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Contribution to the fauna of the hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia

Authors:
  • Macedonian Museum of Natural History
  • Museum natural history of North Macedonia

Abstract and Figures

Analysis of literature data, data from entomological collections in the Museum of Natural History (SKO), Nikola Nezlobinski Museum in Struga (NNS), the Scientific Tobacco Institute in Prilep (STP) and the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food in Skopje (FASF) and our research,showed that the family Sphingidae is well investigated in the Republic of North Macedonia, and represented by 25 species, or 62.5% of the European fauna. The subfamily Macroglossinae is represented by 10 genera and 17 species, the subfamily Smerinthinae is represented by 4 genera and 4 species and the subfamily Sphinginae is represented by 4 genera and 4 species. Three species are reported for the first time for the fauna of North Macedonia: Hyles gallii (Rottemburg 1775), Hyles nicaea (de Pruner 1798) and Hyloicus pinastri Linnaeus, 1758.
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NAT. CROAT. VOL. 28 No 1 107-130 ZAGREB June 30, 2019
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
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

Hyles galliiHyles nicaea
Hyloicus pinastri .

             
&
         

     
   




  Hyles gallii
Hyles nicaeaHyloicus pinastri .

Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
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
  
          
          



           
           Hemaris


   
          
             
        

        
          & 

         


et al
    
     
     
    
  
   et al. 
   et al 
  


     



     
     



Nat. Croat. Vol 28(1), 2019 109

          



240  in



et
al.2001et al.et al

 

  

         
et al.

et al..


D. porcellusM. stellatarum
A. convolvuli& H. livornicaM.
tiliae. M. stellatarumH. croatica
H. livornica
M. stellatarum
H. tityusH.
euphorbiaeH. livornicaT. alecto A. atropos  
H. croaticaA.
convolvuliL. populiM. stellatarum D. porcellus 
H.
croaticaL. populiA. convolvuliH. livornicaM. stellatarum
D. elpenorD. porcellus
H. celerioH. euphorbiaeH. vespertilioD. neriiM. quercusM. tiliaeS. ocellata.
et al.
 H. fuciformis P. proserpina,

H. croatica 

H. euphorbiaeH. livornicaM. stellatarum. 
          
Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
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
              
T. alecto = T. alecto creticaR.
komaroviS. gorgoniadesS. ligustri
          S. pfeieri
       M. tiliae   
H. euphorbiae

 et al
H. euphorbiaeM. stellatarumS. gorgoniadesL. populiM. quercus
S. ligustri
     st      
          
M. stellatarum
H. euphorbiae
et al    
      D. porcellus H. euphorbiae H. livornica H.
vespertilioM. stellatarumL. populiS. ocellataA. convolvuli. et al.
         
  D. porcellusH. euphorbiaeH. livornicaH.
vespertilioM. stellatarumL. populiS. ocellataA. convolvuli.


        



     e.g.   
et al et al. 2001 et al
et al
for 

             
            
Deilephilla porcellusHyles euphorbiae Hyelis livornicaMacroglossum
stellatarum Laothoe populiSmerinthus ocellataAgrius convolvuli
  
Hemaris fuciformisTheretra alectoRethera komarovi.
          

Hyles gallii
Hyles nicaeaSphinx pinastriHyles gallii is a

Nat. Croat. Vol 28(1), 2019 111
 nepalensis 


 H. galli  Hyles nicaea is


&
Sphinx pinastri



         






1. Hemaris croatica 
  



      M. croatica     
H. croatica 

H. croatica
et alM. croaticum in 
 
        


     
in 

Scabiosa, Cephalara Asperula.
2. Hemaris fuciformis 
        
        


Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
112
       
       
Montenegro.
      H. fuciformis  in  et al.


      Lonicera Deuia Galium Knautia,
SymphoricarposCephalaria  Procera.
3. Hemaris tityus 

      
       
        


        
H. tityus scabiosae
♂♂
    et al.         

♂♂


In collection 

genus Scabiosa.
4. Deilephila elpenor




       

           
H. elpenorP. elpenor

          
         

Deilephila


Nat. Croat. Vol 28(1), 2019 113
  

OnagraceaeCircaea lutetiana, Epilobium
angustifoliumEpilobium hirsutumGalium palustre
5. Deilephilla porcellus 




       

P. porcellus 
P. porcellus
M. porcellus
   P. porcellus et
al

    P. porcellus       
      et al   
 et al
         leg.
         
         
 




         

         



 1
           ♂♀ 
   
♂♀
   




      Onagraceae Epilobium 
GaliumLythrum salicaria.
Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
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D. porcellus

  suellus


 in 2 generations.
6. Hippotion celerio 
        



            
H. celerio
in 
In collection  
collection 
   Ampelopsis  Vitis vinifera  Fuchsia
Galium verumParthenocissus.
             
H. celerio
     
H. celerio

 et al
7. Hyles euphorbiae 

       





as. C.euphorbiae
D. euphorbiae
C. euphorbiae et al.
C. euphorbiae
C. euphorbiae
 in  et al.



  et al. 
 et al.
Nat. Croat. Vol 28(1), 2019 115

        
           
         

leg.
      


         leg. J.



 D. euphorbiae
 leg.
          
  
  

          
         
          

        


   Euphorbia cyparissias, E. esuloides,  esula  E.
paralias.
          D. euphorbiae 

           
         
  
et al

E. esuloidesE. esula
       H. euphorbiae    

 
 et al.
8. Hyles gallii


Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
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
 


         

        
          
          

Epilobium FuchsiaGalium mollugo 
Galium verumBetula pendulaAcalypha, Euphorbia,
Geranium, Impatiens, Malus, Plantago, Portulaca, Rosa, Rumex, Salix, Spiraea, Syringa
Vitis.
H. gallii
 
 
 
H. gallii
   
 et al

9. Hyles livornica 

       

        
       

  D. livornica  
D. lineata
 livornica D. lineata 
livornica 

D. livornica 
C. lineata livornica
et al
  C. lineata
livornica           
     
C. lineata
livornica
 et
Nat. Croat. Vol 28(1), 2019 117
al.   
 et al.


  
leg.

          
 leg.

         

        Deilephila lineata. 



 leg.

  


         
 

    
        
          
        


   Fuchsia  Rumex, Polygonum
AsphodelusGaliumVitis vinifera.
            

D. lineata  livornica et al.
C. lineata livornicaH. livornica 


et al.
10. Hyles nicaea
         


Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
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         
        



         leg.
          
          
 

   Euphorbia esula   Linaria
vulgaris
H. nicaea


11. Hyles vespertilio 



as D. vespertilio  in 
C. vespertilio  in 

et al.et al.
leg. 


Epilobium, E. dodonaeiE. rosmarinifolium  E.
tetragonumOenotheraGalium
as D. vespertilio

in 

12. Theretra alecto 


  T.
alecto cretica in 

           
    

Nat. Croat. Vol 28(1), 2019 119
Camellia sinensisSaurauia
DilleniaTetraceraRubia PsychotriaVitis,
Parthenocissus, Cissus Leea



13. Daphnis nerii 
        
        
      
        



D. nerii
  as D. nerii      



   Vinca minor  Senna siamea
Theobroma cacaoNerium oleander
Tabernaemontana


 et al.
14. Macroglossum stellatarum 



          


         








 et al.
Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
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

  et al. 

         

 et al.
 et al.
          
  


          
           
         
          


   

          
          
          
         




           

          


          

   


          





Nat. Croat. Vol 28(1), 2019 121




       
  


Galium aparine, G. mollugo, G. verum, G. aparineRubia
peregrina
 
M. stellatarum is in


 et al.
15. Proserpinus proserpina 
       
  



et al.




   Oenothera  Epilobium parviorum 
Lythrum
P. proserpina
            

16. Rethera komarovi drilon 

♂ ♂
1
R. komarovi
Euphorbia.
In 
   
Rethera komarovi drilon
17. Sphingonaepiopsis gorgoniades gorgoniades 


Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
122

S. gorgon
S. pfeieri
 et al.
        
            

GaliumGalium verum.
        
S. gorgoniades 
S. gorgon
   Sphinx gorgon     Enyo gorgon
Proserpinus gorgoniadesS. gorgoniades
of et alS. pfeieri
   S. gorgoniades gorgoniades     S.
gorgoniades pfeieri


18. Laothoe populi 



         


A. populi . in 
             S.
populi  in A. populi
 f. pallida et al   
1   
A. populi Philipponi in 
et al.

et al
et al
         
         
    as S. populi L. populi   
       
          


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
          









         

        


SalixPopulus tremulaUlmus
Betula  Alnus  Fraxinus Quercus  Rosa,
Crataegus, Cotoneaster MalusLaurus.
19. Marumba quercus 




et al.
          
S. quercus 

 et al.


         
as S. quercus 
          

         leg.

 leg.

   Quercus suber Q. ilex Q. coccifera Q. pubescens  Q.
cerris
Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
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20. Mimas tiliae 

       

        
       

  
brunnensis
brunnescens 
brunnescenset al.

♂ ♂M. tiliae tiliae
         
          
  
         

  
         
  

           
         are
 



TiliaUlmusBetula pendula, Corylus
avellana, Alnus  Morus  Sorbus aucuparia,Malus, Prunus
Quercus, Castanea sativaAcer pseudoplatanus
Juglans regiaFraxinusAesculus hippocastanum.
21. Smerinthus ocellata 


        

       



♂♂

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 et al.
et al

          
  




          
         
          
         
          
         
          

          




 
        

  

 Populus, Salix repensMalus sylvestris, Malus
pumila, Prunus persica PyrusBetula, AlnusLigustrum
vulgareTiliaViburnum

22. Acherontia atropos 
       
       
       
        
       

   
et al.

        

Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
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  

  
           



  Oleaceae Lycium barbarum L. vulgare Olea europaea, Jasminum,
FraxinusHyoscyamus, Solanum tuberosumS. dulcamara, S. melongena,
Lycium europeum, L. barbarum, Nicotiana tabacum, Atropa belladonna, Datura
stramoniumSymphoricarpos albusVitex agnus-castus
 Beta vulgaris  Nerium oleander 
Cannabis sativaTecomaria capensisMalus pumila 
Pyrus communis  Buddleja Sambucus   

           
  A. atropos is a     


 et al..
23. Agrius convolvuli
        



       


 P. convolvuli in   P.
convolvuliin H. convolvuli 
in & 
           
   P. convolvuli      
H. convolvuli in 

 et al.
et al.






Nat. Croat. Vol 28(1), 2019 127


         
          




          
♂♂

  




Convolvulus arvensis, Calystegia sepium C. soldanella
Ipomoea  PhaseolusChrysanthemum  Helianthus
Rumex

ConvolvulusA. convolvuli is a seasonal



et al..
24. Sphinx ligustri 


        
        



   
in 
 et al.
         
  

         
          
   
      
Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
128
 
          








Malus pumilaLigustrum vulgare, L. ovalifolium,
Fraxinus excelsior, F. viridis F. ornus Syringa vulgarisMalus pumila
Viburnum opulus Spiraea media, S. salicifolia, S. trilobata
Ilex aquifolium.
25. Hyloicus pinastri
        





        
         


         
           

PinusPinus sylvestrisPicea, Larix deciduaCedrus.

H.
pinastri            



 et al


               



Nat. Croat. Vol 28(1), 2019 129
     
            
Macroglossinae are

   
Hyles gallii
Hyles nicaea   Hyloicus pinastri   
 Acherontia Atropos    Agrius convolvuli 
Hippotion celerio 
 Hyles euphorbiae   Hyles gallii   Hyles
livornica Daphnis nerii Macroglossum stellatarum
H. pinastri

Received September 30, 2018

          
17
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          
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22
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            
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144.
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    
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
          
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

Krpač, V. et al.: Hawk moth family (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) in the Republic of North Macedonia
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
      

Sphingonaepiopsis pfeieriSphingonaepiopsis pfeieri
chloroptera11



 
27
    

   
     


  


14
  et al.,          


     Proserpinus proserpina     




11
... In addition to recent field observations, the distribution of H. vespertilio was complemented from the available literature and the Alciphron database (HabiProt, 2014) and used to create distribution maps covering the Balkan Peninsula. The following references were used: Croatia (Koča, 1901;Abafi-Aigner, 1902;Grund, 1918;Mladinov, 1958;Kovačević & Franjević-Oštrc, 1978;Vukotinović, 1879), Serbia (Vasić et al., 1978;Jakšić, 1986), and the record from Krajinoviće is only the second record for the country and the first one in 44 years, Montenegro (Vasić et al., 1990), Slovenia (Carnelutti, 1992;Fajčík, 2003), Hungary (Sáfián & Hadarics, 2005), Northern Macedonia (Krpač et al., 2019), Albania (Rebel, 1913;Rebel & Zerny, 1934;Beshkov & Nahirnić, 2019), Bulgaria (Ganev, 1984) and Greece (Weidlich, 2012). ...
... In Hungary, the presence of this species was noted only recently (Sáfián & Hadarics, 2005). In Northern Macedonia, several historical as well more recent records exist (Krpač et al., 2019). In Montenegro, the only available records are from the Durmitor area (Tara, Budečevica, Taren Canyon, ðurñevića Tara, Bistrica, Šćepan Polje) (Vasić et al., 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
New records of Hyles vespertilio (Esper, 1780) are reported from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. In Croatia, a single specimen was recorded on Mt. Biokovo, within the Biokovo Nature Park, southern Croatia. This is the first record in the country in 44 years. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the species was recorded at 11 localities within or in the near surroundings of the Blidinje Nature Park. This species is new to the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina and is the 20 th Sphingidae species recorded in the country. In Serbia, the species was recorded in Krajinoviće, Mt. Giljeva. This is the third known record and the first observation for this country in 32 years. The preferred host plant, Epilobium dodonaei, is present at all the studied localities in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but the caterpillars were not surveyed during this work. These findings could be treated as resident populations of the bat hawkmoth, since the species is considered nonmigratory, and the host plant is present in the study areas.
... Hawkmoths belong to the family Sphingidae, order Lepidoptera, most of which are well-known flower visitors and significant pollinators, and most adults have well-developed proboscises (Krpa c et al. 2019). When a hawkmoth drinks from a flower, the proboscis picks up pollen, which can be spread to flowers farther than 29 km away as the moth travels along its feeding route. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of Rhodoprasina callantha Jordan, 1929. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of R. callantha was 15,343 bp in size and encoded 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNA) and one control region (CR). The nucleotide composition of mitogenome was highly biased to A and T. Most protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with the standard start codon of ATN and terminate with the typical stop codon TAA/TAG. The phylogeny of Sphingidae based on nucleotide sequences of PCGs recovered the monophyly of subfamilies of Sphingidae with high support values. Langinae was the first subfamily diverged in Sphingidae, which was in accordance with previous study. R. callantha was the member of subfamily Smerinthinae, and closely related to the genus Marumba.
... Adult hawkmoths are mostly medium to large insects that can fly at 40-50 km per hour by virtue of their streamlined bodies and long, blade-like wings (Akkuzu et al., 2007). Well-known as flower visitors and significant pollinators, most adult hawkmoths have well-developed probosces (Krpač et al., 2019). The larvae of hawkmoths are cylindrical, medium to large, generally with a single caudate scolus, and some species are significant agricultural pests (Nagamine et al., 2019). ...
Article
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To date, a relatively complete classification of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera) has been generated, but the phylogeny of the family remains need to be fully resolved. Some phylogenetic relationships within Sphingidae still remains uncertain, especially the taxonomic status of the subfamily Langiinae and its sole included genus and species, Langia zenzeroides. To begin to address this problem, we generated nine new complete mitochondrial genomes, including that of Langia, and together with that of Theretra oldenlandiae from our previous study and 25 other Sphingidae mitogenomes downloaded from GenBank, analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of Sphingidae and investigated the mitogenomic differences among members of the Langiinae, Sphinginae, Smerinthinae and Macroglossinae. The mitogenomes of Sphingidae varied from 14995 bp to 15669 bp in length. The gene order of all newly sequenced mitogenomes was identical, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and the A + T-rich region. Nucleotide composition was A + T biased, and all the protein-coding genes exhibited a positive AT-skew, which was reflected in the nucleotide composition, codon, and amino acid usage. The A + T-rich region was comprised of nonrepetitive sequences, which contained regulatory elements related to the control of replication and transcription. We analyzed concatenated gene sequences, with third codon positions of protein coding genes and rRNAs excluded, using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference techniques. All four currently recognized subfamilies were recovered as monophyletic but in contrast to the most recent studies, our preferred tree placed Langiinae as the first subfamily to diverge within Sphingidae rather as sister to Smerinthinae + Sphinginae. Our results also support the removal of the genus Barbourion from the smerinthine tribe Ambulycini to an unresolved position in “Smerinthinae incertae sedis”.
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Korab, Kobilino Pole
  • Kriva Palanka
Kriva Palanka, June; Monastery of Sveta Petka, July (leg. Gradojević) in Zečević & Vajgand (2001). Korab, Kobilino Pole, 28.07.2011, 2080-2180m, col. Huemer;
Collection data (SKO): Skopje, Treska River, 05.06.1941 (1 specimen), leg. K. Tuleshkov; Skopje, Vodno, 10.08.1941 (1 specimen)
  • In Huemer
  • Huemer
Valley River. Radhika, 10 km north-east of Sveta Voda, 01.08.2011, from 1290 to 1340 m, col. Huemer, in Huemer et al. (2011). Korab, Kobilino Pole, Korab Lake, 29.07.2011, 2200 m; Sveta Voda, 03.08.2011, 1300m, in Krpač et al. (2013). Collection data (SKO): Skopje, Treska River, 05.06.1941 (1 specimen), leg. K. Tuleshkov; Skopje, Vodno, 10.08.1941 (1 specimen), leg. G. Stojanov, 15.08.1941 (1 specimen), leg. K. Bogoevski; Skopje, 20.08.1941 (1 specimen), leg. G. Stojanov, Skopje, Treska River, 28.09.1941 (1 specimen), leg. G. Stojanov; Skopje, v. Dračevo, 04.06.1942 (1 specimen), leg. G. Stojanov; Skopje, Treska River, 12.07.1942 (1 specimen), leg. G. Stojanov;
specimen), leg. K. Bogoevski; Skopje, 28.12.1942 (1 specimen), leg. K. Tuleshkov; Skopje, Matka
  • V Skopje
  • Bojane
Skopje, v. Bojane, 19.07.1942 (1 specimen), leg. K. Bogoevski; Skopje, 28.12.1942 (1 specimen), leg. K. Tuleshkov; Skopje, Matka, 14.06.1946 (1 specimen), leg. K. Bogoevski;
specimens), leg. P. Ikonomov
  • St Ohrid
  • Naum
Ohrid, St. Naum, 21.07.1945 (2 specimens), leg. P. Ikonomov;
specimen), leg. K. Bogoevski; Skopje, Matka, 30.03.1959 (1 specimen), leg. S. Joksimović; Mavrovo
  • City Skopje
  • Park
Skopje, City Park, 27.07.1946 (1 specimen), leg. K. Bogoevski; Skopje, Matka, 30.03.1959 (1 specimen), leg. S. Joksimović; Mavrovo, 24.06.1970, (1 specimen), leg. J. Čingovski; Valandovo, 24.04.1971 (1 specimen), leg. J. Čingovski; Skopje, ??.06.1973 (2 specimens), leg. J. Čingovski;