occurrence
for this species, approximately 176 km NE of
municipality of Teresópolis (state of Rio de Janeiro)
and 180 km SW of Araguaia (state of Espírito Santo),
Oecol. Aust. 23(2):375-380, 2019
378 | Range extension of Tropidophis paucisquamis
Rio de Janeiro Teresópolis Parque Nacional Serra
dos Órgãos -22.433 -42.983
Gonçalves et al.
Rio de Janeiro Teresópolis --22.41 -42.96 Curcio et al.
Rio de Janeiro Teresópolis Alto do Soberbo -22.454 -42.989 Curcio et al.
Rio de Janeiro Teresópolis Represa Guinle -22.454 -42.980 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Apiaí --24.50 -48.84 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Barueri --23.51 -46.88 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Biritiba Mirim --23.57 -46.03 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Juquitiba --23.93 -47.06 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Salesópolis Estação Biológica de
Boracéia -23.65 -45.9 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Santo Amaro Serra de Paranapiacaba -23.710 -46.768 Amaral (1930)
São Paulo Santo André Estação Ferroviária
Campo Grande -23.759 -46.374 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Santo Antônio do
Pinhal --22.82 -45.66 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Santo Antônio do
Estação Ferroviária
Eugênio Lefévre -22.825 -45.629 Curcio et al.
São Paulo São Miguel Arcanjo Parque Estadual Carlos
Botelho -23.878 -47.997 Forlani et al.
São Paulo São Miguel Arcanjo Parque Estadual Carlos
Botelho -24.063 -47.995 Forlani et al.
São Paulo São Paulo --23.56 -46.62 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Tapiraí --23.96 -47.50 Curcio et al.
São Paulo Ubatuba Projeto Dacnis
Private Reserve -23.4573 -45.1462 Tanaka et al.
Paraná Campina Grande do
Sul Capivari River -24.989 -48.593 Capela et al.
Table 1. ...Continued
State Municipality Locality Latitude Longitude Reference
Oliveira et al. | 379
Oecol. Aust. 23(2): 375-380, 2019
the closest known localities. In addition, the new
record fills a distributional gap of T. paucisquamis
in southeastern Brazil, and reinforces the
hypothesis that the Serra da Mantiqueira may
represent the western border of its geographic
range (Curcio et al. 2012). Lastly, it reveals the
presence of T. paucisquamis at a protected area in
Minas Gerais, the Serra do Brigadeiro State Park,
considered a priority area for the conservation of
the herpetofauna of Minas Gerais (Drummond
et al. 2005). The occurrence of T. paucisquamis at
PESB increases the park’s known reptile richness
(Moura et al. 2012) to 41 species.
So far, we found records of this species in 26
localities and about 50 specimens are deposited
in scientific collections (e.g., Curcio et al. 2012,
Capela et al. 2017, Tanaka et al. 2018). Although our
understanding of the geographic distribution of T.
paucisquamis has increased, it is pivotal that more
studies are conducted in order to understand more
about the biology and natural history of this rare
species. Despite that the Atlantic Forest is the most
studied Brazilian biome (Oliveira et al. 2016), with
many scientific collections, it still lacks information
to provide a better understanding of the patterns
of diversity and distribution of many reptile
species (Bérnils et al. 2009). This lack of data and
herpetofaunistic inventories may be responsible for
the previous distribution pattern observed for this
snake, especially in the state of Minas Gerais when
compared to the states of São Paulo and Rio de
Janeiro, which have large and traditional reference
centers in faunistic studies, such as the Instituto
Butantan and the Museu Nacional, respectively.
Another factor that must be considered is that
the elevation can be a determining factor in the
distribution of this species. As suggested by Moura
et al. (2017), in the Atlantic forest, topographic
complexity works as a climatic barrier that
precludes the dispersion of the species.
In addition, the extinction risk of T. paucisquamis
is currently unassessed globally (IUCN 2017),
nationally (MMA 2014), and regionally (COPAM
2010), which is mostly associated with the rarity
of this species, both in nature and scientific
collections. Considering the current anthropogenic
pressure in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Myers et al.
2000), T. paucisquamis is likely to be endangered.
Thus, we hope that this study provides information
that contributes to determine the current status risk
of T. paucisquamis, its distribution and to design
strategies for the conservation of the species.
We would like to thank Sr. Francisco Inácio
“Chiquinho, who assisted us in the logistics of
the expedition. We also thank the Amphibians
of Mantiqueira Project: “Biogeography and
Amphibian Conservation in the Mantiqueira
Mountain Complex, Southeastern Brazil” (CNPq
– 458467/2014-6) for the financial grant. We
are grateful to Dr. Felipe Polivanov Ottoni and
anonymous reviewers. Finally, we thank Jhonny
Guedes, Clodoaldo Assis and Henrique Costa for
the contributions.
Amaral, A. 1930. A rare Brazilian snake. Butantan -
São Paulo, 4(1), 13–16.
Antunes, A. P., & Haddad, C. F. B. 2009. Tropidophis
paucisquamis (Brazilian Dwarf Boa). Diet and
caudal luring. Herpetological Review, 40(1), 104.
Barbo, R. V., Marques O. A. V., & Sawaya, R. J. 2011.
Diversity, natural history, and distribution of
snakes in the municipality of São Paulo. South
American Journal of Herpetology, 6(3), 135–160.
DOI: 10.2994/057.006.0301
Bérnils, R. S., Nogueira, C. C., & Xavier-da-Silva,
V. 2009. Répteis. In: G. M. Drummond, C. S.
Martins, M. B. Greco, & F. Vieira (Orgs.), Biota
Minas: Diagnóstico do conhecimento sobre
a biodiversidade no Estado de Minas Gerais -
Subsídio ao Programa BIOTA MINAS. pp. 251–
278. Belo Horizonte: Fundação Biodiversitas.
Capela, D. J. V., Morato, S. A. A., Moura-Leite, J. C.,
Prado, F., Borges, G. O., & Camilo, L. H. A. 2017.
Tropidophis paucisquamis (Müller in Schenkel,
1901) (Serpentes, Tropidophiidae): first record
from Paraná state and southern Brazil. Check
List, 13(6), 917–920. DOI: 10.15560/13.6.917
Carvalho, A. L. 1951. Observações sôbre
Tropidophis paucisquamis” (Muller, 1901).
Revista Brasileira Biologia, 11(3), 239–248.
COPAM – Conselho Estadual de Política Ambiental.
2010. Deliberação Normativa COPAM nº 147, de
30 de abril de 2010: Aprova a Lista de Espécies
Ameaçadas de Extinção da Fauna do Estado
de Minas Gerais. Minas Gerais (Diário do
Oecol. Aust. 23(2):375-380, 2019
380 | Range extension of Tropidophis paucisquamis
Executivo), Retrieved on 04 May, 2010.
Curcio, F. F., Sales Nunes, P. M., Argolo, A. J. S.,
Skuk, G., & Rodrigues, M. T. 2012. Taxonomy of
the South American Dwarf Boas of the Genus
Tropidophis Bibron, 1840, with the description
of two new species from the Atlantic Forest
(Serpentes: Tropidophiidae). Herpetological
Monographs, 26(1), 80–121. DOI: 10.1655/
Drummond, G. M., Martins, C. S., Machado,
A. M., Sebaio, F. A., & Antonini, Y. O. 2005.
Biodiversidade em Minas Gerais: um atlas para
sua conservação. Belo Horizonte: Fundação
Forlani, M. C., Bernardo, P. H., Haddad, C. B. F.,
& Zaher, H. 2010. Herpetofauna of the Carlos
Botelho State Park, São Paulo State, Brazil.
Biota Neotropica, 10(3), 265–309. DOI: 10.1590/
Freitas, M. A. 2003. Serpentes Brasileiras. Lauro
de Freitas: Malha-de-sapo Publicações: p. 33.
Retrieved from
Hedges, S. B. 2002. Morphological variation and
the definition of species in the snake genus
Tropidophis (Serpentes, Tropidophiidae).
Bulletin of the Natural History Museum:
Zoology Series, 68(2), 83–90. DOI: 10.1017/
IBGE & MMA. Mapa de Biomas do Brasil 1:
5.000.000. 2004. Retrieved on 20 May, 2018,
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species, version 2017-3.
Levandeira-Gonçalves, M. A. P., Aguiar, F. V. O.,
Camargo, J. V. C., Barros-Filho, J. D., & Carvalho-e
Silva, S. P. 2007. Levantamento preliminar da
fauna de répteis do Parque Nacional da Serra
dos Órgãos. In: C. Cronemberger & E. B. Viveiros
de Castro (Orgs.), Ciência e conservação na
Serra dos Órgãos. pp. 138–153. Brasília, DF:
Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da
MMA – Ministério do Meio Ambiente. 2014. Portaria
no 444, de 17 de dezembro de 2014: Reconhece
como espécies da fauna brasileira ameaçadas de
extinção aquelas constantes da “Lista Nacional
Oficial de Espécies da Fauna Ameaçadas de
Extinção” - Lista,conforme Anexo I da presente
Portaria, em observância aos arts. 6o e 7o, da
Portaria n° 43, de 31 de janeiro de 2014. Diário
Oficial da União, 245, 121–126.
Moura, M. R., Argôlo, A. J., & Costa, H. C. 2017.
Historical and contemporary correlates of snake
biogeographical subregions in the Atlantic
Forest hotspot. Journal of Biogeography, 44(3),
640-650. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12900
Moura, M. R., Motta, A. P., Fernandes, V. D., & Feio,
R. N. 2012. Herpetofauna da Serra do Brigadeiro,
um remanescente de Mata Atlântica em Minas
Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica,
12(1), 1–27. DOI: DOI: 10.1590/S1676-
Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G.,
Fonseca, G. A., & Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity
hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature,
403(6772), 853. DOI: DOI: 10.1038/35002501
Oliveira, U., Paglia, A. P., Brescovit, A. D., de
Carvalho, C. J., Silva, D. P., Rezende, D. T., Leite, F.
S. F., Batista, J. A. N., Barbosa, J. P. P. P., Stehmann,
J. R., Ascher, J. S., Vasconcelos, M. F., Marco-
Junior, P., Lowenberg-Neto, P., Dias, P. G., Ferro,
V. G., & Santos, A. J. 2016. The strong influence
of collection bias on biodiversity knowledge
shortfalls of Brazilian terrestrial biodiversity.
Diversity and Distributions, 22(12), 1232–1244.
DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12489.
Salles, R. D. O. L., & Silva-Soares, T. 2010.
Répteis do município de Duque de Caxias,
Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste
do Brasil. Biotemas, 23(2), 135–144. DOI:
Tanaka, R. M., Rotenberg, E. L., & Muscat, E.
2018. Tropidophis paucisquamis Müller, 1901
(Reptilia, Squamata, Tropidophiidae): a reliable
record for lowland Atlantic Forest in Ubatuba,
São Paulo. Herpetology Notes, 11, 243–244.
Submitted: 19 November 2018
Accepted: 15 May 2019
Published online: 15 June 2019
Associate Editor: Felipe Polivanov Ottoni
Full-text available
Data on the composition of local reptile assemblages in several Brazilian ecosystems can still be considered relatively restricted in scope in most cases. In this study, we conducted surveys in the Serra das Torres Natural Monument, located in the municipalities of Atílio Vivacqua, Muqui, and Mimoso do Sul, using the Rapid Assessments method (RAP) during 30 days in the rainy season of 2018. We sampled actively for approximately 1320 hours with a 6-10 person crew, supplemented by 720 hours of passive sampling (30 bucket-days) using pitfall traps with drift fences. We recorded 34 reptile species during our sampling method (2 amphisbaenid, 11 lizards, and 21 snakes) and an occasional encounter, after the end of sampling, that added a chelonian species to the list, Hydromedusa maximiliani, totaling 35 reptile species. The Dipsadidae was the family with the greatest snake species richness and, the Gymnophtalmidae had the greatest lizard species richness. The species richness recorded in the Serra das Torres Natural Monument (Ntotal = 35) represents ca. 27% of all reptile species found in the state of Espírito Santo (N = 130). The most abundant lizard species was Leposoma scincoides followed by Ecpleopus gaudichaudii and, the most abundant snake species was Bothrops jararaca being markedly higher than that recorded in similar studies. Twenty-seven percent of the reptile species recorded in our study are endemic to the Atlantic Forest and 30% (N = 10) have been recorded less than five times previously in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. Our study reinforces the need for the conservation of the Serra das Torres Natural Monument because of its importance as a reservoir of a considerable portion of the reptile biodiversity of Espírito Santo state, and of the Atlantic Forest biome as a whole.
Full-text available
The tropidophiid snake Tropidophis paucisquamis is an endemic species of the Atlantic Forest domain, occurring in southeastern Brazil from Espírito Santo to São Paulo states along the Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar as far as the slopes of Serra do Paranapiacaba, the southern limit of its known distribution. As part of our study of herpetofauna in the high Ribeira basin of Paraná, we report the first record of T. paucisquamis from the state. This extends the distribution of this species to southern Brazil.
Full-text available
The knowledge of biodiversity facets such as species composition, distribution and ecological niche is fundamental for the construction of biogeographic hypotheses and conservation strategies. However, the knowledge on these facets is affected by major shortfalls, which are even more pronounced in the tropics. This study aims to evaluate the effect of sampling bias and variation in collection effort on Linnean, Wallacean and Hutchinsonian shortfalls and diversity measures as species richness, endemism and beta-diversity.
Full-text available
Resumo O município de Duque de Caxias está situado na Baixada Fluminense do Rio de Janeiro, nos domínios da Mata Atlântica Ombrófila Densa. A herpetofauna local foi bastante estudada na década de 40, entretanto, o inventário da região nunca foi realizado. Durante o período de agosto de 2006 a outubro de 2009, foram realizadas expedições a campo em busca de répteis durante os períodos diurno e, principalmente noturno. Além do método de coleta por busca ativa visual, também foram verificados registros de ocorrências de espécies da região em literatura científica e espécimes depositados em coleções zoológicas. Um total de 53 espécies de répteis das Ordens Crocodylia, Squamata e Testudines ocorrem dentro dos limites do Município de Duque de Caxias. Abstract Reptiles in municipality of Duque de Caxias, Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Duque de Caxias municipality is located in the Fluminense lowland, Rio de Janeiro state, in the Ombrophilous Atlantic Rain Forest domain. The local herpetofauna was widely studied in the 40's, but a general list of the species for the municipality was never made. From August 2006 to October 2009, we carried out field expeditions, searching for and collecting reptiles mainly at night time. Besides the visual active search method, we also verified records of species in scientific literature and of specimens housed in zoological collections. Altogether, 53 species of reptiles of the Orders Crododylia, Squamata and Testudines occur within the borders of Duque de Caxias municipality.
Full-text available
Abstract. information on snake assemblages in brazilian biomes has increased in the last decade. however, detailed studies on snake composition and natural history in urban fragments have never been conducted. the municipality of são paulo has 150,900 ha and only 16% of forested areas, distributed in small and scattered fragments. throughout 44 months of sampling, we registered in this municipality 38 snake species belonging to five families. terrestrial frog-eater species were predominant. the number of recorded snakes was higher during the rainy season. anual seasonality in captures might be related to prey availability and reproductive cycles. the most abundant species was Oxyrhopus guibei, with 24% of dominance, followed by Sibynomorphus mikanii (21%), and Bothrops jararaca (16%). three species, Philodryas patagoniensis, Tomodon dorsatus, and Liotyphlops beui, were also common; six others were of intermediate abundance; and 23 were considered rare. historically, the municipality of são paulo showed a mosaic of different vegetational physiognomies. nowadays, despite being fragmented due to the urban growth, these fragmented formations still enclose together a high richness of snake species.
Full-text available
Apresentamos uma lista de anfíbios e répteis de uma região ao norte do complexo serrano da Mantiqueira, sob denominação local de Serra do Brigadeiro. Esta região compreende um remanescente de Mata Atlântica com destaque para o Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro, unidade de conservação com aproximadamente 15 mil ha nos municípios de Araponga, Divino, Ervália, Fervedouro, Miradouro, Muriaé, Pedra Bonita e Sericita, estado de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil. Através da adoção de métodos complementares como o uso de armadilhas de interceptação e queda e postos de coleta, além de métodos convencionais de busca ativa, encontros ocasionais e registros em coleção científica, a presente lista amplia o conhecimento sobre a herpetofauna dessa região. Nós registramos 98 espécies da herpetofauna, sendo 57 de anuros, um gimnofiono, nove lagartos, uma anfisbênia, 29 serpentes e um quelônio. Embora nenhuma espécie de anfíbio encontrada seja considerada ameaçada de extinção em Minas Gerais, no Brasil ou pela IUCN, 11 espécies (18,96%) são consideradas como Deficiente de Dados. Verifica-se um alto número de espécies exclusivas da Mata Atlântica (46,55%) ou de distribuição restrita (20,68%). Destaca-se o encontro da perereca Gastrotheca ernestoi e a rã Megaelosia apuana, respectivamente o primeiro e segundo registro desses gêneros para Minas Gerais. A cecília Luetkenotyphlus brasiliensis também é redescoberta. Entre os répteis, pode-se destacar a presença do cágado Hydromedusa maximiliani, que aparece como vulnerável nas listas vermelhas de Minas Gerais e da IUCN. Sessenta por cento das espécies de répteis apresentam ampla distribuição na Mata Atlântica, e a presença das serpentes Echinanthera melanostigma e E. undulata, são importantes como, respectivamente, o segundo e terceiro registro dessas espécies para Minas Gerais.
Full-text available
The present work is a survey of the herpetofauna of Carlos Botelho State Park (CBSP), located in the region of Serra de Paranapiacaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were gathered from specimens collected in six areas within the park during a period of 76 days distributed in one year, and from three Brazilian scientific collections. We also offer photographs and information on the biology and occurrence of species within the park and among Brazilian biomes. The herpetofauna of CBSP may be considered one of the most diverse in the State of São Paulo, with 65 species of amphibians and 59 species of reptiles recorded in the present study. From the 65 species of amphibia recorded, 84% (55 spp.) are endemic from forested areas of the Atlantic forest. We also distinguished different altitudinal patterns within the amphibian assemblage, with 46% being recorded only at altitudes above 500 m, while 9% are exclusive of areas under 400 m and 45% occur in all altitudes within the park. The reptile fauna of PECB is composed of 59 species, including 10 species of lizards, 48 snakes, and one chelonian. Among the snakes collected at the CBSP, the Lancehead Bothrops jararaca was the most frequent, with 26,9% (N = 14) of the total of the collected specimens. Species that are considered difficult to sample, such as Echinanthera cephalostriata (13,5%; N = 7) and Taeniophallus affinis (7,7%; N = 4), were also numerous in PECB. Among lizards, Enyalius iheringii was the most abundant species, representing 50% (N = 16) of sampled specimens. We also performed a cluster analysis comparing 25 amphibian assemblages from different localities in the Atlantic Forest, and including the PECB, which resulted in the clustering of four main groups. The anurofauna of PECB presented high similarity with the assemblages of Jacupiranga (0,68) and Intervales (0,66) State Parks. These places are geographically close and constitute one of the largest preserved forest fragments of Atlantic rainforest in Brazil. The present work provides at the first time a list of reptiles for the CBSP, and complements the knowledge about the amphibian fauna at the CBSP.
Full-text available
A taxonomic study on the South American dwarf boas of the genus Tropidophis revealed the existence of two new species in the Atlantic Forest biome. As a result, we recognize five mainland species, three in the Atlantic Forest and two in northwestern South America. Based on general distribution and morphological orientation, the type locality of T. paucisquamis is restricted to Estação Biológica de Boracéia (EBB), municipality of Salesópolis, state of São Paulo, Brazil; furthermore, a lectotype for T. taczanowskyi is designated. We provide data on the hemipenial morphology of two South American Tropidophis, showing that the quadrifurcate condition described for West Indian taxa also occurs in mainland congeners. The distributions of the three Atlantic Forest species are congruent with patterns of diversification of other vertebrate taxa associated with cold climates prevalent at high elevations. Refugial isolation and riverine barriers may account for such speciation events.
Full-text available
SYNOPSIS. Historically, the definition of species in the Neotropical snake genus Tropidophis has been difficult because of intraspecific variation in scalation and a paucity of specimens of most taxa. There were 13 species recognized at the time of the last review in 1960, but additional species have since been discovered and a taxonomic review and update is needed. Data on morphological variation are presented here and used to clarify the status of the described taxa. Because many taxa are allopatric with their closest relatives, it is necessary to make decisions as to their status as species or subspecies. As a gauge of species status in the genus, character divergence in ten pairs of closely related sympatric species was examined. Typically, such species are differentiated by two non-overlapping colour pattern differences, often in combination with a diagnostic (non-overlapping) or overlapping difference in scalation. Using this criterion, seven taxa previously considered as subspecies are here elevated to species status, whereas seven other taxa are retained as subspecies, although in some cases they are allocated to different species. As a result, the genus Tropidophis is considered here to comprise 29 species, 26 of which are West Indian and 15 of those are restricted to Cuba.
Aim: Snake faunal dissimilarity within tropical forests is not well characterized, nor are the factors underlying these patterns. Our aim was to disentangle the ecological and historical factors driving biogeographical subregions (BSR) for snakes. LocationBrazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF). Methods: We compiled 274 snake inventories to build a species-by-site matrix and used unconstrained ordination and clustering techniques to identify the number of snake BSR. We applied an interpolation method to map axes of compositional variation over the whole extent of the BAF, and then classified the compositional dissimilarity according to the number of snake BSR identified a priori. We used multinomial logistic regression models and deviance partitioning techniques to investigate the influence of contemporary climatic stability, productivity, topographic complexity, and historical climate shifts in explaining the BSR. Results: We identified 198 snake species organized into six BSR, three of them located along the BAF coast and the other three predominantly inland BSR. Climatic stability made the largest contribution to explaining the variability in snake BSR, followed by productivity and historical variation in climate. Topography was important only if historical variation in climate was excluded from the analysis. Main conclusions: The highest rates of snake endemism within BAF were in the coastal BSR, as compared to the inland BSR that are mostly composed of open habitat specialists. Our findings suggest that the topographic complexity of the BAF acts on snake distributions not as a physical barrier, but rather as a climatic barrier, providing historical climate refuges for species living along altitudinal gradients. Overall, the predominance of climatic stability and historic variation in climate in explaining snake BSR reinforces the importance of thermoregulatory constraints in shaping the distribution of tropical ectotherm species.