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Corrigendum of “A systematic review of the socio-economic impacts of large-scale tree plantations, worldwide” [Glob. Environ. Change 53 (2018) 90–103]

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Global Environmental Change
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/gloenvcha
Corrigendum of A systematic review of the socio-economic impacts of
large-scale tree plantations, worldwide[Glob. Environ. Change 53 (2018)
90103]
Arttu Malkamäki
a,b,
, Dalia DAmato
a,b
, Nicholas J. Hogarth
a,c
, Markku Kanninen
c,d
,
Romain Pirard
e
, Anne Toppinen
a,b
, Wen Zhou
d,f,g
a
Helsinki Institute of Sustainability Science, University of Helsinki, Finland
b
Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
c
Viikki Tropical Resources Institute, University of Helsinki, Finland
d
Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia
e
Independent consultant, Paris, France
f
School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States
g
Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States
The author regrets to inform readers about an error in the legend of
Fig. 8. Currently the legend reads "Fig. 8. Associations between cate-
gories." However, the correct version is "Fig. 8. Associations between
categories. Yellow lines refer to both mutually-reinforcing and negating
associations. Linewidth reects the relative abundance of such asso-
ciations in the evidence base."
The author apologizes for this error and any consequent incon-
venience to readers.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2019.101931
DOI of original article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.09.001
Corresponding author at: Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Latokartanonkaari 7, 00014, Helsinki, Finland
E-mail address: arttu.malkamaki@helsinki.(A. Malkamäki).
Global Environmental Change 57 (2019) 101931
0959-3780/ © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
T
... Much of the work has been carried out by smallholder households, who now control somewhere between 40-70% of the country's planted forest area, depending on how land 'ownership' is classified (World Bank 2019, MARD 2020. This is in contrast to other countries, in which large-scale plantation establishment (often by governments or businesses) has come at the expense of local peoples, including displacement and other negative socio-economic impacts (Malkamäki et al. 2018). The lessons learned from Vietnam's example could therefore provide useful information for other countries seeking to use smallholders in their own restoration interventions. ...
... Other proactive interventions for improving smallholder engaged FLR outcomes include a focus on capacity development and training (Bloomfield et al. 2019) and granting of community tenure rights and support (Erhbarg et al. 2020). The long-term engagement and willingness of smallholders is also dependent on the perceived benefits they receive, and existing programs show mixed results in terms of livelihood improvements (Adams et al. 2016, Malkamäki et al. 2018. Many of these potential success factors and barriers are embedded in the SER Social Benefits Wheel, which was developed to provide an easy-to-adapt template reflecting best-practices and standards (Gann et al. 2019) (Figure 1). ...
... Globally, livelihood benefits from afforestation and restoration depend on the type of program; for example, large-scale plantations run by outside investors have been associated with higher levels of poverty and diminished livelihoods (Malkamäki et al. 2018), while more modestscale FLR programs have better balanced social and environmental benefits (Adams et al. 2016, Mansourian andVallauri 2014). Vietnam's case indicates that there are potential benefits associated with smallholder tree planting, but also evidence of rising inequalities. ...
... Much of the work has been carried out by smallholder households, who now control somewhere between 40-70% of the country's planted forest area, depending on how land 'ownership' is classified (World Bank 2019, MARD 2020. This is in contrast to other countries, in which large-scale plantation establishment (often by governments or businesses) has come at the expense of local peoples, including displacement and other negative socio-economic impacts (Malkamäki et al. 2018). The lessons learned from Vietnam's example could therefore provide useful information for other countries seeking to use smallholders in their own restoration interventions. ...
... Other proactive interventions for improving smallholder engaged FLR outcomes include a focus on capacity development and training (Bloomfield et al. 2019) and granting of community tenure rights and support (Erhbarg et al. 2020). The long-term engagement and willingness of smallholders is also dependent on the perceived benefits they receive, and existing programs show mixed results in terms of livelihood improvements (Adams et al. 2016, Malkamäki et al. 2018. Many of these potential success factors and barriers are embedded in the SER Social Benefits Wheel, which was developed to provide an easy-to-adapt template reflecting best-practices and standards (Gann et al. 2019) (Figure 1). ...
... Globally, livelihood benefits from afforestation and restoration depend on the type of program; for example, large-scale plantations run by outside investors have been associated with higher levels of poverty and diminished livelihoods (Malkamäki et al. 2018), while more modestscale FLR programs have better balanced social and environmental benefits (Adams et al. 2016, Mansourian andVallauri 2014). Vietnam's case indicates that there are potential benefits associated with smallholder tree planting, but also evidence of rising inequalities. ...
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In recent decades, Vietnam has embarked on several ambitious projects, including restoration of coastal mangroves and the expansion of national forest cover through large-scale tree planting efforts. Much of the work is being carried out by individual households, who now likely control a majority of planted productive forest land. Yet despite the strong role for smallholders, questions have been raised about the social benefits of their participation, and insufficient attention has been paid to whether these programs are truly aimed at restoration or more narrowly at plantation development only. This paper assesses several of Vietnam's recent tree-planting projects against the Society for Ecological Restoration's standards, particularly around social benefits, and concludes that Vietnam is failing on most measures, ranging from stakeholder engagement to natural capital benefits. Overall, smallholders mostly view the tree planting projects in terms of financial benefits from short rotation cycles for pulp and woodchip mills, which offer low value, few social benefits, and little ecological restoration potential. The paper argues that Vietnam would benefit from more engaged restoration activities that pay attention to social benefits for smallholders, ensuring more long-term sustainability for both people and forests.
... Probably, the magnitude and direction of the changes generated with the REP-app will depend on the original ecosystem that was replaced, and the new tree species was established (Puhlick et al. 2017;Lindenmayer et al. 2003;Lewis et al. 2016;Ritter 2017). The differences of the new tree cover in functional properties, structure, and composition, from those forest ecosystems they replace, could alter the C retained in the biomass, soil, and its nutrient reserves, as well as influence other more complex ecosystem processes (Tropek et al. 2014;Chazdon et al. 2016;Malkamäki et al. 2018;Chemura et al. 2020). ...
... Second, FPC constitutes an "agricultural" use of land and is primarily for commercial purposes (FAO 2020). Therefore, to achieve the maximum expected yields, these plantations made up of one or two species are intensively managed and carried out on fertile soils in order to make the investment profitable, which has historically meant that they were implemented in replacement of NFC (Chazdon et al. 2016;Malkamäki et al. 2018). Third, regardless of the environmental role of FPC, they constitute a land cover type with economic importance and mobilization of local economies (Chemura et al. 2020). ...
... Goals defined in this way will undoubtedly lead to an effective impact such as CO 2 removal strategies on a large scale. The promotion of TCI without eliminating the REP-app as a mitigation strategy will lead to an inverse consequence to that expected (Madeira et al. 1989;Barlow et al. 2007;Lewis et al. 2016;Baldocchi and Peñuelas 2019;Yan et al. 2020) with probable negative impacts on other aspects related to territorial sustainability (Malkamäki et al. 2018;Ennos et al. 2019). The debate about the FPC introduction should therefore be carried out within broader territorial development strategies, especially in subtropical biodiverse ecosystems, but not with mitigation objectives (Lindenmayer et al. 2003;Chazdon et al. 2016;Van Holt and Putz 2017;Kasel and Bennett 2007;Kongsager et al. 2013;Straaten et al. 2015). ...
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Worldwide tree cover increase (TCI) is one the most important climate change mitigation strategies, given the role of the ecosystems as carbon (C) reservoirs. Reforestation could be key to achieving TCI. However, there is still a knowledge gap about its real mitigation effects when it is applied through its replacement approach (REP-app). We evaluate the REP-app effects (replace native forest cover—NFC—by forestry plantation cover—FPC) on magnitude and direction of ecosystem C stock changes. By means of a field study, we quantified the C stock through a space-for-time substitution method, using eight paired sites (NFC/FPC) in a northern Argentinian subtropical forest (SAY). We studied C in saplings, lianas, above and belowground biomass, dead organic biomass, and soil. Through a metaanalysis, we evaluated the reliableness within the response of C sequestration (gain or loss) in international study cases and, therefore, the robustness of outcomes analyzing some main moderator variables that may influence the result. A significant effect of C loss was revealed by both, the field study (− 50%) and the metaanalysis (− 20.4%), and this response was consistent through stands of ages and species different. SAY sequestered 285 MgC ha−1. Only 35-year-old Eucalyptus stand reached similar values, but they are reservoirs of doubtful permanence with functional attributes that could affect long-term ecosystem functioning. Given that the TCI strategy seek to achieve interconnected efforts in relation to climate, biodiversity, and sustainable development, the REP-app must not be considered a mitigation strategy in subtropical ecosystems. Global programs promoting TCI must be redirected urgently. Please take a view here: https://rdcu.be/b7YU4
... Tree planting threatens rural livelihoods Tree planting programs often target ecosystems or farmland that rural people depend on for subsistence livelihoods (Malkamäki et al. 2018). Frequently these people have insecure land tenure, and the land may be viewed by governments or other actors as "available" for tree planting. ...
... Replacing croplands with trees can result in unemployment for agricultural workers and elevate food prices (Lewis et al. 2019). Tree planting can bring positive livelihood benefits, but only if land rights enable people to select the trees they need, maintain their local food production systems, and secure the future benefits of ecosystem conservation (Duguma et al. 2020, Malkamäki et al. 2018. ...
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Scientists, corporations, mystics, and movie stars have convinced policymakers around the world that a massive campaign to plant trees should be an essential element of global climate policy. Public dialogue has emphasized potential benefits of tree planting while downplaying pitfalls and limitations that are well established by social and ecological research. We argue that if natural climate solutions are to succeed while economies decarbonize (Griscom et al. 2017), policymakers must recognize and avoid the expense, risk, and damage that poorly designed and hastily implemented tree plantings impose on ecosystems and people. We propose that people-centered climate policies should be developed that support the social, economic, and political conditions that are compatible with the conservation of Earth’s diversity of terrestrial ecosystems. Such a shift in focus, away from tree planting and toward people and ecosystems, must be rooted in the understanding that natural climate solutions can only be effective if they respond to the needs of the rural and indigenous people who manage ecosystems for their livelihoods.
... Planted forest typically refers to the forest that is primarily made up of trees that have been planted and/or intentionally seeding. Planted forests provide many benefits including traditional timber and fibre production, economic development, and employment in rural areas [2] and have been identified as a key means to fight climate change in the short to medium term, restore degraded land, and maintain sustainable ecosystem functions and services [3][4][5][6]. In the context of a broader geographic and economic context, wellmanaged planted forests can contribute to sustainable development [7]. ...
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Forest covers 4.06 billion hectares (ha) or 31% of the total land area worldwide, where 93% (3.75 billion ha) are natural regenerating forests and the remaining 7% (294 million ha) are planted forests. Eucalyptus spp., being one of the most important plantation species, has been planted in 95 countries around the world, and the area of plantation has exceeded 22.57 million ha. In the southern hemisphere, it is a significant industrial fast-growing tree species. +ese plantations serve as a valuable resource for the timber and fibre-based industries. Eucalyptus is the main fibre resource for the pulp and paper industries in developed countries. Timber extracted from the planted eucalyptus trees has long been used for solid wood and its fibres were used for manufacturing medium-density fibreboard. In comparison to most softwood species, Eucalyptus timber is reported to have a higher rigidity, making it ideal for manufacturing structural products. +erefore, this paper presents a review and analysis of the recent state of research on the utilisation of planted eucalyptus for engineered wood products (EWPs) manufacturing. +is study investigated Eucalyptus-based EWPs such as particleboard, fibreboard, oriented strand board, laminated veneer lumber, plywood, glue laminated lumber, and cross-laminated lumber. +e feasibility of using planted Eucalyptus in the production of EWPs, as well as the challenges encountered, was also discussed.
... Tree plantations are a key element of ambitious policy proposals to restore ecosystem services and address climate change, including the Bonn Challenge, the Trillion Tree initiatives, and the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (12,41). Given their potential impacts on biodiversity, re risk, and human wellbeing, tree plantations are controversial (12,38,42). This controversy has largely proceeded in the absence of global data on plantation expansion, and the net impact of plantation expansion has thus been di cult to assess, especially in understudied regions like Africa. ...
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Across the tropics, recent agricultural shifts have led to a rapid expansion of tree plantations, often into intact forest and grassland habitats. However, this expansion is poorly characterized. Here we report tropical tree plantation expansion between 2000 and 2012, based on classifying nearly 7 million unique patches of observed tree cover gain using optical and radar satellite imagery. Most observed gain patches (69.2%) consisted of small patches of natural regrowth (5.9 ± 0.2 Mha). However, expansion of tree plantations dominated observed increases in tree cover across the tropics (11.8 ± 0.2 Mha) with 92% of plantation expansion occurring in biodiversity hotspots and 14% in arid biomes. We estimate that tree plantations expanded into 9.2% of accessible protected areas across the humid tropics, most frequently in southeast Asia, west Africa, and Brazil. Given international tree planting commitments, it is critical to understand how future tree plantation expansion will affect remaining natural ecosystems. One Sentence Summary: Tree plantations dominated recent expansions of tropical tree cover, including into 9% of accessible parks in the humid tropics.
... Ecological restoration can improve the local environment's quality to increase landscape esthetics and recreational possibilities (Summers et al. 2012;Sagebiel et al. 2017). However, ecological restoration can also cause conflicts between human living land and ecological land, which usually has a negative impact on people's employment and livelihoods (Andersson et al. 2001(Andersson et al. -2011Malkamaki et al. 2019), thereby affecting people's happiness and social cohesion. Overall, due to the complexity and subjectivity of the influencing factors, the evaluation of CESs is still a complex and interdisciplinary issue (Brancalion et al. 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although ecological restoration has increased the stability and diversity of regional ecosystem services, its effects on public perceptions of cultural ecosystem services (CESs) remain unclear. Therefore, this study conducted a questionnaire survey of 455 interviewees in Ansai County on the Loess Plateau and combined the structural equation model (SEM) to explore the characteristics and influencing factors of public perceptions of CESs. Moreover, we also calculated landscape importance to quantify the impact of landscape features on CESs. The results showed that ecological restoration increased the overall public perceptions of CESs. Regarding the different types of CESs, the public most strongly perceived esthetic services but had the lowest perception of cultural heritage after ecological restoration. Regarding demographic characteristics, gender and age were the most important factors affecting public perceptions. Men were more likely to perceive CESs than women, while older interviewees had higher perceptions of the value of physical and mental health services, education and science than young interviewees. In addition, forestlands were perceived as playing more important roles than other landscape types in providing CESs. This study demonstrates that ecological restoration will improve public perceptions of CESs. Managers should incorporate public perceptions of CESs into the formulation of ecological management policies.
... Additionally, food security was a relevant aspect in their study; this aspect is only covered by the literature review in our study. Malkamäki et al. [108] investigated socioeconomic impacts of global large-scale tree plantations. Their findings underline the importance of an SLCA as the most frequently reported impacts were employment, land, social impacts, and livelihoods. ...
Article
Full-text available
The establishment of new value chains raises expectations in economic and social benefits. To determine whether these expectations can be fulfilled or whether there are also negative consequences, social aspects should be assessed as early as the R&D phase. Potential social impacts can be assessed with the help of a social life cycle assessment (SLCA). A common problem in SLCA studies is the large number of social aspects. Thus, it is important to prioritize the most relevant aspects. Scholars agree that socioeconomic indicators should not be selected on a purely intuitive and common sense basis and that a standardized approach is missing. A three-step process has been developed to identify the most vulnerable and relevant social aspects. These three steps were implemented into a case study to empirically test the method. Short-rotation-coppice as an alternative form of agricultural dendromass production is one possibility to obtain wood resources for the processing of bio-based products. The use of agricultural land for dendromass production promises additional income for the region's farmers and job opportunities for the local population. The extant literature shows that the most frequently addressed impacts are related to workers' health and safety aspects. The outcome of this study aims to support future research by identifying an appropriate approach for the selection of indicators in SLCA. For studies with a similar focus, the proposed set of indicators can be used as a framework in itself or serve as a basis for the choice of relevant social indicators. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12155-021-10261-9.
... The plantation and cultivation of wild forest plants are suggested as a way to relieve pressure on natural forests (Jamnadass et al. 2009;Malkamäki et al. 2018;Arvola et al. 2019). Large-scale commercial plantations and smallholder plantations are considered in publications, and studies show both negative and positive implications for socioeconomic sustainability. ...
... Understanding the impacts of industry internationalization on competitiveness extends analysis beyond the boreal forests, with many of the Nordic industrial forestry companies having operations in the Global South. According to a global meta-review by Malkamäki et al. (2018), the socioeconomic impacts of such largescale tree plantations are many and varied. The greatest number of impacts have been on employment, land, livelihoods, and social impact feedbacks. ...
Article
Full-text available
Megaforces such as climate change, and market dynamics are impacting the development of product and service markets in the forest sector, driving renewal and reorientation. The University of Helsinki (UofH) has produced leading academic research, through global collaborations, on managing that transition by firms within the Nordic forest sector. To further understanding of how much and in what ways their research is aligned to forest sector developments, a case study was conducted assessing (1) the Nordic industrial forest context, (2) the corresponding research contributions and collaborations from 2014–2019, and (3) future research orientations. A conceptual lens of forest-value chain sustainability from the perspective of industrial competitiveness was applied. Research design included three questions for the aspects noted, investigated sequentially to triangulate and validate results. The results highlighted similarities and divergences between current and future research orientations and between researcher perspectives and the actions of incumbent forestry firms. Together, these indicate gaps in the ambition level required to support renewal in industrial competitiveness. Closing them will require a radical transformation, relying on proactive management and investment toward new product and service development, in order for forest industry firms to become champions in the circular and bioeconomy paradigms.
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