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Deep Residual Neural Networks for Audio Spoofing Detection


Abstract and Figures

The state-of-art models for speech synthesis and voice conversion are capable of generating synthetic speech that is perceptually indistinguishable from bonafide human speech. These methods represent a threat to the automatic speaker verification (ASV) systems. Additionally, replay attacks where the attacker uses a speaker to replay a previously recorded genuine human speech are also possible. We present our solution for the ASVSpoof2019 competition, which aims to develop countermeasure systems that distinguish between spoofing attacks and genuine speeches. Our model is inspired by the success of residual convolutional networks in many classification tasks. We build three variants of a residual convolutional neural network that accept different feature representations (MFCC, Log-magnitude STFT, and CQCC) of input. We compare the performance achieved by our model variants and the competition baseline models. In the logical access scenario, the fusion of our models has zero t-DCF cost and zero equal error rate (EER), as evaluated on the development set. On the evaluation set, our model fusion improves the t-DCF and EER by 25% compared to the baseline algorithms. Against physical access replay attacks, our model fusion improves the baseline algorithms t-DCF and EER scores by 71% and 75% on the evaluation set, respectively.
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Deep Residual Neural Networks for Audio Spoofing Detection
Moustafa Alzantot1, Ziqi Wang2, Mani B. Srivastava1,2
1Department of Computer Science, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, UCLA, Los Angeles, USA,,
The state-of-art models for speech synthesis and voice conver-
sion are capable of generating synthetic speech that is percep-
tually indistinguishable from bonafide human speech. These
methods represent a threat to the automatic speaker verification
(ASV) systems. Additionally, replay attacks where the attacker
uses a speaker to replay a previously recorded genuine human
speech are also possible. In this paper, we present our solu-
tion for the ASVSpoof2019 competition, which aims to develop
countermeasure systems that distinguish between spoofing at-
tacks and genuine speeches. Our model is inspired by the suc-
cess of residual convolutional networks in many classification
tasks. We build three variants of a residual convolutional neural
network that accept different feature representations (MFCC,
log-magnitude STFT, and CQCC) of input. We compare the
performance achieved by our model variants and the competi-
tion baseline models. In the logical access scenario, the fusion
of our models has zero t-DCF cost and zero equal error rate
(EER), as evaluated on the development set. On the evaluation
set, our model fusion improves the t-DCF and EER by 25%
compared to the baseline algorithms. Against physical access
replay attacks, our model fusion improves the baseline algo-
rithms t-DCF and EER scores by 71% and 75% on the evalua-
tion set, respectively.
Index Terms: ASVSpoof, Deep Learning, Spoofing Detection,
Replay Attacks, Automatic Speaker Verification.
1. Introduction
Over the past decade, voice control has gained popularity as
a practical and comfortable interface between users and smart
devices. Due to the security and privacy sensitive nature of
many applications (e.g., banking, health, and smart home) run-
ning on these devices, automatic speaker verification (ASV) [1]
techniques have emerged as a form of biometric identification
of the speaker. However, ASV systems are threatened by re-
play [2] and audio spoofing attacks where an attacker utilizes
techniques such as voice conversion (VC) or speech synthe-
sis (SS) to gain illegitimate control over user devices. Speech
synthesis [3, 4, 5] and voice conversion [6, 7] have also pro-
gressed a lot over the past decade reaching the point where it
has become very challenging to differentiate between their re-
sults and genuine users’ speech. To enhance reliability against
attacks, we combine ASV systems with audio spoofing detec-
tion systems that compute countermeasure scores to distinguish
between spoofed and bonafide (genuine) speech. The auto-
matic speaker verification spoofing and countermeasure chal-
lenge (ASVSpoof [1, 8, 2, 9]) competitions have emerged to
assess the state-of-art methods for spoofing detection and pro-
mote further research in this critical challenge.
* First and second author contributed equally to this work.
The first edition of the competition, ASVSpoof2015[8], fo-
cused on logical access scenarios where the attacker is using
text-to-speech (TTS) [3, 7, 4] and voice conversion (VC) [6, 7]
algorithms. The second edition of ASVSpoof competition,
ASVSpoof2017 [2], focused on the physical access scenario
where the attacker is performing replay attack by recording the
genuine speech and then replay it to deceive the ASV system.
The new edition of the competition, ASVSpoof2019 [9], ex-
tends the previous versions in several directions. First, it con-
siders all three major forms of attacks: SS, VC, and replay at-
tacks. Besides, the latest and strongest spoof algorithms are
used to generate more natural counterexamples for spoof detec-
tion systems. Finally, while the previous competitions used the
equal error rate (EER) as an evaluation metric, ASVSpoof 2019
adopts a newly proposed tandem decision cost function (t-DCF)
as its primary metric and leaves EER as a secondary metric.
In this paper, we present our models submitted for the
ASVSpoof2019 competition [9]. Inspired by the success of
deep neural networks in many tasks [10, 11, 12], we pick a
deep neural model as our model family. Among deep neural
networks, convolutional networks have been the most success-
ful in image classification [11], and have been recently applied
to other data modalities such as Speech [13, 10], text [14] and
ECG signals [15]. We consider different feature extraction algo-
rithms to convert the input (raw time-domain speech waveform)
into a 2D feature representation. That 2D feature representation
is fed as an input into our convolutional model. A practical
challenge in training very deep (consisting of many layers) con-
volutional networks is vanishing gradients that makes it hard
for lower-layers (closer to input) to receive useful update sig-
nals during the training [16]. To overcome this issue, [16] re-
cently proposed an effective solution called residual networks
which employ skip connections that act as shortcuts allowing
training updates to back-propagate faster towards the lower lay-
ers during training. Therefore, we also consider adding residual
links to improve and stabilize the training of our models. A de-
tailed description of our model architecture is provided in Sec-
tion 3.2. Finally, we show how the fusion of countermeasure
(CM) scores produced by models trained on different features
help to increase the accuracy of the spoofing detection.
Our contribution in this paper is threefold. First, we design
and implement a deep residual convolutional network to per-
form audio spoofing detection. Our models are released as open
source1. Second, we provide a comparison between the perfor-
mance of three different feature extraction algorithms (MFCC,
log-magnitude STFT, and CQCC). Third, we evaluate the per-
formance of our residual network with varying choices of in-
put features against the two attack scenarios of ASVSpoof2019
(logical access, and physical access) using both the develop-
ment (including only known attacks) and evaluation datasets
(including both known and unknown attacks).
Copyright © 2019 ISCA
September 15–19, 2019, Graz, Austria
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 pro-
vides a summary of related work. Section 3.1 describes the fea-
ture extraction module of the system. Section 3.2 then describes
our model architecture design and implementation. Section 4
includes our experiment results. Finally, Section 5 concludes
the paper and points the future directions.
2. Related Work
While the participants of the previous ASVspoof2015 [8]
have built several powerful solutions against audio spoof-
ing, the state-of-the-art of audio spoofing techniques, e.g.,
TTS [3, 7] and VC [17], has also progressed a lot over the past
four years. Likewise, this year’s competition ASVSpoof2019
has a more realistic dataset for replay attacks compared to
ASVSpoof2017 [2]. Prominent previous approaches against
logical access attacks include [18] which used spectral-log-
filter-bank and relative phase shift features as input to a model
combining a deep neural network with support vector machine
(SVM) classifier. [19] proposed using a DNN to compute a
representative spoofing vector (s-vector). Then it uses normal-
ized Mahalanobis distance between the s-vector and the class
representative vector to calculate countermeasure scores. [20]
uses relative phase information and group delay feature to train
a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) for detecting spoofing at-
tacks. Against replay attacks, [21] have previously developed a
deep learning model combining both CNN and RNN that lead
to 6.73% EER on the ASVSpoof2017 evaluation dataset. In
ASVSpoof2017, [22] also used a residual convolutional net-
work, but with different an architecture and input features, to
obtain 13.44% EER on the eval set.
3. Model Design
The goal of ASVspoof challenge is to compute a counter-
measure (CM) score for each input audio file. A high CM score
indicates a bonafide speech, and a low CM score indicates a
spoofing attack. We created a deep residual network that per-
forms binary classification. To prepare the features as the con-
volutional network inputs, we process the raw audio waveform
first a by a feature extraction step which we will discuss in the
next section.
3.1. Feature Extraction
We prepare features from raw audio waveform by one of
the following feature extraction algorithms: the Mel-Frequency
Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs), the Constant Q Cepstral Coeffi-
cients(CQCCs), and the Logarithmic Magnitude of Short-Time
Fourier Transform(log-magnitude STFT).
Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs): MFCC
is a widely used feature for speech recognition and other ap-
plications like music genre classification. MFCC is achieved
by computing the short-time-Fourier-transform (STFT), then
mapping the spectrum into Mel-Spectrum through a filter
bank, and finally calculating a discrete cosine transform(DCT).
We pick the first 24 coefficients. We also find the perfor-
mance can be improved if we concatenate the MFCC with
its first-order M F CC and second derivative 2M F CC
to produce our feature representation which is a 2D matrix
whose xaxis is the time and yaxis is the 72 elements of
(M F CC, M F C C, 2M F CC ). This improvement is be-
cause derivatives of MFCC capture the dynamics in cepstral co-
Constant Q Cepstral Coefficients(CQCCs): Instead of
using STFT, the CQCC uses constant-Q transform(CQT) which
was initially proposed for music processing. While STFT im-
poses a regularly spaced frequency bins, the CQT uses geomet-
rically spaced frequency bins. Thus, it offers a higher frequency
resolution at lower frequencies and higher temporal resolution
at higher frequencies. To compute CQCC, after applying CQT,
we calculate a power spectrum and take a logarithm. Then a
uniform re-sampling is performed, followed by a DCT to get
the CQCCs(which is also a 2D matrix). More details of CQCC
can be found in [23].
Logarithmic Magnitude of STFT: An advantage of deep
learning models is their capabilities of representation learn-
ing [24, 25] by automatically learning high-level features from
raw input data. This ability has led to neural models which
process raw input images to outperform models dealing with
human-engineered features. Inspired by this, we also train mod-
els with the log magnitude of STFT as the input. We first com-
pute the STFT on hamming windows (window size = 2048 with
25% overlap). Then we calculate the magnitude of each com-
ponent and convert it to log scale. The output matrix captures
the time-frequency characteristics of the input audio waveform
and is fed directly as an input to our neural model without any
further transformations or conversions. While this input rep-
resentation is rawer than either MFCC or CQCC, we rely on
the representation learning abilities of neural networks to trans-
form this input into higher-level representations within the hid-
den layers of our model.
3.2. Model Architecture
We build three different models variants MFCC-ResNet,
CQCC-ResNet, and Spec-ResNet which process MFCC,
CQCC and log-magnitude STFT (which turns out to be a spec-
trogram) input features, respectively. The three variants have a
nearly identical architecture, but they differ from each other in
the input shape to accommodate the differences in the dimen-
sions of input features, and consequentially also the number of
units in the first fully connected layer which is after the last
residual block, as we will explain later.
Figure 1 shows the architecture of the Spec-ResNet
model which takes the log-magnitude STFT as input features.
First, the input is treated as a single channel image and passed
through a 2D convolution layer with 32 filters, where filter size
=3×3, stride length = 1 and padding = 1. The output vol-
ume of the first convolution layer has 32 channels and is passed
through a sequence of 6 residual blocks. The output from the
last residual block is fed into a dropout layer [26] (with dropout
rate = 50%) followed by a hidden fully connected (FC) layer
with leaky-ReLU [27] activation function (α= 0.01). Outputs
from the hidden FC layer are fed into another FC layer with two
units that produce classification logits. The logits are finally
converted into a probability distribution using a final softmax
The structure of a residual block is shown in Figure 2. Each
residual block has a Conv2D layer (32 filters, filter size = 3×3,
stride = 1, padding = 1) followed by a batch normalization
layer [28], a leaky-ReLU activation layer [27], a dropout (with
dropout probability = 0.5) [26], and another final Conv2D layer
(also 32 filters and filter size = 3×3, but with stride = 3 and
padding = 1). Dropout is used as a regularizer to reduce the
model overfitting, and batch normalization [28] accelerates the
network training progress. A skip-through connection is estab-
lished by directly add the inputs to the outputs. To guarantee
that the dimension agrees, we apply a Conv2D layer (32 fil-
Dropout (0.5)
Fully Connected (N)
LeakyReLU (0.01)
Fully Connected (2)
Conv2D(32, 3x3, 1, 1)
Block 1
Block 2
Block 3
Block 4
Block 5
Block 6
Figure 1: Model architecture for the Spec-ResNet model. Detailed structure of residual blocks is shown in 2.
Figure 2: Detailed architecture of the convolution block with
residual connection.
ters, filter size = 3×3, stride = 3, padding = 1) on the bypass
route. Finally, batch normalization [28] and leaky-ReLU non-
linearlity are used to produce the residual block output.
All models are trained by minimizing a weighted cross-
entropy loss function where the ratio of between weights as-
signed to genuine and spoofed examples are 9:1, in order to
mitigate the imbalance in the training data distribution. The cost
function is minimized using Adam optimizer [29] with learning
rate = 5×105for 200 epochs with batch size = 32. After each
epoch we save the model parameters, and we finally use the pa-
rameters with the best performance on the validation dataset.
The final countermeasure score (CM) is computed from the
softmax outputs using the log-likelihood ratio.
CM (s) = log(p(bona fide|s;θ)) log(p(spoof|s;θ))
where sis the given audio file and θrepresents the model pa-
4. Evaluation
We implemented our neural network model using Py-
Torch [30] and trained our models using a desktop machine
with TitanX GPU. Feature extraction was done using the
librosa [31] python library.2.
4.1. Dataset and Baseline Models
The competition organizers provide a dataset of non-
overlapping short audio files for each competition track. The
bonafide voice clips come from 78 human (male and female)
speakers. The dataset is divided into three partitions with dis-
joint sets of speakers: training (8 male, 12 female), develop-
ment (4 male, 6 female), and evaluation (21 male, 27 female).
The spoofed audio in the logical access scenario is generated
using 17 different speech synthesis and voice conversion toolk-
its. Six of these attack types are considered known attacks
and are used to generate the training and development datasets
2For the CQCC for which we used the MatLab code provided by
competition organizers
while the other 11 attacks are considered unknown and are used,
along with two of the known attacks, to generate the evalua-
tion dataset. For physical access scenario, replay attacks are
recorded and replayed in the 27 different acoustic configura-
tions and nine different settings (combinations of three cate-
gories of recording distance and three levels of replay device
quality) [9]. Evaluation data for the physical access are gener-
ated from different impulse responses and therefore represents
unknown attacks.
Baseline Models : For each track of the competition, the orga-
nizers have provided implementations for two baseline models
which are using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) [32, 33]
using the Linear Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (LFCC) and
CQCC features.
4.2. Evaluation Metrics
The evaluation scores are computed using the following
metrics on both the development dataset (known attacks) and
evaluation dataset (both known and unknown attacks):
t-DCF [34]: the tandem detection cost function is the new pri-
mary metric in the ASVSpoof 2019 challenge. It was proposed
as a reliable scoring metric to evaluate the combined perfor-
mance of ASV and CMs.
EER: the Equal Error Rate is used as a secondary metric. EER
is determined by the point at which the miss (false negative) rate
and false alarm (false positive) rate are equal to each other.
4.3. Results
Table 1 shows a comparison between the scores of
our three model variants (MFCC-Resnet,Spec-ResNet,
CQCC-ResNet) and the baseline algorithms (LFCC-GMM, and
CQCC-GMM) on both the development and evaluation datatsets.
Fusion represents the result of doing weighted average of the
individual ResNet models’ CM scores to provide a final CM
score, where fusion weights are assigned based on the single
model’s performance on the validation dataset.
4.3.1. Logical Access Results
As shown in Table 1, Our Spec-ResNet and
CQCC-ResNet have a significantly smaller t-DCF and
EER scores than the baseline algorithms on the development
set (known attacks) of the logical access scenario. The fusion
of the models achieves a perfect score of zero EER and t-DCF
on the development set. However, in the evaluation set results,
our models outperform the baseline models only in the EER
of CQCC-ResNet and t-DCF score of MFCC-ResNet. This
highlights the difficulty of generalizing a spoofing detection
system to unknown attack algorithms. Nevertheless, our model
fusion shows t-DCF = 0.1569 and EER = 6.02 which are
approximately a 25% improvement over the best scores of
baseline algorithms.
To provide a better analysis of the performance of our
Logical Access Physical Access
Development Evaluation Development Evaluation
Baseline LFCC-GMM 0.0663 2.71 0.2116 8.09 0.2554 11.96 0.3017 13.54
Baseline CQCC-GMM 0.0123 0.43 0.2366 9.57 0.1953 9.87 0.2454 11.04
MFCC-ResNet 0.1013 3.34 0.2042 9.33 0.3770 15.91 - -
Spec-ResNet 0.0023 0.11 0.2741 9.68 0.0960 3.85 0.0994 3.81
CQCC-ResNet 0.0002 0.01 0.2166 7.69 0.1026 4.30 0.1070 4.43
Fusion 0.0000 0.00 0.1569 6.02 0.0581 2.65 0.0693 2.78
Table 1: t-DCF and EER scores for the different models as measured on the development and evaluation sets for both logical and
physical access scenarios.
model against both known and unknown attacks, the t-DCF
scores of our models against each attack type are shown in Fig-
ure 3. Attacks from A01 to A06 are known attacks (from the
development set) while attacks from A07 to A19 are the 11 un-
known and two known attacks (from the evaluation set). From
Figure 3, we can see that our models still work well against
most attack types except for only two types of the unknown
attacks, namely A17 and A18. Both A17 and A18 are voice
conversion algorithms, where A17 is based on waveform fil-
tering and A18 is based on vocoders. In comparison to the
baseline models, the CQCC-GMM model also perform poorly on
A17(t-DCF=0.9820), which suggest that CQCC is easier to be
deceived by waveform filtering based video conversion attacks.
Both the CQCC-GMM and LFCC-GMM work fine on A18, so it is
possible that ResNet is more vulnerable to vocoder based video
conversion attacks.
Figure 3: t-DCF scores of different models against different at-
tack types (both TTS and VC) in the logical access scenario.
4.3.2. Physical Access Results
In the physical access scenario, both Spec-ResNet and
CQCC-ResNet have significantly improved both the EER
and t-DCF. As shown in Table 1, our best single model
(Spec-ResNet) is 50% and 60% better than the best base-
line results according to the development set EER and t-
DCF, respectively. According to the evaluation set scores,
Spec-ResNet reduces the t-DCF and EER of baseline algo-
rithms by 60% and 65%, respectively. Furthermore, the fusion
of our models leads to 71% and 75% improvement.
Table 2 provides detailed results of model performance over
different replay attack settings. Each setting is named with two
letters. The first letter stands for the distance of the recording
device from the bona-fide speaker. ’A’ means 10-50 cm, ’B’
means 50-100 cm, and ’C’ means >100cm. The second letter
indicates the quality of replay devices, where A means perfect,
B means high, and C means low. From the results it is easy to
see that, as the distance decreasing and recording device getting
better, the anti-spoof task becomes more and more difficult. The
worst results are achieved at setting ‘AA’. Another thing to no-
tice is that, while Spec-ResNet is generally performing bet-
ter than CQCC-ResNet while in some cases like ’BB’, ’BC’,
’CB’, and ’CC’, CQCC-ResNet outperforms Spec-ResNet.
Generally, the system performs better on physical access
scenarios that on logical access. This is probably caused by the
challenge of generalization, as in logical access, most attacks in
the testing dataset are diverse and unknown, while in physical
access the features come from the replay channel properties and
are easier to learn and generalize.
ResNet Spec-ResNet Fusion
AA 0.2857 10.59 0.2473 9.17 0.1845 6.78
AB 0.0690 2.57 0.0638 2.22 0.0468 1.77
AC 0.0464 1.75 0.0436 1.56 0.0219 0.80
BA 0.1404 5.46 0.1300 4.82 0.0855 3.29
BB 0.0295 1.18 0.0374 1.34 0.0230 0.79
BC 0.0213 0.84 0.0240 0.86 0.0086 0.36
CA 0.1173 4.55 0.1105 4.01 0.0705 2.71
CB 0.0266 1.00 0.0342 1.19 0.0171 0.59
CC 0.0209 0.82 0.0254 0.87 0.0074 0.28
Table 2: Detailed comparison between the two best single mod-
els and the fusion model in Physical Access scenario under dif-
ferent replay attack settings.
5. Conclusions
In this paper, we presented a novel audio spoofing detec-
tion system for both logical access and physical access scenar-
ios. We provide comparisons between the performance of our
model combined with three feature different feature extraction
algorithms. According to the evaluation dataset scores, against
replay attacks, the fusion of our models CM scores improves the
t-DCF and EER metrics of baseline algorithm by 71% and 75%
respectively. Also, against the TTS and VC attacks, our fusion
of models improves the t-DCF and EER metrics by approxi-
mately 25% each. Our future work is to study how to improve
the generalization of our model against unknown attacks. One
possible solution is to employ advanced fusion to build a ’wide-
and-deep’ network as proposed in [35]. The key idea of this
new proposal is to concatenate the features from each model’s
last fully connected layers and use a shared softmax layer as
the output layer. This might be able to train the networks to
collaborate with each other and achieve a better fusion result.
Acknowledgement. This research was supported in part by the
U.S. Army Research Laboratory and the UK Ministry of De-
fence under Agreement Number W911NF-16-3-0001; by the
CONIX Research Center, one of six centers in JUMP, a Semi-
conductor Research Corporation (SRC) program sponsored by
DARPA; and, by the National Science Foundation under award
# CNS-1705135. Any findings in this material are those of the
author(s) and do not reflect the views of any of the above fund-
ing agencies. The U.S. and U.K. Governments are authorized
to reproduce and distribute reprints for Government purposes
notwithstanding any copyright notation hereon.
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