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Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon, L spreng ) Valuable Grass But Underutilized In Northern Nigeria

Authors:
  • Modibbo Adamawa University of Technology, Yola

Abstract

Cymbopogon, better known as lemongrass, is a genus of Asian, African, Australian, and tropical island plants in the grass family. Some species are commonly cultivated as culinary and medicinal herbs because of their scent, resembling that of lemons. Common names include lemon grass, barbed wire grass, silky heads, citronella grass, cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, tanglad, serai, hierba Luisa, or gavati chahapati. Lemongrass is a plant. The leaves and the oil are used to make medicine. Lemongrass is commonly taken orally, applied directly to the skin, or inhaled as aromatherapy for many different conditions and used in different parts of the world. Citronella is usually planted in home gardens to ward off insects such as whitefly adults. Its cultivation enables growing some vegetables (e.g. tomatoes and broccoli) without applying pesticides. Intercropping should include physical barriers, for citronella roots can take over the field. It is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also suitable for use with poultry, fish, beef, and seafood. It is often used as a tea in African countries such as Togo, South Eastern Ghana, Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Research also shows that lemongrass oil has antifungal properties. Despite its ability to repel some insects, such as mosquitoes, its oil is also commonly used as a "lure" to attract honey bees. To freeze lemongrass, the thinly sliced pieces is stored in single layers in zipper-seal bags. To use it again, it can be broken off as much as one needs for individual dishes. Or, the frozen lemongrass be minced or used as a purée. The leaves are used to make a great addition to marinades and can be steeped in hot water for tea. After use, the leaves can be added to compost pile or pureed to be scatter in the grass along the edges of a patio or deck to help deter insects. Lemongrass is also used as an addition to tea, and in preparations such as kadha, which is a traditional herbal brew used in Ayurvedic medicine. Apart from the uses enumerated above there are also some surprising benefits of lemongrass, which goes thus: The health benefits of lemongrass are numerous and include relief from insomnia, stomach disorders, respiratory disorders, fever, pain, swelling, and infections. The antioxidant activity of the lemongrass herb maintains the immune system and protects against antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It even helps in maintaining optimum cholesterol levels, managing type 2 diabetes, and promoting healthy skin. It is extensively used in aromatherapy and helps combat fatigue, anxiety, and body odor. With all these benefits and uses found in lemon grass little attention is given to the grass to derived benefit and uses to humans in terms of protection and healthy living in the northern part of Nigeria. It is also recommended that, more research be conducted on the growth, multiplication, storage, curative and medicinal values of the plant so as to benefit humans, animals and the ecosystem. Keywords: Lemongrass, Gardens, Insects, immune system.
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Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon, L spreng ) Valuable Grass But
Underutilized In Northern Nigeria
Mohammed D. Toungos (Ph.D.)
Crop Science Department, Adamawa State University Mubi,
Adamawa State, Nigeria
Corresponding Author Email: dahiru.toungos@gmail.com; toungosm@adsu.edu.ng
ABSTRACT
Cymbopogon, better known as lemongrass, is a genus of Asian, African, Australian, and tropical island
plants in the grass family. Some species are commonly cultivated as culinary and medicinal herbs because
of their scent, resembling that of lemons. Common names include lemon grass, barbed wire grass, silky
heads, citronella grass, cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, tanglad, serai, hierba Luisa, or gavati chahapati.
Lemongrass is a plant. The leaves and the oil are used to make medicine. Lemongrass is commonly taken
orally, applied directly to the skin, or inhaled as aromatherapy for many different conditions and used in
different parts of the world. Citronella is usually planted in home gardens to ward off insects such as
whitefly adults. Its cultivation enables growing some vegetables (e.g. tomatoes and broccoli) without
applying pesticides. Intercropping should include physical barriers, for citronella roots can take over the
field. It is commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also suitable for use with poultry, fish, beef,
and seafood. It is often used as a tea in African countries such as Togo, South Eastern Ghana, Tanzania
and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Research also shows that lemongrass oil has antifungal
properties. Despite its ability to repel some insects, such as mosquitoes, its oil is also commonly used as
a "lure" to attract honey bees. To freeze lemongrass, the thinly sliced pieces are stored in single layers in
zipper-seal bags. To use it again, it can be broken off as much as one need for individual dishes. Or, the
frozen lemongrass be minced or used as a purée. The leaves are used to make a great addition to
marinades and can be steeped in hot water for tea. After use, the leaves can be added to compost pile or
pureed to be scatter in the grass along the edges of a patio or deck to help deter insects. Lemongrass is
also used as an addition to tea, and in preparations such as kadha, which is a traditional herbal brew used
in Ayurvedic medicine. Apart from the uses enumerated above there are also some surprising benefits of
lemongrass, which goes thus: The health benefits of lemongrass are numerous and include relief from
insomnia, stomach disorders, respiratory disorders, fever, pain, swelling, and infections. The antioxidant
activity of the lemongrass herb maintains the immune system and protects against antibiotic-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus. It even helps in maintaining optimum cholesterol levels, managing type 2
diabetes, and promoting healthy skin. It is extensively used in aromatherapy and helps combat fatigue,
anxiety, and body odor. With all these benefits and uses found in lemon grass little attention is given to
the grass to derived benefit and uses to humans in terms of protection and healthy living in the northern
part of Nigeria. It is also recommended that, more research be conducted on the growth, multiplication,
storage, curative and medicinal values of the plant so as to benefit humans, animals and the ecosystem.
Keywords: Lemongrass, Gardens, Insects, immune system.
INTRODUCTION
Cymbopogon, better known as lemongrass, is a genus of Asian, African, Australian, and tropical island
plants in the grass family. Some species are commonly cultivated as culinary and medicinal herbs because
of their scent, resembling that of lemons. Common names include lemon grass, barbed wire grass, silky
heads, citronella grass, cha de Dartigalongue, fever grass, tanglad, serai, hierba Luisa, or gavati chahapati.
International Journal of Innovative Food, Nutrition & Sustainable Agriculture 7(2):6-14, April-June, 2019
© SEAHI PUBLICATIONS, 2019 www.seahipaj.org ISSN: 2467-8481
7
East Indian lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), also called Cochin grass or Malabar grass, is native to
Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, India, Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand, while West Indian lemongrass
(Cymbopogon citratus) is native to South Asia and maritime Southeast Asia. While both can be used
interchangeably, C. citratus is more suitable for cooking. In India, C. citratus is used both as a medical
herb and in perfumes. C. citratus is consumed as a tea for anxiety in Brazilian folk medicine, Blanco M.M
et al (1992), but a study in humans found no effect as reported by Leite JR; et al (1986). The tea caused a
recurrence of contact dermatitis in one case, as also reported by the findings of Bleasel, N; et al (2002).
Morphology: Each plant can grow to between 30cm and up to 1.5m high if grown outside. But it will
be somewhat smaller if one have to keep it inside. But, Citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus and
Cymbopogon winterianus) grow to about 2m and have magenta-colored base stems. These species are
mostly used for the production of citronella oil, which is used in soaps, as an insect repellent (especially
mosquitoes) in insect sprays and candles, and in aromatherapy. The principal chemical constituents of
citronella, geraniol and citronellol, are antiseptics, hence their use in household disinfectants and soaps.
Besides oil production, citronella grass is also used for culinary purposes, as a flavoring. There are 2
kinds of lemongrass: East Indian and West Indian but there is little difference between them in terms of
culinary use and growing.
Lemongrass is planted in a large pot that is at least 30cm across, or use a 5-gallon bucket. One should be
sure to use a premium quality potting soil when growing lemongrass. As lemongrass grows tall, and pots
can easily tip in windy weather, so placing containers in a slightly protected location is mostly
recommended.
Uses: Lemongrass is a plant. The leaves and the oil are used to make medicine. Lemongrass is commonly
taken orally, applied directly to the skin, or inhaled as aromatherapy for many different conditions and
used in different parts of the world. Citronella is usually planted in home gardens to ward off insects such
as whitefly adults. Its cultivation enables growing some vegetables (e.g. tomatoes and broccoli) without
applying pesticides. Intercropping should include physical barriers, for citronella roots can take over the
field, Takequma Massahiru, 2019.
Lemongrass is best known for its use in Asian cuisine, especially Thai and Vietnamese and also a
medicinal herb in India. It has a subtle citrus flavor and can be dried and powdered, or used fresh. It is
commonly used in teas, soups, and curries. It is also suitable for use with poultry, fish, beef, and seafood.
It is often used as a tea in African countries such as Togo, South Eastern Ghana, Tanzania and the
Democratic Republic of the Congo and Latin American Countries such as Mexico.
Lemongrass oil is also used as a pesticide and a preservatives. Research shows that lemongrass oil has
antifungal properties as reported by Shadab et al 1992. Despite its ability to repel some insects, such as
mosquitoes, its oil is also commonly used as a "lure" to attract honey bees. Lemongrass works
conveniently as well as the pheromone created by the honeybee's Nasonov gland, also known as attractant
pheromones. Because of this, lemongrass oil can be used as a lure when trapping swarms or attempting to
draw the attention of hived bees; Wikibooks on beekeeping guide to essential oils, 2019.
In the kitchen, the tender inner stalk bases are also used in stir fries, salads, and sauces. To freeze
lemongrass, the thinly sliced pieces are stored in single layers in zipper-seal bags. To use it again, it can
be broken off as much as one need for individual dishes. Or, the frozen lemongrass be minced or used as a
purée.
The leaves are used to make a great addition to marinades and can be steeped in hot water for tea. After
use, the leaves can be added to compost pile or pureed to be scatter in the grass along the edges of a patio
or deck to help deter insects. To dry the leaves, it can be bundled and hanged upside down in a dark place
until dry. It can also be stored in tightly sealed jars. Dried lemongrass can retain its flavor from six
months and up to one year. Lemongrass is also used as an addition to tea, and in preparations such as
kadha, which is a traditional herbal brew used in Ayurvedic medicine.
Surprising Benefits of Lemongrass: Apart from the uses enumerated above there are also some
surprising benefits of lemongrass, which goes thus: The health benefits of lemongrass are numerous and
include relief from insomnia, stomach disorders, respiratory disorders, fever, pain, swelling, and
infections. The antioxidant activity of the lemongrass herb maintains the immune system and protects
Toungos ….. Int. J. Innovative Food, Nut. & Sust. Agric. 7(2):6-14, 2019
8
against antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It even helps in maintaining optimum cholesterol
levels, managing type 2 diabetes, and promoting healthy skin. It is extensively used in aromatherapy and
helps combat fatigue, anxiety, and body odor.
Lemongrass An Aromatic Healer: Cymbopogon citratus, also known as lemongrass, is an herb which
belongs to the grass family of Poaceae. It is utilized for its distinct lemon flavor and citrusy aroma. It is a
tall, perennial grass native to India and tropical regions of Asia. It is a rough and tufted plant with linear
leaves that grow in thick bunches. They emerge from a strong base and stand about 3 meters high with a
meter-wide stretch.
In addition to its culinary usage, this herb offers an array of medicinal benefits and is in extensive demand
due to its anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-microbial properties across Southeast Asia, Africa and
America.
The genus Cymbopogon comprises 55 species of grasses, two of which are referred to as lemongrass,
Soenarko S. 1977; Flora of China. These are Cymbopogon citratus, which is famously preferred for
culinary use and Cymbopogon flexuosus, used in the manufacturing of fragrances because of its extended
shelf life, owing to the low amount of myrcene in that variety.
Lemongrass contains antioxidants, flavonoids and phenolic compounds such as luteolin, glycosides,
quercetin, kaempferol, elemicin, catechol, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, which help in providing an
impressive range of medicinal aids. The main component of this fragrant herb is lemonal or citral, which
has antifungal and anti-microbial qualities.
Lemongrass is an aromatic storehouse of essential nutrients providing an array of health benefits. The
USDA National Nutrient Database 2011 shows that, it is a source of essential vitamins and minerals such
as vitamin A, B-vitamins, folate, and vitamin C, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous, manganese, zinc,
and iron, which are required for the healthy body function
Health Benefits of Lemongrass: These are some of the most well-known health benefits of lemongrass:
Lowers Cholesterol: Research published in 2011 in Food and Chemical Toxicology journal revealed
that lemongrass possesses anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties that support
healthy cholesterol levels. One animal study has also shown that regular consumption may assist in
sustaining healthy levels of triglycerides and reducing LDL or bad cholesterol. This may help in
preventing the accumulation of lipids in the blood vessels and promoting an unobstructed flow of blood in
the arteries, thereby preventing various cardiac disorders, such as atherosclerosis.
Detoxifies the Body: According to a 2003 animal study, lemongrass may help in cleansing and flushing
harmful toxic wastes from the body, as a result of its diuretic properties. Detoxification helps in the
regulation of various organs of the body, including the liver and kidneys, while also helping to lower the
levels of uric acid. The diuretic effect of the herb helps in increasing the quantity and frequency of
urination, which helps in maintaining digestive health and detoxifying the body.
Anticancer Potential: Lemongrass may be effective in preventing the growth of cancer cells without
affecting the healthy cells of the body. Research conducted to assess the anticancer activity of lemongrass
has shown promising outcomes in the prevention of skin cancer. This is mainly because of the presence of
a chemical compound called citral.
Research conducted on the effects of citral on cancer cells shows its efficacy in inhibiting the growth of
hepatic cancer cells during the initial phase and prevents further growth of cancerous cells. Another
study provides supporting evidence regarding the anti-proliferative effect of citral in impeding the growth
of human breast cancer cells and the induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death).
Fights Staphylococcus aureus: Research published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology has shown
that lemongrass essential oil has an anti-biofilm capacity and is beneficial against the infection caused by
Staphylococcus aureus. It contains phenols and essential oil, which may disrupt the growth of infections
and germs and help inhibit the formation of the biofilms.
Stomach Disorders: Studies have shown that lemongrass essential oil has anti-microbial and anti-
bacterial properties which help in fighting the infections caused by various pathogens such as
Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli.
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9
It is beneficial in assuaging gastrointestinal disorders and reducing inflammation; it may be helpful to
consume to improve digestion and if you suffer from gastric ulcers, constipation, ulcerative colitis,
diarrhea, nausea and stomach aches
Relieves Insomnia: Lemongrass tea is considered to be helpful in calming muscles and nerves that may
aid in promoting sleep. Research has shown that its herbal tea has sedative and hypnotic properties, which
can help in increasing the duration of sleep.
Respiratory Disorders: Lemongrass is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for its healing effects in
treating cough and cold. Along with other beneficial components, the vitamin C content present in it may
help in providing relief from nasal blockages, flu and other respiratory disorders such as bronchial
asthma.
Reduces Fever: Lemongrass is a febrifuge also known as the ‘fever grass’, due to its beneficial effects in
lowering fever. The antipyretic and diaphoretic effect is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine for
curing fevers by inducing sweating.
Helps Treat Infections: Lemongrass works as an antiseptic and is effective in treating infections such as
ringworm, sores, Athlete’s Foot, scabies, and urinary tract infections (UTI) because of its antimicrobial
and anti-fungal properties. Studies have shown that the herb exerts healing effects on dermatological
infections, such as yeast infections, by inhibiting the growth of pathogens. Another study provides
supporting evidence that demonstrated the efficacy of lemongrass over thyme, patchouli, and cedarwood
oil in the treatment of various diseases such as oral or vaginal candidiasis.
Reduces Aches: Lemongrass may alleviate the pain and discomfort caused by headaches and migraines
due to its analgesic properties. The phytonutrients present in it improve blood circulation and help in
relieving spasms, muscle cramps, sprains, and backaches. It is also valuable in treating sports wounds,
including dislocations, internal injuries, and bruises.
Nervous System: Lemongrass is nervine and is considered to be a tonic for the nervous system. It
stimulates the mind and helps in combating convulsions, nervousness, vertigo, and various neuronal
disorders. It is used in therapeutic baths, which assist in calming the nerves and alleviating the symptoms
of anxiety and fatigue caused by stress.
Type-2 Diabetes: Lemongrass has been shown to have beneficial implications for managing type-2
diabetes. An animal study indicates that the citral present in lemongrass may help maintain optimum
levels of insulin and improve the tolerance of glucose in the body. However, more research needs to be
conducted on a human population to truly understanding the effects.
Relieves Pain and Inflammation: Lemongrass is effective in relieving the pain and discomfort caused
by rheumatism. It can be applied topically on both lumbago and sprains and helps in relieving neuralgia.
Boosts Immunity: Lemongrass extracts have a beneficial effect on the inflammatory actions of
cytokines, which are the signaling molecules through which the cells communicate and respond to the
body. Studies have shown that lemongrass exerts anti-inflammatory action and its constituent, citral, may
be the cause of its inhibitory effect on cytokine production.
Skin Care: Lemongrass has been treasured as a skin tonic and makes an effective cleanser for oily or
acne-prone skin, due to its astringent and antiseptic qualities. It helps in strengthening the skin tissues and
toning up the pores while also sterilizing them. Care should be taken while using lemongrass products, as
the undiluted application might lead to dermal irritation in some cases.
Cellular Health: Lemongrass possesses antioxidant qualities and helps in protecting the body cells from
oxygen-derived free radicals.
Antioxidant power can help with the regeneration of new cells and with discarding of the old. The folate
and potassium content in the stem and leaves of lemongrass aids in DNA synthesis and promotes cell
division.
Relief from Edema: Lemongrass is effective in providing relief from the condition of water retention or
edema. It has a cleansing effect on lymphatic congestion and helps soothe the swelling.
Aromatherapy: Lemongrass consists of beneficial ingredients, most notably essential oils such as neroli,
citronellol, myrcene, dipentene, geraniol, and methyl heptenone. These possess antifungal, insecticidal,
Toungos ….. Int. J. Innovative Food, Nut. & Sust. Agric. 7(2):6-14, 2019
10
and antiseptic properties. Lemongrass oil is extensively used in aromatherapy due to its therapeutic
effects, which help in revitalizing the body.
The cooling effect of lemongrass oil is beneficial for the body during hot weather and promotes the
revival of both the mind and soul. This oil possesses natural astringent and toning qualities that help
stimulate blood circulation and tone up the dermal tissues. It is also thought to help in tightening, uplifting
and firming sagging skin.
Reduces Obesity: Lemongrass contains citral, which has been shown to be effective against obesity.
It lessens the accumulation of abdominal fat and promotes the use of stored energy, which helps in
preventing diet-induced weight gain. It aids in healthy metabolism and enhances the oxidation of fatty
acids in the body.
Eliminates Body Odor: Lemongrass is used in the manufacturing of deodorants due to its cleansing and
antibacterial properties. Deodorants help combat unpleasant body-odor and prevent fungal and bacterial
infections. It can also be added to footbaths for sanitizing sore and odorous feet.
Insect Repellent: Lemongrass is used as a natural insect repellent and helps in preventing the occurrence
of insect-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and possibly Lyme disease. Studies have provided
supporting evidence regarding the anti-malarial and anti-protozoan properties of lemongrass, which
makes its oil an effective ingredient in mosquito repellents.
Culinary Use: Apart from folk medicines, lemongrass is commonly used in Asian cuisines, especially
those of Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia. It is used for adding flavor to beverages such as teas, curries,
and soups. It also found extensively in the preparation of pudding, meat products, candies, and baked
goods.
Other Uses includes:
i. the manufacturing of perfumes, deodorants, polishes, candles, and waxes. It is also used to add
fragrance to soaps and cosmetic products and
ii. to lure and attract honey bees for various commercial purposes;
Some hydrophobic properties of lemongrass is for preserving ancient palm leaf manuscripts which
protects them from the damage caused by microorganisms. It also strengthens the leaves by providing the
required moisture to the fragile palm leaves without letting the humidity cause any loss to the stored text.
This protective effect is attributed to the hydrophobic properties of lemongrass oil.
Pet Products are also not left out, lemongrass is used in the manufacturing of shampoos and grooming
products for pets due to its repellent effects on lice and ticks.
Side Effects: Although considered safe, the topical use of lemongrass oil or the ingestion of herbal tea
can result in allergic reactions in some people.
Undiluted or concentrated lemongrass oil should not be applied directly on the body as it may result in
harmful reactions to some people. It is always advisable to keep the pure essential oil out of the reach of
children.
It is also strongly recommended to consult a health professional before considering lemongrass oil for
therapeutic usage. This is especially true during pregnancy, when trying to conceive, breastfeeding, and
during the course of any ongoing medical treatments and consultations.
The herb has galactagogue properties, which promote the formation of milk in breasts. It is also effective
in stimulating menstrual flow and helps in soothing menstrual cramps and discomfort. It helps relieve the
swelling and conditions of varicosity.
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Nutrition Facts.
Amount per Calories 62g. %Daily Value*
Total Fat0.1 g
0%
Cholesterol0
0%
Sodium0 mg
0%
Potassium35 mg
1%
Total Carbohydrate1 g
0%
Protein0.1 g
0%
Vitamin A
0%
Calcium
0%
Vitamin D
0%
Vitamin B-12
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
Calories5% Daily Value*
0%
Saturated fat0 g
0%
Polyunsaturated fat0 g
Monounsaturated fat0 g
Trans fat0 g
Cholesterol0 mg
0%
Sodium0 mg
0%
Potassium35 mg
1%
Total Carbohydrate1 g
0%
Protein0.1 g
0%
Vitamin A
0%
Calcium
0%
Vitamin D
0%
Toungos ….. Int. J. Innovative Food, Nut. & Sust. Agric. 7(2):6-14, 2019
12
Vitamin B-12
0%
0%
2%
0%
1%
Calories66 %Daily Value*
Total Fat0.3 g
0%
Saturated fat0.1 g
0%
Polyunsaturated fat0.1 g
Monounsaturated fat0 g
Trans fat0 g
Cholesterol0 mg
0%
Sodium4 mg
0%
Potassium484 mg
14%
Total Carbohydrate17 g
6%
Protein1.2 g
2%
Vitamin A
0%
Calcium
4%
Vitamin D
0%
Vitamin B-12
0%
Vitamin C
3%
Iron
31%
Vitamin B-6
5%
Magnesium
10%
Calories99
Total Fat 0.5g %Daily Value*
1%
Saturated fat0.1 g
0%
Polyunsaturated fat0.2 g
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13
Monounsaturated fat0.1 g
Trans fat0 g
Cholesterol0 mg
0%
Sodium6 mg
0%
Potassium723 mg
21%
Total Carbohydrate25 g
8%
Protein1.8 g
4%
Vitamin A
0%
Calcium
6%
Vitamin D
0%
Vitamin B-12
0%
Vitamin C
4%
Iron
46%
Vitamin B-6
5%
Magnesium
15%
Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. One’s daily values may be higher or lower depending on
your calorie needs.
Carbohydrate, by difference [g]
25.31
Calcium, Ca [mg]
65
Iron, Fe [mg]
8.17
Magnesium, Mg [mg]
60
Phosphorus, P [mg]
101
Potassium, K [mg]
723
Sodium, Na [mg]
6
Zinc, Zn [mg]
2.23
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid [mg]
2.6
Thiamin [mg]
0.07
Riboflavin [mg]
0.14
Niacin [mg]
1.1
Vitamin B-6 [mg]
0.08
Folate, DFE [µg]
75
Vitamin B-12 [µg]
0
Vitamin A, RAE [µg]
0
Vitamin A, IU [IU]
6
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) [µg]
0
Vitamin D [IU]
0
Fatty acids, total saturated [g]
0.12
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated [g]
0.05
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated [g]
0.17
Fatty acids, total trans [g]
0
Cholesterol [mg]
0
Sources include : USDA Lemongrass Nutrition Facts.
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14
CONCLUSION
With all these benefits and uses found in lemon grass little attention is given to the grass to derived
benefit and uses to humans in terms of protection and healthy living in the northern part of Nigeria. It is
also recommended that, more research be conducted on the growth, multiplication, storage, curative and
medicinal values of the plant so as to benefit humans, animals and the ecosystem.
REFERENCES
Blanco MM, Costa CA, Freire AO, Santos JG, Costa M (March 2009). "Neurobehavioral effect of
essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in mice". Phytomedicine. 16 (23): 26570. Bleasel N, Tate
B, Rademaker M (August 2002). "Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential
oils". Australas. J. Dermatol. 43 (3): 2113.
Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 624 香茅属 xiang mao shu Cymbopogon Sprengel, Pl. Min. Cogn. Pug. 2:
14. 1815. Retrieved 20th June, 2019.
Leite JR, Seabra Mde L, Maluf E, et al. (July 1986). "Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus
Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans". J
Ethnopharmacol. 17 (1): 7583.
Shadab, Q., Hanif, M. & Chaudhary, F.M. (1992) Antifungal activity by lemongrass essential oils. Pak. J.
Sci. Ind. Res. 35, 246-249.
Soenarko, S. 1977. The genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Gramineae). Reinwardtia 9(3): 225375
Takeguma, Massahiro. "Gowing Citronella". Retrieved 19th June,2019.
Wikibooks: Beekeeping/Guide to Essential Oils Retrieved 17th June, 2019.
Toungos ….. Int. J. Innovative Food, Nut. & Sust. Agric. 7(2):6-14, 2019
... Another heath benefit of lemongrass is seen in its cleansing effect on lymphatic congestion which soothe the swelling and provides relief from edema (Boukhatem et al. 2014). Owing to its effectiveness in lowering fever, it also referred to as "fever grass" (Toungos 2019). In Ayurvedic medicinal system, antipyretic and diaphoretic properties of lemongrass are extensively explored for curing fevers through sweating (Gbenou et al. 2013;Toungos 2019). ...
... Owing to its effectiveness in lowering fever, it also referred to as "fever grass" (Toungos 2019). In Ayurvedic medicinal system, antipyretic and diaphoretic properties of lemongrass are extensively explored for curing fevers through sweating (Gbenou et al. 2013;Toungos 2019). Modak and Mukhopadhaya (2011) have studied type-2 diabetes managing properties of lemongrass. ...
Chapter
Secondary metabolites (SMs) are known to have a wide range of therapeutic values. Large numbers of drugs are derived from these SMs. These naturally occurring SMs known to act as a potent source of antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and insecticidal agents. Aromatic plants are the prime source of variety of easily available SMs. Numerous classes of these SMs also act as powerful natural antioxidants. Antioxidants are the compounds that inhibit or slow down the oxidation of other molecules and help to cure the oxidative stress condition. Oxidative stress is the condition where the amount of free radicals in the body of organism exceeds the homeostatic balance of free radicals and indigenous antioxidant. This excess of free redials leads to various types of chain reactions that damage cells. These free radicals are the cause of more than hundred kinds of diseases in living beings. Cymbopogon is a genus of about 180 species of monocots grasses in a family of Poaceae (Gramineae). The species of genus Cymbopogon are rich source of naturally occurring antioxidants (such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, hydroquinone, terpenoids and fatty alcohols, etc.), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) is one of them. Further, the pharmacological applications of lemongrass are also well explored. Hence in the present chapter, we intend to discuss the botanical description, traditional uses, phytochemistry, antioxidant potential, health benefits, and potential economic importance of lemongrass.
... Accordingly, the increase in the red blood cell counts will be reflected in the increase in the percentage of Packed Cell Volume (PCV)and as shown in Table (2), where the factors that affect red blood cells affect the percentage of Haematocrit and hemoglobin (Al-Hassani, 2000). increasing the number white blood cells and lymphocytes in the Treatments of lemon grass may be a positive indication of a low inflammatory response, as is an important factor in stimulating the immune system and increasing its immune response (Toungos, 2019 ).The decrease in the number of Heterophile cells relative to lymphocytes in lemon grass treatments It may be a result its active and positive role in raising the body's immune response (Majewska et al, 2019). Several vital molecules share this effect, including the receptor (FC receptor), as it is one of the proteins found on the surface of some types of white blood cells and contributes to the protective function the immune system during its association with antibodies and attack germs and pathogens (Boross et al., 2008). ...
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This experiment was conducted at the poultry farm of the college of Agriculture, University of Al-Qasim Green for the period from 18/9/2019 to 23/10/2019. The study was aimed to the effect of adding different levels of lemongrass leaves (Cymbopogon citratus) to the diet or its extract to drinking water on some blood parameters for broiler chickens (Ross 308). In the experiment, 225 unsexed broiler chicks (Ross), which obtained from Al-Anwar hatchery, it the were randomly distributed on 15 pen, with 5 experimental treatments,45 birds for each treatment. Each treatment included three replicates per 15 birds. The treatments of the experiment were as follows: First treatment: control group free from any addition. The second treatment: a basic feed added to 10 g of lemon grass / kg feed, the third treatment: a basic feed added with 20 g of lemon grass / kg feed, The fourth treatment: adding 100 ml of the aqueous extract of the lemongrass / liter of drinking water, and the fifth treatment: adding 200 ml of the aqueous extract of the lemongrass liter of drinking water. The experiment included studying the following characteristics: the number of red blood cells, the number of white blood cells, the percentage of Haematocrit (%), the concentration of haemoglobin (%), the percentage of lymphocytes (%), the percentage of Heterophil cells (%) and the percentage of H / L cells. The results indicated register the third, fourth and fifth treatment (adding 20 g / kg of feed leaves of lemon and 100 and 200 ml / liter of drinking water from the aqueous extract of the leaves of lemongrass) recorded an increase in the number of red blood cells, the percentage of Haematocrit and the concentration of haemoglobin at the 35 days age and in a significant (p≤ 0.05) compared to the first treatment (control). The treatment of adding lemongrass leaves, either with feed or drinking water, showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) in the numbers of white blood cells, the percentage of lymphocytes (%) and a decrease in the percentage of Heterophil cells (%) and the percentage of H / L cells compared to the first treatment (control). It is concluded from the present experiment that adding of the lemon grass leaves or their aqueous extract to drinking water at levels of 20 g / kg fodder, 100 ml of aqueous extract of lemon leaves and 200 ml of the aqueous extract of lemon grass leaves to the diet can lead to improving some blood parameters for broiler chickens. Keywords: lemon grass, blood parameters, broiler chickens. *Research paper from MSc thesis for the first author.
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The Cymbopogon genus belongs to the Andropoganeae family of the family Poaceae, which is famous for its high essential oil concentration. Cymbopogon possesses a diverse set of characteristics that supports its applications in cosmetic, pharmaceuticals and phytotherapy. The purpose of this review is to summarize and connect the evidence supporting the use of phytotherapy, phytomedicine, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, toxicology, pharmacological activities, and quality control of the Cymbopogon species and their extracts. To ensure the successful completion of this review, data and studies relating to this review were strategically searched and obtained from scientific databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, ScienceDirect, and Elsevier. Approximately 120 acceptable reviews, original research articles, and other observational studies were included and incorporated for further analysis. Studies showed that the genus Cymbopogon mainly contained flavonoids and phenolic compounds, which were the pivotal pharmacological active ingredients. When combined with the complex β-cyclodextrin, phytochemicals such as citronellal have been shown to have their own mechanism of action in inhibiting the descending pain pathway. Another mechanism of action described in this review is that of geraniol and citral phytochemicals, which have rose and lemon-like scents and can be exploited in soaps, detergents, mouthwash, cosmetics, and other products. Many other pharmacological effects, such as anti-protozoal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer have been discussed sequentially, along with how and which phytochemicals are responsible for the observed effect. Cymbopogon species have proven to be extremely valuable, with many applications. Its phytotherapy is proven to be due to its rich phytochemicals, obtained from different parts of the plant like leaves, roots, aerial parts, rhizomes, and even its essential oils. For herbs of Cymbopogon genus as a characteristic plant therapy, significant research is required to ensure their efficacy and safety for a variety of ailments.
Article
A herbal tea (called an abafado in Brazil) prepared from the dried leaves of lemongrass was administered to healthy volunteers. Following a single dose or 2 weeks of daily oral administration, the abafado produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipids, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, LDH and CPK. Urine analysis (proteins, glucose, ketones, bilirubins, occult blood and urobilinogen) as well as EEG and EKG showed no abnormalities. There were slight elevations of direct bilirubin and of amylase in some of the volunteers, but without any clinical manifestation. These results taken together indicate that lemongrass as used in Brazilian folk medicine is not toxic for humans. The eventual hypnotic effect of lemongrass was investigated in 50 volunteers who ingested samples of lemongrass and a placebo under double-blind conditions. The parameters (i.e. sleep induction, sleep quality, dream recall and rewakening) did not show any effect of lemongrass as compared to the placebo. Eighteen subjects with high scores of trait-anxiety were submitted to an anxiety-inducing test following taking lemongrass or placebo under double-blind conditions. Their anxiety levels were similar, indicating that the abafado of the plant does not have anxiolytic properties. It is concluded that lemongrass, one of the most popular Brazilian herbal medicines, used for its alleged CNS-depressant effects, is atoxic but lacks hypnotic or anxiolytic properties.
Article
Tea obtained from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is used for its anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties in Brazilian folk medicine. Essential oil (EO) from fresh leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and orally administered to Swiss male mice 30 min before experimental procedures. EO at 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg was evaluated for sedative/hypnotic activity through pentobarbital sleeping time, anxiolytic activity by elevated plus maze and light/dark box procedures and anticonvulsant activity through seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. EO was effective in increasing the sleeping time, the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze as well as the time spent in the light compartment of light/dark box. In addition, EO delayed clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and blocked tonic extensions induced by maximal electroshock, indicating the elevation of the seizure threshold and/or blockage of seizures spread. These effects were observed in the absence of motor impairment evaluated on the rotarod and open field test. Our results are in accord with the ethnopharmacological use of Cymbopogon citratus, and after complementary toxicological studies it can support investigations assessing their use as anxiolytic, sedative or anticonvulsive agent.
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