Technical ReportPDF Available

BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE Environmental and economic sustainability: a practical guide

Authors:
  • Global Centre for Climate Mobility

Abstract and Figures

Environmental degradation is increasing at an alarming rate, and it is the poorest people in our world who are being most affected by it – those who have done the least to cause it. Harmful patterns of consumption and waste, driven by business, are fuelling the crisis, putting pressure on the world’s natural resources. In 2015 Tearfund published The restorative economy setting out our vision for a sustainable global economy in which extreme poverty is ended, the balance in creation is restored and inequality between rich and poor is reduced. To implement this vision in our programmatic and advocacy work, Environmental and Economic Sustainability (EES) was adopted as one of three corporate priorities. Tearfund recognises that climate change, the environment and people’s livelihoods are closely connected. We have seen how environmental degradation, conflict and climate-related shocks increase food insecurity and hunger, and threaten progress with development. Our response is to promote environmental and economic sustainability (EES). EES is about working towards a world where extreme inequality is reduced and where everyone can meet their basic needs – and flourish – within their environmental limit. EES has a wide range of elements. Some relate more to the environment, while others relate more to economic well-being (see figure 1 below). However, they are all closely intertwined and can affect each other positively or negatively. Poverty reduction must hold the environment and the economy in balance, recognising that a broken and harmful environment will have a negative impact on people’s health, livelihoods and productivity.
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BUILDING A
SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
Environmental and economic sustainability:
a practical guide
FOR FIELD TESTING
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE
Environmental and economic sustainability: a practical guide
FOR FIELD TESTING
Written by Liu Liu and Dr Nick Simpson
Copy-editing: Sarah La Trobe
With thanks to Ben Niblett, Benjamin Osawe, Chris McDonald, Claire Hancock, David
Couzens, Jonathan Simpson, Lydia Powell, Marina Kobzeva, Naomi Foxwood, Paul Johnston,
Peter Evans and Sarah Wiggins for their comments and input during the writing of this
guide, and all the Tearfund staff and partners who shared their case studies and input.
Designed by Wingfinger
Cover photo: Peter Caton/Tearfund
Tearfund is a Christian relief and development agency working with partners and local
churches to bring whole-life transformation to the poorest communities.
© Tearfund 2019
Published by Tearfund, 100 Church Road, Teddington, TW11 8QE, United Kingdom
learn.tearfund.org
+44 (0) 20 3906 3906
publications@tearfund.org
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facebook.com/tearfundlearn
Enquiries about printed and electronic (PDF) copies of this manual should be sent to
publications@tearfund.org
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE FOR FIELD TESTING 1
CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION 3
1.1 What is environmental and economic sustainability (EES)? ..................................................................3
1.2 Tearfund’s approach to EES .............................................................................................................................. 5
1.3 What is this guide for? .......................................................................................................................................5
1.4 How to use this guide ......................................................................................................................................... 5
2 THE LONGTERM OUTCOMES AND PRINCIPLES OF
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY 7
2.1 Long-term outcomes .......................................................................................................................................... 7
2.2 Design principles .................................................................................................................................................. 7
2.3 How to use the grading scale for each design principle ...........................................................................9
3 PUTTING THE PRINCIPLES INTO PRACTICE 11
3.1 Sustainable resource management ...............................................................................................................11
3.2 Socio-ecological balance .................................................................................................................................16
3.3 Equality and participation ...............................................................................................................................20
3.4 Growth .................................................................................................................................................................25
3.5 Stability ................................................................................................................................................................29
APPENDICES
1 Examples from the field testing ....................................................................................................................33
2 EES principles and the Sustainable Development Goals ........................................................................37
3 EES principles and Tearfund’s Quality Standards .....................................................................................39
4 EES principles and the LIGHT Wheel ...........................................................................................................41
2 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Elements of EES ...................................................................................................................................................3
Figure 2 EES Theory of Change .........................................................................................................................................4
Figure 3 Principles of EES ................................................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 4 How this guide is used through the project cycle .................................................................................... 10
Figure 5 Spider diagram (Tanzania) ..............................................................................................................................35
Figure 6 EES principles and the SDGs ...........................................................................................................................37
Figure 7 The Sustainable Development Goals .......................................................................................................... 38
Figure 8 EES principles and Tearfund’s Quality Standards .....................................................................................39
Figure 9 EES long-term outcomes and Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel domains/context ....................................... 41
Figure 10 Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel ..................................................................................................................................42
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 3
1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 What is environmental and economic sustainability (EES)?
Environmental degradation is increasing at an alarming rate, and it is the poorest people in our world who are
being most affected by it – those who have done the least to cause it. Harmful patterns of consumption and
waste, driven by business, are fuelling the crisis, putting pressure on the world’s natural resources.
In 2015 Tearfund published The restorative economy1 setting out our vision for a sustainable global economy
in which extreme poverty is ended, the balance in creation is restored and inequality between rich and poor
is reduced. To implement this vision in our programmatic and advocacy work, Environmental and Economic
Sustainability (EES) was adopted as one of three corporate priorities.
Tearfund recognises that climate change, the environment and people’s livelihoods are closely connected.
We have seen how environmental degradation, conflict and climate-related shocks increase food insecurity
and hunger, and threaten progress with development.
Our response is to promote environmental and economic sustainability (EES). EES is about working towards
a world where extreme inequality is reduced and where everyone can meet their basic needs – and
flourish – within their environmental limit.
EES has a wide range of elements. Some relate more to the environment, while others relate more to
economic well-being (see figure 1 below). However, they are all closely intertwined and can affect each
other positively or negatively. Poverty reduction must hold the environment and the economy in balance,
recognising that a broken and harmful environment will have a negative impact on people’s health, livelihoods
and productivity.
Figure 1 Elements of EES
E
N
V
I
R
O
N
M
E
N
T
A
L
E
C
O
N
O
M
I
C
EES
Restorative
Economy
Intersection of
environmental
and economic
requirements
for well-being
Creation Care
Environmental
standards
Poverty Reduction
Inclusive Economy
1 https://learn.tearfund.org/~/media/files/tilz/research/tearfund_therestorativeeconomy.pdf
4 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Figure 2 EES Theory of Change
Severe environmental degradation is
hitting the poorest people hardest
Vulnerable communities are increasingly exposed to and
affected by climatic stresses, as a result of climate change
PROBLEMS
1. Sustainable resource
management is informed by
the best available science
2. Decision-making addresses
long-term impact on the
environment and society
3. The ecosystem is healthy, and
people have equal access to
its goods and services
4. Environmental shocks and
stresses are understood and
prepared for
5. Education and income are
improving for more people
6. Inequality is decreasing
7. All people have access to
markets, decent work and
economic stability
8. All people are benefiting from
an infrastructure based on
low-carbon technology
9. Material well-being is steadily
improving, and sustained
over time
10. Economic resilience to shocks
and stresses is built into
policies and practices
EES DESIGN PRINCIPLES THAT GUIDE THE ACTIVITIES
advocacy
policy
church and community
mobilisation process (CCMP)
movement-building
development projects
self-help groups (SHGs)
savings groups
livelihood projects
renewable energy
climate-smart agriculture
resilience-building
ACTIVITIES (INTEGRATED AND JOINED UP)
Everyone can meet their
basic needs
The world lives within
environmental limits
Extreme inequality is no
longer accepted
EES END GOALS
1. Green jobs and livelihoods
that generate sustainable and
healthy incomes are created
2. Local, national and global
environments are restored
3. Inequality is reduced
OUTPUTS
1. Sustainable resource
management
2. Socio-ecological balance
3. Equality and participation
4. Growth
5. Stability
LONG-TERM OUTCOMES
5
1.2 Tearfund’s approach to EES
Tearfund is committed to relief and development work that is both environmentally and economically
sustainable and reduces exposure and vulnerability to risk. We believe that policies and practices must enable
livelihood and wealth generation without compromising the environment.
We address EES through taking action at community, national and global levels, focusing on the poorest and
most vulnerable people. Working with our partner organisations we combine project, policy and advocacy
work in order to achieve three end goals:
1. Everyone can meet their basic needs
2. The world lives within environmental limits
3. Extreme inequality is no longer accepted
Tearfund’s approach to and vision for EES is illustrated in figure 2 (page 4). Figure 2 shows that it takes
a combined effort of advocacy, policy, movement-building, livelihoods and agriculture work to tackle
environmental and economic challenges at the same time.
1.3 What is this guide for?
This guide has been written to help project and field staff, Tearfund partners and churches to:
Design and evaluate new projects, programmes and strategies with a specific focus on EES
Integrate EES into existing projects, programmes and strategies.
Specifically, the guide will help users with:
Carrying out a baseline assessment related to EES
Identifying project/programme outputs and outcomes
Elaborating detailed activities
Designing an M&E plan
Evaluating the impact at the end of the project/programme.
This guide should be used in connection with project cycle management and other methods and approaches
for working with churches and communities, such as self-help groups (SHGs) and church and community
mobilisation (CCM). This guide can also help advocacy and policy teams to join forces with community-
based project teams in order to achieve the same EES end goals. We are aware that this guide is based on a
stable development context. We are planning to look at how EES applies in a humanitarian and fragile states
context, connecting with Core Humanitarian Standards.
1.4 How to use this guide
In this guide we describe five long-term outcomes that a project should be working towards in order to
achieve a balanced environmental and economic sustainability. We also introduce ten ‘design principles’.
These help project staff plan specific activities, and monitor and evaluate progress throughout the project
cycle to achieve the long-term outcomes.
In section 3 we present a grading scale and set of indicators with each of the ten design principles. These
help project staff to establish a project baseline, plan activities, set targets and monitor progress towards
achieving these goals.
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
6 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Throughout section 3, we will also highlight how each one of the ten EES design principles connects with
some of the frameworks readers are already using.
We show how each design principle is linked to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs). For more
information see appendix 2.
We have included references that indicate how each design principle relates to Tearfund’s Quality
Standards, if you are also required to follow them. Tearfund aims to work to the highest possible standards
with integrity and transparency. We have identified a set of corporate Quality Standards in support of
our vision and the delivery of our strategy, which are in keeping with the organisational characteristics
we aspire to and which summarise all of the relevant external and internal accountability and Quality
Standards, codes, guidelines and principles to which we are committed. For more information see
appendix 3.
We demonstrate the overlap between EES long-term outcomes and the LIGHT Wheel tool2 that Tearfund
uses to measure flourishing individuals and communities. We thereby show how EES plays a role in
bringing whole-life transformation to the communities we serve. The LIGHT Wheel was developed by
Tearfund’s Impact and Effectiveness team, influenced by the University of Bath’s (UK) work on well-being.
It provides a framework with nine different domains, which forms our definition of well-being and whole-
life transformation. Each domain, represented as the nine ‘spokes’ of the Wheel, represents one aspect of
what it means to flourish and be resilient. For more information see appendix 4.
In appendix 1 there are examples of how this guide was used in Tanzania and Pakistan.
2 Tearfund (2016) An introductory guide to the LIGHT Wheel toolkit. learn.tearfund.org/lightwheel
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 7
2 THE LONG-TERM OUTCOMES AND
PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL
AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
2.1 Long-term outcomes
In this section we introduce five ‘long-term outcomes’ of EES. These are based on care of God’s creation
along with holistic human development, and the three EES end goals that came out of Tearfund’s restorative
economy research.3 They can be viewed as the long-term outcomes that a project, programme or strategy
should be working towards in order to meet the three end goals of EES (see figure 2: EES Theory of Change).
Some of the five outcomes relate more to the environment, while others relate more to the economy.
They are:
1. Sustainable resource management: Economic systems protect or restore the environment, contributing
to people’s well-being. Decision-making relating to short-term gain does not compromise the future of
the environment.
2. Socio-ecological balance: Sustainable and productive livelihoods are underpinned by a healthy
environment. The environment is valued for its economic value as well as its cultural and ecological value.
3. Equality and participation: People have equal access to public goods, services and infrastructure (such as
transport, education, clean air and water). All of society, especially poor people, are able to improve their
lives and living standards. People are able to participate fully in all aspects of the economy.
4. Growth: The economy is working for the good of all (especially poor people), increasing work
opportunities, incomes and general well-being. Economic output is not only measured by GDP, but also by
other outcomes that capture overall well-being.
5. Stability: All of society is confident about the future and can invest in it. The economy is increasingly
resilient to shocks and stresses.
All of these five long-term outcomes should be used to inform project design, monitoring and evaluation.
2.2 Design principles
From the five long-term outcomes we have drawn out ten ‘design principles’. These design principles help
project staff plan concrete activities to achieve the long-term outcomes, as well as monitor progress
and evaluate impact. They cover both environmental sustainability and economic sustainability, and apply
to all aspects of an EES project or programme, including advocacy, policy and community-based activities.
See figure 3 to see how the design principles are clustered beneath the long-term outcomes.
3 http://learn.tearfund.org/~/media/files/tilz/research/tearfund_therestorativeeconomy_summary.pdf
8 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
The design principles are:
1. Sustainable resource management is informed by the best available science.
2. Decision-making addresses long-term impact on the environment and society.
3. The ecosystem is healthy, and people have equal access to its goods and services.
4. Environmental shocks and stresses are understood and prepared for.
5. Education and income are improving for more people.
6. Inequality is decreasing.
7. All people have access to markets, decent work and economic stability.
8. All people are benefiting from an infrastructure based on low-carbon technology.
9. Material well-being is steadily improving, and sustained over time.
10. Economic resilience to shocks and stresses is built into policies and practices.
Figure 3 shows how the ten design principles contribute towards the five long-term outcomes.
Figure 3 Principles of EES
DESIGN
PRINCIPLES
LONGTERM
OUTCOMES
1. Sustainable
resource manage-
ment is informed
by the best
available science
2. Decision-making
addresses long-
term impact on
the environment
and society
3. The ecosystem
is healthy, and
people have equal
access to its goods
and services
4. Environmental
shocks and stresses
are understood and
prepared for
5. Education
and income are
improving for
more people
6. Inequality
is decreasing
7. All people have
access to markets,
decent work and
economic stability
8. All people are
benefiting from
an infrastructure
based on low-
carbon technology
9. Material well-
being is steadily
improving,
and sustained
over time
10. Economic
resilience to shocks
and stresses is
built into policies
and practices
ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
1. Sustainable
resource
management
2. Socio-
ecological
balance
3. Equality and
participation 4. Growth 5. Stability
9
As shown in figure 3, design principles 1, 2, 3 and 4 relate more to the environment and design principles 5,
6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 relate more to the economy. The design principles provide a general guide for EES strategy
and programming, rather than a set of specific activities, so they can be interpreted and applied differently in
different contexts and situations.
There is no hierarchy within the design principles: they are all important. However, it might not be possible
to address all ten in a project design, so a few should be chosen to focus on. When making a selection it is
important to choose some principles that relate to the environment and some that relate to the economy,
to achieve a balance.
We do advise that all ten principles are at least considered when carrying out a context analysis or baseline
survey: this will help with analysing a project’s strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT).
2.3 How to use the grading scale for each design principle
We have designed a grading scale (from 1 to 5) that can be used to help determine what stage a community
(or wider population) is at in relation to each of the ten design principles:
1 = Very bad
2 = Deteriorating
3 = Stabilised
4 = Improved
5 = Significantly improved
Number 3 – stability – is the mid position from which a particular situation is either improving (numbers
4 and 5) or worsening (numbers 1 and 2). Activities undertaken in a number 1 or 2 context may not be able to
reverse environmental or economic degradation immediately but could help in stopping the decline. In these
cases, the objective would be stabilisation (3/5). Further progress can then be made from this point.
We provide a detailed grading scale for each of the ten design principles (see section 3). These give a summary
of how a community or wider population would look when graded: 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5. In section 3 we also provide
a set of indicators (qualitative and/or quantitative) or evidence sources. These can be used to help work out
the position of a community or wider population on the grading scale.
Please note that it is not possible for this guide to cover all the contexts people are working in. Therefore it
is important that project staff adapt the indicators to fit their own context, and use their own judgement
when putting an absolute value on an indicator, thinking through how this may affect the grading.
Project staff can use the design principles, grading scales and indicators to determine a project or programme’s
baseline, design targets and activities, monitor progress and evaluate impact. Figure 4 illustrates how to use
the principles, grading scales and indicators together to inform project design and achieve goals.
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
10 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Figure 4 How this guide is used through the project cycle
Project cycle stage How to use this guide
1. Context analysis Use the ten design principles to determine the greatest need and where there
is most potential for a solution
Use the grading scale and indicators associated with each design principle as
detailed in section 3 to carry out a baseline assessment and identify gaps
2. Design Based on your analysis above, determine where you are able to make the most
difference
Use the grading scale result of the context analysis and indicators to
design project activities, outputs and short -term outcomes related to the
design principles
3. Set-up Look at the project design and think through the resources, skills, knowledge
and people required to make the project work
4. Planning Plan how you will monitor the project by selecting the most relevant
indicators in this guide
5. Implementation and
monitoring
Take a baseline using the result of context analysis and the indicators used
Monitor your project progress using the selected principles, indicators
and outcomes
6. Evaluation and learning Evaluate the situation at the end of the project, using the selected principles,
indicators and outcomes
7. Closure Celebrate the achievement, and look again at the areas you could not cover at
the beginning of the project to see if the situation has changed and if there are
things can be done now
See appendix 1 to see how the design principles and grading scales were used to make an EES baseline
assessment in Tanzania and a preliminary EES assessment of an ongoing project in Pakistan.
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 11
3 PUTTING THE PRINCIPLES INTO PRACTICE
In this section we present each long-term outcome along with its two related design principles. Each design
principle is briefly described, and the relevant grading scale and set of indicators (see section 2.3) are given
beneath it. We also show how each design principle is linked to the Sustainable Development Goals, Tearfund
Quality Standards and Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel.
ENVIRONMENTAL LONGTERM OUTCOME
3.1 Sustainable resource management
Economic systems protect or restore the environment, which is the foundation for safe living and
productive livelihoods.
There are two design principles related to this long-term outcome, as illustrated below:
DESIGN
PRINCIPLES
LONGTERM
OUTCOMES
1. Sustainable
resource manage-
ment is informed
by the best
available science
2. Decision-making
addresses long-
term impact on
the environment
and society
3. The ecosystem
is healthy, and
people have equal
access to its goods
and services
4. Environmental
shocks and stresses
are understood and
prepared for
5. Education
and income are
improving for
more people
6. Inequality
is decreasing
7. All people have
access to markets,
decent work and
economic stability
8. All people are
benefiting from
an infrastructure
based on low-
carbon technology
9. Material well-
being is steadily
improving,
and sustained
over time
10. Economic
resilience to shocks
and stresses is
built into policies
and practices
ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
1. Sustainable
resource
management
2. Socio-
ecological
balance
3. Equality and
participation 4. Growth 5. Stability
12 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
An E-guard (environment guard) from a waste management project in Pakistan collects household waste.
Photo: Hazel Thompson/Tearfund
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
1. Sustainable resource management is informed by the best
available science
When a decision needs to be made about the environment, all relevant and available science and
local knowledge are researched and considered.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community (or wider population) has reached
in relation to design principle 1, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. No science and local knowledge related to the environment are used within decision-making.
2 Deteriorating. Science and local knowledge are not systematically used within decision-making.
3 Stabilised. Decisions are informed by science and local knowledge about the need to protect
the environment.
4 Improved. Decisions are guided by science and local knowledge about the need to protect and restore
the environment.
5 Significantly improved. Decisions are governed by the best available science as well as local knowledge
and local participation, in order to enhance and restore the environment for current and future generations.
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 13
Indicators or evidence sources
The following indicators or evidence sources can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider
population) has reached level 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project
activities and targets, and monitor progress.
Number of science and local knowledge sources used
Number of types of science and local knowledge sources used
Number of scientific findings, local knowledge and lessons learnt from previous, ongoing or
planned assessments
You might also want to consider:
What process is used to analyse scientific information and local knowledge
Who is included in this analysis
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Behaviours Resilience Technical quality
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Participation
and influence
Stewardship of
the environment
Capabilities
Institutions Law Environment Technology Politics Economy
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
14 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
2. Decision-making addresses long-term impact on the environment
and society
There is full consideration of how environmental and economic choices affect society at all levels.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community (or wider population) has reached
in relation to design principle 2, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. Decisions are not informed by science and local knowledge, and have resulted in significant
degradation of environmental conditions and contributed towards poverty traps. No consideration is given
to the negative consequences of actions. There is no legal enforcement to check decision-making.
2 Deteriorating. Decisions are not informed by science and local knowledge. There is some action to include
stakeholders in the decision-making process but procedures are easily manipulated by elites. There is little
accountability for protecting and restoring environmental conditions. Legal enforcement rarely checks
decision-making.
3 Stabilised. Decisions are informed by science and local knowledge and there is some effort to address the
protection and restoration of environmental conditions. Decision-making is aware of long-term impact on
the environment. There are limited legal enforcement checks on decision-making.
4 Improved. Decisions are guided by scientific understanding, and decisions are helping to improve use
of natural resources. Environmental resource use is considered in light of the needs of current and
future generations.
5 Significantly improved. Decisions are governed by the best available science as well as local knowledge
and participation. Significant action is being taken to restore environmental damage and increase resilience
at the local level. There is high accountability for actions taken in the context of future impact.
Indicators or evidence sources
The following indicators or evidence sources can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider
population) has reached level 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project
activities and targets, and monitor progress.
Levels of GDP generated at the cost of domestic use of natural resources
Solar power as a percentage of energy used at national, state and local level
Wind power as a percentage of energy used at national, state and local level
Small-scale hydropower as a percentage of energy used at national, state and local level
Waste management practices of government at national, state and local level
Numbers and types of environmental governance legislations in place and enforced
Number of previous, ongoing or planned Environmental Assessments carried out
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 15
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Behaviours Empowerment Resilience
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Participation
and influence
Stewardship of
the environment
Capabilities
Institutions Law Environment Politics Economy
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
16 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
ENVIRONMENTAL LONGTERM OUTCOME
3.2 Socio-ecological balance
Sustainable and productive livelihoods are underpinned by a healthy environment. The environment is
valued for the economic, natural, social and cultural benefits it can provide.
There are two design principles related to this long-term outcome, as illustrated below:
DESIGN
PRINCIPLES
LONGTERM
OUTCOMES
1. Sustainable
resource manage-
ment is informed
by the best
available science
2. Decision-making
addresses long-
term impact on
the environment
and society
3. The ecosystem
is healthy, and
people have equal
access to its goods
and services
4. Environmental
shocks and stresses
are understood and
prepared for
5. Education
and income are
improving for
more people
6. Inequality
is decreasing
7. All people have
access to markets,
decent work and
economic stability
8. All people are
benefiting from
an infrastructure
based on low-
carbon technology
9. Material well-
being is steadily
improving,
and sustained
over time
10. Economic
resilience to shocks
and stresses is
built into policies
and practices
ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
1. Sustainable
resource
management
2. Socio-
ecological
balance
3. Equality and
participation 4. Growth 5. Stability
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
3. The ecosystem is healthy, and people have equal access to its
goods and services
The eco-system is used sustainably and people have equal access to food, water, fuels,
recycling, soil etc.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community (or wider population) has reached
in relation to design principle 3, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. Ecosystem goods and services are irreversibly degraded, having a negative impact on poor and
vulnerable people. Productivity is seriously reduced.
2 Deteriorating. Ecosystem goods and services are damaged and people do not have equal access to
them, and the impact of degradation is not shared equally between rich and poor people. Productivity
is being reduced.
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 17
3 Stabilised. Ecosystem goods and services are meeting the needs of communities under normal
environmental conditions, but it is likely that privileged people are benefiting the most. Productivity
remains stable.
4 Improved. The productivity of ecosystem goods and services has been restored, and access to them is
more equal. Productivity is improving.
5 Significantly improved. The productivity of ecosystem goods and services has been restored and
potentially increased. Access to them is equal with increased benefit for vulnerable people.
Indicators or evidence sources
The following indicators or evidence sources can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider
population) has reached level 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project
activities and monitor progress.
Number or percentage of the population directly relying on the ecosystem for livelihoods
Number or percentage of households believing they have access to sufficient natural resources (water,
land, pasture, woods, forests etc)
Number or percentage of households believing their children will have access to sufficient natural
resources to meet their future needs
Number or percentage of households reporting tension within the community over access to
natural resources
Number or percentage of households believing that access to natural resources is managed fairly
Number or percentage of households that have taken action, within the last year, to make more effective
use of water
Number or percentage of households that have taken action, within the last year, to reduce soil erosion
Number or percentage of households cooking on wood, charcoal or dung
Proportion of total water resource used (as a percentage, if known)
Proportion of waste water safely treated (if known)
Number or percentage of households drawing drinking water from a safe and clean source
Soil condition (eg productivity level, topsoil loss, nutrition level)
Soil usage (eg who is using it and how)
Recent trends in rainfall compared with historical models/averages
Fresh water condition (eg source type, quality and quantity)
Groundwater use (number of wells less than 10m deep per km2 and number of borehole abstraction points
deeper than 10m per km2)
Fuelwood use (types and distance)
Vegetation type
Total number of known animal species (density)
Richness of animal species (diversity)
Native animal and native plant species (those found only in one particular location)
Traditional bush meat species; fuelwood species; and calorie food source (list)
18 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Impartiality
and targeting
Accountability Gender Empowerment Resilience Protection
Technical quality
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Stewardship of
the environment
Material assets
and resources
Living
faith
Environment Services Economy
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
4. Environmental shocks and stresses are understood and prepared for
People understand climate- and environment-related disasters. Preparedness, response and recovery
systems and processes are in place.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community has reached in relation to design
principle 4, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. The community are completely overwhelmed by environmental shocks and stresses. There are
no early warning or response/management systems in place.
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 19
2 Deteriorating. Environmental shocks and stresses reduce the community’s capacity to cope. Early warning
systems are limited and management systems are lacking.
3 Stabilised. The frequency and magnitude of shocks and stresses are understood but outside help is needed
with response and management.
4 Improved. Shocks and stresses are categorised and classified, and there is sufficient capacity to manage
minor or isolated events.
5 Significantly improved. Shocks and stresses are categorised and classified, and there is good response and
management capacity at many levels. Vulnerable people are cared for.
Indicators or evidence sources
The following indicators or evidence sources can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider
population) has reached level 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project
activities and targets, and monitor progress.
Frequency of natural hazards (count)
Magnitude of significant natural hazards
Response time for emergency response services – from initial call
Number of communities that have community-level disaster preparedness plans in place
Percentage of people, disaggregated by gender and age group, who are aware of the key risks from climate
change and environmental degradation
Number of the population vulnerable to hazards
Percentage of the population vulnerable to hazards
Percentage of the population facing increased vulnerability to hazards
Local government spending on disaster risk reduction (DRR) and response
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Accountability Resilience Protection Technical quality
20 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Emotional and
mental health
Stewardship of
the environment
Living
faith
Social
connections
Environment Technology Politics Security Economy
ECONOMIC LONGTERM OUTCOME
3.3 Equality and participation
Inequality is declining rather than increasing. People, especially poor and disadvantaged people,
are able to participate fully in all aspects of the economy and improve their education, income and
position in society.
There are two design principles related to this long-term outcome, as illustrated below:
DESIGN
PRINCIPLES
LONGTERM
OUTCOMES
1. Sustainable
resource manage-
ment is informed
by the best
available science
2. Decision-making
addresses long-
term impact on
the environment
and society
3. The ecosystem
is healthy, and
people have equal
access to its goods
and services
4. Environmental
shocks and stresses
are understood and
prepared for
5. Education
and income are
improving for
more people
6. Inequality
is decreasing
7. All people have
access to markets,
decent work and
economic stability
8. All people are
benefiting from
an infrastructure
based on low-
carbon technology
9. Material well-
being is steadily
improving,
and sustained
over time
10. Economic
resilience to shocks
and stresses is
built into policies
and practices
ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
1. Sustainable
resource
management
2. Socio-
ecological
balance
3. Equality and
participation 4. Growth 5. Stability
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 21
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
5. Education and income are improving for more people
People’s level of education, income and social position have improved in comparison with their
parents’ or grandparents’.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community (or wider population) has reached
in relation to design principle 5, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. An increasing number of people are unable to improve their lives, and well-being is declining.
2 Deteriorating. A significant proportion of the community are unable to improve their lives, and despite
their efforts they are worse off.
3 Stabilised. An increasing number of people are improving their livelihoods and well-being.
4 Improved. There is an upward trend in people improving their situation although a significant proportion
are still excluded (more than 40 per cent). Vulnerable people are being assisted.
5 Significantly improved. Everyone can participate in economic life and well-being is increasing for many
people. There is clear evidence of social protection.
Indicators
The following indicators can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider population) has
reached level 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project activities and
targets, and monitor progress.
Percentage of children per household aged between 6 and 13 who currently attend primary school
Percentage of people per household aged between 14 and 21 who are currently in education
Percentage of population who have achieved a higher education than their parents
Percentage of people aged over 14 in a household who have gained skills or expertise in the last year that
have enabled them to get or increase an income
Percentage of people aged over 18 in a household who are ‘functionally literate’ (defined as being able to
sign their name, perform simple calculations, use a mobile phone, help their children with homework and
complete an official document or form)
Percentage of the lowest-earning 25- to 35-year-olds who experience increased wages ten years later
The average number of years of education completed per person per household for those aged 18
and upwards
Percentage of people aged over 18 who earn more than their parents’ generation (calculate men and
women separately)
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
22 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Accountability Gender Empowerment Resilience
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Participation
and influence
Material assets
and resources
Capabilities
Society Technology Services Economy
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
6. Inequality is decreasing
The income gap between rich and poor people is reducing. Other inequalities – such as gender
inequality – are decreasing.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community (or wider population) has reached
in relation to design principle 6, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. Inequality is generally increasing at many levels (household, local, regional, national etc).
2 Deteriorating. Inequality is increasing for a significant proportion of the population in comparison with a
set time in the past.
3 Stabilised. Indicators of inequality are stable (1–5 years).
4 Improved. Inequality is declining for a significant proportion of the population in comparison with a set
time in the past. Many people now have an opportunity to improve their situation, whereas previously
they did not.
5 Significantly improved. Inequality has declined over a long period of time (1–5 years). People have equal
access to a stable economy including goods, services and infrastructure.
Indicators
The following indicators can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider population) has
reached level 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project activities and
targets, and monitor progress.
Ratio of income/consumption of the highest-earning group to the lowest-earning group
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 23
Percentage of households that own at least one of the following assets: radio, TV, telephone, bike,
motorbike or fridge – and do not own a car or tractor
Percentage of households that own at least one of the following assets: cattle, goats, sheep, pigs or poultry
Percentage of households whose houses have floors made of dirt, sand or dung
Percentage of households whose houses have roofs made of corrugated iron, concrete or tiles
Percentage of households with incomes below 50 per cent of average income (specify if the average is
national or local)
Wealth share of the top one per cent
Percentage of pregnant women with access to adequate health provision
Percentage of women who had secondary education and above
Percentage of women having paid work
The ratio of girls to boys per household aged between 6 and 13 who currently attend primary school
The ratio of girls to boys per household aged between 14 and 21 who are currently in education
Practical design suggestions
Ensure that the poorest and most vulnerable groups are involved in programme design and implementation.
A stakeholder analysis and participatory needs assessment should be carried out before programme design
starts, ensuring that women and other marginalised groups are included. Provide ongoing opportunities
for feedback.
A lady from Tanzania is sewing products for sale. A newly installed solar light (top right corner) allows her to work in the evening as
well. Photo: Sarah Edwards/Tearfund
24 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Impartiality
and targeting
Gender Empowerment Protection
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Personal
Relationships
Emotional and
mental health
Physical health Participation
and influence
Material assets
and resources
Capabilities
Social
connections
Society Politics Services Economy
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 25
ECONOMIC LONGTERM OUTCOME
3.4 Growth
The economy is working for the good of all (especially poor and excluded people), increasing work
opportunities, incomes and general well-being. Technology is more widely distributed.
There are two design principles related to this long-term outcome, as illustrated below:
DESIGN
PRINCIPLES
LONGTERM
OUTCOMES
1. Sustainable
resource manage-
ment is informed
by the best
available science
2. Decision-making
addresses long-
term impact on
the environment
and society
3. The ecosystem
is healthy, and
people have equal
access to its goods
and services
4. Environmental
shocks and stresses
are understood and
prepared for
5. Education
and income are
improving for
more people
6. Inequality
is decreasing
7. All people have
access to markets,
decent work and
economic stability
8. All people are
benefiting from
an infrastructure
based on low-
carbon technology
9. Material well-
being is steadily
improving,
and sustained
over time
10. Economic
resilience to shocks
and stresses is
built into policies
and practices
ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
1. Sustainable
resource
management
2. Socio-
ecological
balance
3. Equality and
participation 4. Growth 5. Stability
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
7. All people have access to markets, decent work and economic stability
Men and women, people with disabilities, youth, older people and people from all backgrounds have
access to a functioning market and can freely be workers, consumers or business owners as they wish.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community (or wider population) has reached
in relation to design principle 7, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. The economy is in a fragile or dangerous position. There are frequent job losses, failing
businesses, very few work opportunities and high unemployment, especially among vulnerable and
marginalised groups.
2 Deteriorating. The economy is in decline. There are some job losses, few work opportunities and under-
employment. A privileged elite shape or control economic systems.
3 Stabilised. The economy is growing slowly. Job and business opportunities are available and incomes are
increasing for some people. A larger proportion of the population can participate in economic activity.
26 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
4 Improved. The economy is improving enough to increase economic stability. Good job and work
opportunities are growing and incomes are increasing, with special provision for poor people. Economic
systems are fairer.
5 Significantly improved. The economy is growing steadily and production is sustainable. Incomes are
increasing for everyone including poor people. Economic systems are fair and are transforming and
stabilising for everyone’s benefit.
Indicators
The following indicators can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider population) has
reached level 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project activities and
targets, and monitor progress. (Please check specific indicators used for SDG 8 for reference.)
Has the median income increased or decreased in the last month, quarter or 12 months?
Has the percentage of people living above/below median income increased or decreased?
The types of market available and the strength of the market
The distance between the community and a functioning market
Percentage of working-age men and women in formal employment
Percentage of working-age men and women in informal employment
Level of personal expenditure versus income per month
Number of newly registered businesses annually per 1,000 people aged 15–64
Number of jobs available in comparison to last month, last quarter or 12 months (specify)
Percentage of working-age population in employment
Percentage of working people reporting they are satisfied with their jobs
Percentage of the population living below 1.25 USD in comparison with last month, last quarter or
12 months (specify)
Types of information and data available about markets
How this information and data is shared
Who produces the information and data
Who owns the information and data
Who has access to the information and data
How people access the information and data
Practical design suggestions
Carry out market assessments to better understand market conditions and potential. Tools to use include
value chain analysis and labour market assessment. Ensure that a gender analysis is done to better understand
barriers to women/youth participating in markets or accessing jobs.
As part of programme design it is important to map the wider services and inputs that affect business
development. Tools to use include market mapping/value chain analysis. The programme can try to address
specific market failures, or link with policy and advocacy work to address constraints.
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 27
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Behaviours Impartiality
and targeting
Gender Empowerment Protection
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Emotional and
mental health
Physical health Participation
and influence
Material assets
and resources
Capabilities
Institutions Law Society Technology Services Economy
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
8. All people are benefiting from an infrastructure based on
low-carbon technology
People have access to sustainable technology infrastructure and are benefiting from it.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community (or wider population) has reached
in relation to design principle 8, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. Technology is absent or is an economic burden on the community. No action is being taken to
use or develop low-carbon technology.
2 Deteriorating. A few people have access to economically productive technology. Technology is limited to
one or two items (such as a mobile phone) but the community is generally isolated from new or low-
carbon technology.
3 Stabilised. Technology is welcomed but not widely distributed in the community. It is likely that those who
have access to it experience greater well-being. Some technology is low-carbon.
4 Improved. Technology is more widely distributed and promotes greater individual and community well-
being, as well as economic growth. Use of low-carbon technology is increasing.
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
28 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
5 Significantly improved. Technology is driving new economic growth and providing new opportunities for
many sections of society. There is wide use of low-carbon technology, with plans to develop it further.
Indicators
These indicators can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider population) has reached level
1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project activities and targets, and
monitor progress.
Percentage of radio access
Percentage of television set access
Percentage of mobile phone access
Percentage of internet access
Percentage of households adopting new technologies such as solar, wind power, biogas digesters,
small-scale hydro etc
Percentage of population using technology to generate jobs
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Impartiality
and targeting
Accountability Gender Empowerment Resilience Technical quality
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Physical health Participation
and influence
Stewardship of
the environment
Material assets
and resources
Capabilities
Institutions Law Technology Services Economy
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 29
ECONOMIC LONGTERM OUTCOME
3.5 Stability
Individuals, communities, businesses and governments are confident about the future and can invest in
or save for it. Economic systems are increasingly resilient to shocks and stresses, especially those that
hit the poorest hardest.
There are two design principles related to this long-term outcome, as illustrated below:
DESIGN
PRINCIPLES
LONGTERM
OUTCOMES
1. Sustainable
resource manage-
ment is informed
by the best
available science
2. Decision-making
addresses long-
term impact on
the environment
and society
3. The ecosystem
is healthy, and
people have equal
access to its goods
and services
4. Environmental
shocks and stresses
are understood and
prepared for
5. Education
and income are
improving for
more people
6. Inequality
is decreasing
7. All people have
access to markets,
decent work and
economic stability
8. All people are
benefiting from
an infrastructure
based on low-
carbon technology
9. Material well-
being is steadily
improving,
and sustained
over time
10. Economic
resilience to shocks
and stresses is
built into policies
and practices
ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY
1. Sustainable
resource
management
2. Socio-
ecological
balance
3. Equality and
participation 4. Growth 5. Stability
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
9. Material well-being is steadily improving, and sustained over time
People own land, pasture, money and other financial assets that increase their level of well-being.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community (or wider population) has reached
in relation to design principle 9, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. There is a general lack of understanding or awareness about how to improve people’s lives and
sustain their living standards. People cannot invest or save for the future.
2 Deteriorating. There is little understanding about the need for economic growth to go hand-in-hand with
other measures such as a healthy environment, education etc. Some people are able to invest or save for
the future.
3 Stabilised. It is understood that material well-being is an important aspect of economic growth. A savings
culture is beginning in the community.
30 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
4 Improved. Material well-being is increasingly seen as an important aspect of economic growth. A
significant proportion of the population are able to invest or save, although most poor people cannot.
5 Significantly improved. Economic growth is measured by GDP along with other aspects of well-being. All
of society can invest and save for their future, including poor and vulnerable people.
Indicators
These indicators can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider population) has reached level
1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project activities and targets, and
monitor progress.
Life expectancy at birth
Percentage of households that have proof of ownership or tenancy of, or access to:
their own home
their own land
their own pasture
Percentage of households that have gone without either food, medicine or education over the last 12
months due to lack of funds
Percentage of households that were able to save some money in the last week
Percentage of the population above a minimum level of dietary energy consumption and sustained over a
specific period
Percentage of the population using informal financial services eg private money lender
Percentage of the population using formal financial services eg bank
Percentage of the population aged 15+ who have borrowed from a financial institution
Country Policy and Institutional Assessments property rights and rule-based governance rating eg land bill
Percentage of the population with access to insurance services
Level of internal conflict (Please check online for International Country Risk Guide rating.4).
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Gender Empowerment Resilience
4 https://www.prsgroup.com/explore-our-products/international-country-risk-guide/
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 31
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Material assets
and resources
Capabilities
Institutions Law Environment Economy
DESIGN PRINCIPLE
10. Economic resilience to shocks and stresses is built into policies
and practices
Economic systems are increasingly resistant to shocks and stresses, especially those most
affecting poor and vulnerable communities.
The grading scale
The following grading scale can be used to decide what stage a community (or wider population) has reached
in relation to design principle 10, and to design project activities and targets, and monitor progress:
1 Very bad. Economic systems are fragile or non-existent. There are no policies or resources at any level to
support community-based disaster risk management. Household incomes are totally unable to cope with
shocks and stresses.
2 Deteriorating. The economy is gaining in size and formality but a privileged elite shapes or controls
it. There are very few, if any, local or national policies or resources for community-based disaster risk
management. Household incomes are vulnerable to shocks and stresses and unable to recover from them.
3 Stabilised. Economic systems mainly benefit the elite, but there is economic growth and more people
are able to participate in economic activity. There is some focus on, and resources for, community-based
disaster risk management at local/national level. Some household incomes are able to cope with shocks
and stresses.
4 Improved. Economic systems are being challenged to distribute benefits more widely. Local and national
policies are being developed and more funds allocated to community-based disaster risk management. An
increasing number of household incomes are able to cope with and recover from shocks and stresses.
5 Significantly improved. Economic systems are stabilising and transforming for everyone’s benefit,
including poor communities. Local and national policies are in place for community-based disaster risk
management, as well as a good level of funding. Most household incomes are able to cope with and
recover from shocks and stresses.
Indicators
The following indicators can be used to help work out whether a community (or wider population) has
reached level 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 on the grading scale. They can also be used to help design project activities and
targets, and monitor progress.
Percentage of people living below 1.25 USD per day
Has the median income increased or decreased in the last month, quarter or 12 months?
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
32 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Has the percentage of people living above/below the median income increased or decreased?
Quantity/quality of disaster risk management policies in place at local and national levels
Level of finance allocated to community-based disaster risk management locally and nationally
Number of households with savings and insurance in place
Connections with Sustainable Development Goals
Connections with Tearfund Quality Standards
Behaviours Empowerment Resilience Protection
Connections with Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
Emotional and
mental health
Stewardship of
the environment
Capabilities Social
connections
Institutions Law Environment Services
DOMAIN
CONTEXT
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 33
APPENDIX 1: EXAMPLES FROM
THE FIELD TESTING
Two examples are given here to demonstrate:
1. An EES baseline assessment
2. A preliminary EES assessment of a project that had recently started.
Example of an EES baseline assessment
The following table, with figure 5 (spider diagram) below it, is a baseline assessment from Tanzania. At the end
of each qualitative description, see the grading out of 5 against the design principles. For example, ‘2 out of 5’
for ‘Sustainable resource management is informed by the best available science’.
EES long-term
outcomes Design principles Tanzania: Pamoja self-help groups
ENVIRONMENTAL
1. Sustainable
resource
management
1. Sustainable
resource
management is
informed by the best
available science
Deforestation from over-exploitation of fuelwood has denuded the
landscape of firewood-bearing trees; the land is now dominated by
one tree – Baobabs. Although many of the perceived changes are
superstitious and not scientific, awareness of the causes and effects of
climatic changes is increasing.
Baseline assessment: (2 out of 5)
Target/change: (3 out of 5)
2. Decision-making
addresses long-
term impact on
the environment
and society
There is not significant change in mindset and awareness to save
and think about the future. Largely superstitious and uneducated,
but increasingly aware and concerned. Destructive past recognised
and negative consequences starting to be understood eg the use of
firewood. Shifts in awareness and motivation, however, feeling too late
to save traditional woodlots and allow for natural regeneration. Floral
restoration, if at all possible, especially with limited water, is likely to
take decades. Community recognising value of water and what they
have lost but no plan to secure. The community recognise (and regret)
what they have lost, particularly in the value of trees and old (higher)
water-table levels.
Baseline assessment: (1.5 out of 5)
Target/change: (4 out of 5)
ENVIRONMENTAL
2. Socio-
ecological
balance
3. The ecosystem is
healthy, and people
have equal access to
its goods and services
Equal, but poor acccess. The goods and services communities can
gain from such an altered and damaged environment are signifi cantly
reduced as a consequence of changed conditions – lack of water
security, lowering water tables, less and more variable rainfall.
Baseline assessment: (1 out of 5)
Target/change: (3 out of 5)
4. Environmental
shocks and stresses
are understood and
prepared for
Very vulnerable to rainfall variability. Changes in rainfall, vegetation
type, diversity and density, together with a lowering water table,
indicate a significantly degraded ecosystem. However, they have no
internal plan to secure their future against the impacts of local and
immediate environmental changes – characterised by a lack of water
and food security, lowering water tables, less and more variable rainfall.
Baseline assessment: (1 out of 5)
Target/change: (3 out of 5)
34 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
ECONOMIC
3. Equality and
participation
5. Education and
income are improving
for more people
Very little improvement. However, self-help community savings
(Pamoja) groups provide men and women (who have been saving)
opportunity for investment in improved livelihoods.
Baseline assessment: (1 out of 5)
Target/change: (2.3 out of 5)
6. Inequality is
decreasing
Equally poor: a few examples of economic benefit from investment
through Pamoja loans for isolated individuals. However, the principle
of Pamoja indicates that such positive outcomes can also benefit
vulnerable people in a community.
Baseline assessment: (1 out of 5)
Target/change: (2.5 out of 5)
4. Growth 7. All people have
access to markets,
decent work and
economic stability
Very limited market information available, reflecting inherent
weakness. Very few and largely informal jobs, but there are potential
opportunities in the solar industry (solar kit retail).
Baseline assessment: (1 out of 5)
Target/change: (3 out of 5)
8. All people are
benefiting from an
infrastructure based
on low-carbon
technology
There is demand in the Tanzanian market for renewable solutions
to electrification in off-grid rural areas, even in poorer areas such as
Manyoni. This would benefit poorer people in the communities very
little without the ability to save to invest in solar kits, making the
Pamoja groups’ target an appropriate goal for savings. Government is
encouraging off-grid solar for areas such as parts of Manyoni that are
too far from the central grid.
Baseline assessment: (1 out of 5)
Target/change: (2.5 out of 5)
5. Stability 9. Material well-being
is steadily improving,
and sustained
over time
Limited but positive testimonies by a few Pamoja people who have
experienced improvements. Pamoja groups have greater ability to
spend on what is important and valued. Significant awareness-building
campaign targeting changes in mindset to save and think about
the future.
Baseline assessment: (1.5 out of 5)
Target/change: (3.5 out of 5)
10. Economic
resilience to shocks
and stresses is
built into policies
and practices
Limited but incremental steps are being taken with potential for
greater resilience for vulnerable people, and general micro-economic
transformation. Very difficult to predict what/when to plant as rains
unreliable. Need savings. Pamoja groups have greater buffering
capacity against economic shocks. Not all Pamoja members are saving
in order to purchase solar, with members citing goals of farming
inputs, school fees, business expansion/inputs and health as core
saving priorities.
Baseline assessment: (1.5 out of 5)
Target/change: (3.2 out of 5)
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 35
Figure 5 Spider diagram (Tanzania)
1
0
2
3
4
5
1. Sustainable resource
management is informed by
the best available science 2. Decision-making addresses
long-term impact on the
environment and society
3. The ecosystem is
healthy, and people
have equal access to
its goods and services
4. Environmental
shocks and stresses
are understood and
prepared for
5. Education and income are
improving for more people
6. Inequality is decreasing
7. All people have access to
markets, decent work and
economic stability
8. All people are
benefiting from an
infrastructure based
on low-carbon
technology
9. Material
well-being is steadily
improving, and
sustained over time
10. Economic resilience to
shocks and stresses is built
into policies and practices
Target/change Baseline
36 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Example of a preliminary assessment of an ongoing project
The following information is from a recycling and waste management project in Pakistan:
EES long-term
outcomes Design principles Pakistan recycling and waste management project summary
ENVIRONMENTAL
1. Sustainable
resource
management
1. Sustainable
resource
management is
informed by the best
available science
Generally – from a technical and project-design perspective. More
knowledge could support occupational health. Strongly emphasised
and central focus with growing awareness of dangers of a damaged and
unhealthy environment.
Rating at the assessment: (3.5 out of 5)
2. Decision-making
addresses long-
term impact on
the environment
and society
Strongly emphasised and central focus of project and internalised at
multiple levels of implementation. A central focus and growing trend of
shifting values in community to care for environment.
Rating at the assessment: (4 out of 5)
ENVIRONMENTAL
2. Socio-
ecological
balance
3. The ecosystem is
healthy, and people
have equal access to
its goods and services
Significant improvements made to date, with more planned.
Rating at the assessment: (3 out of 5)
4. Environmental
shocks and stresses
are understood and
prepared for
Incorporated as a secondary outcome (floods and fires reduced).
Rating at the assessment: (3 out of 5)
ECONOMIC
3. Equality and
participation
5. Education and
income are improving
for more people
Platform established and modelled for those employed.
Opportunities for supplementary income from waste.
Rating at the assessment: (4.5 out of 5)
6. Inequality
is decreasing
For those employed, and opportunities available for general
supplementary income from household organic waste. Baseline
indicates very poor access to public service of waste collection for poor;
intervention is redistributive and restorative.
Rating at the assessment: (3.5 out of 5)
4. Growth 7. All people have
access to markets,
decent work and
economic stability
Growing knowledge of market value for waste. Market intelligence
is being explored and developed particularly for beneficiation of
waste types.
Rating at the assessment: (4 out of 5)
8. All people are
benefiting from an
infrastructure based
on low-carbon
technology
Technology is appropriate to context. Variety of technologies employed
at multiple levels in value chain.
Rating at the assessment: (4 out of 5)
5. Stability 9. Material well-being
is steadily improving,
and sustained
over time
Material well-being is significantly and incrementally improved for
those involved in hubs.
Rating at the assessment: (4 out of 5)
10. Economic
resilience to shocks
and stresses is
built into policies
and practices
Strongly emphasised and central focus but limited impact to date at
scale that is expected. Stable and secure jobs provided. Security of flow
of waste currently established but will need revision in time. Initial
steps towards sustainability being made.
Rating at the assessment: (3.5 out of 5)
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 37
APPENDIX 2: EES PRINCIPLES AND
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS
Figure 6 provides examples of how the ten EES design principles link with the UN Sustainable Development
Goals (SDGs).
Figure 6 EES principles and the SDGs
EES general
design principles Relevant SDG targets
ENVIRONMENTAL
1. Sustainable resource
management is informed by
the best available science
2. Decision-making addresses
long-term impact on the
environment and society
3. The ecosystem is healthy,
and people have equal access
to its goods and services
4. Environmental shocks and
stresses are understood and
prepared for
ECONOMIC
5. Education and income are
improving for more people
6. Inequality is decreasing
7. All people have access to
markets, decent work and
economic stability
8. All people are benefiting
from an infrastructure based
on low-carbon technology
9. Material well-being is
steadily improving, and
sustained over time
10. Economic resilience to
shocks and stresses is built
into policies and practices
38 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Figure 7 The Sustainable Development Goals
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 39
APPENDIX 3: EES PRINCIPLES AND
TEARFUND QUALITY STANDARDS
Figure 7 provides examples of how the ten EES design principles link with Tearfund’s Quality Standards.
Figure 8 EES principles and Tearfund’s Quality Standards
Behaviours
Impartiality
& Targeting
Accountability
Gender
Empowerment
Resilience
Protection
Technical
quality
EES general
design principles
ENVIRONMENTAL
1. Sustainable resource
management is informed by
the best available science
• •
2. Decision-making addresses
long-term impact on the
environment and society
• •
3. The ecosystem is healthy,
and people have equal access
to its goods and services
•••••••
4. Environmental shocks and
stresses are understood and
prepared for
• • •
ECONOMIC
5. Education and income are
improving for more people ••••
6. Inequality is decreasing • • • •
7. All people have access to
markets, decent work and
economic stability
• • • •
8. All people are benefiting
from an infrastructure based
on low-carbon technology
••••• •
9. Material well-being is
steadily improving, and
sustained over time
•••
10. Economic resilience to
shocks and stresses is built
into policies and practices
• • •
40
Tearfund’s Quality Standards
Tearfund aims to work to the highest possible standards with integrity and transparency. We have identified a
set of corporate Quality Standards in support of our vision and the delivery of our strategy, which are in keeping
with the organisational characteristics we aspire to and which summarise all of the relevant external and internal
accountability and Quality Standards, codes, guidelines and principles to which we are committed:
Our Quality Standards are embedded within our core values. We bear witness to the coming kingdom in who
we are, what we say and do and the way we do it, as we work towards whole-life transformation. This starts
with outworking our core values, being Christ-centred, servant-hearted, compassionate, courageous and
truthful. The way each of our Quality Standards are outworked should demonstrate these core values.
Behaviours
We expect the highest standards of behaviour across all of our work. We stand against all forms of exploitation,
abuse, fraud, bribery and any other behaviour that is incompatible with our values. We strive to transfer power
to the people we serve; to transform our own, our partners’ and communities’ attitudes and practices on
inclusion, conflict sensitivity, accountability, gender and learning.
Impartiality and targeting
We are committed to impartiality, providing assistance to the most vulnerable without regard for race,
religion, ethnicity, ability, age, gender, sexuality or nationality. We target our work on the basis of need alone
while remaining sensitive to conflict dynamics, and pro-actively work to support those who would otherwise
be marginalised or excluded, in particular children, the elderly and those living with disability.
Accountability
We are committed to ensuring that all our work is based upon effective communication with, participation
of and feedback from the communities we serve. It is important that all interventions are transparent and
based upon continuous learning. We also hold ourselves accountable to our partners, donors, supporters and
colleagues, and to all those with whom we relate and interact.
Gender
In all our programmes we actively seek to challenge gender inequality, harmful beliefs and practices, and work
towards gender justice. We are committed to progressing gender equality, the restoration of relationships
between men and women, boys and girls, and ensuring their equal value, participation, and decision-making in
all aspects of life.
Empowerment
We are committed to community-led and participatory approaches to development and humanitarian
response for sustainable impact that is based on root cause analysis. We encourage participation from all
members of a community, and strive to support beneficiaries to have control over their own development at all
levels, from local development activities through to local, national and regional advocacy.
Resilience
We are committed to helping people understand, reduce and manage the risks they face as well as to address
the drivers of vulnerability. This includes supporting people and communities in developing resilient livelihoods,
strengthening social cohesion, improving access to services, stewarding environmental resources, reducing
disaster risk and adapting to climate change.
Protection
We are committed to restoring relationships and building safe and secure communities. We seek to prioritise the
protection of all – especially children and the most marginalised and vulnerable adults – from physical, social and
psychological harm. We will take steps to assess risks, including conflict dynamics, to avoid any adverse effects of
our work that might expose people to danger or lead to abuse. We believe that community members are the best
actors in their own protection and will support their actions to stay safe, find security and restore dignity.
Technical quality
We are committed to the high technical quality of all of our work, and the work of partners, through meeting
relevant national and international standards aligned with communities’ own priorities. We will continuously learn
to improve and identify and replicate good practice that is demonstrated to have relevant and positive impact.
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 41
APPENDIX 4: EES PRINCIPLES
AND THE LIGHT WHEEL
Figure 9 EES long-term outcomes and Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel domains/context
EES long-term outcomes The LIGHT Wheel domains The LIGHT Wheel context
1. Sustainable resource
management
Participation and influence
Stewardship of the environment
Capabilities
Institutions
Law
Environment
Technology
Politics
Economy
2. Socio-ecological balance Emotional and mental health
Stewardship of the environment
Material assets and resources
Living faith
Social connections
Environment
Technology
Politics
Services
Security
Economy
3. Equality and participation Personal relationships
Emotional and mental health
Physical health
Participation and influence
Material assets and resources
Capabilities
Social connections
Society
Technology
Politics
Services
Economy
4. Growth Emotional and mental health
Physical health
Participation and influence
Stewardship of the environment
Material assets and resources
Capabilities
Institutions
Law
Society
Technology
Services
Economy
5. Stability Emotional and mental health
Stewardship of the environment
Capabilities
Material assets and resources
Social connections
Institutions
Law
Environment
Services
Economy
42 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
The LIGHT Wheel was developed by Tearfund’s Impact and Effectiveness team, influenced by the University
of Bath’s (UK) work on well-being. It provides a framework with nine different domains, which forms
our definition of whole-life transformation. Each domain, represented as the nine ‘spokes’ of the Wheel,
represents one aspect of what it means to flourish and be resilient.
As the wheel analogy illustrates, all of these areas are inter-connected – just as they are in the life of
any human being. By considering each spoke of the LIGHT Wheel, a holistic view can be taken that can
help us outwork integral mission and to bring about whole-life transformation through the restoration
of relationships.
Throughout this EES guide we have included references that indicate how each design principle relates to
the LIGHT Wheel. This shows how the principles of environmental and economic sustainability play an
important part in bringing whole-life transformation to the communities we serve.
The LIGHT Wheel also contains a number of data collection tools that help us to plan, measure
and assess our contribution to holistic transformation. You can request a copy of the LIGHT Wheel
toolkit by emailing lightwheel.support@tearfund.org or download it by visiting Tearfund Learn at
learn.tearfund.org/lightwheel
Figure 10 Tearfund’s LIGHT Wheel
CONTEXT
SOCIETYINSTITUTIONS LAW SERVICESENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGY POLITICS SECURITY ECONOMY
Flourishing individuals
and communities
SOCIAL
CONNECTIONS
PERSONAL
RELATIONSHIPS
EMOTIONAL AND
MENTAL HEALTH
PHYSICAL HEALTH
LIVING FAITH
CAPABILITIES
MATERIAL ASSETS
AND RESOURCES
PARTICIPATION
AND INFLUENCE
STEWARDSHIP OF
THE ENVIRONMENT
DOMAINS
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 43
44 BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING)
BUILDING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE (FOR FIELD TESTING) 45
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For the creation waits in eager
expectation for the children of God
to be revealed. For the creation was
subjected to frustration, not by its own
choice, but by the will of the one who
subjected it, in hope that the creation
itself will be liberated from its bondage
to decay and brought into the freedom
and glory of the children of God.
ROMANS 8:1921
Our desire is not that others might be
relieved while you are hard pressed,
but that there might be equality.
At the present time your plenty will
supply what they need, so that in turn
their plenty will supply what you need.
The goal is equality, as it is written:
‘The one who gathered much did not
have too much, and the one who
gathered little did not have too little.’
2 CORINTHIANS 8:1315
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