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The new Oriental stick insect genus Baculomia gen. nov. with two new species from Vietnam including the first stick insect feeding on sugarcane (Phasmida, Phasmatidae, Clitumninae, Clitumnini)

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The genus Baculomia gen. nov. is described in the tribe Clitumnini to accommodate two new species from Vietnam and Ramulus siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) from Thailand. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov. from Pu Mat National Park is described based on both sexes and egg and B. baviensis sp. nov. is described from a single male from Ba Vi National Park. The new combination Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov. is proposed. An identification key and a distribution map are provided as well as details on the biology of B. pumatensis sp. nov. that was found feeding on spontaneous sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae), and on Rubus sp. (Rosaceae).
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Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019) ISSN: 2295-0214
www.srbe-kbve.be
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0CC6F718-B82F-401A-8B0F-E9216C1786EF
Belgian Journal of Entomology
The new Oriental stick insect genus Baculomia gen. nov. with
two new species from Vietnam including
the first stick insect feeding on sugarcane
(Phasmida, Phasmatidae, Clitumninae, Clitumnini)
Joachim BRESSEEL¹ & Jérôme CONSTANT²
1,2 Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, O.D. Phylogeny and Taxonomy, Entomology, Vautier street 29,
B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
1 E-mail:joachimbresseel@gmail.com (corresponding author)
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:author:3C4EF358-9716-46F0-8575-26BE1EDE4349
2 E-mail: jerome.constant@naturalsciences.be
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:author:6E6072A1-9415-4C8D-8E60-2504444DB290
Published: Brussels, July 01, 2019
2
Citation: BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J., 2019. - The new Oriental stick insect genus Baculomia gen. nov. with two new
species from Vietnam including the first stick insect feeding on sugarcane (Phasmida, Phasmatidae, Clitumninae,
Clitumnini). Belgian Journal of Entomology, 87: 1–25.
ISSN: 1374-5514 (Print Edition)
ISSN: 2295-0214 (Online Edition)
The Belgian Journal of Entomology is published by the Royal
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Front cover: Baculomia pumatensis et sp. nov., Vietnam, Nghe An Province, Pu Mat National Park, 4–
9.VII.2017. Left: , right: .
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
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The new Oriental stick insect genus Baculomia gen. nov. with
two new species from Vietnam including
the first stick insect feeding on sugarcane
(Phasmida, Phasmatidae, Clitumninae, Clitumnini)
Joachim BRESSEEL¹ & Jérôme CONSTANT²
1,2 Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, O.D. Phylogeny and Taxonomy, Entomology, Vautier street 29,
B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
1 E-mail:joachimbresseel@gmail.com (corresponding author)
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:author:3C4EF358-9716-46F0-8575-26BE1EDE4349
2 E-mail: jerome.constant@naturalsciences.be
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:author:6E6072A1-9415-4C8D-8E60-2504444DB290
Abstract
The genus Baculomia gen. nov. is described in the tribe Clitumnini to accommodate two new
species from Vietnam and Ramulus siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) from Thailand.
Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov. from Pu Mat National Park is described based on both sexes
and egg and B. baviensis sp. nov. is described from a single male from Ba Vi National Park.
The new combination Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov. is
proposed. An identification key and a distribution map are provided as well as details on the
biology of B. pumatensis sp. nov. that was found feeding on spontaneous sugarcane,
Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae), and on Rubus sp. (Rosaceae).
Keywords: Phasmatodea, Ramulus, Indochina, Global Taxonomy Initiative, sugarcane.
Introduction
The identification of specimens of stick insects collected in the framework of the Global
Taxonomy Initiative project “A step further in the entomodiversity of Vietnam” revealed that
a new genus needs to be erected to include two new species from North and northern Central
Vietnam. The new genus belongs to the Clitumnini in the Clitumninae. Five genera and 17
species of Clitumnini are currently recorded from Vietnam (BROCK et al., 2019), twelve of
which are in the genus Ramulus Saussure, 1862. Scrutiny of the species currently in Ramulus
led to the conclusion that R. siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) also belongs to the
newly recognized genus.
The present paper aims to describe the new genus Baculomia gen. nov. and the two new
species from Pu Mat and Ba Vi national parks respectively, to transfer Ramulus siamensis to
the new genus and to provide a distribution map and identification key to the treated species.
Material and methods
Due to their nocturnal behaviour, the specimens of Baculomia gen. nov. were collected at
night. A light-weight and water-proof Petzl MYO RXP head torch was used during collecting.
Females were kept alive in a mesh pop up cage (exo terra explorarium™) for producing eggs.
The specimens were euthanized by an injection with ethanol, then stored in airtight plastic
“zip”-bags in wood chips (used in rodent cages) and sprinkled with etylacetate (EtOAc) to
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
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prevent rotting, mould and to keep the specimens flexible. The bags were frozen on arrival
and the specimens mounted later on.
For each picture of the new species, a number of photographs were taken with a Canon 700D
camera equipped with a Sigma 50 mm Macro lens (for adults), or with a Leica EZ4W
stereomicroscope with integrated camera (for eggs), stacked with CombineZ software and
optimized with Adobe Photoshop CS3. The distribution map was produced with
SimpleMappr (SHORTHOUSE, 2010). Observations were done with a Leica MZ8
stereomicroscope and measurements taken with an electronic calliper.
The nomenclature of the morphological characters follows BRAGG (2001); the egg
morphology follows that of CLARK SELLICK (1997; 1998). The description of the colouration
is based on live specimens.
Micro-ct scanning and data acquisition of an egg of Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov. were
performed using the XRE UniTOM system (TESCAN, XRE GHENT Belgium). No filter was
used. Following parameters were set: tube voltage of 70 kV, tube power of 3 W and exposure
time of 1600 ms. Finally 1500 projections (1 average per image) at a voxel size of 2 µm were
acquired during the scanning process. The resulting projections were reconstructed using the
XRE Recon software version 1.0.0.65. For the visualization, rendering of the data and to
create a video, the software Drishti version 2.6.5 was used. The exported video was finally
edited into the software Shotcut version 5.6.1. to add text annotations.
Acronyms used for the collections:
MNHN = Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
RBINS = Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium.
VNMN = Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Abbreviations:
N.P.: National Park
HT: holotype
PT: paratype
Taxonomy
Family Phasmatidae Gray, 1835
Subfamily Clitumninae Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893
Tribe Clitumnini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893
Genus Baculomia gen. nov.
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:866CF8E4-86D4-4AF7-9204-69CFED1771A4
Type species: Baculomia pumatensis Bresseel & Constant sp. nov. by present designation.
ETYMOLOGY. The genus name is formed by the combination of the Latin noun baculum,
meaning stick, and “mia”, derived from the Vietnamese name “cây mía”, designating plants
of the genus Saccharum L. (Poaceae; sugarcane and allies). The name refers to the stick-like
shape of the body and to one of the host plants observed for a species of the genus.
DIAGNOSIS
The genus can be differentiated from all other known genera of Clitumnini, 1893 by the
following combination of characters:
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
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1) Characteristic head shape, head smooth with widest part at eyes and slightly tapering
towards the posterior.
2) Head almost twice as long as pronotum and only slightly wider than pronotum.
3) Praeopercular organ in females absent.
4) Female subgenital plate only slightly longer than tergum VII; about as high as anal
segment, with mediolongitudinal carina in the posterior half.
5) Poculum of males relatively flat, projecting over posterior margin abdominal tergum IX.
6) Egg very small compared to body size, with capsule angular and rugose, operculum flat,
polar area concave; micropylar plate flat, not protruding on lateral surfaces of capsule.
Baculomia gen. nov. is very similar to the Clitumnini genera Cuniculina Brunner von
Wattenwyl, 1907, Parabaculum Brock, 1999 and Ramulus Saussure, 1862 but can be easily
distinguished from these genera by comparing the length of the subgenital plate (or the last
three abdominal terga) of the females with tergum VII. Baculomia gen. nov. has the
subgenital plate as long or indistinctly longer than tergum VII whereas in Cuniculina and
Ramulus it is distinctly longer than tergum VII; in Parabaculum, the subgenital plate is
almost twice as long as tergum VII. Cuniculina can also be easily distinguished by its egg
morphology with the capsule strongly elongated, the polar area deeply incised, the operculum
bearing a high rim tapering and ending in a tip dorsally.
DESCRIPTION.
Body: stick-like with comparatively large head.
Head: surface smooth; distinctly longer than wide with widest part at eyes, slightly narrowing
towards the posterior; dorsal portion slightly convex with indistinct mediolongitudinal line.
Antennae relatively short, consisting of 24–35 segments. Scapus elongated, strongly flattened
dorsoventrally. Pedicellus very short, distinctly narrower than scapus and knob-like.
Thorax: pronotum smooth, distinctly shorter and narrower than head; lateral margins slightly
sinuate; anterior margin concave and slightly raised. Prozona with mediolongitudinal line and
shallow impression medially; central transverse impression not reaching lateral margins;
posterior margin more or less straight. Mesonotum with raised mediolongitudinal line; more
or less parallel-sided; slightly wider at anterior and posterior margins.
Legs: profemora compressed and curved basally, distinctly higher than wide; all carinae
present. Mesofemora with few minute black spines along posterior portion of medioventral
carina. Metafemora longer than mesofemora, armed as mesofemora.
Abdomen: median segment and abdominal terga smooth.
Males with tergum X split into two semi-tergites with inner surface armed with minute, black
hook-like teeth. Vomer absent. Cerci relatively short, slightly incurving, not reaching apex of
semi-tergites. Poculum slightly projecting over abdominal tergum IX, with basal portion
convex; apical portion tapering.
Females with tergum X slightly longer than IX and slightly tectiform, very weakly notched
posteriorly. Epiproct developed, triangular and with mediolongitudinal carina. Cerci
elongated, more or less cylindrical, reaching apex of abdomen. Subgenital plate narrow and
almost parallel-sided in ventral view, strongly tapered posteriorly; slightly keeled, with a
mediolongitudinal carina in posterior half and reaching posterior margin of anal segment.
NOTE. The new genus Baculomia gen. nov. is a typical stick-like Clitumninae with antennae
shorter than the profemora; males have a longitudinally split, internally dentate anal segment
and lack an external vomer. Baculomia gen. nov. is placed in the tribe Clitumnini following
the key to the tribes of Clitumninae provided by HENNEMANN & CONLE (2008).
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
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Species included
B. baviensis sp. nov. [Vietnam, Ba Vi. N.P.]
B. pumatensis sp. nov. [Vietnam, Pu Mat N.P.]
B. siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov. [Thailand]
Identification key to the species of Baculomia gen. nov.
MALES
1. Body colouration predominantly orange ............................................................................ 2
- Body colouration without any orange ...................................... Baculomia baviensis sp. nov.
2. Head orange, meso- and metafemora green ..........................................................................
...................................... Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov.
- Head whitish with mediolongitudinal black line, meso- and metafemora orange ................
............................................................................................. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov.
FEMALES*
1. Meso- and metatibiae with ventral carinae unarmed .............................................................
...................................... Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov.
- Meso- and metatibiae with distinct small spines on the ventral carinae in the posterior
portion .................................................................................. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov.
* The female of B. baviensis sp. nov. is unknown.
Baculomia baviensis sp. nov.
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:ACAA653A-6376-4244-A449-BEB705FFB24E
Figs 1–2
ETYMOLOGY. The species epithet refers to the type-locality of the species, Ba Vi National
Park in North Vietnam.
TYPE MATERIAL. VIETNAM: holotype : Vietnam, Hanoi pr., Ba Vi N.P., 21°4’4”N
105°21’30”E, 25-29.VI.2015, night collecting, leg. J. Constant & J. Bresseel, I.G.: 33.092
(RBINS).
DIAGNOSIS. Easily distinguished from the two other species of Baculomia gen. nov. by its
body without orange, unarmed tibiae, the rounded apex of the poculum and the much shorter
and broader, apically more or less rounded semi-tergites. Female and eggs unknown.
DESCRIPTION.
MALE (Fig 1)
Measurements: see table 1.
Colouration: head light brown, with some darker brown markings; two longitudinal dark lines
behind eyes. Pronotum pale brown with black mediolongitudinal line. Meso- and metanotum,
median segment and abdominal terga with three black longitudinal stripes, one medially and
the others laterally. Femora and tibiae orange brown with darkened apex.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
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Fig. 1. Baculomia baviensis sp. nov., holotype (RBINS). A, habitus, dorsal view. B. habitus, lateral view.
C, habitus, ventral view. D, head and thorax, dorsal view. E, terminalia, anterodorsal view. F, terminalia, dorsal
view. G, terminalia ventral view. H, terminalia, lateral view. I, head and thorax, lateral view.
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
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Head: surface smooth, about two times longer than wide, with widest part at eyes, slightly
narrowing towards the posterior; dorsal portion slightly convex with weak mediolongitudinal
line, more definite near occiput. Eyes quite small, circular and projecting. Antennae relatively
short, consisting of 24 segments (n = 1). Scapus elongated, strongly flattened dorsoventrally
with lateral margins almost straight. Pedicellus very short, distinctly narrower than scapus and
knob-like. Antennomere III longer than IV and V combined.
Thorax: pronotum smooth, distinctly shorter and narrower than head. Lateral margins slightly
sinuate; anterior margin concave and slightly raised. Anterolaterally with a minute
impression. Prozona with a mediolongitudinal line and a shallow impression medially. Central
transverse impression not reaching lateral margins. Metazona with weak mediolongitudinal
line not reaching posterior margin. Posterior margin more or less straight. Mesonotum with a
raised mediolongitudinal line; more or less parallel-sided with anterior and posterior margins
slightly wider; about six times as long as pronotum. Mesopleura smooth. Metanotum as
mesonotum, about four times as long as pronotum. Metapleura as mesopleura.
Legs: profemora compressed and curved basally, distinctly higher than wide. All carinae
present and unarmed. Mesofemora with few minute black spines along posterior portion on
medioventral carina. Metafemora longer than mesofemora, armed as mesofemora. Protibiae
carinate, distinctly longer than profemora and unarmed. Mesotibiae slightly longer than
mesofemora, carinate and unarmed. Metatibiae slightly shorter than metafemora, armed as
mesotibiae. Probasitarsus strongly elongated, longer than following tarsomeres combined.
Abdomen: median segment slightly shorter than pronotum. Abdominal terga smooth, terga II–
IV gradually increasing in length; IV–V about the same length; VI–VII gradually decreasing
in length; VIII about half the length of VII and widening towards the posterior; IX slightly
shorter than VIII; X split into two semi-tergites with inner portion armed with minute, black
hook-like spines. Semi-tergites tapering from lateral view, slightly incurving with apex
rounded. Vomer absent. Cerci relatively short, slightly incurving, not reaching apex of semi-
tergites. Poculum slightly projecting over abdominal tergum IX and with basal portion
convex; apical portion flattened and tapering; apex rounded from ventral view (slightly
deformed in the preserved specimen).
BIOLOGY. The specimen was collected at night time, in subtropical evergreen forest.
Table 1. Measurements [in mm] of Baculomia baviensis sp. nov.
Length of HT
Body: 82.9
Head: 5.5
Pronotum: 3.0
Mesonotum: 17.2
Metanotum: 12.0
Median segment: 2.7
Profemora: 37.6
Mesofemora: 22.9
Metafemora: 30.3
Protibiae: 43.8
Mesotibiae: 25.1
Metatibiae: 34.5
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
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DISTRIBUTION. Vietnam, Hanoi Province (Fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Baculomia spp., distribution map.
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
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Fig. 3. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov., holotype (RBINS). A, habitus, dorsal view. B. habitus, lateral view.
C, habitus, ventral view. D, head and thorax, dorsal view. E, terminalia, dorsal view. F, terminalia ventral view.
G, terminalia, lateral view. H, head and thorax, lateral view.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
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Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov.
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D71A15DF-8764-4BBC-935C-C5B86E6AE334
Figs 2–9
ETYMOLOGY. The species epithet refers to the type-locality of the species, Pu Mat National
Park in northern Central Vietnam.
TYPE MATERIAL. VIETNAM: holotype : Nghe An Province, Pu Mat National Park, 18°59’N
104°40’E, 4–9.VII.2017, night collecting, GTI project, leg. J. Constant & J. Bresseel, I.G.:
33.498 (RBINS).
Paratypes (23♂♂, 16♀♀): same data as holotype (20♂♂, 13♀♀: RBINS; 3♂♂, 3♀♀:
VNMN).
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL. Eggs: same data as holotype (RBINS).
DIAGNOSIS. Males are easily distinguished from B. baviensis sp. nov. by their predominantly
orange body colouration, meso- and metatibiae armed with minute spines on all carinae in the
distal portion, the triangular apex of the poculum and much longer and slender semi-tergites.
It can be distinguished from B. siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov. by the
lack of orange on the head in males and the rounded posterolateral angles of the anal segment
in females (acute in B. siamensis).
DESCRIPTION.
MALE (Figs 3–4)
Measurements: see table 2.
Colouration: head and pronotum whitish with broad black line dorsally; two longitudinal
black lines behind eyes. Antennae with scapus whitish on basal half and black on distal half;
other antennomeres black. Meso- and metanotum orange brown, with black
mediolongitudinal line and black triangular marking posteriorly. Median segment orange
brown with broad black mediolongitudinal line and transverse subapical black marking.
Abdominal terga II–VII orange brown with black mediolongitudinal line on terga II and VII.
Femora and tibiae orange brown with black carinae.
Head: surface smooth and glossy, about two times longer than wide, with widest part at eyes;
dorsally slightly convex with small raised area between eyes; mediolongitudinal line behind
raised area. Eyes quite small, circular and projecting. Antennae relatively short, consisting of
28–32 segments (n = 5). Scapus elongated, strongly flattened dorsoventrally with inner
margin almost straight and outer margin rounded. Pedicellus very short, distinctly narrower
than scapus and knob-like. Antennomere III longer than IV and V combined.
Thorax: pronotum smooth, distinctly shorter and narrower than head. Lateral margins slightly
sinuate; anterior margin concave and slightly raised; minute impression anterolaterally.
Prozona with mediolongitudinal line and shallow impression medially; central transverse
impression not reaching lateral margins. Metazona with indistinct mediolongitudinal line not
reaching posterior margin; posterior margin more or less straight. Mesonotum with raised
mediolongitudinal line, more or less parallel-sided with anterior and posterior margins slightly
wider; lateral margins slightly thicker; about six times the length of pronotum. Mesopleura
smooth. Metanotum as mesonotum, about four times the length of pronotum. Metapleura as
mesopleura.
Legs: profemora compressed and curved basally, distinctly higher than wide. All carinae
present and unarmed; medioventral carina indistinct. Mesofemora with medioventral carina
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
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with few minute black spines, more concentrated in distal portion; other carinae unarmed.
Metafemora slightly longer than mesofemora, armed as mesofemora. Protibiae carinate,
distinctly longer than profemora and unarmed. Mesotibiae about as long as mesofemora,
carinate and armed with some minute, elongate and acute spines in distal portion of all
carinae. Metatibiae slightly shorter than metafemora, armed as mesotibiae. Probasitarsus
strongly elongated, longer than head and pronotum combined and more than 1.5 times longer
than following tarsomeres combined. Meso- and metabasitarsus about as long or longer than
following tarsomeres combined.
Abdomen: median segment about as long as pronotum. Abdominal terga smooth. Terga II–III
gradually increasing in length; III–V about the same length; VI–VII gradually decreasing in
length; VIII about half the length of VII and widening towards the posterior; IX slightly
shorter than VIII; X with anterior half with mediolongitudinal carinae, later split into two
strongly elongated and incurving semi-tergites; inner portion armed with minute, black hook-
like spines. Semi-tergites strongly tapering from lateral view and with apex black. Vomer
absent. Cerci elongated, more or less cylindrical, slightly incurving, not reaching apex of
semi-tergites. Poculum slightly projecting over abdominal tergum IX with basal portion
convex and apical portion flattened and strongly tapering; apex triangular from ventral view.
Fig. 4. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov., , Vietnam, Nghe An Province, Pu Mat National Park, 4–9.VII.2017.
A, habitus. B, head and thorax, dorsolateral view. C, head and thorax, dorsal view.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
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Fig. 5. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov., paratype (RBINS). A, habitus, dorsal view. B. habitus, lateral view.
C, habitus, ventral view. D, head and thorax, dorsal view. E, terminalia, dorsal view. F, apex of metatibia and
tarsus, dorsal view. G, apex of metatibia and tarsus, ventral view. H, terminalia ventral view. I, terminalia, lateral
view. J, head and thorax, lateral view.
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
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Fig. 6. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov., , Vietnam, Nghe An Province, Pu Mat National Park, 4–9.VII.2017.
A, habitus, lateral view. B, habitus, dorsal view. C, head and thorax, dorsolateral view. D, head and thorax,
dorsal view.
FEMALE (Figs 5–6)
Measurements: see table 2.
Body: body and head predominantly grass green dorsally, darker green ventrally. Head with
two pale longitudinal lines dorsally close to eyes; laterally with a longitudinal pale line close
to ventral margin. Pronotum with lateral margins whitish. Meso- and metanotum with lateral
margins yellowish. Median segment and first abdominal terga with lateral margins whitish.
Femora with pinkish base, otherwise green; tibiae green.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
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Head: surface smooth and glossy; longer than wide and distinctly elongated, narrowing
towards the posterior; dorsally slightly rounded and with mediolongitudinal line. Eyes small,
circular and projecting. Antennae short, consisting of 32–35 segments (n = 5). Scapus
elongated, strongly flattened dorsoventrally with inner margin almost straight and outer
margin rounded. Pedicellus very short, distinctly narrower than scapus, slightly flattened
dorsoventrally and knob-like.
Thorax: pronotum smooth, distinctly shorter and narrower than head; lateral margins slightly
sinuate; anterior margin concave and slightly raised; anterolaterally with a minute impression.
Prozona with mediolongitudinal line and shallow impression medially; central transverse
impression not reaching lateral margins. Metazona with weak mediolongitudinal line not
reaching posterior margin; posterior margin more or less straight. Mesonotum with
mediolongitudinal line, more or less parallel-sided; lateral margins slightly thickened and
about 6 times the length of pronotum. Mesopleura smooth. Metanotum as mesonotum, more
than four times the length of pronotum. Metapleura as mesopleura.
Legs: profemora about as long as meso- and metanotum combined; compressed and strongly
curved basally; all carinae present; anterodorsal and anteroventral carinae raised and laterally
flattened; anterodorsal carina with some minute spines basally. Mesofemora slightly longer
than mesonotum; medioventral carina basally unarmed, with minute black spines more
concentrated in distal portion, other carinae unarmed. Metafemora longer than mesofemora,
but shorter than profemora, armed as mesofemora. Protibiae carinate, distinctly longer than
profemora and unarmed; medioventral carina distinct. Mesotibiae about as long as
mesofemora, carinate and armed with some minute, elongate and acute spines in distal portion
of all carinae. Metatibiae slightly longer than metafemora, armed as mesotibiae. Probasitarsus
strongly elongated and longer than head.
Abdomen: median segment about as long as pronotum. Abdominal terga smooth. Terga II–IV
gradually increasing in length; IV–V about the same length; VI–IX gradually decreasing in
length; VIII about half the length of VII; IX distinctly shorter than VIII; X slightly longer
than IX and slightly tectiform, weakly notched posteriorly. Epiproct well developed,
triangular and with mediolongitudinal carina. Cerci elongated, more or less cylindrical,
reaching apex of abdomen. Subgenital plate narrow and almost parallel-sided from ventral
view, strongly tapered posteriorly; slightly keeled, with mediolongitudinal carina in posterior
half and reaching posterior margin of anal segment.
EGG (Fig. 7)
Measurements (in mm). Length: 2.2; width: 1.3; height: 1.1.
Lateral view: capsule angular, operculum flat, ventral margin sinuate, dorsal margin with
micropylar plate area straight and basal portions near operculum and polar area oblique, polar
area concave; lateral surface rough, brown with paler raised wrinkles. Capsule widest at
lateroventral margins. Ventral part of capsule with mediolongitudinal ridge centrally and two
distinct, sinuate longitudinal grooves laterally; surface of grooves covered with minute pale
granules. Dorsal portion with micropylar plate margin weakly defined. Micropylar plate flat
with posterior margin rounded; anteriorly with distinct posterolateral angles, tapering
centrally. Micropylar cup reddish brown, concave and circular. Median line distinct and
coloured as micropylar plate. Antero- and posterolateral margins of dorsal portion with two
short longitudinal grooves, surface of grooves covered with minute pale granules. Operculum
oval, dark brown with some raised paler granules near outer rim and centrally with a small,
more or less circular marking consisting of raised paler granules; area inside central marking
weakly concave. Polar area indented centrally; surface as lateral surface of capsule; lateral
margins slightly raised.
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
16
Fig. 7. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov., eggs. A, laterodorsal view. B, lateral view. C, ventral view.
D, operculum. E, anterodorsal view. F, dorsal view. G, posterodorsal view. H, polar area.
Fig. 8. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov. A–B, feeding damages on Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae), Vietnam,
Nghe An Province, Pu Mat National Park, near station, 9.VII.2017, at night.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
17
Fig. 9. Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov. on Rubus sp., Vietnam, Nghe An Province, Pu Mat National Park,
botanical garden, 4.VII.2017, at night. A, . B, .
BIOLOGY (Figs 8–9). The species was found at night in disturbed habitat at the headquarters
of the National Park: most of the specimens were found along a small road near the buildings
on Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae – identification by V.H. Nguyen pers. com. IV.2019)
that showed heavy damages due to feeding (Fig. 8), some specimens were also found at the
same place as well as in the botanical garden feeding on Rubus sp. (Rosaceae) (Fig. 9).
DISTRIBUTION. Vietnam: Nghe An Province (Fig. 2).
SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL. Video footage of 3D reconstruction of egg:
http://virtualcollections.naturalsciences.be/virtual-collections/entomology/phasmidae/phasmatidae/
clitumninae/baculomia-pumatensis-bresseel-constant-2019
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
18
Table 2. Measurements [mm] of Baculomia pumatensis sp. nov.
Length of HT PT ♂♂ PT ♀♀
Body: 105.6 100.4–119.0 135.8–147.2
Head: 6.8 6.2–6.4 9.0–9.2
Pronotum: 3.5 3.4–3.8 4.5–4.9
Mesonotum: 22.5 21.4–26.5 26.3–29.9
Metanotum: 15.5 14.9–18.5 17.4–20.1
Median segment: 3.4 3.0–3.6 4.3–4.5
Profemora: 45.9 43.3–55.3 40.6–50.7
Mesofemora: 29.4 29.7–34.2 28.9–31.1
Metafemora: 35.8 36.1–41.1 34.8–36.8
Protibiae: 55.5 53.8–63.5 49.5–61.4
Mesotibiae: 30.0 28.1–35.2 26.1–33.5
Metatibiae: 39.3 36.3–45.6 33.2–40.4
Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov.
urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D95D2AE2-9BE0-43B7-8446-40DDD15B841E
Figs 10–15
Clitumnus siamensis BRUNNER VON WATTENWYL, 1907: 193 [described].
Baculum sp. – BRAGG, 1995: 3 [culture stock and breeding]. — VAN GORKOM, 1995: 11
[origin of culture stock]. — POTVIN, 1995: 39 [description, egg, rearing], figs 1–7 [habitus
and terminalia and , egg, nymph].
Ramulus siamensis BROCK, 2003: 22, 64 [rearing, figured]. — OTTE & BROCK, 2005: 307
[catalogued]. — HARMAN, 2012: 16 [culture stock origin]. — DELFOSSE et al., 2019: 225
[types catalogued].
MATERIAL EXAMINED.
TYPE MATERIAL. (examined from photographs) THAILAND: syntypes: 1 (Fig. 10), 2♀♀
(Fig. 11): Siam, J. M. Bel, 1893 (MNHN).
ADDITIONAL MATERIAL. THAILAND: 1 : Thailand, Don N. Mal, I.G. 32.217 (RBINS).
MATERIAL EXAMINED FROM PHOTOGRAPHS: 1 (Fig. 12): Thailand, Kuri Buri National Park,
22.IX.2016, I. Dugdale & P. Phetsri.
DIAGNOSIS.
Most closely related to B. pumatensis sp. nov. Males share the overall orange body
colouration, but can be easily distinguished by the completely orange head, the orange front
legs with green base and the green mid and hind femora. Females share the lateral
longitudinal pale line close to ventral margin, a definite and carinate epiproct and have the
subgenital plate only slightly longer than tergum VII but can be differentiated by the smaller
size (118–120 mm vs 135.8–147.2mm in B. pumatensis sp. nov.) and the more acute
posterolateral angles of the anal segment.
DISTRIBUTION. Thailand (Fig. 2). The following data were extracted from INATURALIST
(2019): Na Kluea, Bang Lamung District, Chonburi (12°56’N 100°53’E); Doi Phu Nang N.P.
(19°N 100°9’36”E); Pang Mapha, Mae Hong Son (19°3121N 98°1446E); Mae Phrao
(19°2157N 99°128E).
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
19
Fig. 10. Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov., syntype (copyright MNHN).
A, habitus, dorsal view. B, labels.
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
20
Fig. 11. Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov., syntypes (copyright MNHN). A–
D, first syntype A, habitus, dorsal view. B, habitus, lateral view. C, habitus, ventral view. D, labels. E–G, second
syntype E, habitus, dorsal view. F, habitus, lateral view. G, labels.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
21
Fig. 12. Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov., (photographs by F. Hennemann).
A, habitus, lateral view. B, anterior portion of body, dorsal view. C, anterior portion of body, lateral view.
D, terminalia, dorsal view. E, terminalia, ventral view. F, terminalia, lateral view.
Fig. 13. Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov., egg (photographs by F. Hennemann).
A, lateral view. B, dorsal view.
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
22
Fig. 14. Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov., (photographs by F. Hennemann).
A, habitus, dorsal view. B, habitus, lateral view. C, habitus laterodorsal view. D, anterior portion of body, dorsal
view. E, terminalia, dorsal view. F, terminalia, ventral view. G, terminalia, lateral view. H, anterior portion of
body, lateral view.
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
23
Fig. 15. Baculomia siamensis (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1907) comb. nov., in nature, Thailand, Kuri Buri
National Park, 22.IX.2016 (photographs by I. Dugdale and P. Phetsri). A, habitus, laterodorsal view. B, anterior
portion of body, laterodorsal view. C, caudal portion of body, laterodorsal view.
BRESSEEL J. & CONSTANT J. Oriental stick insects: Baculomia gen. nov. (Phasmida: Clitumnini)
24
Discussion
The present work adds a new genus and two new species of Clitumnini to the fauna of
Vietnam which now counts six genera and 19 species. The tribe Clitumnini remains highly
problematic as several genera were poorly defined, hence the generic placement of many
species remains questionable. As an example, the genus Ramulus Saussure, 1862 and its four
synonyms need a complete revision. Although we have already transferred nine species from
Ramulus to appropriate genera (BRESSEEL & CONSTANT, 2014, 2017, 2018; CONSTANT &
BRESSEEL, 2018), the genus still contains more than 150 species about half of which are
described from China, although the type species Bacillus humberti Saussure, 1862, currently a
synonym of Ramulus pseudoporus (Westwood, 1859), originates from Sri Lanka. A revision
of Ramulus requires a redescription of the type species including the characters of the male,
female and egg. Based on this it will be possible to confirm or refute the placement of the
other species in Ramulus.
In Pu Mat National Park, B. pumatensis sp. nov. is clearly polyphagous as it was found
feeding on plants belonging to two very separate families: sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum
L. (Poaceae) and wild bramble, Rubus sp. (Rosaceae). However, despite the presence of many
other species of plants around, it was only found on these two plants, hence its host plants list
may be rather restricted. POTVIN (1995) also noted that B. siamensis in captivity accepted
Rosaceae (Rubus spp., Rosa spp., Pyracantha sp.) but refused Quercus sp. (Fagaceae),
Hedera helix L. (Araliaceae) and Ligustrum vulgare L. (Oleaceae). In the wild, this species
was also photographed on Poaceae (Fig. 15). The damages caused by B. pumatensis sp. nov.
on the spontaneous sugarcane plants in Pu Mat N.P. were quite impressive, and it cannot be
excluded that this species might become a pest for cultivated sugarcane under specific
conditions. More study in and around sugarcane plantations in Nghe An Province should be
conducted to assess the pest potential of the species. In China, other species of stick insects
were recorded on crop Poaceae like maize (Zea mays L.) (4 species), rice (Oryza sativa L.)
(2 species) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) (1 species) (HENNEMANN et al.,
2008) but it is the first time that a stick insect species is recorded to feed on sugarcane.
Additional fieldwork in Ba Vi N.P. is necessary to document the female, egg and biology of
Baculomia baviensis sp. nov., especially to verify if this species feeds on species of the genus
Saccharum L. like B. pumatensis sp. nov.
Acknowledgments
We thank Dr Hong Thai Pham, Mrs Thi Men Tran, Mr Van Dat Nguyen (VNMN) and Mr Hoang Vu Tru
(Institute for Ecology and Biological Resources, Hanoi, Vietnam) for all their help and friendship during the
collecting trips; Dr Patrick Grootaert, Dr Frederik Hendrickx and Dr Marie-Lucie Susini (RBINS) for their
permanent support to our projects in Vietnam; Mr Thies Büscher (Germany) and Mr Frank Hennemann
(Germany) for their valuable comments; Miss Mado Berthet (RBINS) for her help with improving the plates of
the type specimens; Mr Nguyen Van Hieu (National Institute of Medicinal Materials, Hanoi, Vietnam) for the
identification of the plants; Mr Emmanuel Delfosse and Dr Tony Robillard (MNHN) for providing the
photographs of the type series of Baculomia siamensis; Mr Franck Hennemann for the photographs of specimens
of B. siamensis; Mrs Punjapa Phetsri and Mr Ian Dugdale (Thailand) for the kind permission to use their
photographs of B. siamensis in nature; the Scientific Heritage Service of RBINS for facilitating access to the
microCT scanner as part of the DIGIT04 project funded by BELSPO and Mrs Camille Locatelli for operating the
microCT. This paper is a result of the Global Taxonomy Initiative project “A step further in the Entomodiversity
of Vietnam” supported through a grant issued by the capacity building Programme of the Belgian Global
Taxonomy Initiative National Focal Point that runs under the CEBioS programme with financial support from
the Belgian Directorate-General for Development Cooperation (DGD).
Belgian Journal of Entomology 87: 1–25 (2019)
25
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The family Phasmatidae Gray, 1835 is reviewed and the subfamily Phasmatinae shown to be polyphyletic. Based on features of the exosceleton of the insects, egg-morphology and copulation habits a new arrangement of Phasmatidae is proposed. The monophyly of Lanceocercata Bradler, 2001 is confirmed but this name shown to be a synonym of Phasmatidae, hence Lanceocercata is here referred to as Phasmatidae sensu stricto. Six subfamilies belong in Phasmatidae sensu stricto all of which share several common and supposedly apomorphic characters: Phasmatinae, Tropidoderinae, Extatosomatinae (stat. nov.), Xeroderinae, Pachymorphinae and “Platycraninae”. The other two subfamilies contained in Phasmatidae sensu Bradley & Galil, 1977 (Eurycanthinae and Cladomorphinae) are not cosely related and here regarded as subfamilies of Phasmatidae sensu lato. The subfamily Phasmatinae sensu Bradley & Galil, 1977 is shown to be polyphyletic. 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The subfamily Xeroderinae is briefly discussed and shown likely to be polyphyletic, due to it contains two fundamentally different types of genitalia in the males. Only the genera Xeroderus Gray, 1835 and perhaps Epicharmus Stål, 1875 clearly belong in Phasmatidae sensu stricto. Both, the Pachymorphinae and Xeroderinae certainly deserve more detailed investigation to clarify their systematic positions with confirmation. Two generic groups are recognized within Clitumnini (subfamily Clitumninae). Due to differing by genital features and egg-morphology Medaura Stål, 1875 and Medauroidea Zompro, 2000 are removed from Clitumnini and transferred to the newly described Medaurini trib. nov.. The new tribe furthermore contains two genera formerly included in Pachymorphinae: Gratidiini and transferred here, Cnipsomorpha Hennemann et al., 2008 and Parapachymorpha Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893. Phryganistria Stål, 1875 is removed from Clitumnini and transferred to Pharnaciini. Nesiophasma Günther, 1934 is shown to belong in the tribe Stephanacridini. The Australasian subfamily Lonchodinae Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 has formerly been included in Diapheromeridae Zompro, 2001 (= Heteronemiidae by Bradley & Galil, 1977). However, numerous features of the genitalia and egg morphology show close relation to the Oriental subfamily Clitumninae instead. Thus, Lonchodinae is here transferred to the family Phasmatidae (sensu lato). Within Lonchodinae the new tribe Neohiraseini trib. nov. is recognized and contains the five genera formerly placed in the “Neohirasea-complex” of that subfamily, namely Andropromachus Carl, 1913, Neohirasea Rehn, 1904, Pseudocentema Chen, He & Li, 2002, Qiongphasma Chen, He & Li, 2002 and Spinohirasea Zompro, 2001. It differs from all other Lonchodinae (= tribe Lonchodini) by the well developed vomer of males and the lack of a capitulum in the eggs. The genus Cladomimus Carl, 1915 was previously misplaced in Clitumninae: Pharnaciini and is here transferred to Lonchodinae: Lonchodini. It appears to be close to the Australian Hyrtacus Stål, 1875. Leprocaulinus Uvarov, 1940 and Phenacocephalus Werner, 1930 are removed from the subfamily Necrosciinae and transferred to Lonchodinae: Lonchodini. Extensive research on the genera which belong to the tribe Pharnaciini Günther, 1953 and taking features of the genital exosceleton and egg-morphology into account, has shown this tribe to be polyphyletic. Based on such features two generic groups are easily recognized within Pharnaciini sensu Günther, 1953. Males of the first group have a longitudinally split anal segment, which consists of two separate, more or less elongate semi-tergites and forms a clasping apparatus, the vomer is strongly reduced or lacking, the profemora have a prominent, lamellate medioventral carina which is strongly displaced towards the anteroventral carina and the eggs have an open internal micropylar plate with a clear median line. Only the genera falling into this group remain in Pharnaciini. Males of the second group in contrast have an anal segment which is not split, but possess a clearly visible, well sclerotised, triangular or hook-like external vomer, an indistinct medioventral carina on the profemora and eggs with a closed internal micropylar plate. Most of the genera which fall into the second group are here transferred to the tribe Stephanacridini Günther, 1953, this is Diagoras Stål, 1877b, Eucarcharus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, Phasmotaenia Návas, 1907 and Sadyattes Stål, 1875. A detailed discussion of the differences between Pharnaciini and Stephanacridini is provided along with distinguishing keys, illustrations and maps showing the distinct geographic distributions. The five genera that belong in Pharnaciini are: Baculonistria gen. nov., Pharnacia Stål, 1877a, Phobaeticus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (= Baculolonga Hennemann & Conle, 1997a, = Lobophasma Günther, 1934b syn. nov. , = Nearchus Redtenbacher, 1908 syn. nov. ), Tirachoidea Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 stat. rev. and Phryganistria Stål, 1875. Pharnacia annulata Redtenbacher, 1908 and Pharnacia enganensis Redtenbacher, 1908 were misplaced in Pharnacia Stål, 1877 (tribe Pharnaciini) and are transferred to the genus Sadyattes Stål, 1875 (tribe Stephanacridini, comb. nov.). Phobaeticus kuehni Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 is removed from Phobaeticus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (Phasmatinae: Pharnaciini) and shown to belong in Nesiophasma Günther, 1934c (tribe Stephanacridini, comb. nov.). Phobaeticus incertus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (= Nearchus grubaueri Redtenbacher, 1908 syn. nov.) is unlikely to belong in Pharnaciini and here only retained in the original genus Phobaeticus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 with doubt, it may belong in Nesiophasma Günther, 1934c (tribe Stephanacridini). Based on a total of almost 700 examined specimens, the Oriental tribe Pharnaciini Günther, 1953 is revised at the species level. The new genus Baculonistria gen. nov. (Type species Baculonistria alba (Chen & He, 1990) comb. nov.), is described to contain three species from Central and Eastern China. Tirachoidea Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893 was erroneously synonymised with Pharnacia Stål, 1877 and is here re-established as a valid genus (stat. rev.). All five genera are re-diagnosed and differentiated, their systematic position within Pharnaciini discussed, and complete synonymic and species-listings as well as distribution maps and determination keys to the insects and eggs are provided. Detailed descriptions, diagnoses, synonymic listings, illustrations, material listings, distribution maps and measurements are provided for all 40 valid species. The type material of a further two species appears to be lost. Seven new species are described: Pharnacia borneensis spec. nov. from Borneo; Pharnacia palawanica spec. nov. from Palawan, Phobaeticus mucrospinosus spec. nov. from Sumatra, Phobaeticus palawanensis spec. nov. from Palawan, Tirachoidea herberti spec. nov. from Borneo, Tirachoidea siamensis spec. nov. from Thailand and S-Vietnam and Phobaeticus chani Bragg spec. nov. from Borneo. Phobaeticus chani Bragg spec. nov. is the world’s longest known insect with a maximum body length of 357 mm and an overall length of 567 mm in the female. Twelve new synonymies were discovered: Bactridium grande Rehn, 1920 = Phobaeticus serratipes (Gray, 1835) syn. nov.; Pharnacia rigida Redtenbacher, 1908 = Phobaeticus sumatranus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, syn. nov.; Clitumnus irregularis Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 = Phibalosoma tirachus Westwood, 1859, syn. nov.; Pharnacia magdiwang Lit & Eusebio, 2008 = Pharnacia ponderosa Stål, 1877 syn. nov.; Pharnacia spectabilis Redtenbacher, 1908 = Phibalosoma hypharpax Westwood, 1859, syn. nov.; Pharnacia semilunaris Redtenbacher, 1908 = Eucarcharus inversus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, syn. nov.; Pharnacia chiniensis Seow-Choen, 1998c = Pharnacia biceps Redtenbacher, 1908, syn. nov.; Nearchus grubaueri Redtenbacher, 1908 = Phobaeticus incertus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, syn. nov.; Phibalosoma maximum Bates, 1865 = Cladoxerus serratipes Gray, 1835, syn. nov.; Phobaeticus lambirica Seow-Choen, 1998a = Eucarcharus rex Günther, 1928, syn. nov.; Phobaeticus sichuanensis Cai & Liu, 1993 = Baculum album Chen & He, 1990, syn. nov. and Phobaeticus beccarianus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 is shown to represent the previously unknown female of Phobaeticus sobrinus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 (syn. nov.) Lectotypes are designated for: Nearchus redtenbacheri Dohrn, 1910, Pharnacia biceps Redtenbacher, 1908, Pharnacia ingens Redtenbacher, 1908, Pharnacia heros Redtenbacher, 1908, Phibalosoma westwoodi Wood-Mason, 1875, Phobaeticus sinetyi Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, and Phobaeticus sumatranus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907. A neotype is designated for Nearchus maximus Redtenbacher, 1908 and Phobaeticus magnus nom. nov. introduced as a replacement name for Nearchus maximus Redtenbacher, which is a junior homonym of Phibalosoma maximum Bates, 1865. The previously unknown males of Pharnacia heros Redtenbacher, 1908, Phobaeticus ingens (Redtenbacher, 1908), Tirachoidea jianfenglingensis (Bi, 1994), Pharnacia sumatrana (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907), Phryganistria fruhstorferi (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) and Tirachoidea westwoodii (Wood-Mason, 1875) as well as the females of Pharnacia ponderosa Stål, 1877a and Pharnacia tirachus (Westwood, 1859) are described and illustrated for the first time. A brief description on the basis of colour photos of the so far unknown male of Pharnacia kalag Zompro, 2005 are presented. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are provided for the eggs of 24 species. The eggs of the following 18 species are described and illustrated for the first time: Pharnacia borneensis spec. nov., Pharnacia palawanica spec. nov., Pharnacia ponderosa Stål, 1877a, Pharnacia sumatrana (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907), Pharnacia tirachus (Westwood, 1859), Phobaeticus hypharpax (Westwood, 1859), Phobaeticus chani Bragg spec. nov., Phobaeticus incertus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, Phobaeticus magnus nom. nov., Phobaeticus philippinicus (Hennemann & Conle, 1997a), Phobaeticus sinetyi Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907, Phryganistria grandis Rehn, 1906, Phryganistria virgea (Westwood, 1848), Tirachoidea biceps (Redtenbacher, 1908), Tirachoidea herberti spec. nov., Tirachoidea jianfenglingensis (Bi, 1994) and Tirachoidea siamensis spec. nov.. Several species were originally placed in or subsequently transferred into wrong genera by various authors. Consequently, numerous taxa are here transferred or re-transferred to other genera, which results in 22 new or revised combinations or status of genera and species (comb. nov. / stat. rev. / stat. nov.). A list of the taxonomic changes made in this revision is provided in the summary (see 9.2), which in all lists 70 nomenclatural changes.
Article
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A complete taxonomic catalogue of the Stick and Leaf-insects (Phasmatodea) recorded or described from the mainland China (excluding Taiwan) is presented. 241 valid species are listed, which are currently attributed to 50 genera, 5 families and 7 subfamilies. Genera and species are listed alphabetically. All available type-data is provided based mainly on literary sources for species described by Chinese workers from 1986 to 2006, including documented depository of type-specimens. The catalogue therefore also provides complete lists of the type-material of Phasmatodea housed in the following Chinese institutions: Administration of Baishuijiang Natural Reserve (ABNR), Beijing Forestry University, Beijing (BFU), China Agricultural University, Beijing (CAU), Geological Museum of China, Beijing (GMC), Inca Science Ltd., Chongqing (INCA), Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (IZCAS), Department of Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin (NKU), Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Shaanxi (NWSUAF), Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an (SNU), Institute of Entomology, Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), Shanghai Institute of Entomology, Academia Sinica, Shanghai (SIES), Tianjin Natural History Museum, Tianjin (TJNHM), Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, Hangzhou (ZJMNH). The known distribution of each species, in means of provinces is provided as well. 14 species are shown to have been recorded from China in error, several of these based on misidentifications. The “Phasmatodea-like” fossil taxa described from the the Late Jurassic Yixian Formation of North Hebei and West Liaoning are listed in a separate section. Two new generic synonyms are recognized: Arthminotus Bi, 1995 synonymised with Lopaphus Westwood, 1859 (n. syn.) and Dianphasma Chen & He, 1997 synonymised with Parasosibia Redtenbacher, 1908 (n. syn.). The genus Linocerus Gray, 1835 (Type-species: Linocerus gracilis Gray, 1835) was erroneously synonymised with the mediterranean Bacillus St. Fargeau & Audinet-Serville, 1825 and is here re-established in Phasmatidae: Pachymorphinae: Gratidiini (rev. stat.). Relationship to Clonaria Stål, 1875 (= Gratidia Stål, 1875, = Paraclonaria Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893), Sceptrophasma Brock & Seow-Choen, 2000 and Macellina Uvarov, 1940 is obvious. 13 species are transferred to other genera (new combinations): Asceles dilatatus Chen & He, 2004 and Asceles quadriguttatus Chen & He, 1996 to Pachyscia Redtenbacher, 1908, Arthminotus sinensis Bi, 1995 to Lopaphus Westwood, 1859, Baculum dolichocercatum Bi & Wang, 1998a and Baculum politum Chen & He, 1997 to Medauroidea Zompro, 1999, Dixippus bilippus Chen & He, 1999, Dixippus hainanensis Chen & He, 2002, Dixippus nigroantennatus Chen & He, 2002, Dixippus parvus Chen & He, 2002 and Entoria bobaiensis Chen, 1986 to Lonchodes Gray, 1835, Sipyloidea obvius Chen & He, 1995 to Sinophasma Günther, 1940, and Gratidia bituberculata Redtenbacher, 1889 and Leptynia xinganensis Chen & He, 1993 to Sceptrophasma Brock & Seow-Choen, 2002. Acrophylla sichuanensis Chen & He, 2001 remains of unknown generic assignment, but is shown to be not a member of the Australian genus Acrophylla Gray, 1835. Furthermore, as Baculum Saussure, 1861 is a neotropical genus and most Old World species previously attributed this genus are now listed in Ramulus Saussure, 1861, all Chinese species described in this genus are consequently transferred to Ramulus Saussure. Other changes of specific placements are based on published literature and concern to the following three synonymies not recognized by Chinese workers: Abrosoma Redtenbacher, 1906 (= Prosceles Uvarov, 1940), Necroscia Audinet-Serville, 1838 (= Aruanoidea Redtenbacher, 1908), Lopaphus Westwood, 1859 (= Paramyronides Redtenbacher, 1908). Megalophasma Bi, 1995 is transferred from Necrosciinae to Lonchodinae. Four lectotypes are designated and three new specific synonyms revealed. A lectotype is designated for Rhamphophasma modestus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, the type-species of Rhamphophasma Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, in order to fix this genus and species. The male paralectotype is shown to be a male of Parapachymorpha nigra Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893, the type-species of Parapachymorpha Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1893. Clitumnus porrectus Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907 is synonymised with Bacillus ? artemis Westwood, 1859 with a lectotype designated for the former (n. syn.). A lectotype is designated for Oxyartes lamellatus Kirby, 1904. Paracentema stephanus Redtenbacher, 1908 is shown to have been erroneously synonymised with Neohirasea japonica (de Haan, 1842) and here synonymised with Neohirasea maerens (Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) (n. syn.). In order to fix the new synonymy a lectotype is designated for Paracentema stephanus Redtenbacher, 1908. Finally, a biogeographic analysis of the Chinese phasmid fauna is presented. This includes brief background information on the topography and biogeography of China along with maps showing the seven zoogeographical subregions currently recognized as well as the 4 municipalities, 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 2 special administrative regions of China. A summary of the taxonomic compilation of the fauna is provided and its relationships with neighbouring regions, of both the Palearctic and Oriental realms, are discussed. A study is presented on the distribution of the taxa and species densities of each province / autonomous region.
Article
Eggs of Phasmida are characterized by the presence of a micropylar plate system. The nature of this plate is discussed and the relevance of differences in plate structure to the taxonomy of the order is considered. A survey is made of the range of plate structure throughout the order, covering the external plate structure of 384 species and the internal plate structure of 179 species in forty of the forty-four subgroups of the order.
Article
An attempt is made to standardize further the descriptive terminology of the phasmid egg capsule by introducing stricter definitions and standard abbreviations. In addition, the various forms of the internal micropylar plate are categorized. Eophasma Sellick is replaced by Eophasmodes nov.n. A key to 131 generic forms of these eggs is provided. Where more than one egg form is associated with a genus, a diagnosis of the subgroups is provided.
A note on the recent Baculum species on the culture list
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