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The Influence of Suggested Cornell Note-taking Method on Improving Writing Composition Skills of Jordanian EFL Learners

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Abstract

The study aimed at discovering the impact of suggested Cornell Note-Taking Training Model on improving writing composition skills. The sample of the study consisted of (58) English students in the second year selected randomly from the English departments in Al-Balqa Applied university. The sample was divided into two groups: experimental and control group. The researcher designed an exam and examined the students in both groups in pre-test and post-test to find the equivilance and the difference between both groups. After examination and analyzing data, the results of the study show statistical significant differences at the significance level (α≤ 0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group which taghut by using Cornell method and the control group which used the conventional method in teaching composition.
The Influence of Suggested Cornell Note-taking
Method on Improving Writing Composition
Skills of Jordanian EFL Learners
Mohammad Akram Alzu'bi
English Department, Ajloun University College, Al-Balqa Applied University, Jordan
AbstractThe study aimed at discovering the impact of suggested Cornell Note-Taking Training Model on
improving writing composition skills. The sample of the study consisted of (58) English students in the second
year selected randomly from the English departments in Al-Balqa Applied university. The sample was divided
into two groups: experimental and control group. The researcher designed an exam and examined the students
in both groups in pre-test and post-test to find the equivilance and the difference between both groups. After
examination and analyzing data, the results of the study show statistical significant differences at the
significance level (α≤ 0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group which taghut by using Cornell
method and the control group which used the conventional method in teaching composition.
Index TermsCornell note-taking method, composition writing skills, EFL learners
I. INTRODUCTION
Many specialists have defined writing in different ways, for example, Daniels & Bright (1996) defined it as a system
of more or less permanent marks used to represent an utterance in such a way that it can be recovered more or less
exactly without the intervention of the utterer. According to (Nunan, 2003), writing is physical and mental act to
develop ideas into paragraphs and it is a process which is created by the writers and also a product which is read by
audience for communication. However, none of them defined it perfectly to cover all of its systems, and most of them
share the same items. Therefore, the researcher suggested that writing skill is a method that includes sets of visual
symbols for representing spoken language in visual form for the purpose of communication.
Writing should be graded from the easiest parts to more complicated ones so before learning how to write
composition, students should learn how to write paragraphs. Bani Yaseen (2010) focused on adopting before-writing
skills and gradation to fulfill the different purposes of witing at every age period regardless of types of writing.
Unfortunately, most Jordanian school and university students face problems with the skills of writing composition such
as difficulties in using processes of planning, construction, and revision. Moreover, the time of the writing lessons is
limited, so it is difficult for the students to realize the important information to write down and how to organize in order
to write after the class time. In the past, Nakkash (1978) claimed that most of the difficulties in writing composition
come from the necessary information and the ability to arrange them in a suitable order. Out of his experience, the
researcher has found that students have problems with adopting the stages of writing composition (pre-writing, while-
writing, and post-writing), although they have studied the elements of writing composition theoretically.
When the researcher contacted his students who studied the advanced writing course personally, they complained
about the methods of learning how to write composition at school; teachers only gave them feedback in examinations
without applying helpful strategies at the time of writing composition about any topic. Trying to find solutions for the
above mentioned problems of writing composition, the researcher suggests that instructors and teachers should use
useful methods in teaching writing. Thus, to learn how to write composition effectively, students need to adopt specific
methods to help them in writing composition and essays. As a result, the researcher selected Cornell method because of
its advantages in improving students' studying in general and it might improve the skills of writing composition in
particular. Cornell method is an essencial method to organize information and record the information (William, 2004)
Since most studies have found that using Cornell method in English language learning class was effective in most
subjects especially in learning listening comprehension, the researcher conducted the present study to find out wheather
Cornell Method helps improve writing composition skills of Jordanian EFL Learners and solves their problems in
writing composition.
A. Statement of the Problem
Based on his teaching experience in universities at English department, the researcher has noticed that most students
get low marks in writing courses because they face difficulties in writing; for example; they don’t understand new
words and they couldn’t either use them properly in writings. In his experience as a language lecturer, the researcher has
also noticed that many students write without employing suitable strategies for remembering and organizing the
material presented in the class, and they forget a lot of information while learning paragraph or essay Writing classes.
ISSN 1798-4769
Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 863-871, July 2019
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/jltr.1004.26
© 2019 ACADEMY PUBLICATION
Finally, students do not use the all three stages of writing while writing composition or paragraph; for example, most of
them do not use the pre-stage or post-stage correctly in the writing process so they need a useful method to solve all
above mentioned problems. The researcher found that Cornell method is the most suitable to improve writing
composition because of its nature and characteristics so the researcher conducted the study to find the effect of
suggested Cornell method on improving writing composition.
B. The Importance of the Study
It is believed that this study is considered as an important related study for many researchers and writers in the future
because the researcher rebuilds Cornell method to be suitable and effective in writing composition since the present
study introduces a practical model in writing instead of theory. In addition, the study provides a prepared training
program, reliable instruments, active procedures, and experimental findings to be employed in future research.
C. The Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to measure the effect of Cornell method on improving composition writing by
answering the following main question:
What is the effect of Cornell method on improving the skills of writing composition?
D. The Operational Definitions of Terms
Cornell Method is a note-taking format designed by Walter Pauk which involves a card to record main ideas,
supporting details, and summaries as shown in Appendix A (Pauk & Owens, 2011).
Suggested Cornell method is a method for taking notes that designed by the researcher according to the note-taking
card which designed of Walter Pauk. The card is redesigned according to the three stages of writing (pre-reading, while-
reading and post-reading) and elements of composition to help English students at Jordanian universities learn how to
write composition.
Writing achievement is the scores of the students in the post-test of composition.
E. Limitation of the Study
The current study is limited by the participants of the study who studied English as a forighn language (EFL) in Al-
Balqa Applied University. Also, it is limited by the suggested program which based on Cornell method designed by the
researcher and confined to writing composition elements.
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Theoretical Framework and Related Studies
Cornell method was developed by Pauk 1974 in order to help students in Cornell University to organize, record and
receive notes. It uses a card of three sections (see appindix 1); the right column for recording the lecturs ideas, the left
column (cue column) to fill questions and outlines in later and the third section which is at the bottom of the card for
summarizing and evaluating (Pauk, 2011, Pp. 237-238).
Cornell method was derived from the cognitive psychology which focuses on information processing that affects data
storage in the-long term memory. Lieberman (2000) claimed that information processing comprised of three stages; the
sensory memory, the short-term memory and the long-term memory. The first stage which takes place in the sensory
memory recieves the information and transfers them to the short-term memory (working memory). The second part is
the working memory which can hold limited information for limited time and it transfers the information to the third
memory which is the long-term memory if there is no interference and stored until it is needed.
B. Related Studies
The literature review arranged in a systemetic way, the first part handled the influence of note-taking strategies on
students’ listening comprehension as well as their writing skills as follows:
Few studies are conducted about the effect of using note-taking on the first (L1) and second language (L2) because
teachers and researchers do not pay enough attention to investigating issues related to the effect of note-taking on
improving the language skills or about note-taking and second language learning in general (Chaudron, Loschky, &
Cook, 1994; Clerehan, 1995; Famhy & Bilton, 1991). Moreover, no studies are conducted about the effect of Cornell
method on writing but there is a study examined the effect of note-taking in general on writing which was invistigated
by (Al-Ashkar, 2014). One of its results showed that note-taking improved writing skill. However, the researcher has
mentioned some studies about the effect of using different strategies of note-taking on achievement in general and
language skills and its components.
Firstly, three studies were conducted about the effect of Cornell method on improving achievement in general; the
first study was conducted by (Jacobs, 2008) which aimed at reviewing some studies about the effect of note-taking
methods on 58 English students’ performance. After reviewing, the researcher used the same tests on the students and
found that the Cornell method was useful, although the students who used the guided notes method showed a showed
better achievement than the Cornell group. The second study conducted by (Zorn, 2017) showed a positive
improvement using the Cornell method to improve students’ achievement.
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Cornell method not only has positive influance on normal students, but also it is effective on students with disabilities.
For example, Baharev (2016(carried out a study that compare students with and without disabilities at sixty eighth grade
who learned by using note-taking using Cornell method with those who learned by using lecture method. The results of
the study indicated that note-taking strategy improved the student’s performance.
Secondly, the researcher found three studies that were conducted about the effect of using Cornell method on English
language skills such as grammar and listining. The first study (Davoudi, Moattarian & Zareian, 2015) aimed at finding
the effect of Cornell Method on Grammar. The researchers selected seventy intermediate Iranian EFL students (44
males and 26 females) and distributed them to two groups. After giving both groups a pre-test to make sure that both
groups are equilvilant, the experimental group was trained by using Cornell method in learning grammar. After
administrating post-test to both groups to find the differences between them, the researchers analyzed the obtained data
by using T-tests to find out if Cornell method affects learning grammar positively or negatively. The results of the study
indicated that the Cornell method improved grammatical knowledge and critical thinking. In the other studies (Rahmani
& Sadeghi, 2011& Hayati, 2009) examined the impact of note-taking technique on improving the listening skill. The
first study examined the effect of note-taking on Iranian EFL learners’ comprehension. The sample of the study
consisted of 108 students who were assigned to experimental and control groups; the experimental group consisted of
48 students and the control group which included 60 students. The researchers trained the experimental group by using
note-taking “graphic organizers”, while the conventional group did not receive any instruction. The researchers used
two multiple-choice reading tests to measure note-taking effectiveness. The findings of the study indicated that students
who used graphic organizers performed better rather than students who studied by using the conventional method. The
second study (Hayati, 2009) selected a sample in his study that consisted of sixty undergraduate students, majoring in
English at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz to find out if note-taking strategies improve listening comprehension.
The researcher divided the sample into three groups and one of them is taught by Cornell method. The results of the
study revealed that there were significant differences while using Cornell method so it affects positively on listening
skill.
Althogh the results of all previous studies approved the positive effects of note-taking strategies like Cornell method
on students’ achievement, (Borr, et al., 2012) conducted a study to find the effect of the Cornell method on student’s
performance and he concluded that there was no significant difference in Cornell note-taking on student performance.
The researcher discussed his results and justified the result by saying that Cornell note-taking is a method for
organizing notes and there was no way to know if students were actually using the notes for study purposes.
Respecting Jordanian context, no studies have been found about the influence of using Cornell method in an English
classroom environment, particularly in writing. The present study was conducted to achieve this aim while providing
valuable insights for language teachers and learners.
III. THE METHODS AND PROCEDURES
A. Study Subjects
The sample of the study consists of fifty-eight students from two classes of “writing composition course”: One class
is considered as an experimental group; and the other class as the control group. This sample depends on the
distribution of the Registration Department at Ajloun University College in Al-Balqa' Applied University, Jordan. The
treatment’s period takes one semester (The 1st semester, 2019).
B. Instruments of the Study
To achieve the purpose of the study, the researcher developed two instruments: the writing comprehension test and
the instructional program as follows:
C. The Achievement Test
The researcher designed the test to compare the achievements of the two groups on the pre and post tests to write a
composition (see appendix C). It includes 3 topics based on the students' grades levels (low, average, and high) to write
a perfect composition of 5 paragraghs about one of the copmposition types (process, describtive, and classification
compositions).
The researcher followed a kind of validity based on analyzing content by asking a number of expert referees to judge
the test for producing the final draft (see appendix E). The researcher used a rubric to correct the students' compositions
based on the objectives of the test (see appendix D).
The test measured the students’ ability to:
Use unfamiliar words in writing composition.
Organize the composition perfectly according to the elements of writing composition.
Adopt the mechanics of writing such as punctuation, capitalization, numbers and numerals, format and
constraction.
Use English appropriatly.
D. The Instructional Program
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The researcher redesigned the Cornell card according to the concerned elements of composition writing and stages of
writing. Cornell card is usually divided into three sections; the left column, the right one and the beneath section for
summary. The researcher rebuilt the card to suite the elements of writing composition and the three stages of writing
(pre-writing, while-writing, post-writing). While using the card in writing composition, several teqniques were used like:
recording, questioning, reciting, reflecting, and reviewing. To summarize, the researcher suggested a new suggested
Cornell card after redesighning the original one based on the stages of writing, elements of writing composition and
number of classes. Appendix (B) is a model example that consists of one lesson about how to select a topic, how to
write the first element of writing composition which is introductory paragrgh based on the three stages of writing.
The researcher used the content-method program to work out the validity of the program (see appendix E). He
distributed the prepared program on experts to produce the final draft.
E. Statistical Treatment
The researchers used the T-test to find the differences between the two groups.
F. The Procedures of the Study
The researcher followed certain procedures to conduct the study:
Reviewing the literature review (theoretical and practical studies).
Selecting the sample of the study of male and female students who study EFL from Al-Balqa applied University.
Designing the instruments of the study (test and instructional program) according to Cornell method and
composition course.
Establishing the validity and reliability of the instruments.
Training the students and the lecturer in the experimental group on how to deal with the suggested Cornell
proceadures in teaching and learning composition.
Applying the pre-test in order to find out if the both groups (experimental and control) are equivilant then
analysing the obtained data depending on the t-test.
Applying the suggested Cornell method under study in the writing experimenat class and the traditional method
of teaching composition in the writing control class
Following the participants inside both classes.
Applying the post-test for both groups (experimental and conventional) and gathering data by correcting all
papers of the post-test then analysing the obtained data depending on the t-test.
Discussing the results and suggesting recommendations.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The study analyzed the data obtained from the pre0test to be sure that both groups are equivilant by using the
following t-test in (table 1) below:
TABLE I.
T-TEST RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS ON THE PRE-TEST OF WRITING COMPOSITION.
GROUP
Mean
Std. Deviation
T
Df
PRE TEST
Experimental
38.57
5.341
-.714
56
Control
39.50
4.550
Before starting the experiment, table (1) showed that the difference between the mean scores of both groups on the
pre test was not statistically significant (t .005). Also, students' mean scores for both groups (38.57 and 39.50) were
almost equivalent in pre-test so both groups are equivalent
To find whether both groups have statistical significant difference on the pre test, t-test also conducted as follows:
TABLE II.
T-TEST RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS ON THE POST-TEST.
GROUP
Mean
Std. Deviation
t
Df
Sig. (2-tailed)
POST TEST
Experimental
44.80
4.180
2.200
56
.032
Control
42.11
5.123
As shown above in table (2), there are statistical significant differences at ( 0.05) between the means of both
groups on the post-test of writing composition in favor of the experimental group. While looking through the mean
scores in table 2, one notices that that the mean score of the experimental group (44.80) is higher that the mean score of
control group (42.11) so students who learn composition by Cornell method showed higher levels of writing gains than
those who learned by using the traditional method.
T-test showed that there was a statistical significant difference at ( 0.05) between the mean scores of the
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experimental group and the control group on the post-test regarding writing composition. The difference was in favor of
the experimental group which used Cornell method since the mean scores of Cornell group (44.80) was higher than the
mean scores of the control group (42.11).
The positive effect of Cornell method on improving writing composition skills is expected because it has significant
features and advantages. In Cornell method, the students can write the details belonged to the elements of the
composition on the right side of the paper such as, writing details about the introduction and the body. On the left
column (cue column), students can practise the pre-stage of writing through gathering information and details about
their topics before while-writing stage and write the forgotten main ideas later while writing in the writing stage which
tales place in the right column. Finally, the writers pratise post-writing in Cornell method through reviewing and editing
the previous notes in the third section of Cornell card which is called “summary section”.
Cornell method increases the students’ knowledge and masters their information. Moreover, it motivates the students
to focus on what they write and helps them remember. To summarize, this method helps the students to keep their
writing organized then it makes connections to the information and revises to produce the final draft of composition.
There are no big differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control group for several
reasons. One reason related to the students who are unfamiliar with taking-note strategy in general and lack of Cornell
method skills in particular. Rockler-Gladen (2007) claimed that many students lack note-taking skills so the researchers
should train students how to deal with this method before applying their studies. Another reason goes to the fact that
most of the students coudnt follow the speed of the instructor while teaching them writing accodring to Cornell method
so they missed a lot of information which affected on their writing negatively.
Most of the related studies mentioned in the literature review (Jacobs, 2008; Zorn 2017 &Baharev, 2016) found out
positive effects of using Cornell method strategy on achievement of students. Also, (Davoudi, Moattarian & Zareian
2015) showed that Cornell method has positive influence on learning grammar. For listening, (Rahmani & Sadeghi,
2011 &Hayati, 2009) showed significant differences in their studies while comparing Cornell method with the control
methods in favor of Cornell method. Finally, the main finding of the study was in line with the findings of (Al-Ashkar,
2014) whose results provided evidence for the positive effect of using note-taking on improving writing skill. However,
(Borr, et al., 2012) showed no significant difference in Cornell note-taking on student performance. He mentioned that
there were several factors that had some bearing on the results such as the variation of learning styles among students
and there was no way to determine if notes were actually used for studying.
V. CONCLUSIONS
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of suggested Cornell method on improving students’
writing composition. The results of data analysis revealed that students who learnt composition by using the suggested
Cornell method performed considerably better than did students who learnt through conventional method. The result of
the currecnt study agreed with the previous related studies (Jacobs, 2008; Zorn 2017; Baharev ,2016; Davoudi,
Moattarian & Zareian, 2015; Rahmani & Sadeghi, 2011 &Hayati, 2009) which showed positive effects of using Cornell
method on improving language skills and its components.
VI. RECOMMENDATIONS
To apply Cornell method effectively inside the class, the lecturer should be slow in order to help students in writing.
Also, the information shoud be also accurate because the Cornell method allows students to take notes in short form and
reserve the left side for cues. Moreover, the study suggested to provide colleges and schools with enough materials to
facilitate the use of Cornell method and minimize the large number of students in writing classes. Finally, the decision
makers in the educational institution shoud hold workshops for training teachers or lecturers on how to teach the
language skills according to Cornell method.
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APPENDIX A. THE CORNELL CARD
APPENDIX B. SAMPLE OF LESSON PLAN
A. The main objective
Students are expected to:
1. Select a process topic.
2. Write an introductory paragraph for a process composition.
B. Teaching and learning aids:
3. Cornell cards
4. pencils
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5. Pages for taking notes.
C. Period of time: two lectures
D. Procedures:
1. Preparation stage
Students should carry all necessary items and materials to class such as notebook, planner, pens, pencils,
Cornel cards, and small dictionary.
The instructor meets their students to clarify concepts related to Cornell method and elements of writing
composition.
Students should begin taking notes for every lecture on a new card so the instructor prepares enough
printed cards for the students to be used in all lectures.
2. Before writing stage:
St should identify the chapter being covered at the top of the page, for example, process composition.
Sts should discuss the topic with each other to be more familiar with the topic. They may use one of pre-
writing strategies like clustering, brainstorming and free writing.
The students should determine a suitable topic to describe the sequence of steps in a procedure, for
example: describing types of friends, changing a flat tire, studying for an exam etc….
Students should use the top of Cornell cards to write their own selected topics.
students should follow the instructor while discussion in the class.
students should listen carefully and write the important instructions of the teacher in the right column of
Cornell card (Note-taking column). The instructor directs the students through giving them pre-writing
techniques to gather information about the topic in order to write the first element of writing composition
(introductory paragraph).
Students should rewrite the general ideas of the details to reconstruct the important elements of the writing
by using the left side of their cards.
3. During writing stage:
The instructor should use a large Cornell card to enable students following the steps of using Cornell
method.
Students should focus their attention on listening for any comments regarding the next lecture topic.
Students should stay focused on what the instructor is saying.
Students participate in class activities.
Students have to use symbols and abbreviations whenever possible.
Students should take too many notes. They can always omit unnecessary information later.
Students should focus on the point the professor is making, rather than scrambling to copy the entire
overhead without listening to what the professor is saying.
Students write down notes in their own words when possible and think about what the professor is saying.
Students add examples their professor provides in order to clarify abstract ideas and to jog their memory
when studying later.
Students should make eye contact with the lecturer.
Students shouldn’t be a clock-watcher.
4. After writing stage (evaluation section)
Students read over the notes from the previous class at home.
Students should review, revise, or edit the notes as soon as possible after the lecture by filling in the gap
(summary section).
Students should conduct short weekly review periods. Once a week, she goes through all her notes again
and puts reviews on her calendar and makes it a habit.
Students talk to the lecturer before the next lecture about any problems.
Note: In the next lecture, each student should use another card to start learning other elements of writing
composition.
APPENDIX C. WRITING COMPOSITION TEST
Write a composition of five paragraghs about one of the following topics:
1. The best way to loose weight.
2. How to quit smoking.
3. How to succeed in college.
APPENDIX D. THE RUBRIC
1. To write the introductory paragraph.
2. To write supporting paragraphs.
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3. To write the concluding paragraph.
4. To use correct grammar.
5. To not make spelling errors.
6. To use the suitable punctuations marks.
7. To establish coherence by using linking words.
8. To organize and order the composition.
9. To use suitable vocabularies.
10. To follow the composition format.
APPENDIX E. THE LIST OF JURY FOR VALIDATING THE INSTRUMENT AND THE CIRC PROGRAM
Academic position
Affiliation
Specialization
Name
Superviser
Ministry of
education
Curricula & Methods of
TEFL
Ibrahim Al-Marzouk
Assistant Professor
King saud
university
Curricula & Methods of
TEFL
Ahmed Al-Zu'bi
Professor
Al-Balqa Applied
University
Applied linguistics
Abd-Alruhman Bani-Melhim
Assistant Professor
Al-Balqa Applied
University
Linguistics
Murad Al-Kayed
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The researcher would like to thank the deanship of scientific research in Al-Balqa Applied University who funded the
current project and supported the researcher to achieve the study.
REFERENCES
[1] Al-Ashkar, B. (2014). The influence of note-taking strategy on improving students’ academic achievement from English and
TEFL majors’ perspectives at An-Najah National University. Master degree. An-Najah National university
[2] Al-Nakkash, N. (1978). Different techniques for guided compositions. IDELTI Journal 10, 130-138.
[3] Baharev, Z. (2016). The effects of Cornell note-taking and review strategies on recall and comprehension of lecture content for
middle school students with and without disabilities. Ph.D. dissertation. The Graduate School of Education, Rutgers, The State
University of New Jersey.
[4] Bani-yasain, M. (2010). The language. Jordan, Irbid: Hamada Company.
[5] Borr, M.; Duffield, S; Napoleon, L. & Welch, A. (2012). The Impact of the Cornell Note-Taking Method on Students’
Performance in a High School Family and Consumer Sciences Class. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences Education 30.1,
27-38.
[6] Chaudron, C., Loschky, L., & Cook, J. (1994). Second language listening comprehension and lecture note-taking. In J.
Flowerdew (Ed.), Academic listening: Research perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[7] Clerehan, R. (1995). Taking it down: Note-taking practices of L1 and L2 students. English for specific purposes 14.2, 137-157.
[8] Daniels, P. & Bright, W. (1996). The world's writing systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[9] Davoudi M; Moattarian N. & Zareian G. (2015). Impact of Cornell note-taking method instruction on grammar learning of
Iranian EFL learners. Journal of Studies in Education 5.2, 252-265.
[10] Fahmy, J.J. & Bilton, L. (1991). Listening and note-taking in higher education. In S. Anivan (Ed.), Language teaching
methodology for the nineties. Singapore: SEAMO Regional Language Centre.
[11] Hayati, M. (2009). The impact of note-taking strategies on listening comprehension of EFL learners. English language
Teaching 2.1, 101-111.
[12] Jacobs K. (2008). A Comparison of Two Note Taking Methods in a Secondary English Classroom. Proceedings of the 4th
Annual GRASP Symposium, Wichita State University.
[13] Lieberman, D.A. (2000). Learning: Behavior and cognition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
[14] Nunan, D. (2003). Practical English language teaching. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
[15] Pauk, W., & Owens, R. J. Q., (2011). How to study in college. Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
[16] Rahmani, M.& Sadeghi, K. (2011). Effects of note-taking training on reading comprehension and recall. The Reading Matrix
11.2, 116-128.
[17] Williams, G. T. D. (2004). Assessment of 8th grade students’ attitudes and perceptions of Cornell’s note-taking. Ph.D.
dissertation, Union University.
[18] Zorn, D. (2007). Increasing Achievement Scores with the Use of the Cornell Note-taking Style. Master degree. Hiritage
College.
Mohammad A. Alzu'bi is associate professor in Albalqa Applied University in Jordan and got his PhD in Applied Linguistics-
TEFL and curricula. His main research interests lie in the four skills, grammar and vocabularies' strategies, second language
acquisition and learning, translation, CALL, TEFL, and TESL. Also he is expert in analyzing and designing curricula for primary and
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secondary stages at schools. He has published several researches and attended several conferences. Finally, he is awarded as one of
the best researchers at Albalqa Applied University.
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... In other words, learners may be able to understand the concepts when explained by the educators but not necessarily have the understanding or relevant skills to transfer the message across to their teachers or to their classmates. They may not undoubtably possess the abilities to interpret their conceptual categorization and this may hinder their academic writing process and ultimately their progress in the university or in their professional career [2]; [7]; [22]; [23]. According to Zhang et. ...
Chapter
This paper analyses the challenges faced by Emirati students who are admitted to universities in the UAE where the medium of instruction is in English. The study focuses mainly on the expectations of their performance during a full semester course where students are supposed to move from an intermediate level B1 user of English to upper intermediate B2 in a short span of one semester which is less than four months. The sample was collected from students’ past assessments in correlation to their language admission requirement, who are enrolled in the first year in two compulsory general English courses in an undergraduate degree program. The paper examines the validity of whether the IELTS and EmSAT exam scores that are the standard tests accepted for the entrance of both courses is achievable within a little period of time and the effects of whether linguistic acquisition can be obtained. Two sections of entrance English courses samples are compared to the other data collected from two sections of follow on level English course, along with the test scores achieved by the same students to enter the university. The paper reveals the findings of discrepancies between students who start with entrance English course (English 1) and progress to the follow-on English course (English 2) as opposed to the students who are admitted directly to the higher-level English 2 course. The main purpose behind this study is to understand the challenges faced by nonnative speakers of English i.e. Emiratis in particular and bridging the gap of linguistic barriers that they face in their tertiary studies in the target language.
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The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not using the Cornell note-taking method improves students' reading comprehension while they are enrolled in the first grade at MA-Al Hidayah. In this study, a pre-experimental research design was used, and participants in one group had a pre-test, treatment, and post-test. The overall sample size was thirty students, and the approach utilized was called purposive sampling. This study made use of a multiple-choice questionnaire as its tool. The findings of this study indicate that the pre-test mean score for students was 54.38, but that it increased to 79.06 after the intervention. It is possible to draw the conclusion that the students' reading comprehension increased, and this indicates that using the Cornel Note Taking approach led to an increase in the students' reading comprehension.
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Notetaking is a vital component of student learning and perhaps even more critical in the recent emergence of e-learning settings. The conventional literature proposes notetaking increases student attention, provides students an external source of knowledge, and gives students the ability to encode learned material into a form most digestible to them. We utilize a framed field experiment to investigate whether training students in a structured notetaking method improves the quality of students’ notes and their performance on assessments in two Principles of Microeconomics courses in Spring 2019. We find in t-tests, ordinary least squares regressions, and fixed effects estimations that training in structured notetaking positively correlates with both the quality of student’s notes and their performance on course assessments.
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A collection of original papers by researchers working in the field which comprehensively addresses the area of second language academic listening. This collection of original papers comprehensively addresses the area of second language academic listening. The papers are grouped under five broad headings. The first section provides an overview of research relevant to second language lecture comprehension. The second analyses aspects of the cognitive processes involved in listening comprehension. In the third section, the object of the comprehension process is examined, and in the fourth, ethnographic approaches are explored by extending the concept of listening comprehension to place it in the wider context of 'the culture of learning'. In the final section, the theory of second language listening comprehension is related to practical pedagogic concerns. Each section is preceded by an accessible introduction and the book as a whole provides detailed coverage of important aspects of academic listening phenomena.
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This presentation will introduce different yet complementary empirical studies as part of the TOETOE (Technology for Open English – Training with Open E-resources) project, managed by Alannah Fitzgerald, with SCORE and Durham University’s English Language Centre (DUELC). Teaching participants involved in an OER cascade project carried out at DUELC, Terri Edwards, Jeff Davidson, Clare Carr and Lesley Kendall, all experienced practitioners in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) will present their first-hand experience of engaging with open practices for the first time with the design, development and delivery of innovative OER for EAP courses. OER in open file format were developed for teacher and learner training across two different EAP student cohorts (intermediate and proficient users of English) of two classes each for enhancing student writing and vocabulary acquisition in their specific subject domains. Both students and teachers made impactful changes in their language learning and teaching practice by utilising a range of open content and open tools. A variety of innovative OER were employed in the study, including: open corpora derived from Google and Wikipedia collections as part of the FLAX (Flexible Language Acquisition Project) based at the University of Waikato in New Zealand http://flax.nzdl.org/greenstone3/flax; open source tools for text analysis found in FLAX and in the Compleat Lexical Tutor http://www.lextutor.ca/ centred at the Université du Québec à Montréal with the Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance at Concordia University in Canada, and; open source software for building your own corpora, AntConc, established at Waseda University in Japan http://www.antlab.sci.waseda.ac.jp/software.html. Leading English Language Teaching (ELT) practitioners were also interviewed about their work in promoting openness in ELT. An exploration of the different motivations for those practitioners’ commitment to the open agenda will be presented, including reasons for: sharing and endorsing OER and open practices for ELT; building open corpora and open platforms for data driven language learning, and; developing open source software for interactive language learning tools. A widening OER for EAP stakeholder vision will also be presented in the context of informal and formal learning communities who are now engaging with these types of OER for language learning. This is based on two scoping exercises attached to the TOETOE project, involving the newly launched OER University’s (OERu) prototype 2012 plans for accreditation and curriculum development and exploring where OER for EAP would be a ‘good fit’, and the newly formed web resources sub committee within BALEAP, formerly a British organisation but now with an outreach mandate to become ‘the’ global forum for EAP practitioners. Identifying how these different stakeholders collaborate around OER for EAP within formal face-to-face and distance education as well as informal education routes via not-for-profit organisations such as the OERu will provide insights into how effectively OER are discovered, used, shared and sustained and whether greater synergy can be attained between these different communities of practice.
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The present study examined the process and product effects of note-taking strategy training on Iranian EFL learners' comprehension and retention of written material, with gender as a moderating variable. Intermediate undergraduate EFL learners (N = 108) were assigned to experimental and control groups. The Experimental (intervention) Group received training on how to take notes, using graphic organizers as a guide, while the Control Group did not receive any instruction. A multiple-choice reading test as well as two immediate and delayed written recalls (in combination with reviewing the notes) was used to measure note-taking effectiveness. The results of two-way ANOVAs suggested that the Experimental Group performed significantly better on both comprehension and recall tests. No statistically significant effect of gender was found on students' performance in the comprehension and retention tests. Analysis of written recalls also showed that the Experimental Group remembered more important ideas, and better identified the relationships between ideas.
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The main concern of the present study is to probe the relationship between note-taking strategy and students' listening comprehension (LC) ability. To conduct the study, a language proficiency test was administered to the undergraduate students majoring in English Translation at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz and sixty students were selected to enter into the next phase of the experiment. They were then randomly divided into three groups: uninstructed note-takers, Cornell note-takers, and non note-takers. Next, the three groups were asked to listen to the listening section of a simulated TOEFL proficiency test. The results, in general, supported a clear link between note-taking strategy and LC ability. An important finding of this study was that students who took notes according to their own method showed lower level of language achievement than those who took notes on the basis of the Cornell method.
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In 1593, two writing systems were united on the pages of the first book published in the Philippines, a Doctrina Christiana, which represented Spanish with a Roman (specifically Gothic Rotunda) script and Tagalog with an Indic script.... About 2,500 years before, the two scripts had separated from their West Semitic ancestor and started to make their way around the world: one, Phoenician, headed west, took on new forms in Greece and Rome, spread throughout Europe, and continued to the Americas; the other, Aramaic, headed east, took on new forms in India, and spread, with continuing new forms, through most of mainland Southeast Asia...and the full extent of Indonesia before reaching the Philippines as late as 1300 C. E., probably by way of Sulawesi (Celebes). After circling the world in opposite directions, the two scripts reunited when Spanish ships crossed the Pacific from Acapulco to Manila only years before the publication of the Doctrina.
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Given the potential benefits of classroom note taking as an essential learning strategy, the aim of the present study was to investigate how effective Cornell note-taking instruction and use could be in language grammar learning process. The variable of gender was also taken into consideration. For these reasons, 70 intermediate EFL students, 44 males and 26 females, formed two homogenous groups and underwent an experiment in which, after both groups took a pre-test, the experimental group received special training on how to take Cornell notes. Then, the two groups were exposed to grammar instruction. When the treatment was over, a test of grammar was administered to both groups. A careful examination of the data, using a series of T-tests, clearly depicted that the experimental group had outperformed the control one. With respect to the variable of gender, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. The conclusions were further discussed and used to develop some practical applications of the study.
The influence of note-taking strategy on improving students' academic achievement from English and TEFL majors' perspectives at An
  • B Al-Ashkar
Al-Ashkar, B. (2014). The influence of note-taking strategy on improving students' academic achievement from English and TEFL majors' perspectives at An-Najah National University. Master degree. An-Najah National university