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Investigation of the brain pathology in experimental ischemia requires adequate methods for assessing the neurological deficit that occurs in laboratory animals, including sensory-based and behavioural disorders. In this research, we aimed to compare motor and behavioural disorders in rats with partial and subtotal experimental cerebral ischemia. The rats modelled with cerebral ischemia are found to exhibit a decrease in muscle strength, resistance to hypoxia, motor and emotional activity. The animals with incomplete cerebral ischemia demonstrated more pronounced sensory-based motor and behavioural disorders compared both with those modelled with partial cerebral ischemia and, in particular, with the control group.
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БИОМЕДИЦИНА | JOURNAL BIOMED | 2019 | Toм 15 | № 2 | 69–74 69
Е. И. Бонь, Н. Е. Максимович
«Методы оценки неврологических нарушений при экспериментальной церебральной ишемии»
Elizaveta I. Bon*, Nataliya Ye. Maksimovich
Grodno State Medical University
230009, Republic of Belarus, Grodno, Gorkogo str., 80
Investigation of the brain pathology in experimental ischemia requires adequate methods for assessing the
neurological decit that occurs in laboratory animals, including sensory-based and behavioural disorders.
In this research, we aimed to compare motor and behavioural disorders in rats with partial and subtotal
experimental cerebral ischemia. The rats modelled with cerebral ischemia are found to exhibit a decrease in
muscle strength, resistance to hypoxia, motor and emotional activity. The animals with incomplete cerebral
ischemia demonstrated more pronounced sensory-based motor and behavioural disorders compared both
with those modelled with partial cerebral ischemia and, in particular, with the control group.
Keywords: cerebral ischemia, sensomotor and behavioural disorders, rats
Conict of interest: the authors declare no conict of interest.
Funding: The study was funded by the Belarusian Foundation for Basic Research (contract No. М18М-
036) grant for reagents and animals.
For citation: Bon E.I., Maksimovich N.Ye. Methods for Estimating Neurological Disturbances in Experimen-
tal Cerebral Ischemia. Journal Biomed. 2019;15(2):69–74.
Submitted 08.10.2018
Revised 25.02.2019
Published 10.06.2019
Е. И. Бонь*, Н. Е. Максимович
УО «Гродненский государственный медицинский университет»
230009, Республика Беларусь, Гродно, ул. Горького, д. 80
Изучение патологии головного мозга при экспериментальной ишемии обусловливает потребность в
адекватных способах оценки возникающего у лабораторных животных неврологического дефицита,
включающего сенсомоторные и поведенческие нарушения. Целью работы явилось сравнительное
изучение двигательных и поведенческих нарушений у крыс с частичной и субтотальной экспери-
ментальной церебральной ишемией. Установлено, что крысы после экспериментальной церебраль-
ной ишемии обладали меньшей мышечной силой, были менее устойчивы к гипоксии, проявляли
меньшую двигательную и эмоциональную активность. У животных с субтотальной церебральной
ишемией наблюдались более выраженные сенсомоторные и поведенческие нарушения по сравне-
нию с крысами, которым моделировали частичную церебральную ишемию и, особенно, по сравне-
нию с контрольными животными.
БИОМЕДИЦИНА | JOURNAL BIOMED | 2019 | Toм 15 | № 2 | 69–74
Ключевые слова: церебральная ишемия, сенсомоторные и поведенческие нарушения, крысы
Конфликт интересов: авторы заявили об отсутствии конфликта интересов.
Финансирование: Работа выполнена при поддержке БРФФИ (проект М18М-036).
Для цитирования: Бонь Е.И., Максимович Н.Е. Методы оценки неврологических нару-
шений при экспериментальной церебральной ишемии. Биомедицина. 2019;15(2):69–74.
Поступила 08.10.2018
Принята после доработки 25.02.2019
Опубликована 10.06.2019
The expediency of studying the pathology of
the brain in experimental ischemia necessitates
adequate methods for assessing the neurological
decit that occurs in laboratory animals, includ-
ing various sensory and behavioural disorders.
A number of methods can be used to study the
degree of sensory-based motor and behavioural
disorders in animals, such as the forced swim-
ming, muscle strength, open eld tests, as well
as those for evaluating the modied indicators
of the depth of a neurological decit [3]. Among
other popular methods are the Bederson, gas ex-
posure, angular, paw- pulling tests.
This article sets out to generalize the avail-
able literature data on contemporary ap-
proaches to assessing sensory-based motor
reexes, learning and memory abilities in
experimental animals at different ages. In the
early postnatal period, reexes are assessed
using such methods as the slip on the surface,
negative geotaxis, avoidance of falling, reac-
tion to acoustic stimuli, olfactory reaction and
muscle strength tests.
Sensory-based motor and behavioural dis-
orders have been extensively studied using
various models of cerebral ischemia (CI) [7–
10]; however, the data obtained in these works
has not thus far been properly generalized.
Research works devoted to the investiga-
tion of CI effects have identied a number of
sensory-based motor disorders, including a de-
crease in motor activity when an animal is sus-
pended by the tail, walking along a circle on a
horizontal surface, dis-coordination of move-
ments during walking along the bar, a decrease
in the expression of unconditioned reexes,
animals’ inability to navigate through space.
Local ischemic damage to the anterior parts
of the frontal cortex of the rat brain leads to
disruption in the production, preservation and
reproduction of conditioned reexes, while
damage to the posterior parts of the frontal
cortex is accompanied by a loss of the ability
to navigate in T-shaped labyrinths [8–10].
The purpose of this research was a compar-
ative study of motor and behavioural disorders
in rats with partial and subtotal experimental
cerebral ischemia.
Tests for studying the maturation of the
nervous system in newborns
In new-born rat pups, methods for assess-
ing the development of sensory-based motor
reexes comprise the slip on the surface, neg-
ative geotaxis, avoidance of falling, reaction to
acoustic stimuli, olfactory reaction and muscle
strength tests. These measurements can be car-
ried out both multiple times to trace dynamic
changes and on a single occasion, e.g. on the
supposed day of maturation of the studied re-
ex in intact animals [1, 26–28].
Tests for studying sensory-based
motor disorders in adult animals
The degree of sensory-based motor disorders
in adult rats is identied using a diversity of
methods, including the Bederson, Garcia, angu-
lar, pulling-the-paw, open-eld tests, as well as
that for assessing the modied depth indices of a
neurological decit [3, 5–7, 11, 14, 15, 1725].
Materials and methods
The experiments were performed on
30 female non-native white rats weighing
БИОМЕДИЦИНА | JOURNAL BIOMED | 2019 | Toм 15 | № 2 | 69–74 71
Е. И. Бонь, Н. Е. Максимович
«Методы оценки неврологических нарушений при экспериментальной церебральной ишемии»
230±20 g. All the requirements of the 2010/63/
EU Directive of the European Parliament and
the Council of 22.09.2010 on the protection
of animals used for scientic purposes were
observed during the experiments [16]. The
animals were kept in an air-conditioned room
(22°C) with mixed lighting under standard
vivarium conditions implying free access to
feed and water. One vivarium cage housed no
more than 5 animals. The choice of experi-
mental animals was determined by the simil-
arity between rats and humans in terms of the
brain angioarchitectonics. Before the research,
all the necessary conditions were met. Thus,
60 minutes before testing, the animals were
kept in a quiet, poorly lit place, without any
regrouping and changes in feeding and other
conditions [4]. Subtotal cerebral ischemia
(SCI) was modelled by a stepwise ligation of
a carotid artery, which manipulation promoted
the survival of animals compared to those
with simultaneous bandaging. Partial cerebral
ischemia (PCI) was modelled by ligation of
one common carotid artery (CCA) under intra-
venous thiopental anaesthesia (40–50 mg/kg).
The second group consisted of rats, which
were simulated with SCI 7 days following PCI
by ligation of the second (right) CCA [4]. The
control group (control) comprised false-oper-
ated animals. The tests were performed 5 days
following the surgery.
The ischemic damage to the brain was es-
timated by assessing the animals’ emotional
state, behaviour and motor activity. To this
end, the open eld, muscle strength and forced
swimming tests were applied.
Muscular strength was assessed by placing a
rat on a metal mesh with a length of 60 cm and
a centimetre scale, and determining the time
when the animal falls off after lifting the mesh
to a horizontal position (by 90°).
In the forced swimming test, the animals
were placed in a glass tank lled with water
(21°C) for determining the time during which
the animal can maintain swimming and oat-
ing behaviour.
Statistical processing of the obtained data
was carried out using the Statistica 10.0 pro-
gram for Windows (StatSoft, Inc., USA).
The values obtained were analysed by non-
parametric statistics. The quantitative data
were presented as Me (LQ; UQ), where
Me was the median, LQ the value of the
lower quartile; UQ — the value of the up-
per quartile. Differences between the control
and experimental groups were considered
signicant at p<0.05 (the Kruskal — Wallis
and MannWhitney tests with the Bonfer-
oni correction) [1].
A signicant decrease in muscle strength
was observed in both groups of the animals
with CI compared to the control group. Thus,
this indicator decreased by 75% (p<0.05) and
95% (p<0.05) in the PCI and SCI groups, re-
spectively. Muscular strength in rats with PCI
was 5 times more pronounced than in those
with SCI (Table).
In addition, the rats with PCI showed
a greater resistance to the load-induced hyp-
Fig. Muscle strength evaluation.
Рис. Оценка мышечной силы.
БИОМЕДИЦИНА | JOURNAL BIOMED | 2019 | Toм 15 | № 2 | 69–74
oxia in the forced swimming test. The time of
their oating on the surface exceeded that in
the animals with SCI by 58% (p<0.05). Com-
pared to the control group, the oating time
was by 57% (p<0.05) and 76% (p<0.05) lower
in the PCI and SCI groups, respectively.
The assessment of motor activity by the open
eld test also revealed the presence of motor
deciency in rats with CI. In comparison with
the control group, the rats with PCI and SCI
demonstrated a decrease in crossed squares by
20% (p<0.05) and 64% (p<0.05), respectively.
The motor activity in the horizontal plane test
was higher in rats with PCI by 44% (p<0.05)
than in the SCI group. In comparison with the
control group, the number of short washings in
the rats with PCI and SCI was 33% (p<0.05)
and 67% (p<0.05) lower, respectively. The rats
with PCI performed 50% (p<0.05) more wash-
ings compared to the SCI group.
Compared to the control group, the weight
loss in the rats with PCI and SCI was 33%
(p<0.05) and 67% (p<0.05) lower. The rats
with PCI made 50% more racks in comparison
with the SCI group (p<0.05).
The rats with PCI and SCI demonstrated a
40% (p<0.05) and 60% (p<0.05) decrease in
the number of defecation and urination acts
compared to the control. In terms of this indic-
ator, the rats with PCI differed from animals
with SCI by 33% (p<0.05).
Long-term washings and rearing posts were
observed only in intact animals.
The rats after experimental CI have demon-
strated a decrease in muscle strength, resist-
ance to hypoxia, motor and emotional activ-
ity. In animals with SCI, more pronounced
sensorimotor and behavioural disorders have
been observed compared to those modelled
with PCI. The morphological basis of the re-
vealed disorders is found to be damage to the
neurons of the brain, leading both to the de-
struction of physiological functional connec-
tions and physiological systems, as well as to
the emergence of pathogens. The latter causes
the destabilization of nervous processes (co-
ordinated activity of excitation and inhibition),
which subsequently results in the disruption of
brain cognitive functions. Another reason for
these disorders is an imbalance between the
levels of biogenic amines and neuromediators
in brain structures, which act as endogenous
pathogenic factors and determine the nature
and severity of ischemic damage [2, 12, 13].
Table. Indicators of sensory-based motor and behavioural tests. The quantitative data are presented in the form of
Me (LQ; UQ)
Таблица. Показатели сенсомоторных и поведенческих тестов. Количественные данные представлены в виде
медиана (нижний квартиль; верхний квартиль)
Open eld test
Number of
crossed squares
Number of
short washings Climbing Number of defecation
and urination acts
Control 20 (15; 24) 21 (18; 23) 67 (64; 72) 6 (5.1; 7.2) 9 (8; 9.4) 5 (4.6; 6.5)
PCI 5 (4.7; 5.9)*12 (15; 12.3)*54 (52; 59)*4 (3.5; 4.3)*6 (5.8; 6.4)*3 (2.5; 3.6)*
SCI 1 (0.5; 1.2)* # 5 (4.5; 5.7)* # 24 (22; 28)* # 2 (1.6; 2.4)* # 3 (2.6; 3.2)* # 2 (1.2; 2.3)* #
Note: * — p<0.05 compared to the control, # — p<0.05 compared to the PCI.
Примечание: * — p<0,05 по сравнению с контролем, # — p<0,05 по сравнению с частичной церебральной ишемией.
БИОМЕДИЦИНА | JOURNAL BIOMED | 2019 | Toм 15 | № 2 | 69–74 73
Е. И. Бонь, Н. Е. Максимович
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Elizaveta I. Bon*, Cand. Sci. (Biol.), Grodno State
Medical University;
Nataliya Ye. Maksimovich, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Prof.,
Grodno State Medical University;
Бонь Елизавета Игоревна*, к.б.н., УО «Грод-
ненский государственный медицинский универ-
Максимович Наталия Евгеньевна, д.м.н.,
проф., УО «Гродненский государственный меди-
цинский университет»;
* Corresponding author / Автор, ответственный за переписку
... Some less frequently observed causes include acute arterial dissection secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia, hematologic disorders such as sickle cell anemia, and recreational use of cocaine or amphetamines [14,15,16,17].To study the degree of neurological and behavioral disorders in adult animals with cerebral ischemia, a number of methods can be used: Bederson's test, the test for assessing the modified depth indicators of neurological deficit, the Garcia test, the angular test, the leg extension test, the "open" test. They allow you to monitor impaired motor function, for example, to register discoordination, trembling, paresis, paralysis [5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Bederson's test is as follows: the rat is held by the tail at a distance of 1 meter above the floor and the mobility of the forelimbs is monitored. ...
... This scale includes tests for detecting motor activity when hanging an animal by the tail, features of walking on a horizontal plane, coordination of movements when walking on a beam, the severity of reflexes. The Garcia test includes an assessment of spontaneous activity in the cage for 5 min, the symmetry of the stretching of the forelimbs when the animals are suspended by the tail, the ability to climb the wall of the ethmoid cage, the response to touching each side of the rat's body, response to touching vibrissae [6]. ...
... The number of movements of the forelimbs performed on the side from which the rat is pushed is recorded. At the same time, intact rats perform many movements with their front paws [6]. ...
Objectives: It was to assess vasoprotective effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cerebral ischemia. Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out on 42 male outbred white rats weighing 260 ± 20 g. modeling of cerebral ischemia was carried out under conditions of intravenous thiopental anesthesia (40-50 mg / kg). The studies used models of subtotal, partial and stepwise subtotal cerebral ischemia. The table shows the experimental groups and the number of animals in them. Subtotal cerebral ischemia (SCI) was modeled by simultaneous ligation of both common carotid arteries (CCA). Partial cerebral ischemia (PCI) was modeled by ligating one CCA on the right. Stepwise subtotal CI (SSCI) was performed by sequential ligation of both CCA with an interval of 1 day (subgroup 1), 3 days (subgroup 2), or 7 days (subgroup 3). To study the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA), animals with CI were injected intragastrically with the drug "Omegamed" (SCI+ω-3 PUFA) at a dose of 5 g / kg body weight for a week. The control group consisted of sham-operated rats of the same sex and weight. Neurological deficits were assessed in the "muscle strength", "swimming test" and "open field" tests after 5-6 hours of the ischemic period. The study was carried out 6 hours after the simulation of the CI. Quantitative continuous data were obtained, which were processed using the licensed computer program Statistica 10.0 for Windows (StatSoft, Inc., USA). Since the experiment used small samples that had an abnormal distribution, the analysis was carried out by methods of nonparametric statistics. Data are presented as Me (LQ; UQ), where Me is the median, LQ is the value of the lower quartile; UQ is the upper quartile value. Differences between groups were considered significant at p <0.05 (Regression Model). Results: With a stepwise bilateral ligation of both common carotid arteries with an interval of 1 day, neurological disorders were most pronounced, which indicates an aggravation of neurological deficit with a reduction in the time between CCA dressings. In rats with SCI, the changes were more pronounced than with PCI, but less than with SCI. The least pronounced changes were noted in the 3rd subgroup (the interval between CCA dressings was 7 days). Studies have shown the dependence of the severity of brain damage in SSCI on the interval between the cessation of blood flow in both CCA. At a 7-day interval between CCA dressings, compensatory mechanisms were activated, which prevented the development of morphological changes and neurological deficits. When CCA was ligated with an interval of 1 day, the degree of neurological deficit was maximal, which indicates insufficient implementation of compensatory mechanisms. Compared with the control group, the rats of the "SCI+ω3-PUFA" group retained neurological deficit, the muscle strength indicator was 86% less (p<0.05), the swimming duration - by 63% (p<0.05), the number of crossed squares - by 55% (p<0.05), the number of washes - by 62% (p<0.05), the number of racks - by 62.5% (p<0.05) and the number of bowel movements - by 60% (p<0.05). However, in comparison with the SCI group, the neurological deficit was less pronounced. There was an increase in muscle strength by 67% (p<0.05), swimming duration by 37.5% (p<0.05) and the number of squares crossed in the open field test by 31% (p<0.05), which indicates the presence of a corrective action in the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids preparation. Conclusion: The introduction of the preparation of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has a corrective effect in conditions of subtotal cerebral ischemia, contributing to a lesser severity of manifestations of neurological deficit (an increase in muscle strength, duration of swimming and the number of squares crossed in the open field test).
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Background: Hyperglycemia is common in extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGAN) and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, including abnormal neurodevelopment. Hippocampus-mediated cognitive deficits are common in this population, but the specific effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus are not known. Methods: The objective of this study was to determine the acute and long-term effects of hyperglycemia on the developing hippocampus in neonatal rats using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced model of hyperglycemia. STZ was injected on postnatal day (P) 2, and littermates in the control group were injected with an equivalent volume of citrate buffer. The acute effects of hyperglycemia on markers of oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, microglial activation, and reactive astrocytosis in the hippocampus were determined in the brain tissue collected on P6. The long-term effects on hippocampus-mediated behavior and hippocampal dendrite structure were determined on P90. Results: On P6, the transcript and protein expression of markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines, including the CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway, were upregulated in the hyperglycemia group. Histological evaluation revealed microglial activation and astrocytosis. The long-term assessment on P90 demonstrated abnormal performance in Barnes maze neurobehavioral testing and altered dendrite structure in the hippocampus of formerly hyperglycemic rats. Conclusions: Neonatal hyperglycemia induces CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling, microglial activation, and astrocytosis in the rat hippocampus and alters long-term synaptogenesis and behavior. These results may explain the hippocampus-specific cognitive deficits common in ELGAN who experience neonatal hyperglycemia.
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Alterations in dopamine neurotransmission are generally associated with diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such diseases typically feature poor decision making and lack of control on executive functions and have been studied through the years using many animal models. Dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET) mice, in particular, have been widely used to study ADHD. Recently, a strain of DAT KO rats has been developed (1). Here, we provide a phenotypic characterization of reward sensitivity and compulsive choice by adult rats born from DAT–HET dams bred with DAT–HET males, in order to further validate DAT KO rats as an animal model for preclinical research. We first tested DAT KO rats’ sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, provided by highly appetitive food or sweet water; then, we tested their choice behavior with an Intolerance-to-Delay Task (IDT). During these tests, DAT KO rats appeared less sensitive to rewarding stimuli than wild-type (WT) and HET rats: they also showed a prominent hyperactive behavior with a rigid choice pattern and a wide number of compulsive stereotypies. Moreover, during the IDT, we tested the effects of amphetamine (AMPH) and RO-5203648, a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) partial agonist. AMPH accentuated impulsive behaviors in WT and HET rats, while it had no effect in DAT KO rats. Finally, we measured the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine receptor 2 (D2), serotonin transporter, and TAAR1 mRNA transcripts in samples of ventral striatum, finding no significant differences between WT and KO genotypes. Throughout this study, DAT KO rats showed alterations in decision-making processes and in motivational states, as well as prominent motor and oral stereotypies: more studies are warranted to fully characterize and efficiently use them in preclinical research.
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Background: Dioxins contribute to neurological disorders in humans and animals, causing also neurological disorders in offspring during prenatal and postnatal periods. These compounds significantly affect the development of the central nervous system (CNS) structures, which results in behavioral changes. Tocopherol (TCP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) may provide protective measures to reduce the inflammatory effects in the CNS associated with free radicals generated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), thus contributing to the reduction of the negative effects of dioxin. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of dioxin on rats and their behavioral functions, and to ascertain whether a combined administration of TCP and ASA to rats treated with TCDD shows the possibility of potential protective effect on the functioning of the CNS. Material and methods: Experiments were performed on 75 female and 12 male Buffalo strain rats, which are offspring of females from particular study groups. TCDD was used in the experiments, TCP and ASA were administered orally every day for 3 weeks. Animals were subjected to behavioral testing: the tail and swimming tests. Results: During the observation of the offspring of both sexes born to females exposed to TCDD, males did not demonstrate any attempt to swim, whereas in females, the immobility time was significantly extended. Assessing the response times from the tail test in the animals treated with dioxins in relation to the control group, it was demonstrated that the response time was extended in the 3rd measurement in both females and males. Conclusions: Dioxin is characterized by neurotoxic effect causing behavioral disorders associated with prolonged response times. The use of TCP after the administration of dioxins causes a significant reduction and improvement of reflex response times. In contrast, ASA reduces the reflex response times also in the offspring of females exposed to TCDD and ASA.
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Compassionate behavior towards dying, diseased, or disabled individuals is often regarded as a uniquely human trait, though recent reports of reactions to death and dying in nonhuman animals highlight the value of adopting a comparative evolutionary approach toward these behaviors. Here, we review recent studies of animal behavior toward the dying, diseased, or disabled which may be of interest to paleopathologists and bioarchaeologists studying compassionate behavior in humans and their extinct ancestors. ‘Compassionate’ behavior toward the enfeebled and dying has now been reported in several non-primate mammals (e.g., wild African elephants and river otters) and nonhuman primates (primarily captive chimpanzees). In addition, a number of recent reports have documented wide variation in nonhuman primates’ reactions to recently deceased group mates (or offspring) both across species, as well as across individuals belonging to the same social group. We suggest there is considerable potential for collaboration among paleopathologists and primatologists in examining the causes of illness and disability in animals and its impact on their lives.
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In various areas of the bio-medical, pharmacological and psychological research a multitude of behavioural tests have been used to investigate the effects of environmental, genetic and epi-genetic factors as well as pharmacological substances or diseased states on behaviour and thus on the physiological and psycho-social status of experimental subjects. This article is reviewing the most frequently used behavioural tests in animal research (open field, elevated plus maze, zero maze, and black and white box). It provides a summary of common characteristics as well as differences in the methods used in various studies to determine motor activity, anxiety and emotionality. Additionally to methodological aspects, strain, sex and stress-related differences as well as the involvement of nitric oxide in modulation of motor activity and anxiety of rodents were briefly reviewed.
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Stroke is a common cause of permanent disability accompanied by devastating impairments for which there is a pressing need for effective treatment. Motor, sensory and cognitive deficits are common following stroke, yet treatment is limited. Along with histological measures, functional outcome in animal models has provided valuable insight to the biological basis and potential rehabilitation efforts of experimental stroke. Developing and using tests that have the ability to identify behavioral deficits is essential to expanding the development of translational therapies. The present aim of this paper is to review many of the current behavioral tests that assess functional outcome after stoke in rodent models. While there is no perfect test, there are many assessments that are sensitive to detecting the array of impairments, from global to modality specific, after stroke.
This chapter describes behavioral tests that have been useful for examining the potential clinical efficacy of interventions that might be beneficial for neurological disorders. It is important to distinguish whether an intervention promotes brain repair mechanisms, saves cells, enhances motor learning and retraining, or reduces the extent of secondary degeneration of tissue. The chapter includes a subset of sensorimotor tests that are considered to be reliable, sensitive, quantitative, and easy to use in rat neurological models. The tests also cover the range of cellular degeneration typical of focal ischemic injury, nigrostriatal terminal loss, and cervical spinal trauma.
We have examined the incidence and size of infarction after occlusion of different portions of the rat middle cerebral artery (MCA) in order to define the reliability and predictability of this model of brain ischemia. We developed a neurologic examination and have correlated changes in neurologic status with the size and location of areas of infarction. The MCA was surgically occluded at different sites in six groups of normal rats. After 24 hr, rats were evaluated for the extent of neurologic deficits and graded as having severe, moderate, or no deficit using a new examination developed for this model. After rats were sacrificed the incidence of infarction was determined at histologic examination. In a subset of rats, the size of the area of infarction was measured as a percent of the area of a standard coronal section. Focal (1-2 mm) occlusion of the MCA at its origin, at the olfactory tract, or lateral to the inferior cerebral vein produced infarction in 13%, 67%, and 0% of rats, respectively (N = 38) and produced variable neurologic deficits. However, more extensive (3 or 6 mm) occlusion of the MCA beginning proximal to the olfactory tract--thus isolating lenticulostriate end-arteries from the proximal and distal supply--produced infarctions of uniform size, location, and with severe neurologic deficit (Grade 2) in 100% of rats (N = 17). Neurologic deficit correlated significantly with the size of the infarcted area (Grade 2, N = 17, 28 +/- 5% infarction; Grade 1, N = 5, 19 +/- 5%; Grade 0, N = 3, 10 +/- 2%; p less than 0.05). We have characterized precise anatomical sites of the MCA that when surgically occluded reliably produce uniform cerebral infarction in rats, and have developed a neurologic grading system that can be used to evaluate the effects of cerebral ischemia rapidly and accurately. The model will be useful for experimental assessment of new therapies for irreversible cerebral ischemia.
The purpose of the writer was to determine the possible relationship between emotional behavior (defecation) and the speed of ambulatory activity (distance travelled per unit time). Each of 50 rats was observed individually in a round enclosure two minutes a day for 28 days. The results demonstrate a negative correlation between individual differences in defecating (emotional) behavior and individual differences in defecating (emotional) behavior and individual differences in ambulatory activity. Emotional rats were less active than non-emotional. "This relationship suggests that whenever activity is of utility to the animal, emotionality will hinder adjustment; whenever activity is of disservice to the animal, emotionality will facilitate adjustment." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)